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  • 101.
    Elfving, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Center of Clinical Research, Dalarna, Falun, Sweden..
    Malmsten, Jonas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Div Reprod, Uppsala, Sweden.;Natl Vet Inst, Dept Pathol & Wildlife Dis, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dalin, Anne-Marie
    Natl Vet Inst, Dept Pathol & Wildlife Dis, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. Dalarna, Clin Res Ctr, Falun, Sweden..
    Serologic and Molecular Prevalence of Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Wild Cervids and Domestic Mammals in the Central Parts of Sweden2015In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 529-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are common in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden. Knowledge is limited regarding different animal species' competence to act as reservoirs for these organism. For this reason, blood samples were collected from wild cervids (roe deer, moose) and domestic mammals (horse, cat, dog) in central Sweden, and sera were tested using immunofluorescence assay to detect antibodies against spotted fever rickettsiae using Rickettsia helvetica as antigen. Sera with a titer >= 1:64 were considered as positive, and 23.1% (104/450) of the animals scored positive. The prevalence of seropositivity was 21.5% (23/107) in roe deer, 23.3% (21/90) in moose, 36.5% (23/63) in horses, 22.1% (19/90) in cats, and 17.0% (17/100) in dogs. PCR analysis of 113 spleen samples from moose and sheep from the corresponding areas were all negative for rickettsial DNA. In roe deer, 85% (91/107) also tested seropositive for A. phagocytophilum with a titer cutoff of 1:128. The findings indicate that the surveyed animal species are commonly exposed to rickettsiae and roe deer also to A. phagocytophilum.

  • 102.
    Eliasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Tularemia: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the small, fastidious, gram-negative rod Francisella tularensis that appears over almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. In Sweden, tularemia has appeared mainly in restricted areas in northern parts of central Sweden.

    The disease can be transmitted through several routes: direct contact with infected animals, by vectors, through contaminated food or water or through inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. Distinct clinical forms of the disease are seen, depending on the route of transmission. During the last years, tularemia has emerged in new areas in central Sweden, south of the endemic area. The emergence of tularemia in the County of Örebro prompted the investigations presented in this thesis.

    We performed a case-control study, using a mailed questionnaire, to identify risk factors for acquiring tularemia in Sweden (Paper I). After multivariate analysis, mosquito bites and cat ownership could be associated with tularemia in all studied areas while farming appeared as a risk factor only in endemic areas.

    In Paper II, we evaluated a PCR analysis, targeting the tul4 gene, used on samples from primary lesions in patients with ulceroglandular tularemia. The method performed well, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specifi city of 96%. The clinical characteristics of tularemia in an emergent area in Sweden were studied Paper III), using case fi les and a questionnaire. Of 278 cases of tularemia reported during the years 2000 to 2004, 234 had been in contact with a doctor from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Örebro University Hospital, and were thus included. The ulceroglandular form of the disease was seen in 89% of the cases, with the primary lesion, in most cases, on the lower leg. An overwhelming majority of cases occurred during late summer and early autumn, further supporting transmission by mosquitoes. Erythemas overlying the affected lymph node areas were seen in 19% of patients with forms of tularemia affecting peripheral lymph nodes. Late skin manifestations, of various appearances, were seen in 30% of the cases, predominantly in women. A raised awareness of tularemia among physicians in the county during the course of the outbreak was found, as documented by the development of shorter doctor’s delay and less prescription of antibiotics inappropriate in tularemia.

    Finally, we developed a simplifi ed whole-blood lymphocyte stimulation test, as a diagnostic tool in tularemia (Paper IV). The level of IFN-γ, as a proxy for lymphocyte proliferation, was measured after 24-h stimulation. Additionally, a tularemia ELISA with ultra-purifi ed LPS as the antigen was evaluated, showing a high sensitivity. The lymphocyte stimulation test, when performed on consecutive samples from subjects with ongoing tularemia was able to detect the disease earlier in the course of the disease than both the new ELISA and the tube agglutination test. Furthermore, all tularemia cases became positive in the lymphocyte stimulation test within 12 days of disease. In conclusion, this thesis describes risk factors for acquiring tularemia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease in Sweden. Additionally, a Francisella PCR analysis and a tularemia ELISA based on highly purifi ed LPS is evaluated, and a simplified lymphocyte stimulation test, for early confirmation of the disease, is developed.

  • 103.
    Elmahalawy, Safaa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in dyf7- 141 of Haemonchus contortus as potential marker for ivermectin resistance2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 104.
    Englund, Lena
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bille, Jaques
    Centre National de Référence des Listerias, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eld, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavier-Widén, D.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A possible outbreak of listeriosis in a farmed herd of fallow deer (Dama dama)1992In: Listeria 1992: The Eleventh International Symposium on Problems of Listeriosis (ISOPOL XI) / [ed] Peter Gerner-Smidt, ISOPOL, Copenhagen, Denmark: SSI , 1992, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105. Enlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Edsjö, Anders
    Sundström, Magnus
    [Mutational analysis of KRAS prior to targeted therapy in colorectal cancer. Quality control of molecular pathological methods in Sweden].2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 255-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106. Enström, Sofie
    et al.
    Nthiwa, Daniel
    Bett, Bernard
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Alonso, Silvia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Brucella seroprevalence in cattle near a wildlife reserve in Kenya.2017In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis is caused by bacteria from the genus Brucella which infect human and domestic animals as well as wildlife. The Maasai Mara National Reserve has vast populations of wild ruminants such as buffaloes and wildebeest which could contribute to the risk of brucellosis in livestock, and the surrounding pastoralist communities grazing cattle in and around the reserve may be exposed to a higher risk of zoonotic diseases like brucellosis due to the close contact with livestock. In this study, cattle from three villages at varying distance from the reserve, were screened for antibodies against Brucella abortus.

    RESULTS: In total, 12.44% of 225 sampled animals were seropositive, with more females (15%) infected than males (5%). Seroprevalence was higher in livestock closer to Maasai Mara with the cattle in the village Mara Rianta having an odds ratio of 7.03 compared to Endoinyo Narasha further away (95% CI 1.4-11.1, p = 0.003), suggesting that a closer contact with wildlife may increase the circulation of infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife. Symptoms consistent with brucellosis were reported to occur in both humans and animals, and we thus conclude that brucellosis may be an important problem, both for the health and the economy.

  • 107.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Inst för livsmedelshygien, Veterinärhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    Avd för mastit och substratproduktion, SVA, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Alderborn, Anders
    Pyrosequencing AB, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Jens G.
    Avd för parasitologi, SVA, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Pyrosekvensering som typningsmetod för Listeria monocytpgenes2003In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Aspects on stroke outcome: survival, functional status, depression and sex differences in Riks-Stroke, the National Quality Register for Stroke Care2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In Sweden, about 30 000 strokes occur each year. The aim of this thesis was to analyse survival, functional outcome and self-reported depression after stroke, and to explore possible differences between men and women in stroke care and outcome.

    These studies were based on Riks-Stroke, the Swedish national quality register for stroke care. Information on background variables and treatment were collected during the hospital stay. The patient’s situation and outcome after stroke were followed-up after 3 months. Long term survival was retrieved from the Swedish Population Register (Folkbokföringen).

    Possible sex-differences in stroke care and outcome 3 months after stroke were explored in 24 633 strokes, registered during 2006. In conscious patients, the proportions treated at stroke units were similar for men and women. Men and women had equal chance to receive thrombolytic therapy or secondary prevention with oral anticoagulants. Compared to men, women were less likely to develop pneumonia, but more likely to experience deep venous thromboses and fractures during hospital stay. Women had worse 3-month survival and functional outcome, differences that were explained by their higher age and impaired level of consciousness on admission. Women felt more depressed and perceived their health as worse than men did. Women were also less satisfied with the care they had received in the hospital.

    The agreement between self-reported functional outcome 3 months after stroke and the commonly used modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was explored in 555 stroke survivors from 4 hospitals during May-September 2005. Riks-Stroke’s self-reported questions classified 76% of the patients into correct mRS grade.

    The association between functional outcome 3 months after stroke and 3-year survival was assessed in 15 959 men and women who had had a stroke during 2001-2002. Patients with estimated mRS grades 3, 4 and 5 had hazard ratios for death of 1.7, 2.5 and 3.8, respectively, as compared with patients with lower grades, 0-2. Depressed mood, male sex, high age, diabetes, smoking, antihypertensive therapy at onset and atrial fibrillation were also identified as predictors of poor survival.

    Self-reported depression 3 months after stroke and use of antidepressants were analysed in 15 747 stroke survivors from 2002. Fourteen percent felt depressed 3 months after stroke. Female sex, age <65, previous stroke, living alone or in institution, or being dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) were factors associated with self-reported depression. At the follow-up, 22% of the men and 28% of the women were using antidepressant medication, which were approximately twice as many as in the general population. Still, 8% of all patients in Riks-Stroke reported depressive mood but no treatment with antidepressants.

    In conclusion, men and women with stroke in Sweden experience similar treatment and outcome in most aspects. Patient-reported functional outcome can be reliably transformed to a standard disability scale. Impaired functional outcome three months after stroke is an independent predictor of poor long-term survival. Depressive mood is common after stroke and is associated with poor survival and impaired functional outcome.

  • 109. Eriksson, S.
    et al.
    Grandinson, K.
    Fikse, W. F.
    Lindberg, L.
    Mikko, S.
    Broström, H.
    Frey, R.
    Sundquist, M.
    Lindgren, Gabriella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Genetic analysis of insect bite hypersensitivity (summer eczema) in Icelandic horses2008In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 360-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge about the genetic background of eczema due to insect bite hypersensitivity, also called summer eczema, in horses. The condition is known in several horse breeds and countries and it causes reduced welfare of the horse and economic losses to the owner The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for summer eczema in Swedish-born Icelandic horses. A questionnaire was sent to owners of horses sired by stallions with more than 50 offspring born in Sweden between 1991 and 2001. Variance components of summer eczema classified as healthy, mild, moderate or severe were estimated using the threshold methodology with sire models. In addition, summer eczema was analysed as a binary trait (healthy v. affected). The analyses included 1250 horses sired by 33 stallions. The prevalence of summer eczema was 8%, with a range of 0% to 30% in different paternal half-sib groups. Offspring of dams suffering from eczema had a higher risk of developing eczema. The heritability for severity of summer eczema was estimated at 0.3 (s.d. < 0.2) with a threshold sire model. In contrast to the age of the horse, different geographic areas and gender were significantly associated with severity of the eczema. We conclude that genetic selection could decrease the prevalence of summer eczema among Swedish-born Icelandic horses. The amount and quality of data are, however crucial for the possibility to introduce a genetic evaluation of summer eczema. The symptoms should be classified in several classes according to severity, and this classification could be made by the horse owner.

  • 110.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Being a Resource for Both Mother and Child2011In: The Journal of Perinatal Education, ISSN 1058-1243, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe fathers' experiences of being present on a postnatal ward and during the first days at home following a complicated birth. Fifteen fathers were interviewed, and content analysis was used for the analysis. The theme illustrated that fathers were a resource for both mother and child through practical and emotional engagement. The categories describe how the father empowers the mother and illustrates adapting to new family roles. Following complicated birth, fathers should be invited to stay around-the-clock on postnatal wards because it gives them the opportunity to place their resources at the disposal of mother and child. In antenatal courses, fathers should be prepared for their empowering role after a complicated birth

  • 111.
    Essner, A.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Unit of Research, Education and Development, Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustås, P.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edge-Hughes, L.
    Canine Fitness Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Zetterberg, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hellström, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Section of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Validity and reliability properties of canine short-term heart rate variability measures-a pilot study2015In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the pilot study was to compare validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) against simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) measuring time- and frequency-based short-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, in dogs during stationary standing position. Five-minute recordings with less than 5% error rates from inter-beat interval (IBI) series obtained by Polar RS800CX and ECG, in 8 adult dogs, were used for HRV analysis. Polar data were statistically compared to the ECG data to assess for systematic differences in time- and frequency-based HRV parameters. Relative and absolute reliabilities were estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman ρ, Bland and Altman analysis, standard error of measurement, and standard error of measurements in percentage. Paired t test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences between the measurement methods. Results: There were high correlation coefficients between HRV parameters obtained from Polar RS800CX and ECG. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.98-1.00, and Spearman ρ was 0.93-0.98. There were differences between the methods in 2 HRV parameters, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal IBIs (SDNN) (P = 0.035) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal IBIs (RMSSD) (P = 0.034). Standard error of measurements was between 2.8-11.6% in ECG and between 2.6-11.8% in Polar, indicating rather high measurement error in 3 of the HRV parameters in both measurement methods. Close agreements and high correlation estimates in this pilot study indicated acceptable relative reliability in Polar RS800CX measuring time- and frequency-based HRV parameters in the group of dogs studied. However, the present pilot study revealed differences between Polar RS800CX and ECG in time-based standard deviation of normal-to-normal and square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal parameters, and that small amounts of erroneous IBI segments from Polar negatively impact on the validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  • 112.
    Essner, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle.
    Acupuncture in a dog with fibrocartilaginous embolism C6-T22011In: Spinal cord trauma- Physical therapy and rehabilitation / [ed] Bockstahler Barbara, Olsztyn, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Essner, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djursjukvård.
    On assessment methods related to pain in dogs with osteoarthritis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need of valid and reliable assessment methods that are clinically applicable in canine rehabilitation practice. The aim of this thesis was to psychometrically evaluate measurement properties in assessment methods related to pain in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis. Assessment methods developed for heart rate variability analysis, i.e. Polar heart rate monitor, and owner-reported perceptions of pain severity and pain interference with functionality, i.e. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, were tested.

    Methods: Four observational studies were conducted. Study I was a cross-sectional study consisting of two groups of consecutively recruited dogs. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory was administered to owners of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (n=61) and clinically sound dogs (n=21). Study II was a descriptive and correlative cross-sectional study based on the same sample of dogs with osteoarthritis (n=71), assessing chronic pain behavior and associations between explanatory variables and chronic pain behavior. Study III and IV were correlative studies, assessing Polar heart rate monitor measuring interbeat intervals and time- and frequency-based heart rate variability parameters, compared to simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram in dogs (n=11).

    Results: High internal consistencies and ability to discriminate sound dogs from osteoarthritis dogs were found. The hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory was rejected. Owners reported higher proportions of chronic pain behavior in items targeting physical activities, e.g. getting up, moving after rest and moving after major exercise. A minor proportion of dogs with osteoarthritis showed no owner-perceived behavioural signs of chronic pain. Owner observations were not associated with ongoing antiinflammatory medications. In Study III and IV, 595 errors (12.3%) were identified in Polar data. The number of errors were unequally distributed among the dogs. Interbeat intervals and heart rate variability parameters from electrocardiogram and Polar were strongly associated. Standard error of measurements were high among some heart rate variability parameters in Polar and electrocardiogram.

    In conclusion, this thesis contributes to our knowledge about assessment methods related to diverse components of pain in dogs with osteoarthritis, allowing improved pain management in clinical practice.

  • 114.
    Essner, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Zetterberg, Lena (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hellström, Karin (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Sjöström, Rita (Contributor)
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gustås, Pia (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Owner-perceived chronic pain behavior and associated factors in canine osteoarthritis – an observational studyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle.
    Gauffin, Annelie
    Therapeutic exercises for dogs after cranial cruciate ligament injury2010In: Physical therapy of the stifle, Zagreb, 2010, p. 47-48Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Sjostrom, Rita
    Reg Jamtland Harjedalen, Unit Res Educ & Dev, Ostersund, Sweden.;Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Gustas, Pia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Edge-Hughes, Laurie
    Canine Fitness Ctr, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Sect Physiotherapy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Validity and reliability properties of canine short-term heart rate variability measures - a pilot study2015In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 384-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the pilot study was to compare validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) against simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) measuring time-and frequency-based short-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, in dogs during stationary standing position. Five-minute recordings with less than 5% error rates from inter-beat interval (IBI) series obtained by Polar RS800CX and ECG, in 8 adult dogs, were used for HRV analysis. Polar data were statistically compared to the ECG data to assess for systematic differences in time-and frequency-based HRV parameters. Relative and absolute reliabilities were estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman rho, Bland and Altman analysis, standard error of measurement, and standard error of measurements in percentage. Paired t test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences between the measurement methods. Results: There were high correlation coefficients between HRV parameters obtained from Polar RS800CX and ECG. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.98-1.00, and Spearman r was 0.93-0.98. There were differences between the methods in 2 HRV parameters, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal IBIs (SDNN) (P = 0.035) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal IBIs (RMSSD) (P = 0.034). Standard error of measurements was between 2.8-11.6% in ECG and between 2.6-11.8% in Polar, indicating rather high measurement error in 3 of the HRV parameters in both measurement methods. Close agreements and high correlation estimates in this pilot study indicated acceptable relative reliability in Polar RS800CX measuring time-and frequency-based HRV parameters in the group of dogs studied. However, the present pilot study revealed differences between Polar RS800CX and ECG in time-based standard deviation of normal-to-normal and square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to normal parameters, and that small amounts of erroneous IBI segments from Polar negatively impact on the validity and reliability properties of Polar RS800CX.

  • 117.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Lindmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Validity and reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, measuring heart rate in dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmil2013In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 114-115, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity, and relative and absolute reliability of Polar® RS800CX heart rate monitor, compared to simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram (ECG) data, in measuring heart rate of dogs during standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

    Methods

    Heart beats from Polar® RS800CX and Cardiostore ECG were recorded simultaneously during seven continuous minutes in standing position and at trot, in 10 adult healthy dogs. Polar® data was statistically compared to ECG data for a variety of mean beats per minute (BPM), standard deviation and confidence interval. Criterion validity was calculated by Pearson product moment correlation method and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2.1). Relative and absolute reliability were calculated by ICC2.1, the Bland and Altman analysis and standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%).

    Results

    The correlation, criterion validity, between Polar® and ECG data in standing position was r = 0.99 (p < 0.0005) and at trot r = 0.97 (p < 0.0005). Polar® data was not significantly different from ECG data. Mean difference between ECG and uncorrected Polar® data was − 0.6 BPM in standing position and − 0.6 BPM at trot. Polar® was over- and underestimating ECG data. SEM and SEM% in standing were ± 2.6 BPM and 3.0%, at trot ± 3.8 BPM and 3.1%, indicating that measurement errors were low.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that the criterion validity and the instrument reliability were excellent in Polar® RS800CX heart rate measuring system. The equipment seemed to be valid and reliable in measuring BPM in the dogs studied during submaximal cardiovascular conditions such as in standing position and at trot on a treadmill.

  • 118.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Evidensia Djursjukvård.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Gustås, Pia
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Test–retest reliability in a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in canine osteoarthritis2016In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on veterinary rehabilitation and physical therapy: Test–retest reliability in a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory in canine osteoarthritis / [ed] Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2016, Vol. 58, p. A10:85-, article id Suppl 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Gustas, Pia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Husb, Dept Clin Sci, Box 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Högberg, Hans
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Hlth & Caring Sci, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sjöström, Rita
    Reg Jamtland Harjedalen, Unit Res Educ & Dev, Box 654, S-83127 Ostersund, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Fac Physiotherapy, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 120. Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Hellström, Karin
    Gustås, Pia
    Högberg, Hans
    Sjöström, Rita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA. Results: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's a. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's a was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function. Conclusions: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 121.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström, Karin
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustås, Pia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Unit of Research Education and Development, Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychometric evaluation of the canine brief pain inventory in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to osteoarthritis2017In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 1751-0147, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate intervention, implement evidence-based practice and enhance the welfare of dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA), access to valid, reliable and clinically relevant outcome measures is crucial for researchers, veterinarians and rehabilitation practitioners. The objectives of the present study were to translate and evaluate psychometric properties, in terms of internal consistency and construct validity, of the owner-reported measure canine brief pain inventory (CBPI) in a Swedish sample of dogs with pain related to OA.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one owners of clinically sound dogs and 58 owners of dogs with pain related to OA were included in this observational and cross-sectional study. After being translated according to the guidelines for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI was completed by the canine owners. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between clinically sound dogs and dogs with pain related to OA. Internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach's α. Confirmatory factor analysis was not able to confirm the factor-structure models tested in our sample. Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure, pain severity and pain interference of function. Two components accounted for 76.8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. The ratings from the clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI total sum. Cronbach's α was 0.94 for the total CBPI, 0.91 for the pain severity and 0.91 for the pain interference of function.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the translated version of the CBPI is valid for use in the Swedish language. The findings suggest satisfying psychometric properties in terms of high internal consistencies and ability to discriminate clinically sound dogs from OA dogs. However, based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the original factor structure in the CBPI is not ideally suited to measure pain related to OA in our sample and the hypothesis of the presented two-factor structure was rejected. Further research needs to be conducted to determine whether the original psychometric results from CBPI can be replicated across different target groups and particularly with larger sample size.

  • 122.
    Essner, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lena
    Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Hellström, Karin
    Evidensia Djurkliniken Gefle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Gustås, Pia
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Region Jämtland Härjedalen, Unit of Research Education & Development, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of a translated version of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory for the measure of pain severity and functional movements in canine osteoarthritis2016In: Journal of Small Animal Practice, ISSN 0022-4510, E-ISSN 1748-5827, Vol. 57, no Suppl. 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reasons for performing study: The Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) is a caregiver-reported questionnaire designed to assess pain severity and the impact of pain on activities, such as functional movements, in canine osteoarthritis (OA). The English version of CBPI has displayed satisfactory psychometric properties, in canine OA. To be used in another language the CBPI has to be properly translated and tested.

    Objectives: To report some psychometric properties of a translated version of the CBPI (CBPI-S), in a group of dogs diagnosed with OA.

    Study design: Observational, cross-sectional.

    Methods: Twenty-one caregivers of clinically sound dogs and 61 caregivers of dogs with OA were prospectively included in this study. After being translated, according to recommendations for patient-reported outcome measures, the CBPI-S was completed by the caregivers. Construct validity (the ability to measure what it is supposed to measure) was assessed by repeating the principal component analysis and by assessing for differences between sound dogs and dogs with OA using Mann–Whitney U test. Internal consistency (the correlation among items) was estimated by Cronbach's α.

    Results: Principal component analysis showed a two-component structure (pain severity and impact of pain). Two components accounted for 76 · 8% of the total variance, suggesting an acceptable fit of a two-component structure. Inter-item correlations were good (overall > 0 · 39) and mean inter-item correlation was 0 · 79 for severity items and 0 · 62 for impact items. Clinically sound dogs differed from OA dogs and showed significantly lower CBPI-S total score. Cronbach's α was 0 · 94 for the total CBPI-S, 0 · 91 for the pain severity and 0 · 91 for the impact of pain.

    Conclusion: Our results supplement the knowledge with the CBPI by verifying the easy to use utility. Also, by repeating satisfying construct validity and high internal consistency of CBPI-S our results indicate that the translated version seems valid for use in another language.

    Ethical animal research: The study was approved by the Local Animal Ethics Committee in Uppsala. Informed client consent was obtained for all animals used in the study.

    Sources of funding: This study was funded by Evidensia Djursjukvård, Svelands Stiftelse, Jan Skogsborgs Stiftelse and Agria & Svenska Kennelklubbens Forskningsfond.

  • 123. Etterlin, P. E.
    et al.
    Ekman, S.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Olstad, K.
    Ley, C. J.
    Osteochondrosis, Synovial Fossae, and Articular Indentations in the Talus and Distal Tibia of Growing Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars2017In: Veterinary pathology, ISSN 0300-9858, E-ISSN 1544-2217, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Morrison, David A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Osterberg, Julia
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ytrehus, Bjornar
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res NINA, Terr Ecol Dept, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Heldmer, Eva
    Swedish Anim Hlth Serv SvDHV, S-46432 Mellerud, Sweden..
    Ekman, Stina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Sect Pathol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Osteochondrosis, but not lameness, is more frequent among free-range pigs than confined herd-mates2015In: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organic pig production is expanding and amongst the objectives of organic farming are enhancing animal health and welfare. However, some studies have reported a higher prevalence of lameness and joint condemnation at slaughter in free-range/organic pigs than in conventionally raised pigs. Organic slaughter pigs have free-range housing in which indoor and outdoor access is compulsory, while in conventional farming the pigs are commonly confined to indoor pens. The present study evaluated the effects of free-range and confined housing on lameness prevalence in a herd of 106 finisher pigs, and whether osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae associated arthritis influences these effects. We also evaluated the association between clinical lameness during the rearing period and joint condemnations at slaughter. Results: Seventy free-range and 36 confined housed fattener pigs were scored for their gait twice during the rearing period and 848 joints were evaluated post mortem. Osteochondrosis was more frequent among free-range than confined pigs (P < 0.05), and when present it was also more severe (P < 0.001). Pigs with more numerous and more severe osteochondral lesions had their gait affected more than did pigs with fewer such lesions (P < 0.05). Hence it was a paradox that we did not detect more lameness among the free-range pigs than the confined pigs. E. rhusiopathiae associated arthritis was not diagnosed. The association between gait remarks/clinical lameness and joint condemnations at slaughter was not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that free-range housing may have both positive and negative effects on locomotory traits. Free-range pigs may be less clinically affected by osteochondrosis than are confined pigs. One explanation for this effect may be strengthening of joint supportive tissue and pain relief promoted by exercise. Visual gait scoring missed serious joint lesions that probably were harmful to the pigs, and should therefore not be used as a sole indicator of joint/leg health in welfare inspection of pigs. The association between gait scores and joint condemnation appeared to be poor. This study was limited to one herd, and so more and larger studies on the effects of free-range housing on lameness severity and osteochondrosis development in pigs are recommended.

  • 125. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Hustad, Steinar
    Midttun, Øivind
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Skeie, Guri
    Muñoz, Xavier
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 2549-2561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with colorectal cancer, and is in agreement with previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with colorectal cancer.

  • 126. Eussen, Simone JPM
    et al.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Igland, Jannicke
    Meyer, Klaus
    Fredriksen, Ase
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Jenab, Mazda
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Morois, Sophie
    Weikert, Cornelia
    Pischon, Tobias
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zilis, Demosthenes
    Katsoulis, Michael
    Palli, Domenico
    Berrino, Franco
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel JB
    Gram, Inger Torhild
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    González, Carlos A
    Martínez, Carmen
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Plasma folate, related genetic variants, and colorectal cancer risk in EPIC2010In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1328-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings of the present study tend to weaken the evidence that folate plays an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. However, larger sample sizes are needed to adequately address potential gene-environment interactions.

  • 127.
    Evans, Alina L.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sahlén, Veronica
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Stoen, Ole-Gunnar
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Åsa
    Section of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada.
    Brunberg, Sven
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Madslien, Knut
    Section for Wildlife Health, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Campus Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, article id e40520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two-to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean +/- standard deviation) 3.2 +/- 3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9 +/- 0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2 +/- 7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730 +/- 589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

  • 128.
    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popular music culture has been significant, and for many, the DJ set-up of turntables and a mixer is now a natural instrument choice for undertaking a creative music activity. Six papers are included in this thesis, where the first three approach the acoustics and performance of scratching, and the second three approach scratch modeling and the DJ interface. Additional studies included here expand on the scope of the papers.

    For the acoustics and performance studies, DJs were recorded playing both demonstrations of standard performance techniques, and expressive performances on sensor-equipped instruments. Analysis of the data revealed that there are both differences and commonalities in playing strategies between musicians, and between expressive intentions. One characteristic feature of scratching is the range of standard playing techniques, but in performances it seems DJs vary the combination of playing techniques more than the rendering of these techniques. The third study describes some of the acoustic parameters of typical scratch improvisations and looks at which musical parameters are typically used for expressive performances. Extracted acoustic and performance parameters from the data show the functional ranges within which DJs normally play.

    Unlike traditional musical instruments, the equipment used for scratching was not intended to be used for creating music. The interface studies focus on traditional as well as new interfaces for DJs, where parameter mappings between input gestures and output signal are described. Standard performance techniques have been modeled in software called Skipproof, based on results from the first papers. Skipproof was used for testing other types of controllers than turntables, where complex DJ gestures could be manipulated using simplified control actions, enabling even non-experts to play expressively within the stylistic boundaries of DJ scratching. The last paper describes an experiment of using an existing hardware platform, the Reactable, to help designing and prototyping the interaction between different sound models and instrument interfaces, including scratching and Skipproof.

    In addition to the included papers, studies were conducted of expressivity, description of the emotional contents of scratching, DJ playing activities, and the coupling between playing techniques and sample. The physical affordances of the turntable, mixer and samples, as well as genre conventions of hip-hop, are assumed to explain some of the findings that distinguish scratching from other instrumental sounds or practices.

  • 129. Fall, T
    et al.
    Hedhammar, A
    Wallberg, A
    Fall, N
    Ahlgren, Kerstin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hamlin, H. H.
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Andersson, G.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Diabetes Mellitus in Elkhounds Is Associated with Diestrus and Pregnancy2010In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1322-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female Elkhounds are shown to be at increased risk for diabetes mellitus, and occurrence of diabetes during pregnancy has been described in several cases. Hypothesis: Onset of diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds is associated with diestrus. Animals: Sixty-three Elkhounds with diabetes mellitus and 26 healthy controls. Methods: Medical records from 63 Elkhounds with diabetes were reviewed and owners were contacted for follow-up information. Blood samples from the day of diagnosis were available for 26 dogs. Glucose, fructosamine, C-peptide, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone, and glutamate decarboxylase isoform 65-autoantibodies were analyzed and compared with 26 healthy dogs. Logistic models were used to evaluate the association of clinical variables with the probability of diabetes and with permanent diabetes mellitus after ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Results: All dogs in the study were intact females and 7 dogs (11%) were pregnant at diagnosis. The 1st clinical signs of diabetes mellitus occurred at a median of 30 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-45) after estrus, and diagnosis was made at a median of 46 days (IQR, 27-62) after estrus. Diabetes was associated with higher concentrations of GH and lower concentrations of progesterone compared with controls matched for time after estrus. Forty-six percent of dogs that underwent OHE recovered from diabetes with a lower probability of remission in dogs with higher glucose concentrations (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; P = .03) at diagnosis and longer time (weeks) from diagnosis to surgery (OR, 1.5; P = .05). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus in Elkhounds develops mainly during diestrus and pregnancy. Immediate OHE improves the prognosis for remission of diabetes.

  • 130. Fall, T.
    et al.
    Holm, B.
    Karlsson, Å.
    Ahlgren, Kerstin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    von Euler, H.
    Glucagon stimulation test for estimating endogenous insulin secretion in dogs2008In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 163, no 9, p. 266-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifty-one dogs (27 diabetic dogs, four that had recovered from diabetes and 20 healthy control dogs) were given 0.5 or 1.0 mg glucagon intravenously. Blood samples were taken before the injection and 10 and 20 minutes after it. Samples were analysed to determine C-peptide, insulin and glucose concentrations, and one sample from each dog was analysed for fructosamine. The median (interquartile range) concentrations of C-peptide in the samples taken at 10 minutes were 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) nmol/l in the control dogs, 0.1 (0 to 0.2) nmol/l in the diabetic dogs, and 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4) nmol/l in the dogs that had recovered from diabetes. Seven of the 51 dogs showed mild adverse reactions after the injection of glucagon.

  • 131. Fall, Tove
    et al.
    Hamlin, Helene Hansson
    Hedhammar, Åke
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Egenvall, Agneta
    Diabetes mellitus in a population of 180,000 insured dogs: incidence, survival, and breed distribution2007In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, ISSN 0891-6640, E-ISSN 1939-1676, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1209-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Canine diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy with an unclear etiology. For a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, there is a need for comprehensive epidermiologic studies. Earlier studies have shown that the risk of disease is higher in certain dog breeds. Hypothesis: Incidence, age of onset, survival and sex proportion of DM vary by breed. Animals: Data from a cohort of 182,087 insured dogs aged 5-12 years accounting for 652,898 dog-years at risk were studied retrospectively. Methods: Incidence rates by sex, breed, and geography were calculated with exact denominators. Age-specific incidence and survival after 1st DM claim were computed with Cox's regression and Kaplan-Meier survival function. Multivariable survival analysis was performed for the outcome diagnosis of DM with age, sex, and geography tested as fixed effects, previous endocrine or pancreatic diseases tested as time-dependent covariates, and breed tested as a random effect. Results: The mean age at 1st insurance claim for the 860 DM dogs (72% females) was 8.6 years. The incidence of DM was 13 cases per 10,000 dog-years at risk. Australian Terriers, Samoyeds, Swedish Elkhounds, and Swedish Lapphunds were found to have the highest incidence. The proportion of females with DM varied significantly among breeds. Swedish Elkhounds, Beagles, Norwegian Elkhounds, and Border Collies that developed DM were almost exclusively females. The multivariable model showed that breed, previous hyperadrenocorticism, and female sex were risk factors for developing DM. Median survival time was 57 days after 1st claim. Excluding the 223 dogs that died within I day, the median survival time was 2 years after 1st claim of DM. Conclusion: The significant breed-specific sex and age differences shown in this study indicate that genetic variation could make breeds more or less susceptible to different types of DM.

  • 132.
    Fegraeus, Kim Jäderkvist
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lawrence, Chameli
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Petäjistö, Katrine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Maria K.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wiklund, Maja
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Christina
    Swedish Trotting Assoc, Bromma, Sweden..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA..
    Andersson, Lisa S.
    Capilet Genet AB, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Roed, Knut H.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Basic Sci & Aquat Med, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Ihler, Carl-Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Strand, Eric
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Compan Anim Clin Sci, Fac Vet Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Lindgren, Gabriella
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Velie, Brandon D.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  • 133. Fitchev, Philip P
    et al.
    Wcislak, Susan M
    Lee, Chung
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Brendler, Charles B
    Stellmach, Veronica M
    Crawford, Susan E
    Mavroudis, Constantine D
    Cornwell, Mona L
    Doll, Jennifer A
    Thrombospondin-1 regulates the normal prostate in vivo through angiogenesis and TGF-beta activation2010In: Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0023-6837, E-ISSN 1530-0307, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1078-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Castration experiments in rodents show that the stromal vasculature is critical to the androgen-mediated prostate growth regulation. However, the role of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in this process is unclear. TSP-1 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that can function as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and an in vivo activator of latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in some tissues. On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that TSP-1 regulated androgen withdrawal-induced prostate regression and that this process was mediated not only through antiangiogenic activity but also through TGF-beta activation. To test this, we evaluated angiogenic activity in human prostate epithelial and stromal cells treated with androgens and hypoxia in vitro. TSP-1 knockout mice were characterized to investigate the in vivo functions of TSP-1. In vitro, we found that androgens and hypoxia differentially regulated TSP-1 and angiogenic activity. Androgens stimulated normal epithelial cell, but inhibited normal stromal cell, angiogenic activity. Conversely, hypoxia stimulated stromal while inhibiting epithelial activity. Thus, in vivo, net angiogenic activity must reflect cellular interactions. And, we found that media conditioned by epithelial cells grown under normoxic conditions stimulated stromal cell angiogenic activity, and if epithelial cells were grown under hypoxic conditions, stromal activity was further increased. TSP-1 levels, however, were unchanged. In vivo, TSP-1 loss in a mouse model led to prostate epithelial hyperplasia by 3 months of age with only a modest stromal effect. Androgens suppressed TSP-1 as expression increased after castration both in normal mouse prostate and in human prostate cancer tissues. In addition, TSP-1 expression corresponded to increased TGF-beta activation in mouse tissues, specifically in the stromal compartment. These data show a critical role for TSP-1 in prostate epithelial and stromal growth regulation through angiogenic inhibition and activation of latent TGF-beta. Therefore, loss of TSP-1 during tumorigenesis would eliminate two barriers to cancer progression.

  • 134.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Coronado, Liani
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Amarán, Laymara
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Centelles, Yosdany
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Montano, Damarys N.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Alfonso, Pastor
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Fernández, Octavio
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Santoro, Kleber R.
    Postgraduate Program in Biometrics and Applied Statistics (PPGBEA), Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n. Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900.
    Frías-Lepoureau, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Descriptive epidemiology of endemic Classical Swine Fever in Cuba2018In: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, ISSN 1695-971X, E-ISSN 2171-9292, Vol. 16, no 2, article id e0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Cuba, Classical Swine Fever (CSF) has become an endemic disease since 1993 with several outbreaks each year despite the compulsory vaccination program implemented. To deepen the disease characterization is essential for improving the CSF control measures and to achieve its eradication. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of CSF occurrences in Cuba during a seven-year period within the endemic situation. Data on CSF occurrence from January 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed. The seven-year period shows a tendency of the number of affected premises to increase (r=0.31, p=0.005) over time (month). Directional distribution (1SD ellipse) indicated a great dispersion of affected premises by year across the country with a trend to a higher occurrence to the west. It was demonstrated by the negative correlation (r=-0.893, p=0.007) between the longitude of the mean center of the ellipses over the years. The Kernel density indicated that the disease was spatially distributed across the whole country, but four hot spots were found in the western (Pinar del Río and Artemisa) and eastern (Guantánamo and Holguín) regions. The clinical sign most frequently reported in affected premises was fever, followed by loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. The most frequent observed clinical signs were non-specific, which complicates the disease recognition in the field. The obtained results have a practical importance for improving the efficiency of the CSF control program implemented in the country and contribute to enhance epidemiological surveillance taking into account the risk based principles.

  • 135.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Moya, Vilmaris Matos
    Centro de Desarrollo de la Montaña (CDM), Limonar de Monte Ruz, Km 1, El Salvador, Guantánamo, Cuba.
    Montano, Damarys N.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Centelles, Yosdany
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Alfonso, Pastor
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Spatial modeling of oestrosis in sheep in Guantánamo province, Cuba2018In: Small Ruminant Research, ISSN 0921-4488, E-ISSN 1879-0941, Vol. 164, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oestrosis is a myiasis caused by larvae of the fly Oestrus ovis (Linné 1761, Diptera: Oestridae) that occurs worldwide. Oestrosis was first reported in Cuba in the middle of the 1990s in the municipality of Imías, Guantánamo province. Determining the spatial pattern and risk factors for the disease might be useful to help explain the disease occurrence and select options for disease surveillance and control. In the present study, the number and distribution of affected premises was shown to have been similar throughout the period studied (2006–2010). The disease was found to occur mostly in the southern and western parts of the province with high dispersion in an east-west direction over the period of study. Three “hotspots” (Getis-Ord Gi*) were identified in the province in which there was an increased risk of disease occurrence. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression was used to test associations between environmental variables and disease occurrence. Results demonstrated that areas with lower mean annual rainfall, higher mean temperature, and higher sheep density had the highest risk of disease occurrence. High risk areas are mostly located in the western zone (El Salvador, Niceto Pérez and Guantánamo municipalities) and also in the central zone (coast of San Antonio del Sur and Imías). The associations between oestrosis cases and local environmental characteristics varied geographically within the study area. These results might be useful to improve disease surveillance and control. Treatment of animals in these “hotspots”, as well as in other places where the risk is higher should be prioritized to more efficiently reduce the harmful impact of this disease.

  • 136.
    Fonseca-Rodríguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pinheiro Júnior, José Wilton
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Spatiotemporal Analysis of Glanders in Brazil2019In: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, ISSN 0737-0806, E-ISSN 1542-7412, Vol. 78, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, glanders remains a serious problem, with the obligatory sacrifice of disease-positive animals without compensation. Each year, glanders cases are reported in several regions of the country, causing severe economic losses and trade restrictions. The present study describes and discusses the occurrence of glanders foci in Brazil during a 12-year period from 2005 to 2016. The highest frequency of reported affected holdings during the study period was in the northeast region. Moreover, during this period, the disease incidence in Brazil showed an overall increasing tendency. The number of affected holdings significantly increased during the last four years of the period, and more cases were noted during the months of May and June. Spatiotemporally, there are four high-risk glanders clusters: (1) cluster A (relative risk [RR = 6.51, P < .0001) involved the northeast region from March 2008 to February 2014; (2) cluster B (RR = 17.37, P < .0001) involved a southeast region state from March 2013 to June 2015; (3) cluster C (RR = 6.92, P < .0001) involved the states in the midwest, southeast, and south regions of Brazil from March 2015 to May 2016; and (4) cluster D (RR = 19.07, P < .0001) involved a north region state from October 2015 to April 2016. Only two states of the north region (Acre and Amapá) did not experience glanders during the study period.

  • 137.
    Forslund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quell, Robin
    Centrum för omvårdnadsvetenskap, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro.
    Sørlie, Venke
    Bodö högskola, Bodö, Norge.
    Acute chest pain emergencies: spouses' prehospital experiences2008In: International emergency nursing, ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.

  • 138.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 139.
    Foyer, Pernilla
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Military-Technology Division. Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Svedberg, Anna-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Wilsson, Erik
    Swedish Armed Forces Dog Training Unit, Märsta, Sweden.
    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Biologi.
    Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs2016In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

  • 140.
    Fuchs, Dieter
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Novel Treatment Modalities for High-Risk Neuroblastoma: Studies in Animal Models2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, is a heterogeneous tumor. In some patients, the tumor can go into spontaneous regression and disappear whereas other patients have rapidly growing tumors with a poor prognosis. The overall long-term survival rate in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 30%, indicating the need for new treatment strategies.

    Angiogenesis inhibition hampers the formation of new blood vessels, thereby limiting the tumors’ metabolic exchange. Neuroblastoma is rapidly growing and high tumor angiogenesis has been associated with poor outcome. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of novel treatment modalities for angiogenesis inhibition on high-risk neuroblastoma xenografts. For that purpose, we used subcutaneous mouse models and characterized orthotopic mouse models for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    We found that xenotransplantation of neuroblastoma cells into the adrenal gland of SCID and SCID beige mice resulted in orthotopic tumors resembling clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread. Using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, we observed that the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU11248 reduced orthotopic neuroblastoma growth and spread by reducing tumor angiogenesis.

    In subcutaneous xenografts for high-risk neuroblastoma, valuable for studies requiring continuous assessment of tumor volume, we demonstrated that immune-neutralizing VEGF with the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab significantly reduced neuroblastoma growth.

    Finally, we found that formulations of the chemotherapeutic drug GMX1778 inhibited angiogenesis and induced tumor regression in a dose dependent manner without host toxicity. We showed that relapsing tumors remained responsive to GMX-therapy without accelerated growth or induced drug resistance.

    In conclusion, SU11248, bevacizumab, and formulations of the active compound GMX1778 may become useful for treating high-risk neuroblastoma.

  • 141.
    Gallwitz, Maike
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Immunology. Molekylär immunologi.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Immunology. Molekylär immunologi.
    Rapid species-specific diversification of the mast cell chymase locus during mammalian evolution.2006In: Immunogenetics, Vol. 58, p. 641-654Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Garcia, Emanuell
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Hultgren, Jan
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Fällman, Pontus
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Geust, Johanna
    Nötcenter Viken, Vikens Egendom, Falköping, Sweden.
    Algers, Bo
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Stilwell, George
    Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Intensity of Oestrus Signalling Is the Most Relevant Indicator for Animal Well-Being in High-Producing Dairy Cows2011In: Veterinary Medicine International, ISSN 2090-8113, E-ISSN 2042-0048, Vol. 2011, article id 540830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full signalling of oestrous behaviour is vital for proper timing of AI and good reproductive performance, currently jeopardized by shorter observations of oestrus behaviour. Alternative indicators including progesterone (P4) recordings on-farm are tested. Oestrous intensity of 37 heifers (H) and 30 1st-parity dairy cows (C1) either Swedish Red (32) or Swedish Holstein (35) with high genetic potential for milk production, was studied in relation to AI. P4-levels in blood or milk were monitored on-farm at 0, 7, and 20 d post-AI with a portable ELISA reader (eProCheck800). Avoidance distance and body condition were scored at day 7, and pregnancy diagnosed by P4 (day 20) and trans-rectal palpation (day 50). More heifers (46%) than C1-cows (10%) showed standing oestrus (strongest intensity, 𝑃<0.05), leading to higher pregnancy rate at d50 (72% versus 37% for C1, 𝑃<0.01) and calving rate (H: 64%, C1: 33%, 𝑃<0.05). Avoidance distances were short (<1 m), reflecting good human-animal interaction. Visually-recorded standing oestrus yielded 4.8 fold higher odds of pregnancy, respectively 4.6-fold higher odds of calving. On-farm P4-recordings had complementary value yet less accuracy. Intensity of oestrus signalling relates to animal well-being, reflected in pregnancy-to-term being a good indicator for optimal welfare in high-producing dairy cattle.

  • 143. García-Sanchez, Marta
    et al.
    Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura
    Horcajo, Pilar
    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Barragan, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Werling, Dirk
    Miguel Ortega-Mora, Luis
    Collantes-Fernández, Esther
    Differential Responses of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Infection by Neospora caninum Isolates of High and Low Virulence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, represents one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. Macrophages (Mempty sets) are mediators of the innate immune response against infection and likely one of the first cells encountered by the parasite during the host infection process. In this study, we investigated in vitro how high or low virulent isolates of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Spain1H, respectively) interact with bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and the influence of the isolate virulence on the subsequent cellular response. Both isolates actively invaded, survived and replicated in the Mempty sets. However, Nc-Spain7 showed a higher invasion rate and a replication significantly faster, following an exponential growth model, whereas Nc-Spain1H presented a delayed replication and a lower growth rate without an exponential pattern. N. caninum infection induced a hypermigratory phenotype in bovine Mempty sets that was characterized by enhanced motility and transmigration in vitro and was accompanied by morphological changes and abrogated extracellular matrix degradation. A significantly higher hypermotility was observed with the highly virulent isolate Nc-Spain7. Nc-Spain1H-infected Mempty sets showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and IL12p40 expression, which also resulted in increased IFN-gamma release by lymphocytes, compared to cells infected with Nc-Spain7. Furthermore, IL-10 was upregulated in Mempty sets infected with both isolates. Infected Mempty sets exhibited lower expression of MHC Class II, CD86, and CD1b molecules than uninfected Mempty sets, with non-significant differences between isolates. This work characterizes for the first time N. caninum replication in bovine monocyte-derived Mempty sets and details isolate-dependent differences in host cell responses to the parasite.

  • 144.
    Ghareh Baghi, Ghareh Baghi
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of Valvular Aortic Stenosis by Signal Analysis of the Phonocardiogram2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is one of the most prevalent valvular heart diseases in elderly people. According to the recommendations of both the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, severity assessment of AS is primarily based on echocardiographic findings. The experience of the investigator here play important roles in the accuracy of the assessment, and therefore in the disease management. However, access to the expert physicians could be limited, especially in rural health care centers of developing countries.

    This thesis aims to develop processing algorithms tailored for phonocardiographic signal with the intension to obtain a noninvasive diagnostic tool for AS assessment and severity grading. The algorithms employ a phonocardiogram as input signal and perform analysis for screening and diagnostics. Such a decision support system, which we call “the intelligent phonocardiography”, can be widely used in primary healthcare centers.

    The main contribution of the thesis is to present innovative models for the phonocardiographic analysis by taking the segmental characteristics of the signal into consideration. Three novel methodologies are described, based on the presented models, to perform robust classification. In the first attempt, a novel pattern recognition framework is presented for screening of AS-related murmurs. The framework offers a hybrid model for classifying cyclic time series in general, but is tailored to detect the murmurs as a special case study. The time growing neural network is another method that we use to classify short time signals with abrupt frequency transition. The idea of the growing frames is extended to the cyclic signals with stochastic properties for the screening purposes. Finally, a combined statistical and artificial intelligent classifier is proposed for grading the severity of AS.

    The study suggests comprehensive statistical validations not only for the evaluation and representation of systolic murmurs but also for setting the methodology design parameters, which can be considered as one of the significant features of the study. The resulting methodologies can be implemented by using web and mobile technologies to be utilized in distributed healthcare system.

  • 145.
    Ghebresus, Awet Ambesaghir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Division for Clinical Pharmacology,Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet .
    Pharmacodynamic, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Studies of Nandrolone Decanoate2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nandrolone is one of the most abused androgenic anabolic steroid. Nandrolone is, inside the body, primarily metabolized into 19-norandrosterone (19-NA) and 19-noretiocholanolone (19-NE). Nandrolone abuse has been shown to cause alterations in the lipid- and endocrine profile, also to induce endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms behind the alterations in these endogenous substances are not known, but one might speculate that alteration in gene expression may partly play a role.

    Aim: To analyze how a single dose of nandrolone affect the oxidative stress, the cholesterol and endocrine profile in healthy volunteers, and to analyze the androgenic effect as determined by testosterone and LH/FS levels in relation to genetic variations, in order to increase the knowledge on nandrolone side effects in humans.

    Materials and Methods: Elevenhealthy subjects were included. Genotyping was done using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and quantitative PCR. Real-time PCR was conducted to quantify the gene expression of HMGCR and the SOD’s. The cholesterol profile and hormone levels were analyzed at the Division of Clinical Chemistry and the hematocrit profile were measured at the Anti-Doping Laboratory according to WADA’s technical document TD2014 BAR.

    Results: Several correlations between lipoproteins and hormones were found. The gene expression of HMGCR was induced but showed no correlation with other results. Significant alterations were found on the serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone, total cholesterol, LDL, ApoB and SHBG. Association between UGT2B17 ins/del polymorphism and a slower decrease of serum testosterone showed significance. The hematocrit profile was not altered whereas an increase in lymphocyte count was noted.

    Conclusions: One single dose of nandrolone causes a perturbation in the blood lipid- and endocrine profile. Genetic polymorphism may partly affect the serum levels of testosterone post nandrolone administration.

  • 146.
    Gillespie, Thomas
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    24. Habitat Fragmentation and Species Barriers2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 199-200Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 147.
    Girvan, Pilar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies.
    Clearing up the bullshit: Deconstructing 'feminisation', gender stereotypes and gender biases within UK veterinary surgery2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores ‘feminisation’ discourse(s) within the UK veterinary profession, including the ways in which gender stereotypes and biases also influence such discourses and experiences of working within the field. Drawing upon and combining a range of sociological, organisational and feminist theories such as Witz’s (1992) theory of gendered professional projects and Butler’s (1990) highly influential notion of performativity, I am able to contextualise and expand upon the ‘doing’ of the veterinary profession as well as being able to frame ‘feminisation’ discourses as paradoxes, potentially producing the effects they articulate. My analysis is divided into two parts; the first deals with results of a 463 participant survey of veterinary workers regarding definitions, perceptions and observations of ‘feminisation’ and gender difference, highlighting the significance of this subject matter within their professional lives. The second part incorporates a deeper thematic analysis of particular everyday realities, emerging from four semi-structured interviews which also aimed to explore in greater detail individual perceptions and observations regarding ‘feminisation’ and gender biases and stereotypes, encouraging participants themselves to reflect upon their experiences. A number of conclusions emerged during the analysis, including an intriguing insight that those who tended to draw most strongly on gender stereotypes and biases to outline their perceptions and observations were paradoxically those who most vehemently believed gender was irrelevant. Fundamentally however this study concludes that the concept of ‘feminisation’ is a fluid conceptualisation, a cultural process and not just empirical category of ‘empty rhetoric’ as commonly utilised and applied to the veterinary profession; as such it has the potential to be utilised extensively to progress the profession in terms of wider inclusiveness, equality, transformation, in offering reconceptualised ways of considering what it means to be part of a ‘profession’ not predicated on patriarchal structures, and to ultimately reperceive how gender can be (re/un)enacted in transformative ways alongside progressively rearticulated ‘feminisation’ discourses.

  • 148.
    Gisslén, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    The patellar tendon in junior elite volleyball players and an Olympic elite weightlifter2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of the present thesis was to prospectively follow (clinical status and ultrasound + Doppler findings) the patellar tendons in the young elite volleyball players at the Swedish National Centre for high school volleyball in Falköping. In an Olympic weightlifter with chronic painful jumper´s knee, the effects of treatment with sclerosing injections followed by early instituted very heavy weightlifting training, was also evaluated.

    First, in a prevalence study, we demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee, together with structural tendon changes and vascularisation in the painful area of the tendon, was demonstrated in 12/114 tendons in Swedish junior elite volleyball players, but not in any tendons of individually matched (age, height and weight) not regularly sports active controls. Structural tendon changes alone was demonstrated among the volleyball players but also among the controls.

    In a 7 months prospective study of a total of 120 tendons, we demonstrated that the clinical diagnosis patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee was associated with neovessels/vascularity in the area with structural tendon changes in 17/19 tendons. Seventy tendons that at start were clinically normal, and had normal ultrasound + Doppler findings, remained clinically normal after 7 months with intensive training and playing volleyball.

    In a 3-year prospective study it was demonstrated that normal clinical tests and normal ultrasound + Doppler findings at school start, indicated a low risk (8%) for these players to sustain patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee during the 3 school years with intensive training and playing.

    In a case study, involving an Olympic elite weightlifter with chronic painful patellar tendinopathy-jumper’s knee, successful treatment with ultrasound and Doppler-guided injection of the sclerosing agent polidocanol, allowed for pain-free very heavy weight training two weeks after treatment. Further heavy weightlifting training on a daily basis, preparing for European Championships, was done without causing tendon rupture and/or pain.

    Key words: Jumper’s knee, Patellar tendinopathy, Chronic pain, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Neovascularisation, Volleyball, Weightlifting

  • 149.
    Gizejewski, Z
    et al.
    Institute of Animal Breeding and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Söderquist, L
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genital and sperm characteristics of wild, free rangingred deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) hunted in different regions of Poland2010In: Wildlife Biology in Practice, ISSN 1646-1509, E-ISSN 1646-2742, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to establish reference values for sperm morphology in wild red deer, genital tracts were collected from thirty-six 3-11 years old free-ranging, wild red deer stags (Cervus elaphus L) shot down during 3 consecutive mating seasons (1996-1998) at three different environmental regions of Poland, defining two major ecotypes: (i) highland (outer eastern Carpathian range, Bieszczady mountains) and, (ii) lowland (Mazuria and Pomerania) and studied within 4.5h-49h after death for testis (T), epididymides (E) and vesicular gland (VG) variables. Spermatozoa collected from the E-cauda were examined for motility and morphology (light and electron microscopy levels). Both T size and weight and VS-weight differed with age (P<0.05-0.01) while habitat influenced T size and weight (P<0.01) a well as sperm motility (P<0.05). Neither sperm numbers nor morphology showed significant differences, mostly owing to

    the large variation recorded among stags (range 1-72%). Domain-grouped sperm morphological deviations were <5%, the mean total proportion of abnormal spermatozoa ranging 7.2-17.5%. Although variation was present, the values ought to be used as reference for spermiogrammes.

  • 150. Griekspoor, Petra
    et al.
    Engvall, Eva Olsson
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni from broilers2010In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 140, no 1-2, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from a national Swedish Campylobacter monitoring in broilers were characterized by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) in order to study the genetic diversity of this bacterial population. Isolates were initially characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). One hundred were chosen for MLST genotyping. PFGE identified 69 distinct types compared to 44 different sequence types (STs) identified with MLST. Eighteen STs had not been described previously, while the remaining 26 STs were assigned to previously known clonal complexes. The majority of isolates were of genotypes noted in broilers and in humans in earlier studies. However, three clonal complexes, ST-206 complex, ST-677 complex and ST-1034 complex, previously associated with wild bird and environmental samples, were among the genotypes found. This study shows that most of the Swedish broiler isolates were of genotypes noted as common in broilers. However, it also highlights the potential influence of environmental sources on the broiler C jejuni genotypes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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