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  • 101.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Tore
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundén, Charlotte
    Landstinget Dalarna.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    Psykologifabriken AB.
    Fattahi, Kidjan
    Psykologpartners , Linköping.
    Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Internet-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for tinnitus patients2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Preventiva interventioner för barn i familjehem. En översikt.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna översikt är att beskriva den teoretiska grunden för preventiva interventioner till barn i familjehemsvård som undergått vetenskaplig utvärdering samt att dokumentera de interventioner som används i Sverige. 20 interventioner och deras teoretiska grund beskrivs varav en används i Sverige. Majoriteten av interventionerna är selektiva eller indikerade. En tredjedel är universella. En majoritet av interventionerna är kognitivt-beteendeinriktade med social inlärningsteori som grund. Flest interventioner riktar sig till familjehemsföräldrar. Flera av interventionerna och andra interventioner med samma teoretiska grund används i Sverige, men kommer sannolikt inte familjehemsplacerade barn och ungdomar till del. I översikten konkluderas att det finns förutsättningar för att introducera fler interventioner i Sverige och utvärdera deras effekter i svensk kontext.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Collén, Kristin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kandidatupplevelse i rekryteringsprocessen vid ett stort svenskt industriföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med rekrytering är att identifiera och attrahera potentiella arbets-sökanden utan att påverka dessa negativt. Tidigare forskning har visat att kandidatupplevelsen påverkas av huruvida den arbetssökande upplever rekryteringsprocessen som rättvis. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur en rekryteringsprocess upplevs av arbetssökanden samt om kön, generationstillhörighet respektive arbetsgivarens attraktivitet har ett samband med kandidatupplevelse. Även skillnader utifrån ansökt yrkesområde, hur långt kandidaten tog sig, samt hur kandidaten fick det slutgiltiga beskedet undersöktes. Deltagare var 1261 arbetssökanden, varav 1009 var män, som under en sexmånadersperiod sökt arbete på ett stort svenskt industriföretag. Utifrån mätinstrumentet Selection Procedural Justice Scale (SPJS) utformades en webbenkät. Resultatet visade att det finns en skillnad i kandidatupplevelse utifrån kandidatens utfall i rekryteringsprocessen, mottagandet av slutgiltigt besked samt hur attraktiv arbetsgivaren anses vara. Rekryterare bör vara noga med att väsentlig återkoppling når varje kandidat. Undersökningen bidrog med nya insikter om kandidatupplevelse, främst utifrån individuella skillnader.

  • 106.
    Andersson, Karin
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    En utvärdering av psykodynamisk psykoterapi på Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för unga: Analys av självskattade symptomförändringar via SCL-902014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Syftet med undersökningen är att få en bild av självskattade symptomförändringar hos de unga vuxna som genomfört en psykodynamisk psykoterapi på Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för Unga, under perioden 2008-september 2013.

    Frågeställningar: Den övergripande frågeställningen var om och i vilken grad patienternas självskattade symptom förändrats under behandlingstiden. Utgångshypotesen för undersökningen var att den skulle visa en signifikant förbättrad självupplevd psykisk hälsa hos de unga vuxna som ingår i studien.

    Metod: Studien har genomförts genom att en statistisk analys gjorts av insamlat självskattningsmaterial i SCL-90, för perioden 2008 - september 2013, från Stadsmissionens Terapicenter för unga. Materialet består av enkätsvar från 209 personer.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar att det sker en positivt signifikant symptomförändring under behandlingstiden. Störst är den positiva symptomförändringen i det generella genomsnittsvärdet, GSI, samt vad gäller depression, ångest, interpersonell känslighet och tvång. Resultaten visar också att det finns ett betydande bortfall som inte är slumpmässigt, då bortfallet tenderar att överrepresenteras av personer med en högre nivå av psykiska besvär.

    Diskussion: De positiva behandlingsresultaten går tyvärr inte att generalisera på grund av ett betydande bortfall, dessutom saknades i hög utsträckning persondata i databasen vilket bidrar till en brist i resultatdiskussionen. En bredare och mer kontrollerad bortfallsinformation, såväl som ytterligare persondata, skulle vara till gagn för framtida utvärderingar.

  • 107.
    Andersson, Lars-Percy
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Psykoterapeutens känslor - risker och möjligheter i terapin2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few references in research on the therapeutic relationship that explicitly deals with the psychotherapist's emotions in the relationship. The purpose of this study is to understand more about the psychotherapist's emotions, what triggers them in the therapy relationship and the perceived risks and opportunities with their feelings.  A qualitative methodology with an explorative approach was used for this study. Participants in the study are six psychotherapists; four women and two men, aged 50-65 years. The result shows that psychotherapists do not connect strong feelings in relation to the positive outcome in therapy. They express that as a psychotherapist one should be observant of one´s feelings and that the feelings should be kept in the background of the relationship. In the therapies that participants refer to in the interviews, the results has been good, the patients have been perceived as genuine and the psychotherapists have felt genuinely liked by the patient. Participants do not connect positive treatment outcome and authenticity of the patient in the therapy relationship. Authenticity also among the psychotherapist, both self-knowledge and professional skills are important factors for the performance of the therapeutic work. 

  • 108.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134, article id bjx082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dafteke, Sanna
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Det hälsofrämjande ledarskapets samband med medarbetarnas välbefinnande inom hälso- och sjukvården2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to see if there is a relationship between health-promoting leadership and employee’s well-being. According to the hypothesis, and with knowledge in the field, individuals with high well-being should experience health-promoting leadership. The study was conducted with quantitative method using a questionnaire survey. Study participants consisted of 63 employees from health-care in southern Sweden. Results shows that there is a correlation between health-promoting leadership and employee’s well-being at the investigated workplace. The result in our study indicates that the correlation that earlier research concluded about health-promoting leadership and well-being is confirmed. However, future research should focus on making the link between health-promoting leadership and well-being clearer to gain further understanding of how the relationship works.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Engervall, Magnus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    The Relationship Between Mindfulness and Work-Related Stress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is both a health risk and an economic risk for our society. Employers search for ways to offer possible stress reducers for their employees. Mindfulness as a stress reducer is a fairly new research area but with a good amount of research papers suggesting that mindfulness programmes over several weeks are successful in reducing subjective perceived stress as well as physiological stress, such as blood pressure and cortisol levels. This study aims to examine whether mindfulness could show positive effects on stress at work, after only one mindfulness session, compared to being on an extended break. Measurements includes the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), blood pressure and pulse. The results show that engaging in one single mindfulness session does have an effect on lowering blood pressure as well as lowering perceived tension, which is one of four parts of the SMBQ. 

  • 111.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Aspects of Substance displacement - from illicit drugs to novel psychoactive substance2016In: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 2155-6105, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred new synthetic drugs, novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or “legal highs” have in recent years appeared on the drug market. These can effortlessly be obtained from on-line vendors, offering an easy access to a plethora of new and untested substances, often with unknown or dangerous effects. Several different attempts to reduce the availability of NPS and to prevent accidents and fatalities have been applied by governments around the world. Nonetheless this complex and constantly evolving situation provides palpable dilemmas and challenges to legislators and prevention strategists. One unintended consequence from prohibition and current drug policies occurs when possibly more precarious substances are used to substitute older and more well-known illicit drugs; so called “substance displacement”. We have performed extensive research on the use of NPS, by analyzing Internet resources (drug discussion forum, on-line questionnaires), and published several NPS studies. During our research we observed how substance displacement is a common issue, with implications for both clinical practices, drug prevention strategies, as well as for legislators. In the present review we discuss two common themes of substance displacement: 1) Synthetic cannabinoids replace herbal cannabis, and 2) Different attempts for self-medication using NPS. Incitements for substance displacement, that exposes the user to possibly more harmful substances, are founded both in legislation (availability of substances and fear of legal repercussions) as well as from certain policies or cultural perceptions of various medical conditions. We offer no obvious solutions to these complications, but would like to contribute to awareness of how these factors effects drug users and how measures intended to reduce harm in many cases have the opposite effects. Further studies on the divergent motivations and different groups of NPS users are highlighted as imperative to find new and realistic solutions going forward. 

  • 112.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    The slippery slope of flubromazolam: Experiences of a novel psychoactive benzodiazepine as discussed on a Swedish online forum2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the effects experienced by users of a novel psychoactive substance, the benzodiazepine flubromazolam, by analysing users' own accounts on the Swedish forum Flashback.org. Method: A thematic analysis of anonymous self-reports published on the forum was performed and generated five general themes describing effects and experiences by flubromazolam users. Results: The themes which emerged were: Onset and duration, Desired effects, Adverse effects and addiction, Loss of control, General estimations and evaluations. The main reported characteristics of flubromazolam were heavy hypnotic and sedative effects, long-lasting amnesiac effects and the rapid development of tolerance. Flubromazolam was also anxiolytic and acted as a muscle relaxant for many users. Some users experienced euphoria or intense wellbeing. Other prominent characteristics were loss of control (leading to poor choices and actions, with unpleasant consequences) and long-lasting, often severe withdrawals. There were also serious incidents where users had been admitted to hospital, acute psychiatric treatment or taken into custody by the police. Conclusion: Flubromazolam appears to be a highly addictive and precarious benzodiazepine with many, possibly severe, side effects. The substance is generally described as very potent and with long-lasting effects. Memory loss and loss of control are common adverse effects, and withdrawals appear to be severe for many users

  • 113.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gerbrand, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Låt inte stress hindra dig!: Hur övningar i perspektivtagande inspirerade av ACT kan öka psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet samt minska stressresponsens skadeverkningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressade medarbetare kostar pengar, sänker produktivitet och bidrar till ohälsa. Genom perspektivtagande kan vi ändra förhållningssätt till vårt psykologiska innehåll. ”Självet-som-kontext” ingår i ”psykologisk flexibilitet” och innebär att ta perspektiv till sitt psykologiska innehåll. ”Prosocialt hjälpbeteende” är att ta ett nytt perspektiv till andra. Vår studie undersöker om interventioner i självet-som-kontext och prosocialt hjälpbeteende har effekt på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet, självupplevd stress samt självet-som-kontext. Även sambandet mellan beroendevariablerna undersöktes. Vi använde en mixad AB-design med intervention. Resultatet visade på minskad självupplevd stress (p=.005) utan effekt av interventionerna (p=.771). Vi fann skillnad mellan interventionerna på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet (p=.037), men förändringen var inte signifikant (p=.597) Effektstorleken för samtliga skillnader var låg (η2p = .1). Samtliga beroendevariabler korrelerar signifikant (p=<.001).

  • 114.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Persson, Jerry
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kognitiv träning vid depression2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a widely spread disorder. Cognitive training could be a

    cost effective and easily accessible intervention to treat the disorder in

    an early stage. Previous research indicates that cognitive training is

    effective in alleviating depression and cognitive deficits. The aim of

    this study was to investigate whether cognitive training at home would

    lead to improvements in depression, and whether improvements were

    due to the training per se. Four subjects with depression participated

    in training with the Paced Audity Serial Addition Task (PASAT). The

    study had an n=1-design with pre- and post-measures, and control by

    a pseudo-intervention. Daily and weekly measures showed effects

    only for one participant. Thus the training was not shown to be

    effective. Three participants experienced benefits from the

    intervention. That could be a reason for further studies of cognitive

    interventions of depression.

  • 115.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    City of Gothenburg, Parks and Landscape Administration, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Landscape Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285, article id S0301-4797(17)30940-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 116.
    Andiné, Maria
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Hur upplever och beskriver psykoterapeuter den terapeutiska alliansen i ISTDP?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The therapeutic alliance is considered an important factorregardless of therapeutic technique or theory. This essay discusses the affectivefocusedpsychotherapeutic method named Intensive short-term dynamicpsychotherapy (ISTDP) with focus on the therapeutic alliance. The aim of thisstudy is to examine how psychotherapists experience and describe the therapeuticalliance in ISTDP.

    Issues: How do psychotherapists experience and describe the therapeutic alliancein ISTDP?

    Method: The data collection method is qualitative semi-structured interviews.The material was analysed by using the processing method of empirical thematicanalysis.

    Results: The result of the interviews are first presented by the informants´descriptions of the therapeutic alliance in ISTDP, followed by five emergingthemes; Responsiveness, Tempo/Pace, Body language, Press and Skill.

    Discussion: The essay shows that the psychotherapist experience and describethe ISTDP method as a way to jointly with the patient create, a strong consciousand unconscious therapeutic alliance and a healing relationship. The result wassimilar in all respondents and consistent with theory and previous research.Possible future studies are suggested.

  • 117.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    Lodin, Karin
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    A global measure of sickness behaviour: Development of the Sickness Questionnaire2018In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1452-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms after inflammatory activation, so-called sickness behaviour, overlap with trans-diagnostic complaints. As no self-report questionnaire to assess sickness behaviour exists, we aimed to develop such an instrument, the Sickness Questionnaire. Items responsive to experimentally induced inflammatory activation (randomized double-blind study endotoxin (0.6 ng/kg) versus placebo, n = 52) were selected and the statistical properties were examined in 172 primary care patients. A principal component analysis indicated a one-factor solution (Cronbach's alpha = .86). This 10-item scale correlated with depression ( β = .41, p < .001), anxiety ( β = .36, p < .001), self-rated health ( β = .28, p < .001) and a single item of feeling sick ( β = .55, p < .001). The results support the adequacy of Sickness Questionnaire as a brief assessment instrument of perceived sickness behaviour.

  • 118.
    Ang, Siew
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Flynn Effect within subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, race, income, education, and urbanization differences in the NLSY-Children data2010In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn Effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations.

  • 119.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Police selection – implications during training and early career2015In: Policing: an international Journal of Police Strategies and Managment, ISSN 1363-951X, E-ISSN 1758-695X, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 221-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The cost of selecting and training new police officers is high. However, previous researchhas provided limited guidance on how to select the best applicants. The purpose of this paper is toenhance the understanding of the possibilities to select suitable applicants by using combinations offour common categories of selection methods, namely cognitive tests, personality inventories, physicaltests, and rater-based methods (i.e. interviews).

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of Swedish police recruits (n¼750) the authorsperformed hierarchical multiple regression analyses, predicting four criteria – performance, satisfaction,retention, and health – at three consecutive time points (after two years of academy training, after sixmonths of field training, and after the first work year).

    Findings – No group of selection methods consistently predicted all four criteria at the three timepoints. In most analyses more than one class of selection methods were statistically significant, but thefindings did not support the use of rater-based methods.

    Practical implications – Instead of the common praxis of using interviews, the findings suggest analternative praxis. This involves using the remaining information from cognitive tests, personalityinventories, and general fitness tests that had been used in earlier hurdles to screen out unsuitable applicants.

    Originality/value – The study extends previous research by including several follow-ups, showingthe value of combining different selection methods, and using alternative criteria of successful policerecruitment (i.e. satisfaction, retention, and health).

  • 120.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lämna yrket eller stanna kvar? En studie om nya poliser2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 6-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka faktorer som bidrar till att yngre poliser i Sverige väljer att lämna yrket. Studien följer en kohort (N=717) av yngre poliser. Data från antagningen till polisutbildningen (T1-2008), efter ett års arbete (T2-2011) och efter sju års arbete (T3-2017) används för statistiska analyser baserade på en bred uppsättning variabler. Resultaten visar att förhållandevis få poliser lämnat yrket (7,4%) och att det finns få skillnader mellan de som stannat respektive lämnat yrket. Låg organisationssamhörighet efter ett års arbete var den enskilt starkaste prediktorn av frivillig uppsägning. Åtgärder som stärker organisationssamhörigheten tidigt i karriären bör därför prioriteras.

  • 121.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Bodland Fielding, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stressing emotions: A single subject design study testing an emotion-focused transdiagnostic treatment for stress-related ill health2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract 

    Individual psychological factors have been recognized to play an important role in the development of stress-related symptomatology. Despite extensive comorbidity between stress-related ill health and mood disorders, the advances in research on emotion regulation and transdiagnostics, have not been recognized in stress research to any considerable degree. In the current study, using a single subject design with multiple baselines across individuals (n=6), a transdiagnostic treatment intervention targeting maladaptive emotional regulation strategies was implemented on patients suffering from stress-related symptomatology. Results show that symptoms of exhaustion decreased in five of six participants on post-measures, with considerable convergence between measures of depression, anxiety and stress. Further investigation of treatment effects, alongside the processes linking emotion regulation and stress-related symptomatology are needed. 

  • 122.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 123.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 124.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 125.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Riktlinjer och observationsunderlag för att avgöra om en olycka har orsakats av att föraren somnat eller nästan somnat2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness is one common reason for road crashes. The exact number of crashes is difficult to say. The aim of the present study is to identify criteria and protocols to use in field in order to learn more about driver sleepiness involvement in road crashes. The study has been done in collaboration with the police in Umeå. The police in Linköping and Gothenburg have also contributed during the development of the protocols. The study has three phases: review of earlier studies and experience from other countries, development of a protocol based on the most relevant criteria and finally a pilot test using the protocols at field directly at the road crashes. The result shows that attempts have been done all over the world. However, very few studies have been published or documented in scientific journals. It is more a question of practical experience at best having been documented in technical reports. The most used protocols are based on the work done by the Canadian police. They use two types of checklists; one at road directly at the crash site, one at the office in case the first analysis indicates suspicions that sleepiness has been involved. In the present study the protocol used directly at the crash site was used. The results show that the questions involved in the protocol were easily addressed to the involved drivers. The field study shows problems to motivate the police officers to take their time to use the protocol in field. The reason for this is unknown. One reason could be that this new routine needs time to be settled. The motivation among the police officers was seen to increase during the project. One explanation given was that they were more and more aware of the problem with sleepiness, thanks to the protocols. This will most truly make them more motivated over time.

  • 126.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i samband med bilkörning: översättning till svenska av avhandlingen Sleepiness at the wheel2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sömniga förare är en viktig orsak till trafikolyckor. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förmedla ny kunskap om sömnighet och risken för olyckor på vägarna genom att undersöka försämrad körförmåga kopplad till sömnighet hos förare. Motmedel kommer också att lyftas fram. Avhandlingen börjar med ett avsnitt om dödsfall och skador som ett folkhälsoproblem och hur sömnighet hos förare inverkar på trafikolyckor. Därefter följer att avsnitt som beskriver sömn, trötthet och grundläggande reglering av sömn och uppvaknande. Nästa avsnitt handlar om sömnighetsrelaterade trafikolyckors orsaker och kännetecken. Avslutningsvis diskuteras några motmedel mot sömnighet.

  • 127.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.

    Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.

    Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.

    Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  • 128.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 336-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 129.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Lennart
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Porathe, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Utveckling och prövning av ny skolskjutsskylt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with boarding and alighting bus passengers are exposed to risks caused by other traffic. Children are especially vulnerable when traveling to and from school, and there are strong reasons for urging the vehicles passing a stationary school transport to reduce their speed significantly. Based on the experience of a previous project it was decided to propose the imposition of a limit of 30 km/h when there is a stationary school transport throughout the country on roads with speed limits of 70 km/h and less. In connection with a change of the traffic regulations it is important to create a school bus sign that is respected by all road users. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a school bus sign that has a high degree of conspicuity, and can be detected and read from an adequate distance. Most important, it has to be understood and respected. The study results will provide a basis for a set of requirements on a sign that should make drivers reduce their speed to 30 km/h when passing a stationary school bus. The study includes both workshops and focus groups with various stakeholders, one indoor and one outdoor lab experiment, and a field test. The results from the sub-studies lead to a recommendation to use a VMS-type sign that includes motion, which is more conspicuous than signs with a static symbol. It is expected that the final version of a digital sign will have a similar or better conspicuity and legibility than the traditional bus sign, which should increase compliance. Furthermore, it is likely that compliance with the new speed regulation will be improved when drivers not only are informed about the potential hazard source - children - but when they, too, are informed about the appropriate action - a speed reduction to 30 km/h.

  • 130.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköpings Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    The severity of driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study comparing day- and night time driving in simulator2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The overall aim of this study is to compare day-time driving with night-time driving looking at line crossings during self-reported sleepiness and long blinks. The hypothesis is that high levels of self-reported sleepiness (KSS 9) and long blink duration (>0.15 s) will be less associated with critical events during the day-time compared to night-time.

    Method: The study is based on data from a driving simulator experiment with 16 participants driving 150 km on a typical Swedish motorway scenario twice: once during daytime and once during night time. In total data from 6 segments of 4 km each equally distributed along the drive was averaged and included in the analysis. A Mixed Model Anova was used to test the effects on KSS, Blink Duration and Line Crossings with factors for Session (Day/Night) and Road segment (1–6), and participant as random. In addition, a logistic regression was used to identify when there is a risk for line crossings. Finally, the proportion of line crossings in relation to high KSS values and long blink durations was tested with Fisher’s exact test.

    Results: The results show no differences in the percentage of Line Crossings to the left during high levels of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale during daytime (33%) compare to night-time (40%). However, there was a significant difference between day and night time line crossings while the driver had long duration blinks (4% during daytime and 35% during night-time). Despite these results the most promising predictor of line crossings in each segment of 4 km/h was KSS with an Odds Ratio of 5.4 with a reference value at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale level 5.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of KSS will result in more frequent line crossings at night time compared to day time. However, the result supports the hypothesis that long blink durations are associated with more line crossings when they appear during night time than during daytime. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 131.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The severity of driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study comparing day- and night time driving in simulator2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The overall aim of this study is to compare daytime driving with night-time driving looking at line crossings during self-reported sleepiness and long blinks. The hypothesis is that high levels of self-reported sleepiness (KSS 9) and long blink duration (amp;gt;0.15 s) will be less associated with critical events during the day-time compared to night-time. Method The study is based on data from a driving simulator experiment with 16 participants driving 150 km on a typical Swedish motorway scenario twice: once during daytime and once during night time. In total data from 6 segments of 4 km each equally distributed along the drive was averaged and included in the analysis. A Mixed Model Anova was used to test the effects on KSS, Blink Duration and Line Crossings with factors for Session (Day/Night) and Road segment (1-6), and participant as random. In addition, a logistic regression was used to identify when there is a risk for line crossings. Finally, the proportion of line crossings in relation to high KSS values and long blink durations was tested with Fishers exact test. Results The results show no differences in the percentage of Line Crossings to the left during high levels of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale during daytime (33%) compare to night-time (40%). However, there was a significant difference between day and night time line crossings while the driver had long duration blinks (4% during daytime and 35% during night-time). Despite these results the most promising predictor of line crossings in each segment of 4 km/h was KSS with an Odds Ratio of 5.4 with a reference value at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale level 5. Conclusion In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of KSS will result in more frequent line crossings at night time compared to day time. However, the result supports the hypothesis that long blink durations are associated with more line crossings when they appear during night time than during daytime.

  • 132.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hallvig, David
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, p. e64782-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used:

    1. one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and
    2. one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS

    A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting.

    Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r =. 588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r =. 360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak.

    The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 133. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Hallvig, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Observer rated sleepiness and real road driving: an explorative study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e64782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 134.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 135.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

    The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 136.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Leeuwen, Wessel van
    Stockholm University.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University.
    Countermeasures for fatigue in transportation: a review of existing methods for drivers on road, rail, sea and in aviation2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with this study was to gather knowledge about countermeasures for driver fatigue (including sleepiness) in road, rail, sea and air transportation. The knowledge has been used as an input for evaluating advantages and disadvantages with different countermeasures and to estimate their potential to be used regardless mode of transportation. The method used was a literature review and a workshop with experts from all transportation modes. At the workshop the effectiveness of countermeasures for a single mode, but also regardless mode were discussed and a ranking was done. The report discuss the potential of fighting fatigue among drivers for specific mode of transport but also from a more generic point of view, considering scheduling, model prediction of fatigue risk, legislation, a just culture, technical solutions, infrastructure, education, self-administered alertness interventions and fatigue risk management (FRM). The overall judgement was that a just culture, education, possibility to nap and schedules taking the humans limitations into consideration as the most effective countermeasures to fight fatigue, regardless mode of transportation.

  • 137.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Queensland University of Technology (QUT).
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality.

    The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 138.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Radun, Igor
    University of Helsinki.
    Söderström, Beatrice
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often have irregular working hours and their work involve high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe fatigue and the purpose of this study is to highlight how the working hours affect sleep, stress, fatigue and driving performance. The project includes four studies: questionnaire, sleep diaries and actigraphy, analyze of rosters and an experiment on real road with bus drivers. The hypotheses were that early morning shift, split shifts, long working hours and short hours of rest between shifts contribute to sleepiness, stress, fatigue and impaired driving performance, which together can result in increased safety. The overall results support these hypotheses. Generally, sleepiness and fatigue while driving are perceived as problems because drivers connect those factors with impaired driving performance, which increases the risk of incidents and accidents. In total 45 percent of all drivers had trouble at least twice a month to stay awake while driving and 19 percent had over the past decade been involved in an incident due fatigue. The experiment with split shift driving support these findings. The report concludes with a list of suggestions.

  • 139.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i fokus2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims with the study have been to improve the knowledge about where fatigue related accidents occur but also to generate hypotheses about what causes drivers to experience fatigue. The focus has been on hypotheses about what information a driver needs to:

    • recognise the feeling of being fatigued
    • stop driving when fatigued
    • Improve the understanding of the danger of driving when fatigued

    The study includes both an accident analysis and discussion within focus groups. Three discussions have been performed: one with long distance commuters, one with young drivers and one with professional drivers. The knowledge received and hypotheses developed from this work has resulted in a questionnaire. The aim with the questionnaire is to test if it is possible to generalise the hypothesis. The questionnaire has been tested within the project.

  • 140.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers: a driving simulator study2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the method, results and conclusions of a driving simulator experiment with the aim to evaluate the effect of two scenarios of importance selected on a theoretical framework within IN-SAFETY: lane departure warning in terms of milled rumble strips or as a driver support system, and the effect of an in-vehicle warning system informing there is a school bus ahead, simulating a system based on vehicle to vehicle information. Concerning the "lane departure warning", the experiment considered possibilities and consequences of replacing the infrastructure element milled rumble strips with a haptic in-vehicle system. Both centre and side line rumble strips on a two-lane highway were studied and compared with a baseline. In-vehicle "School bus ahead warning" was considered as an example of in-vehicle information used to inform the driver of upcoming events. Both rumble strips and school bus warning was studied for drivers after not having slept the night before driving as well as after a night's sleep in order to investigate consequences of driver state on system effectiveness. The results showed that there is a potential to substitute the infrastructure measure rumble strips with an in-vehicle assistance system. Moreover, in-vehicle information was found to be an effective way of reducing the subjects' speeds during temporary critical situations concerning traffic safety.

  • 141.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lahti, Eva
    Volvo Car Cooperation.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0123835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects.

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue.

    The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

  • 142.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Trötthet vid ratten: kunskapsläget 20102010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue or sleepiness associated with driving is a problem that generates crashes and injuries in traffic. Driver sleepiness can mainly be traced to the fact that drivers have not slept enough, have been awake for too long or that driving takes place at a time of day when we are most predisposed to sleep. Populations at particular risk are young drivers, professional drivers, shift workers and drivers with sleep disorders. This study intends to provide an overall picture of the state of knowledge on sleepiness/fatigue and driving, but also to suggest what should be considered to determine if a crash is due to sleepiness.

  • 143.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Svensson, Helena
    Vectura.
    Nya hastighetsgränser i Sverige: hur upplever bilisterna detta?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one of several sub-projects under the mission "New speed limits - Follow-up 2008-2011". The report aims to highlight the drivers' view of the national speed limit changes that have been made under Phase I, concerning speed limits on the Swedish national road network. The evaluation includes both increases as decreases in the speed limits. The method used is roadside interview, where police stopped passing drivers for control of driving licenses and blood alcohol level. After the control the drivers were interviewed about their views on the new speed limits. The results show that the drivers were aware of Swedish Road Administration's (SRA) work with the new speed limits' and more than half of the drivers responded that safety is increased when the speed limit is lowered, but there were also many who believed that safety remains unchanged. Despite the short time since the change, the majority of the drivers seem to accept the new speed limits. The drivers did not believe that a lower speed limit will decrease the accessibility. There are no clear differences between men's and women's perceptions, in addition to that women more than men believe it is good that the SRA reduced the speed limits. Regarding differences in responses between the perceptions of different age groups it can be noted that younger more than older people believe that the public will adjust its speed to the new speed limits better than the old ones.

  • 144.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Söderström, Beatrice
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Utvärdering av effekten av förstärkt information vid övergångsställe (FIVÖ)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstärkt information vid övergångsställe, så kallade FIVÖ-system, är effektivt i termer av att öka fotgängares upplevelse av säkerhet och trygghet vid passage av övergångsstället. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utvärdera effektiviteten av FIVÖ-systemen samt att fånga fotgängares, cyklisters och förbipasserande trafikanters uppfattning om de klassiska FIVÖ-systemen.

    Studien omfattar en första genomgång av olyckor vid övergångsställen, hastighetsmätningar vid ett urval av platser samt intervjuer med fotgängare, cyklister och bilister som passerar FIVÖ-system. Resultaten visar att flest olyckor vid övergångsställen sker i tättbebyggt område i anslutning till korsningar på vägar där hastighetsbegränsningen är 50 kilometer i timmen. Detta speglar framför allt att det är där det finns övergångsställen. För urvalet av mätplatser visar resultaten av hastighetsmätningarna en signifikant lägre hastighet (~ 2,2 km/h) då FIVÖ-systemet var aktivt jämfört med då det inte finns ett system. Vidare visar resultaten att såväl fotgängare som cyklister upplever att systemen bidrar till att de är säkrare, känner sig trygga och att förbipasserande i större utsträckning stannar och släpper dem före. Bilisterna upplever att systemet bidrar till att de lättare kan upptäcka fotgängare och cyklister vid övergångsstället. Det finns dock en del utvecklingspotential avseende synbarheten. Såväl bilister som fotgängare och cyklister anser att de ljus som används vid testade FIVÖ-system kan förbättras och förstärkas.

  • 145.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skylt vid skolskjutshållplatser i Linköping: en utvärdering av barns, bussförares och förbipasserandes uppfattningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Linköping municipality has in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 made an inventory of bus stop sites for school children within the municipality. At those locations where no bus stop sign existed, a new type of sign was set up to mark the school bus stop site.

    This evaluation aims to highlight the positive and negative aspects of experience and perception of the new sign. The evaluation has taken place by means of in-depth interviews with a sample of children in the schools in Nykil, Vreta Kloster and Ljungsbro. In addition, questionnaires were sent to bus drivers driving in those areas, and telephone interviews were done with private motorists passing the designated stop sites.

    The results indicate that the sign can contribute to an increased sense of security and safety among children, it increases the possibility for bus drivers to know where the children are to be picked up and it contributes to the passing vehicles in terms of knowing that they can expect children in the vicinity of the sign. There is, however, reason to look at why not all children are picked up at their dedicated bus stop and to consider how information on the new signs can be designed.

  • 146.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Centre of Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2011, 1, p. 233-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving base driving simulator, a scenario, using in-vehicle information before the bus was reached, was tested. The aim was to enhance drivers’ perception, in order to reduce the speed of vehicles passing by the stopped bus. Both alert and sleep deprived drivers were tested.

    The results showed a significant speed reduction thanks to the information given beforehand. Sleep deprivation did not seem to have an impact on speed reduction. This suggests that the warning signals are seen and followed, regardless the drivers’ state of alertness. Thus, it seems likely that this type of information may be useful as an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), to provide driver support about upcoming hazards. One step towards further research in this direction is performed within the EU project SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the main objectives of which are presented at the end of this chapter.

  • 147.
    Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.
    Jussila, Jari
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Huhtamaki, Jukka
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Exploring co-learning behavior of conference participants with visual network analysis of Twitter data2015In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, no B, p. 1154-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management has acknowledged organizational learning as a key factor for creating competitive advantage for companies already from early 1990. However, the studies of co-learning in this connection are in their infancy. This article contributes to an emerging field of 'smart data' research on Twitter by presenting a case study of how community managers in Finland used this social media platform to construct a co-learning environment around an annually organized conference. In this empirical study we explore the co-learning behavior in project contexts especially by analyzing and visualizing co-learning behavior from conference participants Twitter data.

  • 148.
    Arapovic-Johansson, Bozana
    et al.
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Christina
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen, Irene
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Participatory work place intervention for stress prevention in primary health care. A randomized controlled trial2018In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore whether a participatory, organizational intervention can reduce work-related risk factors, and thereby prevent stress-related ill health. We build on the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models of stress. It is a two-armed randomized trial, with one primary health care unit receiving the intervention and a two-unit control group. Validated questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial work environment and health were administered, at the baseline and at 6 and 12-month follow up. The primary outcome was job strain. Secondary outcomes were effort-reward imbalance, exhaustion, sleep, and recovery. Group-level objective data on workload and data about relevant processes during the study were continuously collected. The changes in the intervention group with regard to job strain, effort-reward imbalance, exhaustion, sleep and recovery were not statistically different from changes in the control group. For the non-exhausted employees though, reward was significantly higher at follow up compared to baseline, but only in the intervention group. An important piece of information is that the objective workload was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group throughout the study. Not all the components of the intervention were implemented as intended. Context and process information, such as objective data and implementation fidelity are necessary for a valid interpretation of the results.

  • 149.
    Armbäck, Alexander
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Bihorac, Samir
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Utvecklingssamtal i arbetslivet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to gain knowledge about the conversation about developmental opportunities in the organization, and how a company uses it. The focus was on four different themes, purpose of the conversation about developmental opportunities in the organization, planning, execution and content, feedback. The sample consisted of six people, three employees and three managers of the company. The interviews were conducted by an interview guide, one for the employees and one for the managers. The results of the interviews showed that the conversation about developmental opportunities in the organization was used by managers to make all employees to strive in the same direction, an opportunity for employees to reconcile how their work performance is perceived by their managers, the use of a preparation model differs between managers and feedback was important. In the discussion, the authors analysed the four themes and compared them to previous research.

  • 150.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oxford textbook of psychotherapy2006In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 113, p. 159-Article, book review (Refereed)
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