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  • 101.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 102.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Effects of Visualizing Missing Data: An Empirical Evaluation2014In: 18th International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Francis T. Marchese, Muhammad Sarfraz, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Georges Grinstein, Vladimir Geroimenko, Sarah Kenderdine & Fatma Bouali, IEEE conference proceedings , 2014, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical study that evaluates the effects of visualizing missing data on decision-making tasks. A comparison between three visualization techniques: (1) emptiness, (2) fuzziness, and (3) emptiness plus explanation, revealed that the latter technique induced significantly higher degree of decision-confidence than the visualization technique fuzziness. Moreover, emptiness plus explanation yield the highest number of risky choices of the three. This result suggests that uncertainty visualization techniques affect the decision-maker and the decisionconfidence. Additionally, the results indicate a possible relation between the degree of decision-confidence and the decision-maker's displayed risk behavior.

  • 103.
    Andrieux, Alexandre
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Improving HSL Recognition Skills with a Color Game2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Improving color matching skills requires a specifically designed interface as much as well-calculated feedback on the underlying color model. This thesis relates to the production of a game for learning HSL and elaborates on learning patterns with regard to hue and game progression. A quantification of learning based on performance variation is proposed. In an effort to balance data quantity and relevance, several variables of pure analysis interest are defined. Results on learning inhomogeneities are presented through Hue Learning Curves with streamgraphs and detailed bar charts. The consequences of design choices and gameplay on performance and learning are discussed.

  • 104.
    André, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Mötesplatser och odling i framtidens städer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är ett examensarbete av undersökande karaktär för att se i vilken riktning man kan gå när man utformar mötesplatser i det offentliga rummet i nya stadsdelar. Utgångspunkten för detta arbete är den nya stadsdelen Ebbepark som håller på att byggas i Linköping i Östergötland. I Ebbepark kommer människor båda att bo och jobba. I studien undersöks om det finns några gemensamma nämnare mellan dessa två grupper (boende och anställda på företag i Linköping) och hur de idag träffar andra människor i sin närhet. Vad som även undersöks är hur de tänker kring hur dessa mötesplatser skulle kunna utformas och vad man skulle kunna göra på en sådan mötesplats. De två undersökta grupperna får även möjligheten att reflektera över om urbana odlingar skulle kunna vara ett inslag i dessa mötesplatser och vad de tror att urbana odlingar skulle kunna bidra med för dem. Från resultaten av den enkätundersökning som har genomförts har det visat sig att det inte återfinns någon signifikant skillnad på någon av frågorna mellan de två olika grupperna i studien. Att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna leder till att man enklare kan se i vilken riktning som mötesplatserna kan utformas. Detta kan man då göra genom att studera medelvärden för respektive kvantitativ fråga i enkäten. Det blir även intressant att studera de identifierade teman från en tematisk analys på den kvalitativa delen av enkäten. Detta för att erhålla en djupare förståelse för hur respektive enskild individ resonerar. Från de kvantitativa resultaten ser man att deltagarna överlag ställer sig positivt till växter i närheten av där de jobbar och bor. Det framkommer även att det redan finns några mötesplatser där deltagarna jobbar respektive bor men att de skulle kunna tänka sig fler. Vidare anser de att det finns en poäng med att boende och de arbetande i samma område beblandas och umgås med varandra. Från den tematiska analysen framkom att en mötesplats för de tillfrågade försöksdeltagarna antingen var en plats där man bara kunde vara, umgås och prata med andra människor. Det andra identifierade temat var att man på en mötesplats samlas kring någon form av aktivitet. Dessa två identifierade teman pekar antingen på lågintensiva eller högintensiva mötesplatser. När man vidare studerar fler av de teman som uppkom i analysen så träffades människor ofta i samband med måltider. När de tillfrågades vad man kunde göra på en mötesplats så menade flera personer att de ville prata med andra människor och ville gärna fika. Detta är mer i linje med de lågintensiva mötesplatserna där man inte behöver träffas kring en given aktivitet. Denna kandidatuppsats är ett examensarbete som har genomförts tillsammans med Vissheim och Sankt Kors Fastighets AB. Vissheim är ett nystartat företag som har tagit fram en lösning för autonom odling. Sankt Kors är det företag som driver byggnationen av den nya stadsdelen Ebbepark i Linköping, Östergötland.

  • 105.
    Andrén, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    What is the Lega?: Exploring the use of a movement-based interactive artifact in an art exhibition2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the use of an interactive artifact designed to let friends physically share their experiences with each other in an art exhibition. The device, called “the Lega” is a research prototype designed with an interest in bodily interaction and visitors' interactions in museum environments. The Lega is a handheld device which has an ovoid shape that fits in the palm of a user's hand. By moving and touching the Lega in different ways the users can create tactile traces of their experiences that can be received by their friends.The thesis presents results from a qualitative analysis of material from a user observation conducted with the Lega at the Vårsalongen exhibition at Liljevalchs in the spring 2010. The analysis investigates how the visitors used the Lega in experiencing the art and to express themselves as well as their social behavior around the Lega, and how the Lega became a part of their art hall visit. Findings on different ways that users create an understanding of and finds meaning in an ambiguous artifact are presented, as well as different ways users use the body to establish a relationship with the artifact. Among these findings are those of users inventing a language of movements to express themselves with the Lega and users who mimic art pieces with the Lega.

  • 106.
    Andén, Calle
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Moyle, Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Artem ex Machina: En undersökning av emergence som fenomen och som metod vid skapandet av posthumanistisk konst2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kandidatarbete är en undersökning av begreppet emergence och hur det kan användas i skapandet av digital interaktiv konst. Vi undersöker sambandet mellan designern och datorn, och hur användaren kan interagera med båda dessa för att bidra till och utforma skapandet.

     

    För att demonstrera detta har vi skapat en simulation, som är tänkt att efterlikna tidigt mänskligt beteende på hög nivå: uppståndelsen av civilizationer, interaktion mellan folkgrupper, och utnyttjande av naturliga resurser. Vi diskuterar de etiska och politiska konsekvenserna som följer på skapandet av en sådan simulation, och vilken sorts interaktion vi främjar i vår design.

  • 107.
    Angulo, Julio
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    The Emotional Driver: A Study of the Driving Experience and the Road Context2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern societies the activity of driving has become almost an essential routine. Vehicles are considered by many as indispensable tools for accomplishing their daily tasks and they are the main form of transportation for millions of people. The average driver spends, voluntarily, considerable amounts of time on the road, using their vehicle to transport himself even for small distances and knowing that its use presents him with some form of comfort and convenience; yet, drivers frequently regard their road experience as tiring and fastidious, but their persistence in using their vehicle at every opportunity serves as proof of a pleasurable experience. So far car manufacturers, traffic authorities and designers of technology have been mainly concerned with aspects of the road that ensure drivers safety, increase power engine, provide more comfort, and maintain better streets, etc; however, the actual feelings of the driver as he travels through the streets has not yet been taken into a great account by the developers of the road environment. For this reason this thesis tries to create awareness on the existence and constant presence of people’s emotions as they drive, which have the mutual power to influence their action on the road and their driving patterns. In order to capture a drivers’ emotional experience this study uses three main methods. One of them is Cultural Probes, consisting of common objects specifically Postcards, Pictures, and Web-logs, to measure unknown factors about the users. The second is the use of Ethnographic studies on the driving activities through the use of observations, the popular talk-aloud-protocol and the shadow method. Finally, the Experience Sampling Method is used, which tries to captures the experience of an individual as it unfolds in its natural context. With the combined used of these three methods some of the main factors of the road’s environment that are commonly able to influence the driver’s emotions in negative or positive ways were discovered, which include the intensity and type of light, the different types and sources of sound, the perceivable landscapes and surrounding architectures and the different kinds of continuously occurring interactions. These are just some of the many factors that can influence emotions on the road, and hopefully this study will open the curiosity for a deeper study of these and other aspects of the emotional driving experience.

  • 108.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Usable privacy for digital transactions: Exploring the usability aspects of three privacy enhancing mechanisms2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of personal identifiable information that people distribute over different online services has grown rapidly and considerably over the last decades. This has led to increased probabilities for identity theft, profiling and linkability attacks, which can in turn not only result in a threat to people’s personal dignity, finances, and many other aspects of their lives, but also to societies in general. Methods and tools for securing people’s online activities and protecting their privacy on the Internet, so called Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs), are being designed and developed. However, these technologies are often seen by ordinary users as complicated and disruptive of their primary tasks.

     

    In this licentiate thesis, I investigate the usability aspects of three main privacy and security enhancing mechanisms. These mechanisms have the goal of helping and encouraging users to protect their privacy on the Internet as they engage in some of the steps necessary to complete a digital transaction. The three mechanisms, which have been investigated within the scope of different research projects, comprise of (1) graphical visualizations of service providers’ privacy policies and user-friendly management and matching of users’ privacy preferences “on the fly”, (2) methods for helping users create appropriate mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials, and (3) employing touch-screen biometrics as a method to authenticate users into mobile devices and verify their identities during a digital transaction.

     

    Results from these investigations suggest that these mechanisms can make digital transactions privacy-friendly and secure while at the same time delivering convenience and usability for ordinary users.

  • 109.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management2012In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

  • 110.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 111.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Identity Management for online transactions - Using ‘Profiles’ to segregate personal information2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gullberg, Peter
    Gemalto, Gothenburg.
    Kling, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tavemark, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use2012In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

  • 113.
    Angélison, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Angélison, Filip
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Monsterdesign2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Monster fyller en väldigt viktig roll i dagens skräckfilm och skräckspel där en av deras största uppgifter är att vara skrämmande. Denna uppsats är en studie som fokuserar på hur man designar skrämmande monster inom spel och film. Vi har, med hjälp av teoretiska tolkningar, tagit reda på faktorer som kan påverka vad människor ser som monster samt hur man kan göra monstret skrämmande på en kognitiv nivå. Exempel på sådana här faktorer är kultur, etnicitet, religion. Även sexism och rasism har en betydelse i detta samband. Med hjälp av tidigare forskning och analys av skräckfilmer och skräckspel har vi samlat in tips och idéer över hur man designar skrämmande monster. Dessa tips och idéer tillhandahåller vi i den resulterande bok om monsterdesign som vi skrivit i anslutning till denna studie.

  • 114. Annebäck, Jesper
    et al.
    Bratt, Jesper
    Huanca Montes, Connie
    Jernström, Erik
    Stenseth, Viggo
    OMNES, "All trafik kan vara kollektivtrafik": Ett projekt av gruppen Omnes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kurserna DH2655: Kooperativ IT-design och DH2460: Programvarudesign, ekonomi och ledarskap är det traditionsenligt att utföra en projektuppgift i grupper, som kursledare satt ihop med hänsyn till elevernas egenskaper. Temat för årets projekt var Framtidens kollektiv- trafik. I denna rapport beskrivs projektgruppen Omnes hela designprocess från att uppgiften blev tilldelad till slutredovisningen, en utställning på Spårvägsmuséet i Stockholm.

    Vid projektstarten började samtliga medlemmar att definiera sin roll och individuella mål för kursen. I påföljande process utvecklas en frågeställning baserat olika litterära undersökning- ar och metoder för omvärldsanalys. Stor tyngd av projektet ligger på själva dokumentationen och utförandet av designprocessen. I designprocessen använder projektgruppen de metoder som kursen tagit upp i dess första del. Att kunna välja rätt metod för det rätta syftet samt uppföljande analys på utfallet är någon som visar sig vara signifikant för att lyckas gå vidare i processen. Detta är något som görs i omvärldsanalysen och genom den insamlade datan från momentet kan projektgruppen kristallisera sin idé. Idén är ett sammansatt system som ligger mellan 15-20 år framåt i tiden, beroende på hur bra det måste vara. En installation av idén görs i samtal med Spårvägsmuséets utställningsansvarig och projektgruppens representant. Detta är en parallellt löpande process som projektgruppen hanterar samtidigt som de ska fullfölja själva projektet. Allt som gjort i projektet från start till utställning tas upp i en diskussion som reflekterar över de problem vi stött på likväl som framtida planer för ytterligare utveckling. Slutligen knyts allt ihop av en slutsats som konfirmerar några av de teorier som framkommit under projektets gång, genom jämförelse med de andra projektgrupperna i kursen. 

  • 115.
    Annerhult, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Distribuerad kognition i cockpit Nu och Då2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie replikerar Hutchins studie 1995 ”How a cockpit remember its speed”, för att undersöka skillnader och likheter i dagens cockpits.

    Syftet med studien är att ta reda på ifall dagens cockpit distribuerar kognitionen på samma sätt som förr det vill säga används till exempel fartbuggar och andra artefakter på liknande sätt. Samt att ta reda på om det har ändrats mycket hur detta då påverkar cockpit kommer ihåg hastighet inför landning.

    För att få reda på detta så har observationer gjorts i cockpit under landning. Sammanlagt så observerades sex landningar. Under dessa observationer intervjuades också piloterna om hur de hade beskrivit cockpits minne av hastigheter.

    Resultatet i studien visar att det finns mycket som fortfarande fungerar på liknande sätt som tidigare. Mycket har digitaliserats och man kan spekulera i att det ha minskat piloternas kognitiva belastning då de inte behöver utföra lika många handlingar som förr, medan andra saker är nästintill identiska med hur det såg tidigare.

  • 116.
    Antropov, Eliise
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Czapinska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    The effect of information structure consistency on usability on cross-platform services2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 117.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driving automation and its effects on drivers: a human factor perspective2019In: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Towards high-level automated driving / [ed] Meng Lu, IET Digital Library, 2019, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will cover some of the issues mentioned by European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC) and has its starting point in the knowledge and experience from four different EU-funded projects dealing with automation and human factors. It might be expected that there is no difference in how human factors should be considered in relation to automation depending on the country it is used in. However, there are reasons to believe that there are differences in understanding and in acceptance of new functions depending on experience or not from modern vehicles with, for example integrated driver support systems. This chapter has its starting point mainly from work done in Europe, which may be considered to be generic and valid for other countries in the world with the same type of car fleets. The focus will be on challenges covering: the need to have an adaptive Human-Machine Interface (HMI) to achieve trust and acceptance in relation to automated functionalities and system, the importance of considering different driver states and finally the evaluations of automated systems.

  • 118.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Estetiska upplevelser av interaktiva system med olika tempo och hastighet: en explorativ användarstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har intresset för att föra in estetik i MDI-teorin ökat kraftigt. Insikten om att användares känslor inför interaktiva artefakter spelar stor roll för tillfredställelsen och användarupplevelsen har medfört ett fokusskifte inom området och flertalet teorier om användares estetiska upplevelser av interaktion har framkommit. Detta arbete har tagit som utgångspunkt de teorier som siktar på att stödja designers arbete med att utforma estetiska interaktioner genom att identifiera manipulerbara attribut i artefakters interaktionsestetiska gestalt. En explorativ användarstudie har genomförts med målet att belysa hur upplevelsen av hastighet och tempo förändras genom införandet av animationer i ett gränssnitt. Resultaten visar på att toningsanimationer i övergångar i ett interaktivt system kan leda till ett långsammare och mjukare intryck av systemet men även att långsamma animationer i vissa fall kan leda till att systemet upplevs som snabbare. Upplevelsen av väntan har identifierats som en viktig faktor i ett systems uttryck av tempo och hastighet. Studien visar också att ett systems estetiska gestalt är en komplex konstruktion där såväl attribut i interaktionen som användarnas erfarenheter och förväntningar spelar in.

  • 119.
    Anzén, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Design av infotainment-system styrt av ögonrörelser i bilar: En explorativ studie för att ta fram ett förslag på hur man kan designa ett infotainment-system som har ögonrörelser som huvudsakliga interaktionsmetod med fokus på den funktionella designen.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som syfte att ta fram ett designförslag på ett ögonrörelsestyrt infotainment-system samt utvärdera detta. Fokusen ligger på den funktionella design och dess för- och nackdelar. Studien tar upp tre olika designförslag varav ett valdes att göra en prototyp av. Prototypen skapades med hjälp av HTML5, Javascript och Python. Detta kopplades sedan samman med ett ögonrörelsesystem tillhörande Smart Eye AB. Prototypen användartestades och utvärderades med hjälp av en bilsimulator. Utvärderingen gjordes med hjälp av en enkät samt SUS-formulär. Enkäten resulterade i en kvalitativ utvärdering av prototypen medan SUS-värdet (69,88) pekar på att förbättringar bör göras för att öka den upplevda användbarheten. Studien innehåller även framtida förbättringsförslag för vidare utveckling. 

  • 120.
    Ardal, Dui
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Frisk Arfvidsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Heuristiska vs. användarinkluderande utvärderingar: En jämförelse av två MDI-metoder.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka olika utvärderingsmetoder inom fältet användbarhet. Alltsedan webbteknologier har tagit en större plats i vår vardag har efterfrågan ökat för gränssnitt och design med hög användbarhet. Vi har därför utfört tester på tvåutvärderingsmetoder för att utvärdera användbarhet på en prototyp som vi har utvecklat. Användarinkluderande och heuristiska tester är två utvärderingsmetoder som vi har undersökt i denna uppsats. De är båda väldokumenterade och används ofta för att mäta aspekter inom användbarhet. Således finns det ett intresse i att studera skillnader i resultat och hur metoderna bäst kan användas. Vi utförde tester på båda dessa utvärderingsmetoder, med fem olika personer per test. De heuristiska testerna resulterade i fler användbarhetsproblem av funktionell karaktär än vad de användarinkluderande testerna gjorde, vilka resulterade i fleranvändbarhetsproblem inom kategorin layout. Likaså resulterade de heuristiska testerna i att testsubjekten identifierade en större andel likartade användbarhetsproblem än vad de användarinkluderande testerna gjorde. Vi tror att detta kan bero på själva utvärderingsmetodernas utformning, där miljön och testsubjekten är kontrollerade i olika utsträckning. De slutsatser vi har dragit är att de båda är användbara för att mäta användbarhetoch för att hitta fel/brister med ett gränssnitt i ett tidigt prototypstadie, men att den heuristiska metoden kan vara aningen bättre för en prototyp i ett tidigt stadie i utvecklingen, likt detgränssnitt vi utvärderade befann sig i. Vidare har vi konkluderat att användandet av båda dessa tester tillsammans ger optimalt resultat.

  • 121.
    Areizaga, Ander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Programming learning games: Identification of game design patterns in programming learning games2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high demand for program developers, but the dropouts from computer science courses are also high and course enrolments keep decreasing. In order to overcome that situation, several studies have found serious games as good tools for education in programming learning. As an outcome from such research, several game solutions for programming learning have appeared, each of them using a different approach. Some of these games are only used in the research field where others are published in commercial stores. The problem with commercial games is that they do not offer a clear map of the different programming concepts. This dissertation addresses this problem and analyses which fundamental programming concepts that are represented in commercial games for programming learning. The study also identifies game design patterns used to represent these concepts.

    The result of this study shows topics that are represented more commonly in commercial games and what game design patterns are used for that. This thesis identifies a set of game design patterns in the 20 commercial games that were analysed. A description as well as some examples of the games where it is found is included for each of these patterns.

    As a conclusion, this research shows that from the list of the determined fundamental programming topics only a few of them are greatly represented in commercial games where the others have nearly no representation. This shows potential spots for future research in games for programming teaching.

  • 122.
    Arenius, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Getting the Feeling: “Human Error” in an educational ship-handling simulator2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In high-risk environments of seafaring, simulators constitute a widely used tool in preparing nauticalstudents for the challenges to be met in real-life working situations. While the technical developmentof ship bridge simulators continues at a breathtaking pace, little is known on how developments fulfiltheir intended safety critical purpose during actual simulator training exercises.In order to investigate this, a mixed-methods quasi-experimental field study (N =6) was conductedaiming at discerning the systemic causes behind committed human errors and to what extent thesecauses can be related to the technical layout of the simulator in general and a decision supportingdisplay in particular. The nautical students’ performance in terms of committed errors was analysedwhen the decision supporting display was either inactive or active during two different exercisebatches. Drawing upon eye tracking evaluation, interviews and simulator video recordings, systemiccauses leading to human errors were identified. Results indicate that all errors occur under the samekind of (stressful) interaction. Based on this design requirements aiming at promoting resilient crewbehaviour were proposed

  • 123.
    Arkenson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Music Control in the Car – Designing voice interactions between user and a music service with a focus on in-car usage2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music is an important part of people’s lives and thanks to technology development music is more accessible than ever. It creates a pleasant auditory environment in many situations such as when driving, and in-car music streaming is one of the most requested features amongst drivers. Using technology such as mobile devices when driving is a major safety concern which can be addressed by implementing voice control. Said modality, if implemented successfully, puts less cognitive demand on the driver than using manual controls or looking at a monitor.

    This thesis has resulted in a set of design suggestions for voice interaction between driver and a music service for a safe and pleasant user experience where the dialogues aim at providing drivers with a feeling of familiarity and brand recognition with the music service. The design suggestions are based on design guidelines and previous research on voice interaction and in-car technology including cognitive demands on the driver. Input from drivers and music listeners have been collected first through a questionnaire on controlling music applications while driving followed by a design workshop where the participants, based on different stories, designed dialogues between driver and a music service.

    The research found that drivers are highly concerned with traffic safety, and want to be able to quickly and safely search for specific music or music that suits a current mood. In terms of familiarity, drivers should be able to use existing features from the music service when interacting through voice and be able to make actions that affect their private account - such as saving songs to a playlist.

  • 124. Arkenson, Caroline
    et al.
    Chou, Y. -Y
    Huang, C. -Y
    Lee, Y. -C
    Tag and seek a location-based game in tainan city2014In: CHI PLAY 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 315-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tag and Seek is a location-based game which leads a traveler through Tainan City in Taiwan. The traveler's task is to find Harry's friends who are hiding at different sites in the city. Once at the site, the traveler has to scan a Near Field Communication (NFC) tag placed on a board looking like Harry's friend. When the NFC tag is scanned the lost friend is found, information about the site is presented and instructions to the next site will be available. The game lets the traveler experience culture, gain knowledge about sites in the city and meet local citizens - without the traveler having to plan the trip ahead. By implementing NFC technology as check points the interaction with the game differs from regular tourist guides and the threat of privacy which comes with location-based services is greatly lowered as the traveler is not being tracked by GPS. From our user evaluation we found that both the interface and interaction with the boards could use some improvements to increase the usability.

  • 125.
    Arkstål, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Interactive Analytics and Visualization for Data Driven Calculation of Individualized COPD Risk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a high mortality disease, second to stroke and ischemic heart disease. This non-curable disease progressively exacerbates, leading to high personal and societal economic impact, reduced quality of life and often death. General treatment plans for COPD risk mistreating the individuals’ condition. To be effective, the treatment should be individualized following the practices of precision medicine. The aim of this thesis was to develop a data driven algorithm and system with visualization to assess individual COPD risk. With MRI body composition profile measurements, it is possible to accurately assess propensity of a multitude of metabolic conditions, such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.  The algorithm and system has been developed using Wolfram Language and R within the Wolfram Mathematica framework. The algorithm calculates individualized virtual control groups metabolically similar to the patient’s body composition and spirometric profile. Using UK Biobank data, our tool was used to assess patient COPD propensity using an individual-specific virtual control group with AUROC 0.778 (female) and 0.758 (men). Additionally, the tool was used to identify new body composition profiles related to COPD and associated comorbid conditions.

  • 126.
    Arnell, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kassa system?: En användarcentrerad designstudie av kassagränssnitt för The Body Shop2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna magisteruppsats har kassagränssnittet som används på kosmetikkedjan The Body shop utvärderats med avseende på hur det stödjer säljarna i sitt arbete. Syftet har varit att se vad säljares kognitiva belastning är under deras arbete och att ta fram ett kassagränssnitt som minskar denna. Studien har genomgått tre faser där den första, ”Undersökningen”, syftade till att undersöka vilken typ av kognitiv belastning säljarna utsätts för. Detta studerades genom att säljare intervjuades och observerades under användning av det befintliga kassasystemet. Den kognitiva belastningen bestod främst av information som säljarna skulle komma ihåg och delge till kunder. I butikerna använde säljarna sig av många olika typer av minnestöd vid och runt kassan. Detta ledde till slutsatsen att ett kassasystem som stödjer det här skulle underlätta för dem. Den andra fasen, ”Design”, syftade till att ta fram ett kassasystem som stödjer säljarnas arbete, hur det skulle kunna se ut och vad det borde innehålla. Som grund gjordes en kravställning och designmålsframställning utifrån resultatet från Undersökningen. Fokus låg på att kassasystemet skulle underlätta så mycket som möjligt för säljarna genom att ta bort eller förenkla moment. Två prototyper togs fram och testades av användare under den tredje fasen, ”Utvärdering”. Användartesterna syftade till att se hur väl designförslagen uppfyllde designmålen och särskild vikt lades vid de funktioner som hjälpte säljarna att distribuera minnet. Det kvalitativa resultatet från testerna visade att användarna tyckte mycket om designförslagen och den nya funktionaliteten. Särskild uppskattning visades för de funktioner som hjälpte dem att distribuera minnet, vilket ledde till slutsatsen att sådana funktioner skulle minska den kognitiva belastningen för säljare på The Body Shop.

  • 127.
    Aronsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Wilsson, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Gör kunden ingen björntjänst: Hur kunder och deras upplevelse kan stödjas i användandet av tjänster i mobilenheter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har som syfte att besvara hur en kund använder sig av kundservice som stöd och hur en självservicetjänst i en mobilenhet kan utformas för att ge en positiv kundupplevelse. Nya kunder tenderar att lämna tjänster de inte förstår och motivationen att använda sig av kundtjänst skiljer sig mellan kundgrupper. Som fallstudie har vi undersökt Svenska Spels tjänst Stryktipset. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts där nya ovana kunder i åldern 18-29 deltagit i användartest, observationer har genomförts på traditionell kundtjänst och intervjuer med ombud. Detta har resulterat i en förståelse för problemsituationer i kundupplevelsen, mobilenheten och vilket stöd de olika servicekanalerna ger. Designkoncept har tagits fram som visar på hur detta stöd kan se ut och hur det kan hjälpa kunden i sitt användande. Studien visar på att kunder behöver stöd i att förstå hur en tjänst fungerar, vad målet med tjänsten är och hur kunden bör gå till väga. Genom skapandet av en självservicetjänst kan kunden få ett bra stöd i sitt användande och genom att kunden tilldelas kontroll och får relevant information stärks kundupplevelsen positivt. En Självservicetjänst stödjer nya kunder på ett effektivt sätt innan kunden stöter på problem vilket tar bort negativa faktorer som hjälplöshet och motivationsbrist som gör att kunden kan avsluta sitt användande. En självservicetjänst framstår som ett positivt stöd i användandet av Svenska Spels mobilenhet och kan ge ett bra stöd åt användaren som inte andra servicekanaler kan erbjuda.

  • 128. Aronsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Artman, Henrik
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Design of simulator training: a comparative study of Swedish dynamic decision-making training facilities2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulator training is becoming increasingly important for training of time-critical and dynamic situations. Hence, how simulator training in such domains is planned, carried out and followed up becomes important. Based on a model prescribing such crucial aspects, ten decision-making training simulator facilities have been analyzed from an activity theoretical perspective. The analysis reveals several conflicts that exist between the training that is carried out and the defined training objectives. Although limitations in technology and organization are often alleviated by proficient instructors, it is concluded that there is a need for a structured approach to the design of training to be able to define the competencies and skills that ought to be trained along with relevant measurable training goals. Further, there is a need for a pedagogical model that takes the specifics of simulator training into account. Such a pedagogical model is needed to be able to evaluate the training, and would make it possible to share experiences and make comparisons between facilities in a structured manner.

  • 129. Aronsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Artman, Henrik
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Mitchell, Mikael
    Persson, Tomas
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Romero, Mario
    ter Vehn, Pontus
    Supporting after action review in simulator mission training: Co-creating visualization concepts for training of fast-jet fighter pilots2019In: The Journal of Defence Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1548-5129, E-ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 219-231Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design and evaluation of visualization concepts supporting After Action Review (AAR) in simulator mission training of fast-jet fighter pilots. The visualization concepts were designed based on three key characteristics of representations: re-representation, graphical constraining, and computational offloading. The visualization concepts represent combined parameters of missile launch and threat range, the former meant to elicit discussions about the prerequisites for launching missiles, and the latter to present details of what threats a certain aircraft is facing at a specific moment. The visualization concepts were designed to: 1) perceptually and cognitively offload mental workload from participants in support of determining relevant situations to discuss; 2) re-represent parameters in a format that facilitates reading-off of crucial information; and 3) graphically constrain plausible interpretations. Through a series of workshop iterations, two visualization concepts were developed and evaluated with 11 pilots and instructors. All pilots were unanimous in their opinion that the visualization concepts should be implemented as part of the AAR. Offloading, in terms of finding interesting events in the dynamic and unique training sessions, was the most important guiding concept, while re-representation and graphical constraining enabled a more structured and grounded collaboration during the AAR.

  • 130. Aronsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Artman, Henrik
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Mitchell, Mikael
    Persson, Tomas
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Swedish Air Force Combat Simulation Centre, Sweden.
    Romero, Mario
    ter Vehn, Pontus
    Supporting after action review in simulator mission training: Co-creating visualization concepts for training of professional fast-jet fighter pilots2019In: The Journal of Defence Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1548-5129, E-ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 219-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design and evaluation of visualization concepts supporting After Action Review (AAR) in simulator mission training of fast-jet fighter pilots. The visualization concepts were designed based on three key characteristics of representations: re-representation, graphical constraining, and computational offloading. The visualization concepts represent combined parameters of missile launch and threat range, the former meant to elicit discussions about the prerequisites for launching missiles, and the latter to present details of what threats a certain aircraft is facing at a specific moment. The visualization concepts were designed to: 1) perceptually and cognitively offload mental workload from participants in support of determining relevant situations to discuss; 2) re-represent parameters in a format that facilitates reading-off of crucial information; and 3) graphically constrain plausible interpretations. Through a series of workshop iterations, two visualization concepts were developed and evaluated with 11 pilots and instructors. All pilots were unanimous in their opinion that the visualization concepts should be implemented as part of the AAR. Offloading, in terms of finding interesting events in the dynamic and unique training sessions, was the most important guiding concept, while re-representation and graphical constraining enabled a more structured and grounded collaboration during the AAR.

  • 131. Aronsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Artman, Henrik
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Effektiv simulatorträning: Slutrapport projekt Effektiv flygträning och utbildning 2015-20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of what constitutes effective flight training and education is complex and can be approached in different ways. The research project "Effective fighter pilot training and education" (2015-2017) has scientifically and methodically worked on integrating pedagogical models and practical experience in flight training, taking into account organizational structures. Furthermore, systematic design work of visual support for debriefings has been conducted. This report integrates project activities, research questions and project results in a coherent description. Additional support (both tools and methods) is needed to analyze complex scenarios and measures that can pinpoint the performance of the pilot or group of pilots. Based on complex measures, two visualizations that provide an overview of the pilot's shooting moment and threat picture have been developed. Both visualizations, Missile launch and Threat range, have been evaluated in conjunction with Swedish air force fighter pilots and are presented in the report. Furthermore, the project have successfully used machine learning to categorize pilots' communication with the aim of assessing efficiency, and to identify any deficiencies through visualizations of the results. Educational models, visualizations, as well as empirical studies of simulator facilities also provide a basis for a discussion of what characterizes efficient simulator facilities and effective simulation training. Studies of the LVC (Live, Virtual & Constructive) concept, which means that training in one and the same scenario is done with real aircraft and pilots, pilots in flight simulators and artificial agents, have been conducted. Additionally, the project has introduced the concept of "LVC in everyday training", a vision of seamless integration of real aircraft and pilots in simulated aircraft. The activities of the project have largely been carried out in cooperation and in relation to the IMTR II (International Mission Training Research II) cooperation agreement with U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Within the collaboration, the project has contributed to a demonstration of LVC capabilities where FLSC were the only European participant. The project intends to continue this collaboration and focus on LVC to further approach the vision of LVC as an integral part of regular training. The report recommends a future research agenda.

  • 132.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Dovhammar, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Lindquist, Sinna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Markensten, Erik
    Antrop.
    Swartling, Anna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Att beställa något användbart är inte uppenbart: En motiverande bok om att beställa användbarhet2010Book (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Karlgren, Klas
    Ramberg, Robert
    Strååt, Björn
    Designing Interaction in Interaction Design: Using interactionarires in order to understand student use of interaction design concepts2012In: Designs for Learning 2012: Conference Proceedings, Copenhagen, Denmark: Aalborg University , 2012, p. 14-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction design is about designing interaction. But how do first year students of interaction design understand and use concepts of interaction in their design processes? By interaction analysis of video material we analyse how students used concepts adhering to interaction. The aspect most frequently used was interactivity. Interaction was mainly handled by using spoken language. While working with physical materials, talk about interaction decreased

  • 134. Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Mitchell, Mikael
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Utforskande av träningsvärde för Live och Virtual: Avrapportering projekt "LVC för effektiv flygträning" år 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring training value for Live and Virtual

    This report describes work done to explore and adapt LVC, a training concept that integrates real aircraft (Live), manned flight simulators (Virtual) and artificial agents (Constructive), into a Swedish context for the purpose of streamlining training and evaluation of performance and ability in complex and distributed systems. Particularly focused in this text is the training needs and training value, defined as the increased training value that pilots, in airplanes, and manned simulators, receive when participating in training involving real aircraft, simulators and artificial agents. To study training needs and training value of LVC training, three main activities were carried out: (1) a literature review of scientific studies about LVC and training effect. Results show that research and evaluation of the LVC concept have largely focused on technical aspects of LVC, rather than training value, (2) workshops for exploring added value at LVC training. Results show that the L-entity receives the best training value because pilots in airplanes can experience and train decision making in larger and more realistic scenarios under physical stress and unexpected events, and (3) conducting an experimental study (Wizard-of-Oz) at FLSC (Flygvapnets luftstridssimuleringscenter) where pilots in simulators in a fictitious LVC-test flew against what they thought were pilots in airplanes. Pilots who participated in the study stated that they thought it was a true LVC-test and acted accordingly. In debriefing, the pilots reported that pilots in simulators cannot get more out of LVC training than they can get out of regular simulator training. Results from the study further point to the importance of the design of training scenarios, so that both pilots in airplanes and simulators can get a good training effect. The report also provides for cooperation and information exchange with international partners. The report ends with a description of the project's focus 2019.

  • 135.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. FOI.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Jander, Hans
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Castor, Martin
    Borgvall, Jonathan
    Towards the Learning Organisation: Frameworks, Methods, and Tools for Resource-Efficient and Effective Training2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe models for operational training of military personnel and frameworks, methodologies, and tools that support the analysis, planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such training. The primary example used is simulator-based training and exercises, and in particular the operations at FOI/FLSC (Swedish Defence Research Agency/Swedish Air Force Combat Simulation Centre). The report also includes specific recommendations on how frameworks, methodologies, and data from assessment tools can be used by an organization for effective training, and suggests a number of research and development activities that strive towards a learning organization. 

  • 136.
    Arvidsson, Susann
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Gilljam, Britt-Mari
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing. Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Ruland, Cornelia Maria
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway & University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nordby-Bøe, Trude
    The Centre for Shared Decision Making and Collaborative Care Research (CSDM), Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Health and Nursing.
    Redesign and Validation of Sisom, an Interactive Assessment and Communication Tool for Children With Cancer2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Children with cancer undergo intensive and long treatment periods that expose them and their families to a number of difficult physical, mental, and social challenges. Empowering children by actively involving them in their care can help them to cope with these challenges. It can, however, be difficult for children to be involved and talk about their illness experiences in a "traditional" conversation with health care professionals, especially for younger children. Sisom (Norwegian acronym "Si det som det er" or "Tell it how it is") is an interactive computer-based assessment and communication tool to give children (aged 6-12 years) with cancer a "voice" in their care. Because of technological advances and widespread use of mobile devices Sisom had to be redesigned to better meet the needs of children of today.

    OBJECTIVE: To redesign Sisom for use on mobile devices and to validate and adapt it for use in a Swedish population of children with cancer.

    METHODS: A user-experience design was used. Content adaptation included forward-backward translation by Swedish and Norwegian translators. Healthy children (n=5), children with experiences of cancer treatment (n=5) and their parents (n=5), and pediatric nurses (n=2) were then involved in culturally adapting Sisom to the Swedish context. The iterative low- and high-fidelity evaluation was supported by a think aloud method, semistructured interviews, and drawings to capture children's views of Sisom. The redesign and evaluation continued until no further changes or improvements were identified by the participants or the researchers.

    RESULTS: Children, parents, and pediatric nurses offered many suggestions for improvements to the original version in terms of content, aesthetics, and usability of Sisom. The most significant change that emerged through user input was a modification that entailed not using problem-focused statements in the assessment items. The parents and pediatric nurses considered the revised assessment items to be general and less diagnosis specific. The evaluation of aesthetics resulted in brighter colors and more positive and exciting details in the animations. The evaluation of usability included improvements of the verbal instructions on how to navigate in Sisom 2, and also that the answers to assessmentitems in Sisom 2 should be saved to provide the children with the option to pause and to continue answering the remaining assessment items at a later stage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this paper describes the process of using user-experience design with children in order to redesign and validate an interactive assessment and communication tool and how the outcomes of this process resulted in a new version, Sisom 2. All participants confirmed the usability and qualities of using the final version. Future research should be directed toward the implementation of Sisom 2 in clinical practice and to evaluate outcomes from individual and organizational levels.

  • 137.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    A Use-Qualities Approach: Judgements in Interactive Media Design2007In: The virtual : designing digital experience : a conference 2006 / [ed] Patrik Hernwall, Handen: School of Communication, Technology and Design Södertörn College University , 2007, p. 102-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The activity of judging design alternatives is without doubt one of the key activities for successful design work, but the criteria used for judging goodness are often implicit. This article is about how to work with ‘use-qualities’ when judging the goodness of interactive media systems. Use-qualities denote the attributes of artefacts in use (e.g. effectiveness, safety, awkwardness). A theoretical background to the concept of use-qualities is given, as well as examples of how to create criteria for judgements based on use-qualities. The examples are drawn from the design case a novel multimedia platform for domestic leisure use. During the design process three prototypes were developed, 56 hours of situated interviews were made in eight homes, and tests were performed with 21 users. This formed the empirical material used to identify desirable use-qualities that could be utilized as criteria for judging the goodness of design alternatives. The desirable use-qualities were also hierarchically organized to clarify them as design objectives that can be shared and discussed in a design team and among stakeholders in a project. It is finally argued that working explicitly with desirable use-qualities has the potential to increase the self-consciousness of judgement in interactive media design and that it can open up for challenge, examination, specification and revision of operative criteria.

  • 138.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment criteria for interaction design projects: Fostering professional perspectives on the design process2010In: When Design Education and Design Research meet…: The 12th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education / [ed] Boks, C., McMahon, C., Ion, W., Parkinson, B., Wiltshire: Institution of Engineering Designers, The Design Society , 2010, p. 432-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quite often the product of design is assessed in interaction design education, but we need to develop criteria also for courses that focus on learning to conduct and manage the design process. An earlier approach to set grading criteria has been grounded in the SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) taxonomy. Students need, however, to learn practitionersᅵ criteria, rather than teachersᅵ criteria, to make a successful transfer to practice. One way of achieving that is to align criteria with the conceptions of design process quality used by professional interaction designers. The question is then what those conceptions are, and how they can be accounted for in assessment criteria for projects in interaction design education. A phenomenographic research method was used, and interviews were conducted with ten experienced interaction designers. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that professional interaction designers see design process quality as inspiration, a well-grounded rationale, employment of established methods, and constraints management. These conceptions are mapped to a criteria-referenced grading scale. The criteria should, with careful transfer, be applicable also in other design disciplines.

  • 139.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cognitive anthropology as a basis for studying use quality of IT in the home2000In: 7th IDA Conference on Computer and Information Science, Linköping: Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science , 2000, p. 69-73Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the theory of quality-in-use of interactive IT-artefacts. It also argues for a multi-perspective view of use quality in the design and study of IT-artefacts in the home. The design community of IT-based consumer products will benefit from studying what users consider being important and meaningful use qualities. For higher transferability of results and theoretical value, an understanding of why users find these qua qualities to meaningful must be developed. Theory and methods from cognitive anthropology may provide a foundation for this. Finally future research questions and methods are presented.

  • 140.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grading in interaction design education using design practitioners conceptions of process quality2012In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 472-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The designed product is often assessed in interaction design education, but there are also courses that focus on learning the design process. It is then necessary to develop criteria for grading in such courses. To make a successful transfer from theory to practice, students also need to learn the criteria practitioners use, rather than the criteria that academically oriented teachers use. To do this, one approach is to align criteria with the conceptions practicing interaction designers have of process quality in design. Therefore, the research questions for this study are what those conceptions are, and how they can be utilized in grading criteria for interaction design projects in education. Interviews were made with 10 interaction designers. The interviews were qualitatively analyzed. The results demonstrate that practicing interaction designers conceptualize the quality of the design process in three ways: it is good if established methods are used and the design is managed within resource constraints, and within organizational and technological limitations, while also meeting stated objectives; it is even better if the design has a thought-through rationale; and ideally, the design should also be inspirational. These conceptions were transferred to points on a criteria-referenced grading scale which was used to develop course specific grading criteria. The criteria were evaluated in terms of comprehensibility and reliability. The evaluation showed that most of the students who also attended lectures understood the criteria. A high and significant covariation and a high level of agreement between the two teachers who graded the projects were shown. Further, the developed criteria should be generalizable to other process-centered interaction design courses and to assessment in other design disciplines.

  • 141.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaction and Service Design as Offering Perspectives in a Space of Action2014In: Proceedings of DRS 2014: Design's Big Debates / [ed] Youn-kyung Lim, Kristina Niedderer, Johan Redström, Erik Stolterman, Anna Valtonen, Umeå: Umeå Institute of Design, Umeå University , 2014, p. 7-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes the proposition that interaction and service design can be seen as offering perspectives in a space of action where acting agents grasp a finite perspective depending on objects of concern and equipment, and then reorganize the space. The meaning of this proposition is outlined in the paper, and it also presents a case study of client meetings at banks, which illustrates the proposition. That case show how equipment was used in the background while the clerk attended the client. The clerk made things available for the client in their shared region, directing the client’s perspective on the space of action. It was observed that equipment at times presented too rigid a perspective, not allowing the clerk to restructure it. Still, the clerk could make things available for himself or herself and for others, creating a multi-stable character of the region. Seeing interaction and service design in this way highlight the service moments as they appear to the individual agents who co-create the service throughout an encounter. The region set up by designers offers a frame of possible perspectives and an orientation in the service moment. 

  • 142.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Interaction design patterns for computers in sociable use2006In: International journal of computer applications in technology, ISSN 0952-8091, E-ISSN 1741-5047, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 128-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to a growing body of design patterns in interaction design for cooperative work, while also describing how to go from field studies to design patterns. It focuses on sociable face-to-face situations. The patterns are based on field studies and design work in three sociable settings, where desirable use qualities were identified and translated into forces in three design patterns for controlling information visibility. On the basis of the patterns, the design of a multiple-device multimedia platform is described. It is shown that desirable qualities of systems-in-use can be utilised as forces in patterns, which means that traditional qualitative research is highly valuable when documenting design knowledge in patterns. Three classes of interaction design patterns are identified: environments for interactions, means for interaction and interfaces for interaction. These classes describe types of patterns within a hierarchical model of interaction design.

  • 143.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaction design qualities: theory and practice2010In: NordiCHI '10 Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries / [ed] Hvannberg, E. Þ., Lárusdóttir, M. K., Blandford, A., Gulliksen, J., New York: ACM , 2010, p. 595-598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of an action research project investigating the articulation of interaction design qualities for a web portal for urban planning and development. A framework for analyzing interaction design qualities is presented. The framework consists of the practical, the social, the aesthetic, the structural and the ethical quality dimensions, and it was tried out in practice with developers and designers of the portal. This provided experiences used to revise the framework. The results indicate that the framework can be improved by splitting the social quality dimension into a communicational dimension and an organizational dimension. The structural dimension is also renamed to the technical dimension.

  • 144.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaction designers’ conceptions of design quality for interactive artifacts2010In: Design and Complexity,  DRS 2010 / [ed] Durling, D., Bousbaci, R., Chen, L., Gauthier, P., Poldma, T., Roworth-Stokes, S., Stolterman, E., Montréal: Université de Montréal , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to be aware of different ways of seeing design quality of interactive artifacts in order to appreciate the various aspects of a design, but how do professional interaction designers understand design quality? In theory, one way of approaching design quality of interactive artifacts has been the Vitruvian principles of commodity, firmness and delight, originally created for architecture. Such frameworks are, however, seldom directly employed in practice. This paper investigates what conceptions professional interaction designers have of design quality for interactive artifacts. Interviews were conducted with ten designers. The analysis disclosed four conceptions concerning: (a) Constraints & contexts, (b) motivations & purposes, (c) use-qualities of functions & content, and (d) experiential qualities of form & behaviour. An awareness of these conceptions may facilitate the appreciation for different aspects and opportunities in a design situation.

  • 145.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaktionsdesign och UX: om att skapa en god användarupplevelse2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Interaktionsdesign och UX handlar om tekniker för att utforma nyskapande interaktiva produkter och tjänster med god användarupplevelse. God användarupplevelse, eller UX (eng. user experience), är det övergripande målet för designarbetet. Den här boken är tänkt som ett praktiskt stöd under hela designprocessen: från initiala insikter och formulerade avsikter, till konceptidéer och test av prototyper. Tyngdpunkten ligger på de tidiga faserna där designens inriktning slås fast.

    Boken vänder sig till yrkesverksamma som vill lära sig nya tekniker och arbetssätt, och till studenter som ska arbeta konkret med design av interaktiva produkter och tjänster.

  • 146.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shades of Use: The Dynamics of Interaction Design for Sociable Use2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers are used in sociable situations, for example during customer meetings. This is seldom recognized in design, which means that computers often become a hindrance in the meeting. Based on empirical studies and socio-cultural theory, this thesis provides perspectives on sociable use and identifies appropriate units of analysis that serve as critical tools for understanding and solving interaction design problems. Three sociable situations have been studied: customer meetings, design studios and domestic environments. In total, 49 informants were met with during 41 observation and interview sessions and 17 workshops; in addition, three multimedia platforms were also designed. The empirical results show that people need to perform individual actions while participating in joint action, in a spontaneous fashion and in consideration of each other. The consequence for design is that people must be able to use computers in different manners to control who has what information. Based on the empirical results, five design patterns were developed to guide interaction design for sociable use. The thesis demonstrates that field studies can be used to identify desirable use qualities that in turn can be used as design objectives and forces in design patterns. Re-considering instrumental, communicational, aesthetical, constructional and ethical aspects can furthermore enrich the understanding of identified use qualities. Witha foundation in the field studies, it is argued that the deliberation of ynamic characters and use qualities is an essential component of interaction design. Designers of interaction are required to work on three levels: the user interface, the mediating artefact and the activity of use. It is concluded that doing interaction design is to provide users with perspectives, resources and constraints on their space for actions; the complete design is not finalized until the users engage in action. This is where the fine distinctions and, what I call 'shades of use' appear.

  • 147.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Interaction Character of Computers in Co-located Collaboration2003In: People and Computers XVII: Proceedings of HCI 2003: Designing for Society / [ed] O'Neill, E., Palanque, P., Johnson, P., London: Springer , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An INTERACTION CHARACTER refers to a coherent set of qualities of the actions that an application mediates. Examples of such characters include the ‘computer as a tool’ and the ‘computer as a medium’. This paper investigates INTERACTION CHARACTERS of applications used in colocated collaboration. Three qualitative cases have been investigated: consultation at banks, interaction design studio work, and interactive television usage. Interviews, observations, and workshops, as well as prototype design and testing, were conducted as part of the case studies. The results show that the INTERACTION CHARACTER may change swiftly in the middle of usage, which means that people are using the systems quite differently from one moment to the next. One way to increase the flexibility of a system is to facilitate those shifts between different INTERACTION CHARACTERS, by for instance letting people use the system as a tool one minute, and as a medium or a resource the next.

  • 148.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Mediated Action Sheets: A Framework for the Fuzzy Front-End of Interaction and Service Design2013In: Crafting the Future: Proceedings of the 10th European Academy of Design Conference, 2013, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The front-end of the design process is where the design work is framed for the first time. It is the early part of the design work where the design team decides what to design rather than how to design something. It is often referred to as fuzzy, since it is very tentative in nature and the design team has yet to develop a sense of direction. In product design, the team, however, already knows that they are to develop some kind of physical product. In graphic design, the team knows that some sort of visual artefact is to be produced. In interaction and service design, the design team has a wider scope, aiming to shape the activities people perform. The problem this paper addresses is what to focus on in the fuzzy front-end of interaction and service design. We propose using the Mediated Action Sheets, which provide a framework based on socio-cultural theories of mediated action to structure the user research and idea generation phases of the design process. The Mediated Action Sheets consist of The Persona Sheet that is a structure for user research and developing personas, and The Concept Design Sheet for thinking concept ideas through in more detail. The paper provides examples of how they can be incorporated into the craftsmanship of interaction and service design.

  • 149.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    When Personas were Not Fully Effective: The Mastery, Appropiation, and Authority of a Design Tool2006In: The Persona Lifecycle: Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design / [ed] Pruitt, J., Adlin, T., San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann , 2006, p. 300-301Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    At a company we’ll call “Q”, a set of personas were created and attempts were made to use them as a design tool, but we found they were not fully and effectively utilized. In this case study, we briefly describe what happened and provide some reasons for this outcome.

  • 150.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDI - Interaction and Service Design Research Group.
    Artman, Henrik
    CSC KTH.
    Enactments in Interaction Design: How Designers Make Sketches Behave2007In: Artifact, ISSN 1749-3463, E-ISSN 1749-3471, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do designers of interactive media work on the dynamic aspects of their designs? Previous research has emphasized the role of gestures to express what users and computers do. This paper contributes with a detailed analysis of interaction designers' enactments in terms of what they express using a model of interaction design based on five domains: design concept, functions and content, structure, interaction, and presentation. Two enactive means of expression are identified: interaction walkthrough and improvised role play. Gestures drive the interaction walkthrough and scenarios created on the spot drive the improvised role play. In terms of the suggested model of interaction design, interaction walkthroughs start out in the domain of interaction, and improvised role play starts out in the domain of design concept. From these domains the designer can then see consequences for the other domains of interaction design. The five domains of interaction design can be used as an analytical tool for thoughtful reflection, and interaction walkthroughs and improvised role play can be articulated as conscious means of expression.

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