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  • 101.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Favaios, S.
    EPE.
    Perniola, A.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Magnuson, A.
    University Orebro.
    Berggren, L.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    A meta-analysis of the efficacy of wound catheters for post-operative pain management2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 785-796Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local anesthetics (LA) are injected via catheters placed in surgical wounds for post-operative analgesia. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess whether LA reduce pain intensity when injected via wound catheters. A literature search was performed from Medline via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database from 1966 until November 2009. The search strategy included the following key words: pain, postoperative, catheters and local anesthetics. Two co-authors independently read every article that was initially included and extracted data into a pre-defined study record form. A total of 753 studies primarily fit the search criteria and 163 were initially extracted. Of these, 32 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Wound catheters provided no significant analgesia at rest or on activity, except in patients undergoing gynecological and obstetric surgery at 48 h (P = 0.03). The overall morphine consumption was lower (approximate to 13 mg) during 0-24 h (P less than 0.001) in these patients. No significant differences in side effects were found, except for a lower risk of wound breakdown (P = 0.048) and a shorter length of hospital stay (P = 0.04) in patients receiving LA. A statistically significant heterogeneity was seen between the studies in most end-points. LA injected via wound catheters did not reduce pain intensity, except at 48 h in a subgroup of patients undergoing obstetric and gynecological surgery. Rescue analgesic consumption was also lower in this group at 0-24 h. The magnitude of these effects was small and compounded by pronounced heterogeneity.

  • 102.
    Gustafsson, U O
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nygren, J
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Thorell, A
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Soop, M
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hellström, P M
    Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hagström-Toft, E
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm.
    Pre-operative carbohydrate loading may be used in type 2 diabetes patients2008In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 946-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Post-operative insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia are associated with an impaired outcome after surgery. Pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading (CHO) reduces post-operative insulin resistance with a reduced risk of hyperglycaemia during post-operative nutrition. Insulin-resistant diabetic patients have not been given CHO because the effects on pre-operative glycaemia and gastric emptying are unknown.

    Methods: Twenty-five patients (45-73 years) with type 2 diabetes [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.2 +/- 0.2%, mean +/- SEM] and 10 healthy control subjects (45-72 years) were studied. A carbohydrate-rich drink (400 ml, 12.5%) was given with paracetamol 1.5 g for determination of gastric emptying.

    Results: Peak glucose was higher in diabetic patients than in healthy subjects (13.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 mM; P<0.01) and occurred later after intake (60 vs. 30 min; P<0.01). Glucose concentrations were back to baseline at 180 vs. 120 min in diabetic patients and healthy subjects, respectively (P<0.01). At 120 min, 10.9 +/- 0.7% and 13.3 +/- 1.2% of paracetamol remained in the stomach in diabetic patients and healthy, subjects respectively. Gastric half-emptying time (T50) occurred at 49.8 +/- 2.2 min in diabetics and at 58.6 +/- 3.7 min in healthy subjects (P<0.05). Neither peak glucose, glucose at 180 min, gastric T50, nor retention at 120 min differed between insulin (HbA1c 6.8 +/- 0.7%)- and non-insulin-treated (HbA1c 5.6 +/- 0.4%) patients.

    Conclusions: Type 2 diabetic patients showed no signs of delayed gastric emptying, suggesting that a carbohydrate-rich drink may be safely administrated 180 min before anaesthesia without risk of hyperglycaemia or aspiration pre-operatively.

  • 103.
    Günther, A.
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm.
    Sackey, P.
    Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schandl, Anna
    Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm.
    The relation between skin conductance responses and recovery from symptoms of PTSD2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 688-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose was to investigate if potentially stressful reminders of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay influenced variability in transient skin conductance responses, and whether such changes were associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and development of symptoms over time. Methods: Thirty patients with an ICU length of stay > 48 h were included in the study. Within the week after ICU discharge (T1), patients were exposed to authentic ICU sound and questions regarding traumatic ICU memories while skin conductance reactivity was monitored. PTSS was assessed using PTSS-10 at T1 and again 3 months later (T2). Changes in number of skin conductance fluctuations per second (NSCF) between baseline and during the cueing conditions and in relation to PTSS scores (T1) were investigated. PTSS scores at T2 and changes between T1 and T2 (PTSS-CS) were used to investigate if reactivity in NSCF could predict symptoms of PTSD. Results: The results showed increases in NSCF during both situational and verbal cueing, compared to baseline. However, no relation to PTSS scores was indicated. Negative correlations between NSCF during situational cueing and both PTSS-T2 and PTSS-CS were found among women, but not among men. Conclusion: A low variability, or reactivity in skin conductance responses to situational cues could imply a risk of developing, or not being able to recover from, symptoms of PTSD in women. As such, the measurement could be used to predict this risk in women. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate this area of application.

  • 104.
    Hahn, R. G.
    et al.
    Sodertalje Hospital, Sweden.
    Drobin, D.
    Central Hospital Karlstad, Sweden.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Distribution of crystalloid fluid changes with the rate of infusion: a population-based study2016In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 569-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Crystalloid fluid requires 30 min for complete distribution throughout the extracellular fluid space and tends to cause long-standing peripheral edema. A kinetic analysis of the distribution of Ringers acetate with increasing infusion rates was performed to obtain a better understanding of these characteristics of crystalloids. Methods: Data were retrieved from six studies in which 76 volunteers and preoperative patients had received between 300 ml and 2375 ml of Ringers acetate solution at a rate of 20-80 ml/min (0.33-0.83 ml/min/kg). Serial measurements of the blood hemoglobin concentration were used as inputs in a kinetic analysis based on a two-volume model with micro-constants, using software for nonlinear mixed effects. Results: The micro-constants describing distribution (k(12)) and elimination (k(10)) were unchanged when the rate of infusion increased, with half-times of 16 and 26 min, respectively. In contrast, the micro-constant describing how rapidly the already distributed fluid left the peripheral space (k(21)) decreased by 90% when the fluid was infused more rapidly, corresponding to an increase in the half-time from 3 to 30 min. The central volume of distribution (V-c) doubled. Conclusion: The return of Ringers acetate from the peripheral fluid compartment to the plasma was slower with high than with low infusion rates. Edema is a normal consequence of plasma volume expansion with this fluid, even in healthy volunteers. The results are consistent with the view that the viscoelastic properties of the interstitial matrix are responsible for the distribution and redistribution characteristics of crystalloid fluid.

  • 105.
    Hahn, R. G.
    et al.
    Research Unit, Södertälje Hospital, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping.
    Nephrocheck® results should be corrected for dilution2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 261-262Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 106.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Fluid absorption and the ethanol monitoring method2015In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 1081-1093Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFluid absorption is a well-known complication of endoscopic surgeries, such as transurethral prostatic resection and transcervical endometrial resection. Absorption of electrolyte-free fluid in excess of 1L, which occurs in 5% to 10% of the operations, markedly increases the risk of adverse effects from the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Absorption of isotonic saline, which is used with the new bipolar resection technique, will change the scenario of adverse effects in a yet unknown way. Hyponatremia no longer occurs, but marking the saline with ethanol reveals that fluid absorption occurs just as much as with monopolar prostate resections. MethodsEthanol monitoring is a method for non-invasive indication and quantification of fluid absorption that has been well evaluated. By using an irrigating fluid that contains 1% of ethanol, updated information about fluid absorption can be obtained at any time perioperatively by letting the patient breathe into a hand-held alcolmeter. ResultsRegression equations and nomograms with variable complexity are available for estimating how much fluid has been absorbed, both when the alcolmeter is calibrated to show the blood ethanol level and when it is calibrated to show the breath ethanol concentration. Examples of how such estimations should be performed are given in this review article. ConclusionsThe difficulty is that the anesthesiologist must be aware of how the alcolmeter is calibrated (for blood or breath) and be able to distinguish between the intravascular and extravascular absorption routes, which give rise to different patterns and levels of breath ethanol concentrations.

  • 107.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Bahlmann, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery2014In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 1258-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Methods: Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a dehydration index. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5ml/kg of Ringers acetate intravenously for over 15min. Blood was sampled for 70min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Results: Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (Pless than0.01) and the elimination half-life was twice as long (median 40min, not significant) in the 11 patients (37%) diagnosed to be moderately dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9min (median, Pless than0.01). These patients were usually euhydrated but had microalbuminuria (Pless than0.03) and higher natriuresis (Pless than0.01). Conclusions: The degree of dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis.

  • 108.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Fluid therapy in uncontrolled hemorrhage - what experimental models have taught us2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 16-28Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravenous fluid is life-saving in hypovolemic shock, but fluid sometimes aggravates the bleeding. During the past 25 years, animal models have helped our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this unexpected effect. A key issue is that vasoconstriction is insufficient to arrest the bleeding when damage is made to a major blood vessel. ‘Uncontrolled hemorrhage’ is rather stopped by a blood clot formed at the outside surface of the vessel, and the immature clot is sensitive to mechanical and chemical interactions. The mortality increases if rebleeding occurs. In the aortic tear model in swine, hemorrhage volume and the mortality increase from effective restoration of the arterial pressure. The mortality vs. amount of fluid curve is U-shaped with higher mortality at either end. Without any fluid at all, irreversible shock causes death provided the hemorrhage is sufficiently large. Crystalloid fluid administered in a 3 : 1 proportion to the amount of lost blood initiates serious rebleeding. Hypertonic saline 7.5% in 6% dextran 70 (HSD) also provokes rebleeding resulting in higher mortality in the recommended dosage of 4 ml/kg. Uncontrolled hemorrhage models in rats, except for the ‘cut-tail’ model, confirm the results from swine. To avoid rebleeding, fluid programs should not aim to fully restore the arterial pressure, blood flow rates, or blood volume. For a hemorrhage of 1000 ml, computer simulations show that deliberate hypovolemia (−300 ml) would be achieved by infusing 600–750 ml crystalloid fluid over 20–30 min or 100 ml of HSD over 10–20 min in an adult male.

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  • 109.
    Hahn, Robert G.
    et al.
    Sodertalje Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Dull, Randal O.
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85724 USA.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA).
    The Extended Starling principle needs clinical validation2020In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Revised (or "Extended") Starling principle is based on highly controlled laboratory-based frog and rodent experiments and remains a hypothesis awaiting clinical validation. A key point is that the endothelial glycocalyx layer moves the oncotic gradient from being between the plasma and the interstitium to between the plasma and a virtually protein-free space between the glycocalyx and the endothelial cell membrane, which dramatically changes the prerequisites for fluid absorption from tissue to plasma. However, many experimental and clinical observations in humans agree poorly with the new microcirculatory proposals. The most troubling aspect of the explanation regarding the role of the glycocalyx in the Revised Starling principle is the effective reabsorption of fluid by skeletal muscle when the capillary filtration pressure is acutely reduced. Other issues include the plasma volume effects of hypertonic saline, iso-oncotic and hyper-oncotic albumin, fluid distribution during cardio-pulmonary bypass, and the virtually identical capillary leakage of plasma and albumin despite marked inflammation found in our fluid therapy studies. The Revised Starling principle deals mainly with steady-state conditions, but the circulatory system is highly dynamic. Second to second vasomotion is always operational and must be considered to understand what we observe in humans.

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  • 110.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Li, Yuhong
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Non-invasive monitoring of blood haemoglobin for analysis of fluid volume kinetics2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1233-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A commercially available pulse oximeter that reports blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration is evaluated. This study considers whether this device can provide serial Hb data that would be sufficiently reliable for volume kinetic analysis of infusion fluids.

    Methods: Forty infusions of 5 or 10 ml/kg of acetated Ringer's solution were given over 15 min in 10 healthy volunteers. Hb was measured on 17 different occasions over 120 min using the Radical 7 pulse oximeter and compared with the result of invasive blood sampling (control). A one-volume kinetic model was applied to each data series. The pulse oximeter also reported the perfusion index (PI).

    Results: The median deviation between the 680 invasive and non-invasive Hb samples (the accuracy) was 1.6% and the absolute median deviation (precision) was 4.6%. Between-subject factors explained half of the variation in the difference between non-invasive vs. invasive sampling.

    Ten of the 40 non-invasive series of Hb values were discarded from kinetic analysis due to poor quality. The remaining 30 series showed a smaller distribution volume for the infused fluid when kinetic analysis was based on the non-invasive method (3.0 vs. 5.3 l; P<0.001). This was due to co-variance with the PI, which exaggerated the decrease in Hb caused by the infusions. The non-invasive method might provide useful kinetic data at the group level, but individual curves deviated too much from the invasive data to be reliable.

    Conclusions: Non-invasive measurement of the Hb concentration during volume loading could not provide useful kinetic data for individuals.

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  • 111.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lindahl, C C
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Drobin, D
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Volume kinetics of acetated Ringer's solution during experimental spinal anaesthesia2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 987-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    General anaesthesia lowers the clearance of crystalloid fluid, but the volume kinetics of such fluid throughout the duration of spinal anaesthesia has not been studied.

    Methods:

    Ten female volunteers (mean age 29 years) received an intravenous infusion of 25 ml/kg of acetated Ringer's solution with and without spinal anaesthesia. A volume kinetic model was fitted to serial measurements of the haemoglobin concentration over 240 min based on arterial, cubital vein, and femoral vein blood. The measured urine flow was compared to the model-predicted elimination.

    Results:

    The arterial pressure remained stable, although the block reached to Th3-Th5 in half of the volunteers. There were no differences in fluid kinetics between the spinal anaesthesia and the control experiments. The administered volume was well confined to the kinetic system, which consisted of two communicating fluid spaces that were 2.8 l and approximately 7 l in size at baseline. The arteriovenous difference in plasma dilution remained positive for 30 min post-infusion in those having analgesia reaching to Th3-Th5, which differed significantly from low-level analgesia (Th12-L2, P < 0.03) when venous plasma was sampled from the leg. The urinary excretion averaged 1.13 l and 1.01 l for the spinal and control experiments, respectively. Volume kinetics predicted the urinary excretion at 5- to 10-min intervals with an overall bias of 52 ml.

    Conclusion:

    Acetated Ringer's solution showed the same kinetics during experimental spinal anaesthesia as when the fluid was infused alone. Hence, spinal anaesthesia is not associated with the reduced fluid clearance reported for general anaesthesia.

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  • 112.
    Halliday, T. A.
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hultin, M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wallden, J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Post-operative nausea and vomiting in bariatric surgery patients: an observational study2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing bariatric surgery is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of PONV and the use and effectiveness of PONV prophylaxis. Methods: This prospective observational study included 74 patients undergoing bariatric surgery with total intravenous anaesthesia. Patients were given PONV prophylaxis based on published guidelines and a simplified PONV risk score. Perioperative data were collected and a questionnaire was used at 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after the operation to evaluate PONV. Data are presented as risk (%) with the 95% confidence interval. Results: Sixty five per cent (54-75) of the patients experienced PONV in the first 24 post-operative hours and the risk increased with the number of risk factors for PONV. PONV occurred in 78% (66-87) of women and 26% (12-49) of men during the first 24 h. In relation to the guidelines, one patient received suboptimal PONV prophylaxis, 23% received optimal prophylaxis and 76% supra-optimal prophylaxis. The risk of PONV was 82% (59-94) with optimal prophylaxis and 59% (46-71) with supra-optimal prophylaxis. Of all patients, 34% (24-45) experienced severe PONV in the first 24 h that limited their activity. Conclusions: The incidence of PONV in bariatric surgery patients was high despite a PONV prophylaxis regime following current guidelines. These results cast doubt as to the effectiveness of the usual PONV prophylaxis in this patient group and point to the need for further investigation of PONV prophylaxis and treatment in bariatric surgery patients.

  • 113.
    Halliday, T. A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wallden, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Post-operative nausea and vomiting in bariatric surgery patients: an observational study2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing bariatric surgery is unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of PONV and the use and effectiveness of PONV prophylaxis.

    Methods: This prospective observational study included 74 patients undergoing bariatric surgery with total intravenous anaesthesia. Patients were given PONV prophylaxis based on published guidelines and a simplified PONV risk score. Perioperative data were collected and a questionnaire was used at 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after the operation to evaluate PONV. Data are presented as risk (%) with the 95% confidence interval.

    Results: Sixty five per cent (54-75) of the patients experienced PONV in the first 24 post-operative hours and the risk increased with the number of risk factors for PONV. PONV occurred in 78% (66-87) of women and 26% (12-49) of men during the first 24 h. In relation to the guidelines, one patient received suboptimal PONV prophylaxis, 23% received optimal prophylaxis and 76% supra-optimal prophylaxis. The risk of PONV was 82% (59-94) with optimal prophylaxis and 59% (46-71) with supra-optimal prophylaxis. Of all patients, 34% (24-45) experienced severe PONV in the first 24 h that limited their activity.

    Conclusions: The incidence of PONV in bariatric surgery patients was high despite a PONV prophylaxis regime following current guidelines. These results cast doubt as to the effectiveness of the usual PONV prophylaxis in this patient group and point to the need for further investigation of PONV prophylaxis and treatment in bariatric surgery patients.

  • 114.
    Hammarskjold, F.
    et al.
    Hammarskjöld, F., Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden, Ryhov County Hospital, 551 85 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wallen, G.
    Wallén, G., Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Malmvall, Bo-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases .
    Central venous catheter infections at a county hospital in Sweden: A prospective analysis of colonization, incidence of infection and risk factors2006In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 451-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Catheter-related infection (CRI) is one of the most serious complications of the use of central venous catheters (CVCs), with an incidence of 2-30/1000 days in different studies. No major prospective study has evaluated the rate of CRI in Scandinavia. Since 1999, we have had a thorough programme for the insertion and care of all CVCs used at our hospital and its outpatient clinics. The purpose of this survey was to study the incidence of catheter tip colonization and CRI and their risk factors, and to compare these data with previous non-Scandinavian studies. Methods: We studied prospectively 605 CVCs in 456 patients in relation to insertion data, patient and catheter characteristics, catheterization time and microbiological cultures. Risk factors were analysed by multivariate analysis. Results: Four hundred and ninety-five (82%) of all CVCs were assessed completely. The total catheterization time was 9010 days. The incidence of positive tip culture was 7.66/1000 days, and the predominant microorganism was coagulase-negative staphylococci. The incidence of CRI was 1.55/1000 days, and the only significant risk factor was the duration of catheterization with a relative risk of 1.009 per day [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.003-1.015]. Of the 14 cases with CRI, six were associated with candida species, and five of these were diagnosed in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: In comparison with non-Scandinavian studies, our practice of strict basic hygiene routines for CVC insertion and care is associated with a low incidence of CRI. However, there was a high proportion of candida species amongst these infections. The only risk factor for CRI was the duration of catheterization. © Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2006.

  • 115. Hammas, B
    et al.
    Thörn, S-E
    Wattwil, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology.
    Superior prolonged antiemetic prophylaxis with a four-drug multimodal regimen- comparison with propofol or placebo2002In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 46, p. 232-237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Burman, LG
    Cars, O
    Erlandsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordlinder, D
    Walther, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Low antibiotic resistance rates in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp but not in Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A prospective observational study in 14 Swedish ICUs over a 5-year period2007In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 937-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are hot zones for emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance because of frequent invasive procedures, antibiotic usage and transmission of bacteria. We report prospective data on antibiotic use and bacterial resistance from 14 academic and non-academic ICUs, participating in the ICU-STRAMA programme 1999-2003. Methods: The quantity of antibiotics delivered to each ICU was calculated as defined daily doses per 1000 occupied bed days (DDD1000). Specimens for culture were taken on clinical indications and only initial isolates were considered. Species-related breakpoints according to the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics were used. Antibiotic resistance was defined as the sum of intermediate and resistant strains. Results: Mean antibiotic use increased from 1245 DDD1000 in 1999 to 1510 DDD1000 in 2003 (P = 0.11 for trend). Of Staphylococcus aureus, 0-1.8% were methicillin resistant (MRSA). A presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was found in <2.4% of Escherichia coli, based on cefotaxime susceptibility, except a peak in 2002 (4.6%). Cefotaxime resistance was found in 2.6-4.9% of Klebsiella spp. Rates of resistance among Enterobacter spp. to cefotaxime (20-33%) and among Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem (22-33%) and ciprofloxacin (5-21%) showed no time trend. Conclusion: MRSA and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp strains were few despite high total antibiotic consumption. This may be the result of a slow introduction of resistant strains into the ICUs, and good infection control. The cause of imipenem and ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa could reflect the increased consumption of these agents plus spread of resistant clones. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 117.
    Haney, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    A'Roch, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Poelaert, Jan
    Biber, Björn
    Beat-to-beat change in myocardial performance index related to load2007In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 545-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the relationship of the "myocardial performance index" (MPI) to the beat-by-beat change in pre-load with static or unchanged contractile status.

    METHODS: Eight anesthetized juvenile pigs were studied using direct measurement of the left ventricular pressure and volume. Transient inflation of a vena cava balloon catheter produced controlled pre-load alterations. Consecutive beats were analyzed, grouped for first, second, third, etc. during the pre-load alteration, and evaluated for the change in MPI during the same contractile status with a controlled pre-load alteration. Two pharmacologic inotropic interventions were also included to generate several myocardial conditions in each animal.

    RESULTS: MPI demonstrated a strong linear relationship to the pre-load and after-load. MPI increased progressively during decreasing end-diastolic volume, mostly related to changes in ejection time. MPI was observed at the same level for three different myocardial function conditions (all eight animals), with a different relationship between MPI and pre-load noted for each observation.

    CONCLUSIONS: MPI is strongly load dependent, and can vary widely in value for the same contractile status if the load is varied. The use of this index in critically ill patients should be limited in this respect. Further work is needed to establish the relationship of MPI to load and contractile status.

  • 118.
    Haney, Michael F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Can heart rate variability become a screening tool for anesthesia-related hypotension?2007In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 1289-1291Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 119.
    Haney, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Häggmark, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Biber, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Heart-lung interactions during positive pressure ventilation: left ventricular pressure-volume momentary response to airway pressure elevation2001In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 702-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) pressure and volume changes are known to occur in response to positive airway pressure (PAP). We aimed to further describe the immediate LV response to increased PAP as demonstrated in successive heart cycles with LV pressure and volume alterations. We postulated that these acute systematic LV events during institution of PAP can follow a distinct pattern that would allow calculation of parameters of systolic function, including end-systolic elastance (Ees) and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW). We also aimed to examine the relationship of PAP-derived Ees and PRSW to the same parameters derived from vascular occlusion. METHODS: Eight anesthetized adult pigs were studied with invasive circulatory measurements including LV pressure and volume (conductance). The PAP intervention was an airway pressure plateau of 15 cm H2O for 6 s (APP). Venous occlusion was performed by transient balloon inflation in the inferior vena cava (IVCO). Ees and PRSW were derived for each APP and IVCO intervention. RESULTS: Central circulatory variables during APP and IVCO are reported. LV systolic function parameters could be derived from each of the heart-lung interactions during APP sequences. Ees and PRSW derived from APP showed a significant positive bias in relation to those derived from the IVCO sequence. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the heart-lung interactions during APP of the magnitude and duration shown here can allow derivation of Ees and PRSW. These parameters are not interchangeable with Ees and PRSW derived from IVCO.

  • 120.
    Haney, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Löfvenberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Optimize perioperative health and begin with insistence on pre-operative smoking cessation2014In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 133-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Hannemann, P
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht; The Netherlands; NUTRIM Institute, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Lassen, K
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsø, Norway .
    Hausel, J
    Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet and Center of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm.
    Nimmo, S
    Department of Anaesthesiology, School of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet and Center of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm.
    Nygren, J
    Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet and Center of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm.
    Soop, M
    Centre for Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet and Center of Gastrointestinal Disease, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm.
    Fearon, K
    Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences (Surgery), School of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Andersen, J
    Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Hvidovre, Denmark .
    Revhaug, A
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    von Meyenfeldt, M F
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht; The Netherlands; NUTRIM Institute, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Dejong, C H C
    Department of Surgery, University Hospital Maastricht; The Netherlands; NUTRIM Institute, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Spies, C
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Charite´ Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite´- University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries2006In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 1152-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For colorectal surgery, evidence suggests that optimal management includes: no pre-operative fasting, a thoracic epidural analgesia continued for 2 days post-operatively, and avoidance of fluid overload. In addition, no long-acting benzodiazepines on the day of surgery and use of short-acting anaesthetic medication may be beneficial. We examined whether these strategies have been adopted in five northern-European countries.

    Methods: In 2003, a questionnaire concerning peri-operative anaesthetic routines in elective, open colonic cancer resection was sent to the chief anaesthesiologist in 258 digestive surgical centres in Scotland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

    Results: The response rate was 74% (n = 191). Although periods of pre-operative fasting up to 48 h were reported, most (> 85%) responders in all countries declared to adhere to guidelines for pre-operative fasting and oral clear liquids were permitted until 2-3 h before anaesthesia. Solid food was permitted up to 6-8 h prior to anaesthesia. In all countries more than 85% of the responders indicated that epidural anaesthesia was routinely used. Except for Denmark, long-acting benzodiazepines were still widely used. Short-acting anaesthetics were used in all countries except Scotland where isoflurane is the anaesthetic of choice. With the exception of Denmark, intravenous fluids were used unrestrictedly.

    Conclusion: In northern Europe, most anaesthesiologists adhere to evidence-based optimal management strategies on pre-operative fasting, thoracic epidurals and short-acting anaesthetics. However, premedication with longer-acting agents is still common. Avoidance of fluid overload has not yet found its way into daily practice. This may leave patients undergoing elective colonic surgery at risk of oversedation and excessive fluid administration with potential adverse effects on surgical outcome.

  • 122.
    Hedenstierna, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Santesson, J
    Norlander, O
    Airway closure and distribution of inspired gas in the extremely obese, breathing spontaneously and during anaesthesia with intermittent positive pressure ventilation.1976In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 334-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airway closure (closing capacity, CC), FRC, total efficiency of ventilation (lung clearance index, LCI) and distribution of inspired gas (nitrogen washout declay percentage, NWOD) were determined by nitrogen washout techniques and arterial PO2and PCO2 measured by standard electrodes in 10 extremely obese subjects, prior to an during anaesthesia and artifical ventilation. CC was normal, but because of small FRC, airway closure occurred within a tidal breath in 9 out of 10 subjects during spontaneous breathing, when awake. PO2 was reduced, the hypoxaemia correlating to the magnitude of airway closure. LCI was normal, but NWOD was borderline. During anaesthesia, CC was unaltered by FRC was further reduced, so that in nine subjects sirway closure occurred above FRC and tidal volume together. A marked increase in relative hypoxaemia was recorded. LCI and NWOD rose, indicating less efficient and less even ventilation. It is concluded that airway closure reasonably explains the marked hypoxaemia in obese subjects during anaesthesia, and that it may also be the reason for the uneven distribution of inspired gas.

  • 123.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Nitric oxide and steroid: a good mix or not?2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Oxygen and anesthesia: what lung do we deliver to the post-operative ward?2012In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 675-685Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anesthesia is safe in most patients. However, anesthetics reduce functional residual capacity (FRC) and promote airway closure. Oxygen is breathed during the induction of anesthesia, and increased concentration of oxygen (O2) is given during the surgery to reduce the risk of hypoxemia. However, oxygen is rapidly adsorbed behind closed airways, causing lung collapse (atelectasis) and shunt. Atelectasis may be a locus for infection and may cause pneumonia. Measures to prevent atelectasis and possibly reduce post-operative pulmonary complications are based on moderate use of oxygen and preservation or restoration of FRC. Pre-oxygenation with 100% O2 causes atelectasis and should be followed by a recruitment maneuver (inflation to an airway pressure of 40 cm H2O for 10 s and to higher airway pressures in patients with reduced abdominal compliance (obese and patients with abdominal disorders). Pre-oxygenation with 80% O2 may be sufficient in most patients with no anticipated difficulty in managing the airway, but time to hypoxemia during apnea decreases from mean 7 to 5 min. An alternative, possibly challenging, procedure is induction of anesthesia with continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure to prevent fall in FRC enabling use of 100% O2. A continuous PEEP of 7–10 cm H2O may not necessarily improve oxygenation but should keep the lung open until the end of anesthesia. Inspired oxygen concentration of 30–40%, or even less, should suffice if the lung is kept open. The goal of the anesthetic regime should be to deliver a patient with no atelectasis to the post-operative ward and to keep the lung open.

  • 125.
    Hellevuo, H.
    et al.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland..
    Sainio, M.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland.;Univ Turku, Dept Emergency Med, Emergency Med Serv, Turku, Finland.;Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland..
    Huhtala, H.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Olkkola, K. T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Anaesthesiol Intens Care & Pain Med, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Tenhunen, Jyrki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hoppu, S.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Intens Care Med, POB 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland..
    Good quality of life before cardiac arrest predicts good quality of life after resuscitation2018In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 515-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The survival rate of cardiac arrest patients is increasing. Our aim was to compare the quality of life before and after cardiac arrest and analyse the factors associated with outcome.

    Methods. All adult cardiac arrest patients admitted to the Tampere University Hospital intensive care unit between 2009 and 2011 were included in a retrospective follow-up study if surviving to discharge and were asked to return a questionnaire after 6 months. Data on patient demographics and pre-arrest quality of life were retrieved from medical records. Data are given as means (SD) or medians [Q(1), Q(3)]. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with better quality of life after cardiac arrest.

    Results. Six months after cardiac arrest, 36% (79/222) were alive and 70% (55/79) of those patients completed the follow-up EuroQoL (EQ-5D) quality of life questionnaire. Median values for the EQ-5D before and after cardiac arrest were 0.89 [0.63, 1] and 0.89 [0.62, 1], respectively (P = 0.75). Only the EQ-5D prior to cardiac arrest was associated with better quality of life afterwards (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.3; P = 0.02).

    Conclusions. Quality of life remained good after cardiac arrest especially in those patients who had good quality of life before cardiac arrest.

  • 126. Hellevuo, H
    et al.
    Sainio, M
    Huhtala, H
    Olkkola, K T
    Tenhunen, Jyrki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hoppu, S
    The quality of manual chest compressions during transport: effect of the mattress assessed by dual accelerometers2014In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has an impact on survival. The quality may be impaired if the patient needs to be transported to the hospital with ongoing CPR. The aim of this study was to analyse whether the quality of CPR can be improved during transportation by using real-time audiovisual feedback. In addition, we sought to evaluate the real compression depths taking into account the mattress and stretcher effect.

    METHODS

    Paramedics (n = 24) performed standard CPR on a Resusci Anne Mannequin in a moving ambulance. Participants were instructed to perform CPR according to European Resuscitation Council Resuscitation guidelines 2010. Each pair acted as their own controls performing CPR first without and then with the feedback device. Compression depth, rate and no-flow fraction and also the mattress effect were recorded by using dual accelerometers by two Philips, HeartStart MRx Q-CPR defibrillators.

    RESULTS

    In the feedback phase, the mean compression depth increased from 51 (10) to 56 (5) mm (P < 0.001), and the percentage of compression fractions with adequate depth was 60% vs. 89% (P < 0.001). However, taking account of the mattress effect, the real depth was only 41 (8) vs. 44 (5) mm without and with feedback, respectively (P < 0.001). The values for compression rate did not differ.

    CONCLUSIONS

    CPR quality was good during transportation in general. However, the results suggest that the feedback system improves CPR quality. Dual accelerometer measurements show, on the other hand, that the mattress effect may be a clinically relevant impediment to high quality CPR.

  • 127.
    Henriksson, Otto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundgren, Peter J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Protection against cold: a survey of available equipment in Swedish pre-hospital services2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 1354-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to survey the current equipment used for prevention, treatment and monitoring of accidental hypothermia in Swedish pre-hospital services.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all road ambulance services (AS), the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS), the national helicopter search and rescue service (SAR) and the municipal rescue services (RS) in Sweden to determine the availability of insulation, active warming, fluid heating, and low-reading thermometers.

    Results: The response rate was 77% (n = 255). All units carried woollen or polyester blankets for basic insulation. Specific windproof insulation materials were common in the HEMS, SAR and RS units but only present in about half of the AS units. Active warming equipment was present in all the SAR units, but only in about two-thirds of the HEMS units and about one-third of the AS units. About half of the RS units had the ability to provide a heated tent or container. Low-reading thermometers were present in less than half of the AS and HEMS units and were non-existent in the SAR units. Pre-warmed intravenous fluids were carried by almost all of the AS units and half of the HEMS units but infusion heaters were absent in most units.

    Conclusion: Basic insulation capabilities are well established in the Swedish pre-hospital services. Specific wind and waterproof insulation materials, active warming devices, low-reading thermometers and IV fluid heating systems are less common. We suggest the development and implementation of national guidelines on accidental hypothermia that include basic recommendations on equipment requirements.

  • 128.
    Holmér Pettersson, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Division of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm.
    Anjou Lindskog, Elisabet
    Öwall, Anders
    Patient-controlled versus nurse-controlled pain treatment after coronary artery bypass surgery2000In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 43-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain after coronary artery bypass surgery persists for several days. A continuous intravenous infusion of an opioid adequately accomplishes good pain control in the intensive care unit, but it is often not suitable on the ordinary ward. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intermittent injections delivered by one of the new devices now available could be an alternative to conventional nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) based on intermittent injections. The aim was to compare these two techniques with respect to efficacy and the amount of opioid used.

    Methods: Forty-eight patients randomly received PCA or NCA with ketobemidone following extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Drug consumption, pain assessment with the visual analogue score (VAS) and possible side effects were evaluated from extubation to the end of the second postoperative day.

    Results: On the day of surgery the VAS scores did not differ between the groups. From the afternoon of the first postoperative day the VAS scores were higher in the NCA group with mean values at 3–4 out of 10 as compared with mean values around 2 in the PCA group (P<0.01). During the study period the patients in the PCA group received more ketobemidone as compared with the NCA group, 61.9±24.0 mg and 36.3±20.2 mg, respectively (P<0.01). Additional oral analgesics were used in 12 of the patients in the NCA group compared with none in the PCA group. The few side effects reported were equally distributed between the two groups.

    Conclusion: PCA treatment after coronary artery bypass surgery resulted in better pain treatment and the use of more opioid without an increase in side effects compared with traditional NCA treatment.

  • 129.
    Holmér Pettersson, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anaesthesiology Karolinska University Hospital Solna S-171 76 Stockholm.
    Jakobsson, Jan
    Öwall, Anders
    Plasma concentrations following repeated rectal or intravenous administration of paracetamol after heart surgery2006In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Paracetamol is commonly used for post-operative pain management in combination with more potent analgesics. The best route of paracetamol administration after major surgery, when oral intake may not be optimal, is not known. Our primary purpose was to study plasma concentrations after the 1st and 4th dose of 1 g of paracetamol given either rectally or intravenously (i.v.) after major surgery.

    Methods:  In this prospective, randomized study, 48 patients undergoing heart surgery were randomized upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU) to receive paracetamol every 6th hour either as suppositories or intravenous injections. In half the patients (n= 24), blood samples for paracetamol concentration were obtained before and 20, 40 and 80 min after the first dose. In the other patients (n= 24), additional samples were taken prior to, and at 20, 40, 80 min and 4 and 6 h after, the 4th dose.

    Results:  Plasma paracetamol concentration peaked (95 ± 36 μmol/l) within 40 min after initial i.v. administration but did not increase within 80 min after the 1st suppository. Plasma concentration before the 4th dose was 74 ± 51 and 50 ± 27 in the rectal and i.v. groups, respectively. Paracetamol concentration peaked 20 min after the 4th dose for the i.v. patients (210 ± 84 μmol/l) and declined to 99 ± 27 μmol/l at 80 min as compared with the rectal patients 69 ± 44 to 77 ± 48 μmol/l.

    Conclusion:  Both time course and peak plasma concentrations of paracetamol given rectally differ from the one seen after intravenous administration. The clinical impact of these differences needs further investigation.

  • 130.
    Holmér Pettersson, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesiology Karolinska University Hospital S-171 76 Stockholm.
    Öwall, Anders
    Jakobsson, Jan
    Early bioavailability of paracetamol after oral or intravenous administration2004In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, ISSN 0001-5172, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 867-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Paracetamol is a peripherally acting analgesic commonly used in multimodal post-operative pain management to reduce the need for more potent analgesics with their unwanted side-effects. The dose and optimal galenical form for achieving analgesic concentrations is not well defined. The primary aim of this pilot project was to study the early bioavailability for two fixed doses of orally administrated paracetamol and one dose of intravenous propacetamol, all of which were given after minor surgery.

    Methods:  Thirty-five patients undergoing day surgery were divided into five groups, seven patients each. Groups received either 1 g of an ordinary paracetamol tablet, 2 g of an ordinary paracetamol tablet, 1 g of a bicarbonate paracetamol tablet, 2 g of a bicarbonate paracetamol tablet or 2 g intravenously of prodrug propacetamol. We studied the plasma concentration of paracetamol during the first 80 min after administration.

    Results:  Within 40 min, intravenous propacetamol gave a median plasma paracetamol concentration of 85 µmol/l (range 65–161) and decreased thereafter. After oral administration, median plasma paracetamol concentration increased with increasing dose and time, but there were huge inter-individual differences at all time points studied. At 80 min after oral paracetamol the median plasma concentrations were 36 and 129 µmol/l for the 1- and 2-g groups, respectively, with an overall range between 0 and 306 µmol/l.

    Conclusion:  Oral administration of paracetamol as part of multimodal pain management immediately post-operatively resulted in a huge and unpredictable variation in plasma concentration compared with the intravenous administration.

  • 131.
    Horst, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Kawati, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Rasmusson, J
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Gävle County Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Pikwer, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Castegren, M
    Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital and CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lipcsey, Miklós
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Impact of resuscitation fluid bag size availability on volume of fluid administration in the intensive care unit2018In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 1261-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic fluid overload is associated with increased mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Decisions on fluid therapy may, at times, be based on other factors than physiological endpoints. We hypothesized that because of psychological factors volume of available fluid bags would affect the amount of resuscitation fluid administered to ICU patients.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective intervention cross-over study at 3 Swedish ICUs by replacing the standard resuscitation fluid bag of Ringer's Acetate 1000 mL with 500 mL bags (intervention group) for 5 separate months and then compared it with the standard bag size for 5 months (control group). Primary endpoint was the amount of Ringer's Acetate per patient during ICU stay. Secondary endpoints were differences between the groups in cumulative fluid balance and change in body weight, hemoglobin and creatinine levels, urine output, acute kidney failure (measured as the need for renal replacement therapy, RRT) and 90-day mortality.

    RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-five ICU patients were included (291 in the intervention group, 344 in the control group). There was no difference in the amount of resuscitation fluid per patient during the ICU stay (2200 mL [1000-4500 median IQR] vs 2245 mL [1000-5630 median IQR]), RRT rate (11 vs 9%), 90-day mortality (11 vs 10%) or total fluid balance between the groups. The daily amount of Ringer's acetate administered per day was lower in the intervention group (1040 (280-2000) vs 1520 (460-3000) mL; P = .03).

    CONCLUSIONS: The amount of resuscitation fluid administered to ICU patients was not affected by the size of the available fluid bags. However, altering fluid bag size could have influenced fluid prescription behavior.

  • 132.
    Hultström, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    In-common molecular pathway for six different etiologies of acute kidney injury2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1041-1041Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Hylén, Mia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Åkerman, Eva
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Alm-Roijer, Carin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Idvall, Ewa
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Behavioral Pain Scale - translation, reliability, and validity in a Swedish context2016In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 821-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessing pain in the intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging. Due to intubation and sedation, communication can be limited. International guidelines recommend assessing pain with instruments based on behavioral parameters when critically ill patients are unable to self-report their pain level. One of the recommended instruments, the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS), has shown good validity and reliability in international studies. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the BPS for critically ill intubated and non-intubated patients in a Swedish ICU context and to assess inter-rater reliability and discriminant validity. Methods: The BPS (both for intubated and non-intubated patients) was translated and adapted into Swedish using a translation method consisting of ten steps. The Swedish version was then tested for inter-rater reliability and discriminant validity on 20 critically ill patients (10 intubated and 10 non-intubated) before and directly after a potentially painful procedure (repositioning Results: The Swedish version of the BPS showed inter-rater reliability with a percentage agreement of 85% when tested on a sample of critically ill patients. The instrument also showed discriminant validity between assessments at rest and after repositioning Conclusion: Results of the Swedish version of the BPS support its use in critically ill patients who cannot self-report their pain level. Still, additional studies are needed to further explore its reliability and validity in the Swedish ICU context

  • 134.
    Häggmark, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Haney, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Reiz, Sebastian
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Contributions of myocardial ischemia and heart rate to ST segment changes in patients with or without coronary artery disease.2008In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: ST changes related to ischemia at different heart rates (HRs) have not been well described. We aimed to analyze ST dynamic changes by vectorcardiography (VCG) during pacing-induced HR changes for subjects with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) and without (non-CAD). METHODS: Symptomatic CAD patients scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled along with a non-CAD group. During anesthesia, both groups were placed at multiple ascending levels. VCG ST data, and in particular in ST change vector magnitude (STC-VM) from baseline, along with arterial and great coronary artery vein (GCV) blood samples were collected to determine regional myocardial lactate production. RESULTS: A total of 35 CAD and 10 non-CAD patients were studied over six incremental 10 beat/min HR increases. STC-VM mean levels increased in the CAD group from 9+/-5 to 131+/-37 microV (standard deviation) compared with non-CAD subjects with 8+/-3-76+/-34 microV. Myocardial ischemia (lactate production) was noted at higher HRs and the positive predictive value for STC-VM to detect ischemia was 58% with the negative predictive value being 88%. STC-VM at 54 microV showed a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 75% for identification of ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: Both HR and ischemia at higher HRs contribute to VCG ST elevation. Established ST ischemia detection concerning HR levels is suboptimal, and further attention to the effects of HR on ST segments is needed to improve electrocardiographic ischemia criteria.

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  • 135.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Engström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Intensive buffering can keep pH above 7.2 for over 4 h during apnea: an experimental porcine study2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Ventilation with low tidal volumes reduces mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A further reduction of tidal volumes might be beneficial, and it is known that apneic oxygenation (no tidal volumes) with arteriovenous CO(2) removal can keep acid-base balance and oxygenation normal for at least 7 h in an acute lung injury model. We hypothesized that adequate buffering might be another approach and tested whether tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM) alone could keep pH at a physiological level during apneic oxygenation for 4 h.

    METHODS:

    Six pigs were anesthetized, muscle relaxed, and normoventilated. The lungs were recruited, and apneic oxygenation as well as administration of THAM, 20 mmol/kg/h, was initiated. The experiment ended after 270 min, except one that was studied for 6 h.

    RESULTS:

    Two animals died before the end of the experiment. Arterial pH and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2) ) changed from 7.5 (7.5, 7.5) to 7.3 (7.2, 7.3) kPa, P < 0.001 at 270 min, and from 4.5 (4.3, 4.7) to 25 (22, 28) kPa, P < 0.001, respectively. Base excess increased from 5 (3, 6) to 54 (51, 57) mM, P < 0.001. Cardiac output and arterial pressure were well maintained. The pig, which was studied for 6 h, had pH 7.27 and PaCO(2) 27 kPa at that time.

    CONCLUSION:

    With intensive buffering using THAM, pH can be kept in a physiologically acceptable range for 4 h during apnea.

  • 136.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Engström, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Sellgren, Fredrik
    Hedenstierna, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Non-toxic alveolar oxygen concentration without hypoxemia during apnoeic oxygenation: an experimental study2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 1078-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxygenation without tidal breathing, i.e. apnoeic oxygenation in combination with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, might be an option in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. However, ventilation with 100% O(2), which is potentially toxic, is considered a prerequisite to ensure acceptable oxygenation. We hypothesized that trapping nitrogen (N(2)) in the lungs before the start of apnoeic oxygenation would keep the alveolar O(2) at a non-toxic level and still maintain normoxaemia. The aim was to test whether a predicted N(2) concentration would agree with a measured concentration at the end of an apnoeic period. Methods: Seven anaesthetized, muscle relaxed, endotracheally intubated pigs (22-27 kg) were ventilated in a randomized order with an inspired fraction of O(2) 0.6 and 0.8 at two positive end-expiratory pressure levels (5 cm and 10 cm H(2)O) before being connected to continuous positive airway pressure using 100% O(2) for apnoeic oxygenation. N(2) was measured before the start of and at the end of the 10-min apnoeic period. The predicted N(2) concentration was calculated from the initial N(2) concentration, the end-expiratory lung volume, and the anatomical dead space. Results: The mean difference and standard deviation between measured and predicted N(2) concentration was -0.5 +/- 2%, P = 0.587. No significant difference in the agreement between measured and predicted N(2) concentrations was seen in the four settings. Conclusions: This study indicates that it is possible to predict and keep alveolar N(2) concentration at a desired level and, thus, alveolar O(2) concentration at a non-toxic level during apnoeic oxygenation.

  • 137.
    Höstman, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    Kawati, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Perchiazzi, Gaetano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Hedenstierna laboratory.
    THAM administration reduces pulmonary carbon dioxide elimination in hypercapnia: an experimental porcine study2018In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 820-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a previous study, we found a rebound of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) after stopping THAM buffer administration. We hypothesized that this was due to reduced pulmonary CO2 elimination during THAM administration. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis in an experimental porcine hypercapnic model.

    Methods: In seven, initially normoventilated, anesthetized pigs (22-27 kg) minute ventilation was reduced by 66% for 7 h. Two hours after commencing hypoventilation, THAM was infused IV for 3 h in a dose targeting a pH of 7.35 followed by a 2 h observation period. Acid-base status, blood-gas content and exhaled CO2 were measured.

    Results: THAM raised pH (7.07 0.04 to 7.41 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05) and lowered PaCO2 (15.2 +/- 1.4 to 12.2 +/- 1.1 kPa, P < 0.05). After the infusion, pH decreased and PaCO2 increased again. At the end of the observation period, pH and PaCO2 were 7.24 +/- 0.03 and 16.6 +/- 1.2 kPa, respectively (P < 0.05). Pulmonary CO2 excretion decreased from 109 +/- 12 to 74 +/- 12 ml/min (P < 0.05) during the THAM infusion but returned at the end of the observation period to 111 +/- 15 ml/min (P < 0.05). The estimated reduction of pulmonary CO2 elimination during the infusion was 5800 ml.

    Conclusions: In this respiratory acidosis model, THAM reduced PaCO2, but seemed not to increase the total CO2 elimination due to decreased pulmonary CO2 excretion(,) suggesting only cautious use of THAM in hypercapnic acidosis.

  • 138.
    Idvall, Ewa
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berg, Katarina
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care and Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital.
    Assessment of recovery after day surgery using a modified version of quality of recovery-402009In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Idvall, Ewa
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Care Science (VV).
    Berg, Katarina
    Unosson, Mitra
    Brudin, Lars
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Assessment of recovery after day surgery using a modified version of Quality of Recovery-402009In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Idvall, Ewa
    et al.
    Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden; 2 Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berg, Katarina
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden; 2 Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica G.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care,University Hospital, Örebro,Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Assessment of recovery after day surgery using a modified version of quality of recovery-402009In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent nationwide survey in Sweden found that day surgery accounts for 43% of all in-hospital procedures.1 Orthopaedic, general, and gynaecological procedures were the most common. About 40% of the day surgery units followed up with telephone calls within 1–2 days, and found pain to be the most common complaint. Quality of recovery had not been systematically evaluated with instruments tested for validity and reliability, and follow-ups beyond 2 days post-operative were not found.

    Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40)2,3 is a 40-item instrument to assess the quality of post-operative recovery. The instrument is divided into five dimensions; emotional state, physical comfort, psychological support, physical independence, and pain. These dimensions represent aspects of good-quality recovery after anaesthesia and surgery. QoR-40 has been used for patients undergoing different surgical procedures and tests for validity and reliability yielded initial support for the instrument. Myles et al.3 concluded that QoR-40 would be a useful outcome measure to assess the impact of changes in health care delivery on quality of care, but anaesthesia and surgery studies have rarely used this approach. Although QoR-40 has not been used exclusively for day surgery patients, some day surgery patients were included when the instrument was developed.2,3 Another study on day surgery patients4 used eight items from QoR-40 relevant to that study. In a systematic review of post-operative recovery outcomes measurements after ambulatory surgery, the QoR-40 was the only instrument that fulfilled the criteria that were set up but was not specifically designed for day surgery and anaesthesia.5 Another systematic review from 2008 also advises to use the QoR-40 in future validation and application studies.6 Day surgery is increasing, and it is important to measure the quality of care and the impact of change. When using an instrument such as QoR-40, each item must be carefully considered for the purpose and context it will be used in, especially when it differs from the original context, both concerning cultural differences between countries and the type of surgical procedure used. Therefore, our study created and used a modified version of the QoR-40 to measure the quality of recovery in day surgery patients. The study aimed to test this modified version in a Swedish context for day surgery patients, to assess the quality of recovery on days 1, 7, and 14 post-operative.

  • 141.
    Jacobson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Primary sepsis in a university hospital in northern Sweden: a retrospective study2004In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 960-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis and septic shock are associated with high mortality rates. Data on sepsis outcome from Scandinavian countries are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the length of stay (LOS) in the ICU, ICU mortality and costs of care for adult patients with primary sepsis in a university hospital in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: We performed a retrospective data analysis of records of 92 patients admitted over a 3-year period, under the diagnosis of sepsis or urosepsis. Demographic data, admission category, APACHE II score, aetiology and severity of sepsis, ICU LOS, mortality and TISS were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Eighty-one adult patients were identified by standard definitions as suffering from sepsis. The median ICU length of stay was 4.2 days, 6 days for survivors and 2.1 days for non-survivors. Thirteen out of 20 deaths occurred within the first 3 days after admission. Overall ICU mortality rate was 24.7% while the ICU mortality for patients with septic shock was 57.7%. The mean costs of care for patients with sepsis were 3139 Euros day(-1) and the cost of care per patient surviving sepsis was 38,494 Euros.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of primary sepsis in our ICU was low. Previous reports on high mortality in association with severe sepsis and septic shock are valid also at our hospital. The ICU-LOS was shorter than previously reported, while our costs of care were in the same range as stated by others. This retrospective analysis is valid for interpretation of the applicability of currently available sepsis therapies.

  • 142.
    Jaensson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gupta, Anil
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Centre of Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gender differences in risk factors for airway symptoms following tracheal intubation2012In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1306-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A common complaint after endotracheal intubation is sore throat and hoarseness. The aim of this study was to describe gender differences and independent risk factors in the development of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after endotracheal intubation in adults.

    Methods: This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Sweden. A total of 495 patients were included (203 men and 292 women) and enrolled from a total of eight different surgical departments. Outcome variables were post-operative sore throat and hoarseness evaluated post-operatively in the post-anaesthesia care unit. A total of 31 variables were recorded which described the intubation process, intraoperative factors as well as the extubation process. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

    Results: The overall incidence of post-operative sore throat was 35% and hoarseness 59%. The results show different predictors for men and women in the development of airway symptoms. The main risk factor for developing sore throat in men was intubation by personnel with <?3 months' work experience. In women, it was endotracheal tube size 7.0 and multiple laryngoscopies during intubation. The main risk factors for hoarseness were cuff pressure for both men and women, and oesophageal temperature probe in women.

    Conclusion: Post-operative sore throat and hoarseness result from several factors, and the cause of these symptoms are multifactorial and differs by gender. Identification of these factors pre-operatively may increase awareness among anaesthesia personnel and possibly reduce the incidence of these minor but distressing symptoms.

  • 143.
    Jaensson, Maria
    et al.
    Hälsoakademin, Örebro Universitet, och Anestesikliniken Örebro Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro .
    Lassinanti -Olowsson, Lena
    Hälsoakademin, Örebro Universitet, och Anestesikliniken Örebro Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Endotracheal tube size and sore throat following surgery: a randomized, controlled study2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sore throat following endotracheal intubation is a common problem following surgery and one of the factors that affects the quality of recovery. This study was carried out with the primary aim of assessing whether the size of the endotracheal tube (ETT) affects the risk of sore throat in women following anaesthesia.

    Methods: One hundred healthy adult women undergoing elective surgery were randomly allocated to oral intubation with either ETT size 6.0 or 7.0. Anaesthesia was based on either inhalation or total intravenous anaesthesia according to standardized routines. Pre- and post-operatively, sore throat and discomfort were assessed on a four-graded scale and for hoarseness on a binary scale (yes or no). Post-operatively, the assessments were performed after 1–2 and 24 h, and if there was discomfort at 24 h, a follow-up call was made at 72 and 96 h.

    Results: After 1–2 h post-operatively, there were a higher proportion of patients with sore throat in ETT 7.0 vs. ETT 6.0 (51.1% vs. 27.1%), P=0.006. This difference between the groups was also evident, P=0.002, when comparing changes between the pre- and the post-operative values. The severity of discomfort from sore throat was also higher in ETT 7.0 (38.8%) compared with ETT 6.0 (18.8%), P=0.02. No differences were found in the incidence of hoarseness between the groups. The remaining symptoms lasted up to 96 h post-operatively in 11%, irrespective of the tube size.

    Conclusion: Use of a smaller-sized ETT can alleviate sore throat and discomfort in women at the post-anaesthesia care unit.

  • 144.
    Jaensson, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olowsson, Lena L.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    NIlsson, Ulrica G.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Endotracheal tube size and sore throat following surgery: a randomized-controlled study2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sore throat following endotracheal intubation is a common problem following surgery and one of the factors that affects the quality of recovery. This study was carried out with the primary aim of assessing whether the size of the endotracheal tube (ETT) affects the risk of sore throat in women following anaesthesia.

    Methods: One hundred healthy adult women undergoing elective surgery were randomly allocated to oral intubation with either ETT size 6.0 or 7.0. Anaesthesia was based on either inhalation or total intravenous anaesthesia according to standardized routines. Pre- and post-operatively, sore throat and discomfort were assessed on a four-graded scale and for hoarseness on a binary scale (yes or no). Post-operatively, the assessments were performed after 1–2 and 24 h, and if there was discomfort at 24 h, a follow-up call was made at 72 and 96 h.

    Results: After 1–2 h post-operatively, there were a higher proportion of patients with sore throat in ETT 7.0 vs. ETT 6.0 (51.1% vs. 27.1%), P50.006. This difference between the groups was also evident, P50.002, when comparing changes between the pre- and the post-operative values. The severity of discomfort from sore throat was also higher in ETT 7.0 (38.8%) compared with ETT 6.0 (18.8%), P 50.02. No differences were found in the incidence of hoarseness between the groups. The remaining symptoms lasted up to 96 h post-operatively in 11%, irrespective of the tube size.

    Conclusion:Use of a smaller-sized ETT can alleviate sore throat and discomfort in women at the post-anaesthesia care unit.

  • 145.
    Jawad, Monir
    et al.
    Cent Hosp Kristianstad, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Baigi, Amir
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Chew, Michelle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA).
    Exposure to surgery is associated with better long-term outcomes in patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units2020In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Long-term outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) after surgery are unknown. We investigated the long-term effects of surgical exposure prior to ICU admission. Methods Registry-based cohort study. The adjusted effect of surgical exposure for mortality was examined using Cox regression. Secondary analysis with conditional logistic regression in a case-control subpopulation matched for age, gender, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS3) was also conducted. Results 72 242 adult patients (56.9% males, median age 66 years [IQR 50-76]), admitted to Swedish ICUs in 3-year (2012-2014) were followed for a median of 2026 days (IQR 1745-2293). Cardiovascular diseases (17.5%), respiratory diseases (15.8%), trauma (11.2%), and infections (11.4%) were the leading causes for ICU admission. Mortality at longest follow-up was 49.4%. Age; SAPS3; admissions due to malignancies, respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases; and transfer to another ICU were associated with increased mortality. Surgical exposure prior to ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.90; 95% CI 0.87-0.94; P &lt; .001), admissions from the operation theatre (aHR 0.94; CI 0.90-0.99; P = .022) or post-anaesthesia care unit (aHR 0.92; CI 0.87-0.97; P = .003) were associated with decreased mortality. Conditional logistic regression confirmed the association between surgical exposure and decreased mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.82; CI 0.75-0.91; P &lt; .001). Conclusions Long-term ICU mortality was associated with known risk factors such as age and SAPS3. Transfer to other ICUs also appeared to be a risk factor and requires further investigation. Prior surgical exposure was associated with better outcomes, a noteworthy observation given limited ICU admissions after surgery in Sweden.

  • 146.
    Jersenius, Ulf
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fors, Diddi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Arvidsson, Dag
    Karolinska institutet.
    The effects of experimental venous carbon dioxide embolization on hemodynamic and respiratory variables2006In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Laparoscopic liver resection is a relatively new surgical procedure. Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum and laparoscopic liver dissection are recognized as risk factors for CO2 embolism to the pulmonary circulation. The embolization can be difficult to detect and can theoretically increase peri-operative morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects in a pig model during a time period of 4 h after an experimental CO2 embolization.

    Methods:  Eleven piglets were anesthesized. Nine were embolized with a single intravenous injection of 0.4 ml/kg CO2 and two served as controls. Respiratory and cardiovascular variables, including pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output, were monitored for 4 h after embolization, and arterial blood gases were monitored on-line.

    Results:  The embolized piglets had an increase in ventilatory dead space, pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure and a decrease in cardiac output that lasted throughout the 4-h observation time. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unchanged. An early sign of embolization was a rapid fall in end-tidal CO2 and Pao2 and a rise in Paco2.

    Conclusion:  Negative changes in cardiopulmonary physiology persisted for at least 4 h after a single intravenous CO2 injection, in spite of this gas being highly soluble in blood. This is a more prolonged influence of CO2 embolization than previously described. Extensive monitoring for early detection of an embolization may be recommended to limit morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic liver surgery.

  • 147.
    Johansson, J
    et al.
    Ostersund Hospital, Sweden .
    Brattstrom, O
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Lindbom, L
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Herwald, H
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Weitzberg, E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Oldner, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Heparin-binding protein (HBP): an early marker of respiratory failure after trauma?2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 580-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Trauma and its complications contribute to morbidity and mortality in the general population. Trauma victims are susceptible to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) are activated after trauma and there is substantial evidence of their involvement in the development of ARDS. Activated PMNs release heparin-binding protein (HBP), a granule protein previously shown to be involved in acute inflammatory reactions. We hypothesised that there is an increase in plasma HBP content after trauma and that the increased levels are related to the severity of the trauma or later development of severe sepsis and organ failure (ARDS). Methods and Material We investigated HBP in plasma samples within 36h from trauma in 47 patients admitted to a level one trauma centre with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 26 (2134). ISS, admission sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were recorded at admission. ARDS and presence of severe sepsis were determined daily during intensive care. Results We found no correlation between individual maximal plasma HBP levels at admission and ISS, admission SOFA or APACHE II. We found, however, a correlation between HBP levels and development of ARDS (P=0.026, n=47), but not to severe sepsis. Conclusion HBP is a potential biomarker candidate for early detection of ARDS development after trauma. Further research is required to confirm a casual relationship between plasma HBP and the development of ARDS.

  • 148.
    Johansson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hammerby, Rutger
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Gedeborg, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Adrenaline administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: poor adherence to clinical guidelines2004In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 909-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adrenaline does not appear to improve the outcome after cardiac arrest in clinical trials in spite of beneficial effects in experimental studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenaline was administered in accordance with advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: From 15 January to 31 December 2000, all patients at Uppsala University Hospital in whom CPR was attempted were registered prospectively. The duration of CPR was documented in the register and the total dose of adrenaline was retrieved retrospectively from patient records. From these data the average interval between adrenaline doses was calculated. RESULTS: Data for evaluation of the between-dose interval of adrenaline was available in 53 of 107 registered cardiac arrests. In 68% (36/53) the average between-dose interval was longer than the 3-5 min recommended in the guidelines, and 8% (4/53) received no adrenaline. The median interval between adrenaline doses during CPR was 6.5 min (25th-75th percentile: 5.1-10.4). Adherence to guidelines was lower in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest than in in-hospital cardiac arrest (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of cases adrenaline did not appear to be administered according to current ACLS guidelines.

  • 149.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brattström, O
    Sjöberg, F
    Lindbom, L
    Herwald, H
    Weitzberg, E
    Oldner, A
    Heparin-binding protein (HBP): an early marker of respiratory failure after trauma?2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 580-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trauma and its complications contribute to morbidity and mortality in the general population. Trauma victims are susceptible to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) are activated after trauma and there is substantial evidence of their involvement in the development of ARDS. Activated PMNs release heparin-binding protein (HBP), a granule protein previously shown to be involved in acute inflammatory reactions. We hypothesised that there is an increase in plasma HBP content after trauma and that the increased levels are related to the severity of the trauma or later development of severe sepsis and organ failure (ARDS).

    METHODS AND MATERIAL: We investigated HBP in plasma samples within 36 h from trauma in 47 patients admitted to a level one trauma centre with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 26 (21-34). ISS, admission sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were recorded at admission. ARDS and presence of severe sepsis were determined daily during intensive care.

    RESULTS: We found no correlation between individual maximal plasma HBP levels at admission and ISS, admission SOFA or APACHE II. We found, however, a correlation between HBP levels and development of ARDS (P = 0.026, n = 47), but not to severe sepsis.

    CONCLUSION: HBP is a potential biomarker candidate for early detection of ARDS development after trauma. Further research is required to confirm a casual relationship between plasma HBP and the development of ARDS.

  • 150.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lindahl, M.
    Gyllencreutz, E.
    Hahn, R. G.
    Symptomatic absorption of isotonic saline during transcervical endometrial resection2017In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 121-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of irrigating fluid is a well-known complication of endoscopic surgeries, such as transurethral resection of the prostate and transcervical endometrial resection (TCER). Irrigating fluid is used to distend the hollow organ and allows the surgeon to visualize the operating field. Traditional monopolar diathermy requires irrigating fluid to be electrolyte free, which is unphysiological and therefore elicits various symptoms when absorbed.(1-4) In recent years, endoscopic resections have often been conducted with a bipolar resectoscope, which allows crystalloid fluid to be used for irrigation. The symptoms, hemodynamic effects, and biochemical changes that arise from rapid inadvertent overload of crystalloid fluid in clinical settings are not as well known as those due to overload of electrolyte-free fluid. Further, current guidelines may be interpreted as that 2500-ml resorption of saline could be accepted.(5) Therefore, we describe two patients who absorbed isotonic saline during TCERs performed under general anesthesia. The second one (case B) probably was further complicated by a venous gas embolus.

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