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  • 101. Gronqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Niknami, Susan
    Income inequality and health: Lessons from a refugee residential assignment program2012In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of income inequality on health for a group of particularly disadvantaged individuals: refugees. Our analysis draws on longitudinal hospitalization records coupled with a settlement policy where Swedish authorities assigned newly arrived refugees to their first area of residence. The policy was implemented in a way that provides a source of plausibly random variation in initial location. The results reveal no statistically significant effect of income inequality on the risk of being hospitalized. This finding holds also for most population subgroups and when separating between different types of diagnoses. Our estimates are precise enough to rule out large effects of income inequality on health.

  • 102.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindqvist, Erik
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Making of a Manager: Evidence from Military Officer Training2016In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 869-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that officer training during the Swedish military service has a strong positive effect on the probability of attaining a managerial position later in life. The most intense type of officer training increases the probability of becoming a civilian manager by about 5 percentage points, or 75%. Officer training also increases educational attainment post-military service. We argue that the effect on civilian leadership could be due to the acquisition of leadership-specific skills during the military service, and we present suggestive evidence related to alternative mechanisms, such as signaling, networks, and training unrelated to leadership.

  • 103.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Econ, Univ Vagen 10 A, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    One size fits all?: The effects of teachers' cognitive and social abilities on student achievement2016In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 42, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We document a substantial decline in cognitive and social interactive abilities and in GPAs among entering teachers. Then, using matched student-teacher data, we find that teacher abilities have a negligible impact on average student achievement This finding hides interesting heterogeneities. In particular, an increase in teachers' cognitive (social) abilities increases (reduces) the achievement gap between high- and low-aptitude students. Teacher cognitive and social abilities further appear to be complements. We also find strong positive effects of male teachers' GPAs that are uniform across students, but similar effects are not found for female teachers' GPAs.

  • 104.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities2017In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 887-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the intergenerational transmission of cognitive and noncognitive abilities using population data and correct for measurement error in abilities using two sets of instruments. The results show that previous estimates are biased downward and that once measurement error is corrected for, the correlation in noncognitive ability is close to that of cognitive ability. By considering both parents, intergenerational ability correlations account for a substantial portion of the sibling correlation. Using adoptees, we find that the social impact of maternal abilities is more important than paternal abilities. Children's educational attainment and labor market outcomes are strongly related to parents' cognitive and noncognitive abilities.

  • 105.
    Hall, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Does more general education reduce the risk of future unemployment?: Evidence from an expansion of vocational upper secondary education2016In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 52, p. 251-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether acquiring more general education reduces the risk of future unemployment. I study an educational reform in Sweden which prolonged the vocational programs in upper secondary school and gave them a considerably larger general content. The research design exploits variation across regions and over time in the implementation of a large-scale pilot which preceded the reform. I examine the students' labor market experiences during the 2008-2010 recession, at which time they had reached their late 30 s. I find no evidence that having attended a longer and more general program reduced the risk of experiencing unemployment. Among students with low GPAs from compulsory school, attending a pilot program seems instead to have led to an increased risk of unemployment. This pattern is strongest among male students and the effect is likely to be explained by the increased dropout rate which resulted from the change of the programs.

  • 106.
    Hall, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effects of Reducing Tracking in Upper Secondary School Evidence from a Large-Scale Pilot Scheme2012In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 237-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By exploiting an extensive pilot scheme that preceded an educational reform, this paper evaluates the effects of introducing a more comprehensive upper secondary school system in Sweden. The reform reduced the differences between academic and vocational tracks through prolonging and increasing the academic content of the latter As a result, all vocational students became eligible for university studies. The results suggest that the policy change increased the amount of upper secondary schooling obtained among vocational students, but did not affect enrollment in university studies or students earnings later in life.

  • 107.
    Hall, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hartman, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Moral hazard among the sick and unemployed: evidence from a Swedish social insurance reform2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 27-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a specific type of moral hazard that arises in the interplay between two large public social insurance systems in Sweden, namely the sickness insurance (SI) and the unemployment insurance (UI). Moral hazard can arise from the structure of the benefit levels as for some unemployed persons benefits from the SI are higher than benefits from the UI. We use a reform of the SI system that came into force on 1 July 2003 to identify the effect of economic incentives arising from the different benefit levels. The purpose of the reform was to eliminate the difference in benefits between the two social insurance systems. Our results from a duration analysis show clearly that the higher the sickness benefits, the higher the probability of reporting sick.

  • 108.
    Ham, John C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore.;IRP, Uppsala, Sweden.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Li, Xianghong
    York Univ, N York, ON M3J 1P3, Canada..
    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D.
    Williams Coll, Williamstown, MA 01267 USA.;Bur Econ Res, Washington, DC USA..
    The Employment Dynamics of Disadvantaged Women: Evidence from the SIPP2016In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 899-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the employment dynamics of disadvantaged families is increasingly important. We estimate duration models describing these dynamics for disadvantaged single mothers and use them to conduct a rich set of counterfactual analyses. We use a misreporting model to correct for "seam bias," the problem that too many transitions are reported between reference periods in panel data. We find effects of demographics, minimum wages, unemployment rates, and maximum welfare benefits, but not policy changes introduced through state welfare waivers, on employment dynamics. We find that two commonly used ad hoc methods of addressing seam bias perform substantially worse than our approach.

  • 109.
    Ham, John C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ozbeklik, Serkan
    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D.
    Estimating Heterogeneous Takeup and Crowd-Out Responses to Existing Medicaid Income Limits and their Nonmarginal Expansions2014In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 872-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a switching pro bit model and the income-limit-based structure of Medicaid eligibility for children to estimate treatment effects of nonmarginal Medicaid expansions on Medicaid takeup, private insurance coverage, and crowd-out, as well as crowd-out for those eligible for Medicaid under rules already in place. Many of these estimates are not found in existing work on public insurance and cannot be calculated with the linear probability model used by previous work in this literature. We provide an estimation approach that is straightforward to implement yet yields precise treatment effects.

  • 110.
    Ham, John C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore.;IFS, Canterbury, Kent, England.;IRP Madison, Madison, WI USA.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Song, Heonjae
    Univ Seoul, Seoul, South Korea..
    The determinants of bargaining power in an empirical model of transfers between adult children, parents, and in-laws for South Korea2014In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 109, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a bargaining model of transfers between adult children and their parents, and then estimate the model using data from South Korea. Our analysis extends the literature on family bargaining by i) arguing that transfers from the couple represent semiprivate consumption (e.g. it is plausible that the wife cares more about her parents than about the husband's parents, and vice-versa) and ii) using results from laboratory experiments to help identify the model. We find that women have slightly more bargaining power than men in the couple's decision making. We also find that when an adult child receives an extra dollar of income, she transfers half of it to her parents; this result is consistent with previous work. Finally, we reject the null hypothesis that bargaining power within the family depends only on the potential wage of each spouse.

  • 111.
    Harju, Jarkko
    et al.
    CESifo, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosonen, Tuomas
    CESifo, Helsinki, Finland;Acad Finland, Labour Inst Econ Res, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Firm types, price-setting strategies, and consumption-tax incidence2018In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 165, p. 48-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze price responses to large restaurant VAT rate reductions in two different European countries. Our results show that responses in the short and medium run were clustered around two focal points of zero pass-through and full pass-through. Differences between independent restaurants and chains is the key explanation for this pattern. While nearly all independent restaurants effectively ignored the tax reductions and left consumer prices unchanged, a substantial fraction of restaurants belonging to chains chose a rapid and complete pass-through. In the longer run, prices converged, but primarily through a price reversion among chain restaurants. The stark difference in price responses does not appear to arise because of different market characteristics such as location, initial price levels, meal types and restaurant segment.

  • 112.
    Hartman, Laura
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of eligibility screening in the sickness insurance: Evidence from a field experiment2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 20, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of screening stringency in the Swedish sickness insurance system by exploiting a field experiment. The experiment was conducted on 270,000 individuals in two geographical areas with the treatment group randomized by date of birth. The screening of eligibility was reduced for the treated by the postponement of the requirement for a doctor's certificate from day eight to day fifteen in a sickness benefit spell. The results show that extending the waiting period increased the length of sickness absence by on average 0.6 days. The experiment increased sickness benefit expenses but reduced the number of visits to a doctor. Our results show that postponing the requirement for a doctor's certificate increases public expenses for the sickness insurance system.

  • 113.
    Hartman, Laura
    et al.
    Statskontoret.
    Liljeberg, Linus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stepping-stones, dead-ends, or both? An analysis of Swedish replacement contracts2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 645-668Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114. Hassani-Nezhad, Lena
    et al.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Unilateral Divorce for Women and Labor Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: The Effect of Khul Reform2014In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 113-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution investigates whether the introduction of Khul, Islamic unilateral divorce rights for women, helps to explain recent dramatic increases in women's labor supply in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries over the 1980-2008 period. It shows, using data for eighteen countries, that Khul reform increased the labor force participation of women relative to men. Furthermore, we find evidence that the effect of Khul is larger for younger women (ages 24-34) compared to older women (ages 35-55). Younger women increased their labor force participation by 6 percent, which accounts for about 10 percent of the increase in their labor force participation from 1980 to 2008.

  • 115.
    Hensvik, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;CESifo, Munich, Germany.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Social Networks, Employee Selection, and Labor Market Outcomes2016In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 825-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a direct empirical test of Montgomery's 1991 notion that firms hire workers through social ties of productive employees as these workers know others with high unobserved productivity. We focus on coworker networks and show that firms recruit workers with better military draft test scores but shorter schooling when hiring previous colleagues of current employees, suggesting that firms use these networks to attract workers with better qualities in hard-to-observe dimensions. Incumbent workers' abilities predict the incidence, abilities, and wages of linked entrants. These results suggest that firms rely on the ability density of the studied networks when setting entry wages.

  • 116.
    Hensvik, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rosenqvist, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Keeping the Production Line Running: Internal Substitution and Employee Absence2019In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 200-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We postulate that the production losses from absence depend on firms' ability to internally substitute for absent workers, incentivizing firms to keep absence low in jobs with few substitutes. Using Swedish employer-employee data we show that absence is substantially lower in such positions conditional on establishment and occupation fixed effects. The result is driven by employee adjustments of absence to substitutability, and sorting of low (high) absence workers into (out of) positions with few substitutes. These findings highlight that internal substitution insures firms against production disruptions and that absence costs are important aspects of firms' hiring and separation decisions.

  • 117.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sick of Your Colleagues' Absence?2009In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 583-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We utilize a large-scale randomized social experiment to identify how co-workers affect each other’s effort as measured bywork absence. The experiment altered thework absence incentives for half of recover the treatment status of all workers in more than 3,000 workplaces. We first document that employees in workplaces with a high proportion of treated co-workers increase their own absence level significantly. We then examine the heterogeneity of the treatment effect in order to explore what mechanisms are underlying the peer effect. Although a strong effect of having a high proportion of treated co-workers is found for the non-treatedworkers, no significant effects are found for the treated workers. These results suggest that pure altruistic social preferences can be ruled out as the main motivator for the behavior of a non-negligible proportion of the employees in our sample.

  • 118.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Social Behaviour in Work Absence2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 995-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By making use of a large-scale randomized experiment, we test whether social behaviour is important for work absence due to illness. The individuals treated in the experiment were exposed to less monitoring of their eligibility to collect sickness insurance benefits, which sharply increased their non-monitored work absence. This exogenous variation is exploited in two complementary analyses. In both analyses, we find significant social-behaviour effects. Using detailed data, we conclude that the social-behaviour effects most likely stem from fairness concerns.

  • 119.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liu, Qian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mind the Gap? Estimating the Effects of Postponing Higher Education2008In: Oxford Economic Papers, ISSN 0030-7653, E-ISSN 1464-3812, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 683-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the effects on earnings of “gap years” between high school and university enrollment. The effect is estimated by means of standard earnings functions augmented to account for gap years and a rich set of control variables using administrative Swedish data. We find that postponement of higher education is associated with a persistent and non-trivial earnings penalty. The main source of the persistent penalty appears to be the loss of work experience after studies. The reduction of lifetime earnings associated with two years postponement of higher education amounts to 40-50 percent of annual earnings at age 40.

  • 120.
    Holmlund, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does grade configuration matter?: Effects of school reorganisation on pupils' educational experience2019In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 109, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of school organisation on pupils’ school environment, travel patterns and educational outcomes, exploiting a policy change that reorganised Swedish middle school education. The reorganisation induced pupils to remain in small local schools throughout grades 1–9, as opposed to making a transition to large middle schools between grades 6 and 7. The reorganisation had large consequences for pupils’ environments in the affected areas: travel distances to school decreased as well as the school cohort size; the composition of peers became more homogenous; and notably we find a reduction in teacher qualifications and experience. Despite that the previous literature has found that school transitions, school size and teacher experience are important inputs in the education production function, we find no evidence that remaining in a small local school had effects on educational outcomes. We reconcile our evidence using a survey which reveals that Swedish pupils do not perceive large differences in the psychosocial learning environment between schools of different grade configurations. Our results are important in informing policy makers and urban planners of the costs and benefits of different types of school organisations.

  • 121.
    Holmlund, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Silva, Olmo
    Targeting Noncognitive Skills to Improve Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence from a Remedial Education Intervention2014In: Journal of Human Capital, ISSN 1932-8575, E-ISSN 1932-8664, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 126-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study an education intervention targeting underachieving pupils' noncognitive skills with the aim of improving attendance and cognitive outcomes. We evaluate the policy effect on test scores in national exams at age 16 exploiting repeated observations to control for unobservables. We find little evidence of improved cognitive outcomes. We further examine the policy impact on students' absences. Lacking repeated observations on this outcome, we simulate the effect of unobservables on attendance. While the intervention had beneficial effects on school presence, these did not translate to improved cognitive outcomes. Conversely, the policy generated positive spillover effects on nontreated students' test scores.

  • 122.
    Jans, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. IZA.
    Nilsson, Peter
    IIES, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden; UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Economic status, air quality, and child health: Evidence from inversion episodes2018In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 61, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normally, the temperature decreases with altitude, allowing air pollutants to rise and disperse. During inversion episodes, warmer air at higher altitude traps air pollutants at the ground. By merging vertical temperature profile data from NASA with pollution monitors and health care records, we show that inversions increase the PM10 levels by 25% and children's respiratory health problems by 5.5%. Low-income children are particularly affected, and differences in baseline health seem to be a key mediating factor behind the effect of pollution on the SES health gap. Policies that improve dissemination of information on inversion status may hence improve child health, either through private action or via policies that curb emissions during inversion episodes.

  • 123.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The importance of employer contacts: Evidence based on selection on observables and internal replication2008In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 350-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I estimate effects of the labor market training program “Swit” on employment using both register and survey data. Swit was initiated in an attempt to increase the supply of qualified personnel in the IT sector. Based on the register data I find a large positive effect from the Swit on employment as compared to conventional programs directed towards IT. By also using survey information I conclude that the effect was due to increased employer contacts. The result is of interest because of the relatively large effect especially for individuals with traditionally weak positions on the labor market. Furthermore, I methodologically demonstrate how information about the contents of the programs may corroborate findings based on conditional independence assumptions.

  • 124.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala Center for Labor Studies, Sweden, Institute of Labor Economics, Bonn, Germany.
    Karimi, Arizo
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nilsson, J. Peter
    Stockholm University and Uppsala Center for Labor Studies, Sweden.
    Worker absenteeism: peer influences, monitoring, and job flexibility2019In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 182, no 2, p. 605-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the presence of other-regarding preferences in the workplace by exploitinga randomized experiment that changed the monitoring of workers’ health during sick leave. We show that workers’ response to an increase in co-worker shirking, induced by the experiment,is much stronger than the response to a decrease in co-worker shirking. The asymmetric spillover effects are consistent with evidence of fairness concerns documented in laboratory experiments. Moreover, we find that the spillover effect is driven by workers with highly flexible and autonomous jobs, suggesting that co-worker monitoring may be at least as important as formal monitoring in alleviating shirking.

  • 125.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Laun, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Laun, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Hur har portvaktsfunktionen i förtidspensionssystemet förändrats över tid?2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 6, p. 17-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi är intresserade av hur portvaktsfunktionen i förtidspensionssystemet, dvs bedömningen av rättigheten att uppbära ersättning, har förändrats över tid. För att studera detta analyserar vi förändringen av den relativa hälsan mellan nybeviljade förtidspensionärer och icke-förtidspensionärer mellan åren 1986 och 2008. Som ett mått på hälsa använder vi mortalitet. Vi finner ett nära samband mellan inflödet till förtidspension och den skattade relativa mortalitetsrisken mellan nybeviljade förtidspensionärer och icke-förtidspensionärer. Vissa av förändringarna över tid sammanfaller med förändringar av de formella kvalificeringskraven för förtidspension, medan andra snarare tycks fånga informella förändringar av hälsobedömningen vid beviljandet av förtidspension.

  • 126.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Laun, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Laun, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Hur har portvaktsfunktionen i förtidspensionssystemetförändrats över tid?2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 6, p. 17-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi är intresserade av hur portvaktsfunktionen i förtidspensionssystemet, dvsbedömningen av rättigheten att uppbära ersättning, har förändrats över tid.För att studera detta analyserar vi förändringen av den relativa hälsan mellannybeviljade förtidspensionärer och icke-förtidspensionärer mellan åren 1986och 2008. Som ett mått på hälsa använder vi mortalitet. Vi finner ett nära sambandmellan inflödet till förtidspension och den skattade relativa mortalitetsriskenmellan nybeviljade förtidspensionärer och icke-förtidspensionärer. Vissa avförändringarna över tid sammanfaller med förändringar av de formella kvalificeringskravenför förtidspension, medan andra snarare tycks fånga informellaförändringar av hälsobedömningen vid beviljandet av förtidspension.

  • 127.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Laun, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Laun, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Hälsan hos nybeviljade förtidspensionärer över tid2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten studerar vi hur den relativa hälsan hos nybeviljade förtids-pensionärer jämfört med icke-förtidspensionärer har utvecklats i Sverige övertid. Som ett mått på hälsa används framtida mortalitet. Analysen visar hur inflödet till förtidspensionssystemet har kontrollerats, efter att hänsyn har tagits till förändringar i befolkningens underliggande hälsa. Vi finner betydande variationer i den relativa hälsan hos nybeviljade förtidspensionärer jämfört med icke-förtidspensionärer i Sverige mellan år 1986 och 2008. Detta tyder på att variationerna i inflödet till förtidspension inte i huvudsak beror på hälso-förändringar i befolkningen. Vissa av variationerna i den relativa hälsan sammanfaller med formella förändringar av kvalificeringskraven för förtids-pension. Vi finner dock också variationer i den relativa hälsan under perioder då inga formella förändringar av kvalificeringskraven har genomförts. Detta tyder på att också informella förändringar av hälsobedömningen för att blibeviljad förtidspension har fått genomslag.

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  • 128.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Laun, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Laun, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Screening Stringency in the Disability Insurance Program2014In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 873-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a strategy for assessing how the inflow to the disability insurance program has been governed over time. Using ex-post mortality, we analyze the ex-ante health of individuals entering the program, compared to individuals not entering the program in the same year. Applying this strategy to Sweden, we find large variation in the relative health of new beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries over time. Some of the fluctuations correspond well to formal changes to screening stringency. However, we also find large variation in health during periods when no changes to formal eligibility criteria have been pursued. 

  • 129.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Can sickness absence be affected by information meetings?: Evidence from a social experiment2013In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 1673-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade several empirical studies have stressed the importance of norms and social interactions for explaining sickness-absence behavior. In this context, public discussions about the intentions of the insurance, and of the rights and duties of the receivers, may be important for reducing the sickness absence. In this article, we study whether information meetings about the Swedish sickness insurance affect the length of sickness-absence spells. The study is based on experimental data on individuals with weak labor market attachments. The displacement of when the call to the meeting was sent out was randomized. Comparing the survival functions of those called immediately with those whose calls were delayed (by about 30 days) makes it possible to study whether the length of sickness absence is affected by receiving the call earlier. The result suggests that the length is reduced by, on average, 20%. In the long term (12 months later), there is no effect of the information meeting. This suggests that attendance to the information meeting does not change individuals' long-term behavior.

  • 130.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Locking-In Effects Due to Early Interventions?: An Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Screening Programs for Avoiding Long-Term Sickness2012In: Evaluation review, ISSN 0193-841X, E-ISSN 1552-3926, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 323-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this article, we estimate the effect of a multidisciplinary collaborationprogram on the length of sickness absence. The intention with the program was to avoid long-term sickness absence by providing an early and holistic evaluation of the sick-listed individuals' conditions. The target group was individuals who were at risk of becoming long-term sick. The eligibility criteria were mainly based on register information that we have access to. Methods: Using this register information, we estimate different Cox regression models and apply a nonparametric matching estimator. We have also conducted a small randomized experiment. Results: The result from the randomized experiment is not statistically significant, but the point estimate provides the same result as was found in the observational study: The program prolongs rather than shortens the sickness absence spell. That is, the average sickness absence spell is prolonged by about 3 months. Conclusions: Our main explanation for this discouraging result is that the team focuses too much on rehabilitation rather than encouraging the sick-listed individual to return to work.

  • 131.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Verho, Jouko
    Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies2014In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 36, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. 

  • 132. Kramarz, Francis
    et al.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    When Strong Ties are Strong: Networks and Youth Labour Market Entry2014In: The Review of Economic Studies, ISSN 0034-6527, E-ISSN 1467-937X, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 1164-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions under which young workers find their first real post-graduation jobs are important for their future careers and insufficiently documented given their potential importance for young workers welfare. To study these conditions, and in particular the role played by social ties, we use a Swedish population-wide linked employer-employee data set of graduates from all levels of schooling that includes detailed information on family ties, neighbourhoods, schools, class composition, and parents' and children's employers over a period covering years with both high and low unemployment, together with measures of firm performance. We find that strong social ties (parents) are an important determinant for where young workers find their first job. The effects are larger if the graduate's position is "weak" (low education, bad grades), during high unemployment years, and when information on potential openings are likely to be scarce. On the hiring side, by contrast, the effects are larger if the parent's position is "strong" (long tenure, high wage) and if the parent's plant is more productive. The youths appear to benefit from the use of strong social ties through faster access to jobs and by better labour market outcomes as measured a few years after entry. In particular, workers finding their entry jobs through strong social ties are considerably more likely to remain in this job, while experiencing better wage growth than other entrants in the same plant. Firms also appear to benefit from these wage costs (relative to comparable entrants) starting at a lower base. They also benefit on the parents' side; parents' wage growth drops dramatically exactly at the entry of one of their children in the plant, although this is a moment when firm profits tend to be growing. Indeed, the firm-side benefits appear large enough for (at least small) firms to increase job creation at the entry level in years when a child of one of their employees graduates.

  • 133.
    Lange, Martin
    et al.
    Ctr European Econ Res ZEW, POB 10 34 43, D-68034 Mannheim, Germany..
    Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
    Ctr European Econ Res ZEW, POB 10 34 43, D-68034 Mannheim, Germany.;Univ Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany..
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Integrating young male refugees: initial evidence from an inclusive soccer project2017In: JOURNAL FOR LABOUR MARKET RESEARCH, ISSN 2510-5019, Vol. 51, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses data collected among a group of young male refugees who participated in a randomised experiment. Refugees were randomly assigned to a soccer project aimed at facilitating social and labour market integration or to a control group. We evaluate the randomisation process, discuss the design and implementation of the survey and summarize the main findings of the survey by focusing on labour market activity, pre-migration characteristics, and the monetary costs of the escape. In addition, we provide a preliminary outlook on the effectiveness of the programme.

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  • 134.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rubin, Donald
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
    Outcome-free Design of Observational Studies: Peer Influence on Smoking2008In: Annales d'économie et de statistique (Annals of Economics and Statistics), ISSN 0769-489X, no 91/92, p. 107-125Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For estimating causal effects of treatments, randomized experiments are appropriately considered the gold standard, although they are often infeasible for a variety of reasons. Nevertheless, nonrandomized studies can and should be designed to approximate randomized experiments by using only background information to create subgroups of similar treated and control units, where "similar" here refers to their distributions of background variables. This activity should be conducted without access to any outcome data to assure the objectivity of the design. In many situations, these goals can be accomplished using propensity score methods, as illustrated here in the context of a study on whether nonsmoking Harvard freshmen are influenced by their smoking peers. In that study, propensity score methods were used to create matched groups of treated units (rooming with at least one smoker) and control units (rooming with only non-smokers) who are at least as similar with respect to their distributions of observed background characteristics as if they had been randomized, thereby approximating a randomized experiment with respect to the observed covariates.

  • 135.
    Larsson, Laura
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindqvist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Stepping-stones or dead-ends?: An analysis of Swedish replacement contracts2005Report (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Laun, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Thoursie, Peter Skogman
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Does privatisation of vocational rehabilitation improve labour market opportunities?: Evidence from a field experiment in Sweden2014In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 34, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses if privatisation of vocational rehabilitation can improve labour market opportunities for individuals on long-term sickness absence. We use a field experiment performed by the Public Employment Service and the Social Insurance Agency in Sweden during 2008-2010, in which over 4000 participants were randomly offered private and public rehabilitation. We find no differences in employment rates following rehabilitation between individuals who received rehabilitation by private and public providers. Also the average cost of rehabilitation was essentially equal for the two types of providers. This suggests that there are no large efficiency gains from privatising vocational rehabilitation. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 137. Leijon, O.
    et al.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Toren, K.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    First-time decisions regarding work injury annuity due to occupational disease: a gender perspective2014In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study presents an investigation of first-time decisions regarding work injury annuity due to occupational disease. Focus is a number of potential underlying factors behind the gender gap, where women are disadvantaged, in the granting of work injury annuity. Methods All 99 subjects (80 men and 19 women) who met the conditions of long-lasting reduction of work ability due to occupational disease (not occupational accident) in the Swedish Work Injury Insurance Act and were granted work injury annuity in 2010, together with a random sample of 118 subjects (55 men and 63 women) who were denied annuity in the same year, were selected for analysis. Each subject's case file from the Social Insurance Agency was examined with regards to cause of disease, diagnosis and the Social Insurance Agency's management and decision making of claims. The data were analysed by logistic regression analysis. Results Men had a higher probability of being granted work injury annuity than women for musculoskeletal disorders (OR 4.16), mental disorders (OR 7.93) and diseases in other diagnostic chapters (OR 3.65). After adjustment for age, country of birth, diagnosis, work exposure factors and decision support factors, the higher probability for men of being granted work injury annuity remained (full model: OR 2.67, 95% Cl 1.20 to 5.94). Conclusions Actions are necessary in order to establish equitable and gender-neutral treatment of work injury insurance claims. There is a need for more detailed knowledge of exposures in female-dominated jobs and the relationship between these exposures and occupational disease.

  • 138.
    Lidwall, Ulrik
    et al.
    Swedish Social Insurance Agcy, Dept Anal & Forecast, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Depat Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bill, Sofia
    Swedish Social Insurance Agcy, Dept Anal & Forecast, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Palmer, Edward
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Swedish Social Insurance Agcy, Dept Anal & Forecast, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Depat Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bohlin, Christina Olsson
    Swedish Social Insurance Agcy, Dept Anal & Forecast, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors.

    METHODS: The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders.

    RESULTS: The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce.

    CONCLUSION: The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  • 139.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Are teacher assessments biased?: evidence from Sweden2016In: Education Economics, ISSN 0964-5292, E-ISSN 1469-5782, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 224-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native students perform better on national test results if the teacher is of the same gender or also is non-native, respectively. The probability of being graded up is less likely if the student and the teacher are of the same gender.

  • 140.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sandgren Massih, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Transmission of Human Capital across Four Generations: Intergenerational Correlations and a Test of the Becker-Tomes Model2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies on intergenerational transmission of human capital are restricted to two generations - between the parent and the child generation. In this paper we investigate if there is an independent effect of the grandparent and the great grandparent generations in this process. We use a dataset where we are able to link individual measures of life time earnings for three generation and data on educational attainments of four generations. We first do conventional regressions and transition matrices for life time earnings measures and educational attainments adding variables for the grandparent and great grandparent generations, respectively. We find that grandparents and even great grandparents significantly influence earnings and education. We then estimate the so called Becker-Tomes model using the educational attainment of the great grandparent generation as an instrumental variable. We fail to find support for the model's predictions. 

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  • 141.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Palme, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sandgren-Massih, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjogren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    A Test of the Becker-Tomes Model of Human Capital Transmission Using Microdata on Four Generations2014In: Journal of Human Capital, ISSN 1932-8575, E-ISSN 1932-8664, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 80-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the well-known Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational transmission of human capital. A Swedish data set, which links individual measures on educational attainments of four generations, enables us to use great-grandparents' education as an instrumental variable. The identifying assumption, which holds within the Becker-Tomes framework, is that great-grandparents' education is unrelated to great-grandchildren's education, conditional on the education of the parent and grandparent. We test the model's prediction that the structural parameter for grandparents' education enters with a negative sign in an intergenerational regression model.

  • 142. Lindeboom, Maarten
    et al.
    Portrait, France
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Long-run effects on longevity of a nutritional shock early in life: The Dutch Potato famine of 1846-18472010In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional conditions in utero and during infancy may causally affect health and mortality during childhood, adulthood, and at old ages. This paper investigates whether exposure to a nutritional shock in early life negatively affects survival at older ages, using individual data. Nutritional conditions are captured by exposure to the Potato famine in the Netherlands in 1846-1847, and by regional and temporal variation in market prices of potato and rye. The data cover the lifetimes of a random sample of Dutch individuals born between 1812 and 1902 and provide individual information on life events and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. First we non-parametrically compare the total and residual lifetimes of individuals exposed and not exposed to the famine in utero and/or until age 1. Next, we estimate survival models in which we control for individual characteristics and additional (early life) determinants of mortality. We find strong evidence for long-run effects of exposure to the Potato famine. The results are stronger for boys than for girls. Boys and girls lose on average 4, respectively 2.5 years of life after age 50 after exposure at birth to the Potato famine. Lower social classes appear to be more affected by early life exposure to the Potato famine than higher social classes. These results confirm the mechanism linking early life (nutritional) conditions to old-age mortality. Finally, higher food prices at birth appear to reduce later life mortality of children of farmers from higher social classes. We interpret this as an income effect.

  • 143.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dawes, Christopher
    NYU, Wilf Family Dept Polit, 19 W 4th St,2nd Floor, New York, NY 10012 USA.
    Can Political Inequalities Be Educated Away? Evidence from a Large-scale Reform2017In: American Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0092-5853, E-ISSN 1540-5907, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 222-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, many suggestions have been made on how to reduce the importance of family background in political recruitment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of one such proposal: the expansion of mass education. We utilize a difference-in-difference strategy to analyze how a large school reform launched in Sweden in the 1950s, which lengthened schooling and postponed tracking, affected the likelihood of individuals with different family backgrounds to run for public office. The data come from public registers and pertain to the entire Swedish population born between 1943 and 1955. The empirical analysis provides strong support for the view that improved educational opportunities for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds can be an effective means to reduce the social bias of elected assemblies.

  • 144.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikael, Persson
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Access to education and political candidacy: Lessons from school openings in Sweden2019In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 69, p. 138-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does availability of education affect who becomes a political representative? Theorists have pointed out that access to education is a key to a well-functioning democracy, but few empirical studies have examined how changes in the access to education influence the chances of becoming a politician. In this paper, we analyze the effects of a large series of school openings in Sweden during the early 20th century, which provided adolescents with better access to secondary education. We use administrative data pertaining to the entire Swedish population born between 1916 and 1945. According to our empirical results, the opening of a new lower secondary school in a municipality increased the baseline probability of running for political office by 10–20%, and the probability of holding office by 20–30%.

  • 145.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vernby, Kare
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Stockholm & Uppsala Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The electoral impact of the financial crisis: Evidence using district-level data2016In: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 44, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do economic downturns increase voter support for left or right parties? In our empirical analysis, we combine fine-grained registry-data on the labor market impact of the crisis and how it varied across 5000 electoral districts, with district-level data on vote-shares for all major parties in Swedish parliamentary elections before and after the crisis. Because the impact was so diverse across districts, we can estimate the electoral impact of unemployment more efficiently than usual. Moreover, because the crisis was an external and unexpected shock to the Swedish economy, we argue that the selection bias that is usually inherent in estimating the electoral impact of unemployment is mitigated. We find that the electoral impact of crisis-induced unemployment was large, benefiting right parties.

  • 146.
    Lindström, Elly-Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 121-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique survey with information on students, parents, and teachers, it is possible to control for many factors that could otherwise bias the results. A negative effect on short-run cognitive skills, as measured by grade 6 cognitive tests, was found. This effect is relatively largealmost 5 percentile pointsand robust to a rigorous sensitivity analysis. On grade 9 credits the effect is still negative but smaller in size and not statistically significant.

  • 147.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance2010In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. Using a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 we evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a result that is robust to a number of different specifications. We find no corresponding heterogeneity relative to parental earnings or fathers' education, or relative to other predictors of child performance. We find no effects on intermediate outcomes such as mothers' subsequent earnings, child health, parental fertility, divorce rates, or the mothers' mental health. Overall the results suggest positive causal interaction effects between mothers' education and the amount of time mothers spend with their children. Since the institutional context is one in which the alternative is subsidized day care, the results imply that subsidizing longer parental leave spells rather than day care reinforce the relationship between maternal education and school outcomes.

  • 148.
    Lombardi, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Essays on Event History Analysis and the Effects of Social Programs on Individuals and Firms2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I: This paper studies threat effects of unemployment insurance (UI) benefit sanctions on job exit rates. Using a difference-in-differences design, I exploit two reforms of the Swedish UI system that made monitoring and sanctions considerably stricter at different points in time for different jobseeker groups. I find that men and long-term unemployed respond to the stricter UI rules by finding jobs faster. I also estimate the effect of receiving a sanction on the job exit rates, and find significant sanction imposition effects. However, a decomposition exercise shows that these effects explain very little of the overall reform effects, which instead are driven the threat of sanction imposition.

    Essay II (with Gerard J. van den Berg and Johan Vikström): We use an Empirical Monte Carlo design and rich administrative data to generate realistic placebo treatment durations. First, we highlight important confounders to be controlled for when estimating selection models. Next, we omit some of the covariates used to simulate placebo treatments, and we estimate Timing-of-Events models. The model is generally able to adjust for a large share of the resulting unobserved heterogeneity. However, we find that specifying too many or too few support points to approximate the unobserved heterogeneity distribution leads to large bias. Information criteria that penalize parameter abundance can help selecting the appropriate number of support points.

    Essay III (with Oskar Nordström Skans and Johan Vikström): We study how targeted wage subsidies affect the performance of the recruiting firms. Using Swedish linked employer-employee data from 1998–2008, we show that the firms hiring through subsidies substantially outperform other recruiting firms, despite identical pre-treatment performance levels and trends in a wide set of key dimensions. The pattern is less clear from 2007 onwards, after a reform removed the involvement of caseworkers from the subsidy approval process. Our results suggest that targeted employment subsidies can have large positive effects on outcomes of the hiring firms, at least if the policy environment allows for pre-screening by caseworkers.

    Essay IV (with Raffaella Piccarreta and Marco Bonetti): We propose different methods for comparing the ability of competing non-nested event history models to generate trajectories that are similar to the observed ones. We first introduce alternative criteria to compare pairwise dissimilarities between observed and simulated sequences. Next, we estimate two alternative multi-state models using data on family formation and childbearing decisions from the Dutch Fertility and Family Survey. We use the estimated models to simulate event histories and to illustrate the proposed comparison criteria.

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  • 149.
    Lombardi, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Threat Effects of Monitoring and Unemployment Insurance Sanctions: Evidence from Two ReformsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies threat effects of unemployment insurance (UI) benefit sanctions on job exit rates. Using a difference-in-differences design, I exploit two reforms of the Swedish UI system that made monitoring and sanctions considerably stricter at different points in time for different jobseeker groups. The results show that men and long-term unemployed individuals respond to the tighter monitoring and the threat of sanctions by finding jobs faster, whereas women do not. I also estimate the effect of receiving a sanction on the job exit rates and find significant sanction imposition effects. However, a decomposition exercise shows that these sanction imposition effects explain very little of the overall reform effects, so that most of the reform effects arise through threat effects. A direct policy implication is that the total impact of monitoring and sanctions may be severely underestimated when focusing solely on the effects on those actually receiving sanctions.

  • 150.
    Lombardi, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala Center For Labor Studies (UCLS), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Targeted wage subsidies and firm performance2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 53, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how targeted wage subsidies affect the performance of the recruiting firms. Using Swedish administrative data from the period 1998-2008, we show that treated firms substantially outperform other recruiting firms after hiring through subsidies, despite identical pre-treatment performance levels and trends in a wide set of key dimensions. The pattern is less clear from 2007 onwards, after a reform removed the involvement of caseworkers from the subsidy approval process. Overall, our results suggest that targeted employment subsidies can have large positive effects on post-match outcomes of the hiring firms, at least if the policy environment allows for pre-screening by caseworkers.

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