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  • 101. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laseen, Stefan
    Linde, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; NBER, United States.
    Monetary policy trade-offs in an estimated open-economy DSGE model2014In: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 42, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the trade-offs between stabilizing CPI inflation and alternative measures of the output gap in Ramses, the Riksbank's estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model of a small open economy. Our main finding is that the trade-off between stabilizing CPI inflation and the output gap strongly depends on which concept of potential output in the output gap between output and potential output is used in the loss function. If potential output is defined as a smooth trend this trade-off is much more pronounced compared to the case when potential output is defined as the output level that would prevail if prices and wages were flexible.

  • 102. Adolfson, Malin
    et al.
    Laséen, Stefan
    Lindé, Jesper
    Svensson, Lars E. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Optimal Money Policy in an Operational Medium-Sized DSGE Model2011In: Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, ISSN 0022-2879, E-ISSN 1538-4616, Vol. 43, p. 1287-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how to construct optimal policy projections in Ramses, the Riksbank's open-economy medium-sized dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model for forecasting and policy analysis. Bayesian estimation of the parameters of the model indicates that they are relatively invariant to alternative policy assumptions and supports our view that the model parameters may be regarded as unaffected by the monetary policy specification. We discuss how monetary policy, and in particular the choice of output gap measure, affects the transmission of shocks. Finally, we use the model to assess the recent Great Recession in the world economy and how its impact on the economic development in Sweden depends on the conduct of monetary policy. This provides an illustration on how Rames incoporates large international spillover effects.

  • 103.
    Adolfsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Export of Pharmaceutical Products: An analysis of which factors that affects Sweden’s export of pharmaceutical products2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of Sweden’s most important export industries with 6% of total exports. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse which factors affect Sweden’s ex-port of pharmaceutical products. Further, the different pharmaceutical products group Sweden exports will be identified. The modern trade theory, the monopolistic competition model, the product life cycle theory and the gravity equation are used to explain and to un-derstand the problem at hand.

    To analyse the problem, data of Swedish export of pharmaceutical products from 1997 to 2003 was used to the 176 destination countries Sweden exported to during the time period. The following factors were used as independent variables; distance, Gross Domestic Prod-uct (GDP) /capita, Area, Population, dummy variable for EU-membership, dummy vari-able for English or Scandinavian speaking countries, dummy variable for bordering to Sweden, dummy variable for same religion as Sweden and a dummy variable for countries that are not land-locked.

    The findings coincide with previous studies in the manner that distance and GDP/capita have a major impact on the sales abroad of pharmaceutical products. Also, countries with a larger population are importing more than countries with a smaller population. However, the strong affinities between the exporter and the importing countries found in previous studies were not found in the export of pharmaceutical products. Further, Sweden exports most of the product group that includes medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses.

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  • 104.
    Adolfsson, Per
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Stockholms trängselskatter och hur de påverkat räddningstjänstens körtider i Stockholms kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 105.
    Adolfsson, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Christensson, Jon
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Equity funds - and the Relationship between Return and Administration Fees2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of investmentfunds have dramatically increased in the last years and so have the interest in funds. 94% of the Swedish population between 18-74 years are investing in some kind of mutual fund. In 2005 the total fund capital was approximately 1.4 billion SEK. That makes this an important topic to investigate further.

    Therefore this thesis purpose is to analyse if there is any relationship between administrationfees, returns, the risk-adjusted performances. Furthermore, does the performance of the Swedish mutual funds differ dependent on whether they are managed by banks or if they are listed as Premiepensionsmyndigheten (PPM) funds, or run by other mutual fund companies?

    To analyse the problem a panel least square regression was used. The population consisted of 63 Swedish mutual equity funds over 20 quarters. Dummy variables were used to separate the banks- and PPM funds from the total population.

    The findings are mixed compared to previous research. There seem to be no relationship between the return, the risk-adjusted return and the administration fee. This indicates that the fund companies do not set their administration fee based on the expected return.

    However, a negative relationship was found between the market-adjusted return and administration fee.

    In general, the banks, on average, outperformed, the mutual fund companies that were not bank and/or PPM funds, in return, risk-adjusted return and market-adjusted return. Further, the funds with some additional fee had the on average second lowest efficiency in terms of return on the market.

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  • 106.
    Adolfsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Aktieindexobligationer: Värdering med hjälp av Monte Carlo-simulering2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 108.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What drives the energy saving role of FDI and industrialization in East Africa?2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 925-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the unconditional impacts of foreign direct inflows (FDIs) and industrialization on energy intensity does not show the hidden roles of some economic conditions such as income and trade openness. In this study, we focused on the conditional impacts of FDIs and industrialization on energy productivity using a panel data consisting of thirteen (13) East African countries covering 1980–2011. The baseline result shows that higher income and a well-integrated economy are pro-energy productive, but FDIs and intense industrialization are anti-energy productive in the sub-region. This result remains robust even when we exclude the high income group and control for income group effects. Income significantly promotes energy productivity more in low income group than middle income group. Intense industrialization and FDIs significantly decreases energy productivity only in low income countries. Trade openness significantly promotes energy productivity only in middle income group. We have shown that FDIs and income, intense industrialization and FDIs, and intense industrialization and globalization are complementary forces that promote energy productivity in East Africa but this is more evident for the middle income group than the low income group in the sub-region. Based on the result, we recommend a quadruplet programme called the “Growth, Industrial, Foreign investment and Trade programme” (GIFTP). Last, our result suggests that unconditional analysis of energy productivity should not be seen as an end in itself but a basis for further analysis.

  • 109.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agradi, Mawunyo Prosper
    Department of Economics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    Rwanda Polytechnic, Rwanda; Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Energy poverty, development outcomes, and transition to green energy2021In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 178, p. 1337-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    School of Public Service and Governance, Department of Development Policy, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana; School of Economics and Finance (SEF), University of the WitWatersrand, Johanneshurg, South Africa; GIMPA - PURC Centre of Excellence in Public Utility Regulation (CEPUR), Accra - Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Environment for Development (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akorli, Charity Dzifa
    School of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics & Hospitality, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Energy efficiency as a sustainability concern in Africa and financial development: How much bias is involved?2023In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 120, article id 106577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on whether financial development stimulates technical energy efficiency (TEE) or not, by addressing core biases that creep into the relationship and thereby reducing the ability to draw causal inferences from financial development to TEE. Our approach is based on the instrumental stochastic frontier technique, where biases in the frontier and inefficiency equations are dealt with using external instrumental variables. The legal system origin of the country and life expectancy at birth were used as instruments for financial development and income, respectively. The current study demonstrates substantial bias in income elasticity, the estimate of energy efficiency, and the effect of financial development on energy efficiency. Both income elasticity and energy efficiency estimate risk upward bias. Equally, the effect of financial system development and financial institution development on TEE risk downward bias. Other results show that all aspects of financial institution development stimulate TEE, but access to financial institutions is more important. These results raise caution about future studies' estimates of the effect of financial development on TEE. Though this study has demonstrated the potency of external instruments in dealing with the bias in the coefficient estimates, we consider this might prove to be a luxury solution in some cases due to data limitation, context differences, and theory. In those circumstances, reliance on internal instruments might prove to be the second-best option.

  • 111.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Degree of financialization and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: do institutions matter?2020In: Financial Innovation, E-ISSN 2199-4730, Vol. 6, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 emphasizes the need for economies around the world to double their efforts in energy efficiency improvements. This is because improvements in energy efficiency can trigger economic growth and considered as one of the ‘green’ growth strategies due to its carbon free content. To this end, some empirical studies have investigated the nexus between economic growth and energy efficiency, but the effects of the latter on financial indicators have not been sufficiently studied in the literature, at least in developing economies like Africa. This study examines the effect of energy efficiency improvements on commercial bank profitability under different political regimes (i.e., autocratic and democratic political regimes); something previous literature had neglected. The study uses panel data, consisting of 43 African countries and the simultaneous System Generalized Method of Moments. We found that energy efficiency improvement is more likely to induce higher bank profitability in political institutions with the characteristics of centralization of power compared with those with decentralization of power. Furthermore, for the banking sector, the findings suggest that energy utilization behavior of clients should be included in the loan or credit valuation process. For the government, the agenda of energy efficiency should be aggressively pursued while taking cognizance of creating a political environment that weans itself from a ‘grandfathering’ behavior.

  • 112.
    Adomaviciute, Ugne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Seskas, Simonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Management of Short-term Capital Flows in China2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our essay focuses on short-term capital inflows and their effects on China’s economy.The reason for this work was the increasing vulnerability of China’s economy and the risk of newupcoming world financial crisis, all because of uncontrollable amounts of speculative capitalflows. Because of this problem, we raised a main question that we try to answer in this essayhowto reduce the possibility and the severity of the future financial crisis in China? In order tosolve this problem, first we searched for the existing theory of capital flows, mainly short-termcapital inflows. We analysed why investors choose capital flows and some specific countries,why it is profitable, but also risky and what could be done by countries, to stop these inflows orat least to diminish their effect on domestic markets. After that, we looked for past experiencesof countries faced with surges of capital flows and their measures for controlling them, weanalysed, if the theoretical tools were actually effective in reality. To finish the model, weapplied these measures to China’s economy and gave our viewpoint on what could be changedin order to avoid the dangers of short-term capital inflows. Last, we sum up the whole essay andsuggest the best mix of measures that China could use to control capital inflows as well as theireffects on the economy.

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  • 113.
    Adriansson, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Is There a Housing Bubble in Stockholm?: A Simple Error Correction Approach2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an error correction model is estimated using monthly panel data from Stockholm covering the time period January 2005 to December 2012. In the long-run equation the fundamental variables real disposable income, real mortgage rate, real construction costs and population growth are shown to be significant. The exploration of the short-run dynamics reveals a significant error correction term suggesting a movement towards long-run equilibrium of 11.2 percent per month. The fitted values from the long-run equation are plotted against the actual real prices suggesting a slight inflation in prices in late 2012. Autocorrelation is present in the model, indicating a backward-looking pattern in real housing prices. These findings are consistent with speculative behavior but the price fluctuations are in large parts explained by the fundamental variables and as the cause of price discrepancies is unknown, an irrational price bubble cannot be concluded to exist.

  • 114.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Adu Asamoah, Lawrence
    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Interest Rates in Ghana2016In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of the bank lending rate in Ghana using annual time series data from 1970 to 2013. We found evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the average lending rate charged by commercial banks and its determining factors. In the long run, bank lending rates in Ghana are positively influenced by nominal exchange rates and Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate but negatively with fiscal deficit, real GDP and inflation. We also find positive dependence of the bank lending rate on exchange rates, and the monetary policy rate both in the short and long run. Specifically, our findings reveal that the Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate and the exchange rate, by far, show strong contemporaneous effects on the average bank lending rate in Ghana.

  • 115.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stock return distribution in the BRICS2015In: Review of Development Finance, E-ISSN 1879-9337, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short). Our main findings are that the distributionof stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

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  • 116.
    Adugna, Robera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Economic growth and environmental degradation in Ethiopia: An Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesisanalysis approach2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between GDP per capitaand carbon dioxide emission per capita in Ethiopia from 1981 to 2020. All the variables in thispaper are stationary in their difference. Johansen cointegration is chosen over the Engel-Granger approach due to the presence of two cointegration equations. The result from thevector error correction model implies the existence of a short and long-run relationship betweenthe carbon dioxide emission per capita, gross domestic product per capita, and trade openness.In the long run, the Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in this study.

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  • 117.
    af Burén, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does internal migration influence earnings following youth unemployment?: Evidence from the Swedish Labor Market2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of youth unemployment in Sweden has highlighted the need for more research investigating the effects of unemployment on future earnings. Earlier research suggests that youth unemployment will leave labor market scares on a person’s future income. Therefore, in this thesis I investigate the question if migration can increase an individual’s future earnings and hence work as a cure for scared individuals. My theoretical argument is that migration is an investment in human capital which will lead to higher future income and may heal scars. To test my argument, I use Swedish panel data from the ASTRID database, examining unemployed individuals born 1979-1983 after finishing their education in Sweden. A nearest-neighbor propensity score matching method is applied to estimate the casual effects. However, the results show only few significant results over time and age cohorts in the data. Therefore, my conclusion is that migration barley increases income of young unemployed individuals.

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  • 118. Afanaseva, Anastasiya
    et al.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Är faktagranskning lösningen på falska nyheter?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 7, p. 18-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Falska nyheter har blivit ett omdiskuterat fenomen i samband med politiska val de senaste åren. En motreaktion har varit faktagranskningar som ska förhindra att felaktiga uppgifter får fäste. Vi redogör för ett experiment om hur attityden till invandringens kostnader påverkades av en felaktig uppgift samtidigt som korrekt information gavs. De som fick ta del av uppgiften om mycket överdrivna kostnader var betydligt mer benägna att anse att för mycket resurser läggs på invandring jämfört med en kontrollgrupp som enbart fick ta del av korrekt infor-mation. Resultatet tyder på att faktagranskningar har begränsad möjlighet att lösa problemet med falska nyheter

  • 119.
    afentaous, somayya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Anoud, Sayegh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    COVID-19 Impact on Bank Profitability in the Nordic Countries: A study on how lockdown affected Sweden compared to the other Nordic countries2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 120.
    Afework, Nahom
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Effects of Coronavirus (Covid-19) on the stocks of Biotechnology companies2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the effects of Covid-19 on biotechnological companies are being studied. Five companies are analyzed: AstraZeneca PLC (AstraZeneca), Pfizer, Novavax, Modena, and Janssen, an affiliate of Johnson & Johnson. Where we analyze Abnormal returns these five companies for the period between December 20, 2018, to January 28, 2020. We use the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to calculate the alpha and beta measurements for the five companies. The results shows that abnormal returns were observed before and after the event date and continue to record mild increases in the long run. In addition, it was observed that there existed positive significant abnormal returns in the short run in Pfizer, Novax, Johnson & Johnson, and AstraZeneca. Moderna recorded positive abnormal returns, but they were not significant. We conclude that the market disruption made it difficult to anticipate financial markets during the coronavirus pandemic. Scientist and governments paid attention to the spread and supported the development these select companies were making, with the hope of producing vaccines and medicines to help curb the pandemic.

  • 121.
    Afeworki, Helen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindahl, Emy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Migration och lycka: En empirisk studie om samhandet mellan migration och lycka2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes sambandet mellan lyckonivån och migrationsbakgrund på individnivå. De migrationsgrupper som inkluderas är icke-migranter, första och andra generationen européer och första och andra generationen icke-européer. Datan kommer ifrån 8 omgångar från European Social Survey mellan 2002 till 2016 och har tolkats med hjälp av en OLS-estimering där fixa effekter samt diverse kontrollvariabler inkluderades. Vi undersökte effekten av migrantbakgrund på lyckonivån samt livstillfredställelsen. Vi tittade även på huruvida religion, utbildning och inkomst har olika effekter på lyckonivån och livstillfredställelsen för de olika grupperna. Icke-migranter är lyckligare än både första och andra generationens migranter medan andra generationen är lyckligare än första generationen vilket indikerar att tid i landet möjligtvis har en effekt på lycka. Européer är även lyckligare än icke-européer. Vi finner små skillnader vid beräkningen av effekten av inkomst, utbildning och religion på migrantgruppers lycka och tillfredsställelse. Resultatets interna och externa validitet hade ökat om man hade kunnat skilja ekonomiska migranter och flyktingar.

  • 122.
    Afrem, Mary
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kahramanoglu, Semya
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sveriges komparativa fördelar: inom IT-tjänster2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123.
    Agardh Lidström, Linus
    University West, School of Business, Economics and IT.
    The Cost of Dementia in Sweden 2020: A Cost of Illness study on Dementia in Sweden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study what Dementia is costing the society in Sweden year 2020 and how the relationship between specialized care costs and outside sources relates to each other. In this study we use the economic model from Jo (2014) and the Two-Part model by Sauzet et al (2019). A binary logistic regression attempts to examine a potential relationship between specialized care costs and outside sources. We use the human capital approach to shed light on total care costs for Dementia and establish a Cost of Illness study. The results show an estimation that Dementia costed Sweden 68,5 billion SEK in 2020 and the regression establishes that there is a relationship between specialized costs and outside sources, for example age affecting the cost of being a dementia patient more than where you live.

  • 124.
    Agarwal, N.
    et al.
    64-C, Mittal Towers, Nariman Point, Mumbai, India.
    Chan, J.M.L.
    Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Global Labor Organization, Essen, Germany; Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Economics.
    Tano, S.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Z.
    Faculty of Business and Law, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, United Kingdom; GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Mitigating information frictions in trade: Evidence from export credit guarantees2023In: Journal of International Economics, ISSN 0022-1996, E-ISSN 1873-0353, Vol. 145, article id 103831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information frictions make foreign trade risky. In particular, the risk of buyer default deters firms from selling abroad. To address this issue, many countries offer export credit guarantees to provide insurance to exporters. In this paper, we investigate the causal effects of guarantees by exploiting a quasi-natural experiment in Sweden and rich register data on guarantees, firms and trade. Estimates from a fuzzy regression discontinuity design show large positive effects on the probability of exporting and the value of exports to the destination for which the guarantees are issued. These results are robust to an alternative approach using a difference-in-differences matching estimator. Further findings suggest that guarantees impact firms heterogeneously and play an important role in resolving buyer default risk and easing liquidity constraints. Larger impacts are observed in non-OECD countries, on smaller, liquidity constrained exporters and for firms selling products that face a relatively high cost of buyer default.

  • 125. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Atithi Devo Bhava? (The Guest is Equivalent to God?)2015In: Observer Research Foundation Issue Brief, no 91, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
  • 126.
    Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Dehli, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Getting more out of India's 'Tourist Visa on Arrival' scheme2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Government of India has extended the ‘Tourist Visa on Arrival’ scheme - now expected to be renamed 'Visa Online (ETA)' scheme - from five countries in 2010 to 44 countries in 2014. In this article, Natasha Agarwal and Magnus Lodefalk highlight some of the limitations in the design and implementation of the scheme, and make recommendations for maximising its economic benefit and effectiveness.

  • 127. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Majken
    Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    The effects of export credit guarantees on firm performance2019Other (Other academic)
  • 128. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Labor Organization.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tano, Sofia
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Growth Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Guaranteed Success?: The Effects of Export Credit Guarantees on Firm Performance2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries offer government-backed export credit guarantees to domestic firms. We investigate the effects of such guarantees on firm exports, jobs and value added. Using uniquely detailed and exhaustive transaction-level panel data on guarantees and granular information on trade, exporters and foreign buyers, we perform difference-indifferences matching estimations. We find that guarantees improve firm performance. However, the effects are strikingly heterogeneous across firm size and response variables. Using guarantees increases the firm-destination probability of exporting and the value of exports by 18 and 172 percent, respectively, but does not generally increase jobs or value added. Smaller firms benefit the most in terms of exports. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from guarantees to firm export performance.

  • 129.
    Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Research and Outcome, Mumbai, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information frictions make non-simultaneous exchange risky, particularly across borders. Therefore, many countries insure cross-border exchange. We investigate the effects on firm trade, jobs, value added and productivity, using uniquely detailed, comprehensive and longitudinal transaction-level Swedish data on insurance and granular data on exporters and foreign buyers. For identification, we employ matching and differencein-difference and fuzzy regression discontinuity estimators and exploit a quasi-natural experiment. We find strikingly heterogeneous effects across firm size and response variables. The strongest positive effects are for small traders and new users. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from export insurance to firm performance.

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    Institutions for Non-Simultaneous Exchange: Microeconomic Evidence from Export Insurance
  • 130.
    Agbakwuru, Blaise
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Jiang, Ruiyang
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Relationship Between Internet Connectivity and Labor Productivity: A study on the correlation between Internet connectivity and labor productivity in the European Union2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The level of labor productivity differs among the European Union countries, especially when you compare a developing country to a more developed country in the EU. This is an issue because the achievement of high labor productivity is a necessary stipulation for a developing economy to realize economic growth and more economic development. On the other hand, the more individuals in an economy with access to the internet (internet connectivity) depicts how developed the economy is in terms of information and communication technology (ICT). Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to ascertain whether there is a positive relationship between countries having high internet connectivity and labor productivity in the EU. In doing so, Political and entrepreneurial decision-makers can use these findings to decide how much attention or budget to put on the ICT sector to improve labor productivity. To understand the factors that affect labor productivity, Adam Smith and Karl Marx’s theory on labor productivity is used to gain a better understanding. A panel data analysis using a fixed-effect model and pooled OLS regression model is applied in the study to predict the relationship. The result of the study indicates that internet connectivity does not have a significant impact on Labour productivity, or there was not enough evidence showing that they are positively correlated with each other. 

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    Bachelor Thesis_Agbakwuru_Jiang
  • 131.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    En annorlunda guide till arbetsmarknadens institutioner2001In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 2001, no 3, p. 175-186Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 132.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the benefits from rigid labour markets : norms, market failures,and social insurance1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The common view that far-reaching labour market deregulation is the only remedy for high European unemployment is too simplistic. First, the evidence suggests that deeply rooted social customs are an important cause of wage rigidity, going beyond the legal constraints emphasized in the political debate. Second, in a second-best setting, a compressed wage structure may generate an efficiency gain. Finally, based on simple plots of the relation between labour market institutions and openness in OECD countries, I conclude that the globalization of economic activity may lead to increased demand for various labour market rigidities.

  • 133.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the determinants of labour market institutions : rent-sharing vs. social insurance2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the structure of labour market institutions? This paper argues that common explanations based on rent sharing are incomplete; unions, job protection, and egalitarian pay structures may have as much to do with social insurance of otherwise uninsurable risks as with rent sharing and vested interests. In support of this more benign complementary hypothesis the paper presents a range of historical, theoretical, and cross-country regression evidence. The social insurance perspective changes substantially the assessment of often-proposed reforms of European labour market institutions. The benefits from eliminating labour market rigidities have to be set against the costs of reduced coverage of human capital related risk. The paper also argues that it is unclear whether the forces of globalisation, and the new economy, will really force countries to make their labour markets more flexible. While these phenomena may increase the efficiency costs of existing institutions, they may also make people more willing to pay a high premium to preserve institutions that provide insurance.

  • 134.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the Determinants of Labour Market Institutions: Rent-sharing vs. Social Insurance2000Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the structure of labour market institutions? This paper argues that common explanations based on rent sharing are incomplete; unions, job protection, and egalitarian pay structures may have as much to do with social insurance of otherwise

  • 135.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    The effects of capital taxation: an equilibrium asset market approach1986 (ed. Ny utg.)Book (Other academic)
  • 136.
    agell, jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berg, Lennart
    Does financial deregulation cause the Swedish consumption boom?"1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 579-601Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Fiscal Policy when Monetary Policy is Tied to the Mast1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the time inconsistency problem of both exchange rate and fiscal policy in a small open economy. The equilibrium under discretion is characterised by inflation and a deficit. Commitment of the exchange-rate instrument only, e.g., through membership in a European monetary union with low inflation, contributes to price stability but increases the deficit. Whether the government will prefer this outcome to the discretionary one depends on the structure of the economy: commitment appears more favourable, the more open is the economy. The time-consistency arguments strengthen the case for simultaneous commitment of monetary and fiscal policy for inflation-prone countries joining a monetary union.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 138.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Dillén, Mats
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Macroeconomic Externalities: Are Pigovian Taxes the Answer?1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic welfare economics tells us that many types of externalities can be remedied by proper use of corrective taxes and subsidies. This paper shows that this notion also extends to the macroeconomic externalities discussed in recent Keynesian literature on nominal price rigidities. The derived policy rules are lindred in spirit to standard Keynesian policy prescriptions: Progressive income taxes may serve a useful role in combating wasteful economic fluctuations. However, unlike older fix-price models of automatic stabilizers, progressive taxes work in our monopolistic economy because they directly affect the pricing mechanism.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 139.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Englund, Peter
    Södersten, Jan
    Tax Reform of the Century - the Swedish Experiment1999In: Tax Policy in the Real World, Cambridge University press , 1999Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 140.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth and the public sector: a critical review essay1995Report (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth and the public sector: A critical review essay1997In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 33-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the theoretical and empirical evidence on the relation between growth and the public sector against the background of the current debate on the issue. The evidence is found to admit no conclusion on whether the relation is positive, negative or non-existent. A simple cross-country regression in an OECD sample illustrates how the relation is easily tilted from negative to positive by introducing control variables for initial GDP and the dependent population.

  • 142. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth and the public sector: a reply1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fölster and Henrekson (1998) claim that they, by addressing a number of econometric problems, can establish that it is likely that economies with a large public sector grow more slowly than economies with a small public sector. But their regressions are fundamentally flawed. Re-estimating their growth equation using theoretically valid instruments, we find that the growth effect of the public sector is statistically insignificant, and much smaller than the point-estimates reported by Fölster and Henrekson. This is consistent with the agnostic conclusion, drawn by us and many others, that cross-country growth regressions are unlikely to give a reliable answer to whether a large public sector is growth promoting or retarding.

  • 143.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Growth and the public sector: A reply1999In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fölster and Henrekson [Fölster, S., Henrekson, M., 1999. Growth and the public sector: A critique of the critics. European Journal of Political Economy 15, 337–358] claim that, by addressing a number of econometric problems, they can establish that it is likely that economies with a large public sector grow more slowly than economies with a small public sector. But their regressions are fundamentally flawed. Re-estimating their growth equation using theoretically valid instruments, we find that the growth effect of the public sector is statistically insignificant, and much smaller than the point-estimates that they report. This is consistent with the agnostic conclusion, drawn by us and others, that cross-country growth regressions are unlikely to provide a reliable answer as to whether a large public sector is growth promoting or retarding.

  • 144. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tillväxt och offentlig sektor1994In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 373-385Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den populära svenska debatten hävdas ofta att det finns ett starkt negativt samband mellan offentlig sektor och ekonomisk tillväxt. Den empiriska litteraturen ger emellertid inte något belägg for ett entydigt kausalt samband från stor offentlig sektor till låg tillväxt. Jonas Agell, Thomas Lindh och Henry Ohlsson går i denna artikel igenom den aktuella teoretiska och empiriska forskningen på området. Med några enkla jämförelser för OECD-länderna visar de att andra faktorer än offentlig sektor kan tänkas ha större betydelse för tillväxtskillnader mellan länder.

  • 145.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lommerud, Kjell Erik
    Department of Economics, University of Bergen.
    Egalitarianism and Growth1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Are competitive wage premia an obstacle to growth? The answer of the architects of the Scandinavian "model" in the 1950s and 60s was in the affirmative: By punishing expansive and growth enhancing sectors of the economy competitive wage premia put an unwarranted drag on the rate of structural change. We formalize this intuition using a two sector endogenous growth model, considering both open and closed economy cases. We also show that egalitarian pay compression, combined with active labor market policies, works exactly in the same way as an industrial policy of subsidizing sunrise industries.

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  • 146.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundborg, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Survey evidence on wage rigidity and unemployment : Sweden in the 1990s1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the results from a repeat survey among managers in Swedish manufacturing, designed to explore how a severe and prolonged macroeconomic shock affects wage rigidity and unemployment. Our second survey was conducted in 1998, when the unemployment rate was much higher, and the inflation rate much lower, than when we conducted the first survey in 1991. We find no evidence that the increase in unemployment has softened the mechanisms generating wage rigidity. On the contrary, we conclude that – because of severe downward nominal wage rigidity – real wages have become more rigid during Sweden’s move to a low-inflation environment. We also report a range of new evidence on underbidding, efficiency wage mechanisms, job security legislation, workers’ wage norms, and to what extent the long-term unemployed are subject to statistical discrimination.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 147.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lundborg, Per
    Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research.
    Wage Fairness and International Trade Theory and Policy1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how an extended theory of fair wages, in which workers also care about the functional distribution of income, can be incorporated in the two-by-two Heckscher-Ohlin model. An important feature of the model is the existence of involuntary unemployment. Several results stand out. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. First, there is no longer a simple relation between measures of factor abundance and trade patterns. Second, factor-price equalization will generally not occur. Third, differences in social norms explain why terms of trade shocks produce nonuniform adjustments in real wages and unemployment across otherwise similar countries. Fourth, losses from trade may occur. Finally, in countries where fairness considerations are important, tariffs may increase overall employment.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 148.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Growth effects of government expenditure and taxation in rich countries: A comment2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent article Stefan Fölster and Magnus Henrekson [2001] argue that “…the more the econometric problems that are addressed, the more robust the relationship between government size and economic growth appears”. But in failing to control for simultan

  • 149. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Growth effects of government expenditure and taxation in rich countries: A comment2006In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fölster and Henrekson (European Economic Review 45 (2001), 1501–1520) argue that “...the more the econometric problems that are addressed, the more robust the relationship between government size and economic growth appears”. But in failing to control for simultaneity and in ignoring issues of sample-selection bias, the regressions reported by Fölster/Henrekson are flawed. Using theoretically valid instruments, we find that the estimated partial correlation between size of the public sector and economic growth is statistically insignificant and highly unstable across specifications. Moreover, since instruments are weak, all hypothesis tests are unreliable. We conclude that cross-country growth regressions are unlikely to come up with a reliable answer to the question of the growth effects of government spending and taxation.

  • 150.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Asset Markets, Tax Arbitrage, and the Redistributive Properties of Progressive Income Taxation1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly believed that tax arbitrage is anti-egalitarian. The present paper shows that this is not necessarily true; tax arbitrage might actually reduce inequality as well as increase efficiency. It is also shown that the introduction of tax arbitrage will linearize the tax system. Thus complicated, non-linear tax scedules in the spirit of Mirrlees (1971) cannot be sustained.

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    FULLTEXT01
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