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  • 1. Darab, Mandi
    et al.
    Barnett, Alejandro Oyarce
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi. SINTEF, Norway.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Thomassen, Magnus Skinlo
    Sunde, Svein
    The Influence of Catalyst Layer Thickness on the Performance and Degradation of PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Constant Catalyst Loading2017Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 232, s. 505-516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three catalytic layers containing Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbon of different Pt loading but with the same total amount of platinum and therefore of different thickness were employed as cathode catalytic layers (CCLs) in a PEM fuel cell. The layers were subjected to a degradation protocol with an upper potential limit of 1.5 V. Upon exposure to the degradation protocol particle size increased, the electrochemical areas (ECAs) of the catalysts decreased, the catalytic layers became thinner, and the average pore size decreased, indicating both carbon and Pt corrosion. The relative decrease in the ECA was approximately the same for all three layers and was therefore approximately independent of CCL thickness. For all samples the reaction order with respect to oxygen was one half and the samples showed doubling of the slope of the potential vs. log current curve (dEld logi) at high current densities. This indicates that kinetics control the potential at low currents and kinetics and proton migration (ohmic drops in the catalytic layer) at high. However, the degradation protocol also introduced limitations due to oxygen diffusion in the agglomerates. This led to a quadrupling of the dEld logi-slope in 13% oxygen in the samples with the highest catalyst area per volume. For the sample with the lowest catalyst area per volume this slope increased by a factor of six in 13% oxygen, indicating that the local current density exceeded that required for the Tafel slope of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) to double.

  • 2.
    Gomez, Yasna Acevedo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell2018Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, nr 3, s. F189-F197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reformate hydrogen from biogas is an attractive fuel alternative for energy conversion in PEM fuel cells. However, in the reformate traces of ammonia may be found, e.g. if the biogas is produced from agricultural resources. In this investigation the effect of ammonia in the fuel gas, on each part of the fuel cell, is studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), symmetrical hydrogen cell (H2|H2)- and real fuel cell operation. A considerable degradation in performance is observed by introducing 200 ppm ammonia. The results show that ammonia not only affects the polymer electrolyte membrane but also the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes, whereas the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is the worst affected. In the short-term, the performance is reversible if running the cell on neat hydrogen after ammonia exposure, but this does not apply for long-term exposure. A mitigation method with air bleed is tested but gives no improvement of the performance.

  • 3.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Electrode degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna doktorsavhandling behandlar degraderingen av polymerelektrolytbränslecellselektroder. polymerelektrolytbränslecellselektroder. Den handlar särskilt om nedbrytningen av elektroden kopplad till en degraderingsmekanism som heter ”localized fuel starvation” oftast närvarande vid uppstart och nedstängning av bränslecellen. Vid start och stopp kan syrgas och vätgas förekomma samtidigt i anoden. Detta leder till väldigt höga elektrodpotentialer i katoden. Resultatet av detta är att kolbaserade katalysatorbärare korroderar och att bränslecellens livslängd förkortas. Målet med avhandlingen har varit att utveckla metoder, material och strategier för att både öka förståelsen av denna degraderingsmekanism och för att maximera katalysatorbärarens livslängd.Ett vanligt tillvägagångsätt för att bestämma graden av katalysatorns degradering är genom mätning av den elektrokemiskt aktiva ytan hos bränslecellselektroderna. I denna avhandling har dessutom effekten av temperatur och relativ fukthalt studerats. Låga fukthalter minskar den aktiva ytan hos elektroden, vilket sannolikt orsakas av en omstrukturering av jonomeren och av kontaktförlust mellan jonomer och katalysator.Olika accelererade degraderingstester för kolkorrosion har använts. Potentiostatiska tester vid 1.2 V mot RHE visade sig vara för milda. Potentiostatiska tester vid 1.4 V mot RHE visade sig däremot medföra en hög grad av reversibilitet, som också den tros vara orsakad av en omstrukturering av jonomeren. Cykling av elektrodpotentialen degraderade istället elektroden irreversibelt, inom rimlig tid och kunde väldigt nära simulera förhållandena vid uppstart och nedstängning.Korrosionen av katalysatorbäraren medför degradering av katalysatorn och har också en stor inverkan på elektrodens morfologi. En minskad elektrodporositet, en ökad agglomeratstorlek och en anrikning av jonomeren gör att elektrodens masstransportegenskaper försämras. Grafitiska kolfibrer visade sig vara mer resistenta mot kolkorrosion än konventionella kol, främst p.g.a. deras låga ytarea. Grafitiska kolfibrer visade också en förmåga att bättre bibehålla elektrodens morfologi efter accelererade tester, vilket resulterade i lägre masstransportförluster.Olika systemstrategier för nedstängning jämfördes. Att inte göra något under nedstängning är mycket skadligt för bränslecellen. Förbrukning av syre med en last och spolning av katoden med vätgas visade 100 gånger lägre degraderingshastighet av bränslecellsprestanda jämfört med att inte göra något alls och 10 gånger lägre degraderingshastighet jämfört med spolning av anoden med luft. In-situ kontaktresistansmätningar visade att kontaktresistansen mellan bipolära plattor och GDL är dynamisk och kan ändras beroende på driftförhållandena.

  • 4.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Gonzalez, Carlos
    Lima, Raquel Bohn
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Direct sorbitol proton exchange membrane fuel cell using moderate catalyst loadings2014Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 116, s. 379-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in biomass hydrolysis has made it interesting to study the use of sorbitol for electricity generation. In this study, sorbitol and glucose are used as fuels in proton exchange membrane fuel cells having 0.9 mg cm(-2) PtRu/C at the anode and 0.3 mg cm(-2) Pt/C at the cathode. The sorbitol oxidation was found to have slower kinetics than glucose oxidation. However, at low temperatures the direct sorbitol fuel cell shows higher performance than the direct glucose fuel cell, attributed to a lower degree of catalyst poisoning. The performance of both fuel cells is considerably improved at higher temperatures. High temperatures lower the poisoning, allowing the direct glucose fuel cell to reach a higher performance than the direct sorbitol fuel cell. The mass specific peak power densities of the direct sorbitol and direct glucose fuel cells at 65 degrees C was 3.2 mW Mg-catalyst(-1) and 3.5 mW Mg-catalyst(-1), respectively. Both of these values are one order of magnitude larger than mass specific peak power densities of earlier reported direct glucose fuel cells using proton exchange membranes. Furthermore, both the fuel cells showed a considerably decrease in performance with time, which is partially attributed to sorbitol and glucose crossover poisoning the Pt/C cathode.

  • 5.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Holmström, Nicklas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Boden, A.
    Randstrom, S.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    In-situ Measurements of Contact Resistance and In-situ Durability studies of Steels and Coatings to be used as Bipolar Plates in PEMFCs2009Ingår i: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 1791-1801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a fast, low cost and reliable methodology for bipolar plate material screening and testing is presented. Ex-situ measurements of contact resistance are used as a screening tool, while in-situ measurements such as: fuel cell performance, in-situ contact resistance, high frequency impedance spectroscopy, together with post analysis of stainless steel surfaces, MEAs and fuel cell effluent water evaluates the real performance of the most promising stainless steels and coatings, providing reliable data for future fuel cell stack test.

  • 6.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Holmström, Nicklas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Bodén, A.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Operating conditions affecting the contact resistance of bi-polar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells2013Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 231, s. 246-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both ex-situ and in-situ measurements of contact resistance between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and bi-polar plate (BPP) were carried out using the same fuel cell hardware. Each BPP sample was submitted to ex-situ testing at room temperature, ex-situ testing in simulated fuel cell environment and in-situ testing, isolating the effect of specific operating conditions on the contact resistance. Increasing cell temperatures and relative humidity (RH) of the gases lowered the contact resistance. However, the presence of liquid water, measured as an increase in pressure drop over the cathode, affected the contact resistance negatively. High current density operation raises the temperature of the cell, but simultaneously increases the water content at the cathode, causing an increase of the contact resistance. In the case of uncoated steel 316L and gold-coated steel 316L, high current density operation for an extended period of time also caused a progressive deterioration of the contact resistance, which without this in-situ measurement could have been mistaken for other ohmic losses, e.g. increased membrane resistance due to metal ion poisoning.

  • 7.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Hussami, Linda L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Corkey, Robert W.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Polyhedral Carbon Nanoforms as catalyst support in a Proton Exchange Membrance cathodeManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    The Electrochemical Response of a Corroded PEMFC Cathode: Mass-transport at low RHManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Zakrisson, Erik
    Ivity, Matthew
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Baumann Ofstad, Axel
    Bodén, Andreas
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Comparing shut-down strategies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells2014Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 254, s. 232-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of system strategies for mitigating carbon corrosion of the catalyst support in proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a requirement for PEMFC systems, especially in the case of systems for transport application undergoing thousands of start-ups and shut-downs (SU/SD) during its lifetime. This study compares several of the most common shut-down strategies for 1100 cycles SU/SD cycles at 70 C and 80% RH using commercially available fuel cell components. Each cycle simulates a prolonged shut-down, i.e. finishing each cycle with air filled anode and cathode. Furthermore, all start-ups are unprotected, i.e. introducing the H2 rich gas into an air filled anode. Finally, each cycle also includes normal fuel cell operation at 0.5 A cm-2 using synthetic reformate/air. H2 purge of the cathode and O2 consumption using a load were found to be the most effective strategies. The degradation rate using the H2 purge strategy was 23 μV cycle-1 at 0.86 A cm-2 using H 2 and air at the anode and cathode, respectively. This degradation rate may be regarded as a generally low value, especially considering that this value also includes the degradation rate caused by unprotected start-ups.

  • 10.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Aguinaga, Luis Guerrero
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Ubeda, Diego
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Ingratta, Mark
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Fuel cell performance using a phosphonated polysulphone ionomer (PSUgPVPA) in the PEM cathode electrode2013Ingår i: Fuel Cell Membranes, Electrode Binders, And Mea Performance, Electrochemical Society, 2013, nr 23, s. 33-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inexpensive and environmentally friendly electrolyte polymers that can be operated at higher temperatures and drier conditions are highly interesting for PEM fuel cells for automotive, portable power and stationary electricity generation applications. In this study an ionomer based on polysulfone grafted with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PSUgPVPA) in the cathode Pt/C catalyst layer (CL) was electrochemically characterized and compared to Nafion (R). The performance at different levels of humidity at 80 degrees C was evaluated by polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the performance of the PSUgPVPA-based cathode CL is comparable to that of Nafion (R) at 100% relative humidity (RH) but with some instabilities. However, at drier conditions significant losses of performance for the PSUgPVPA-based cathode was observed, concomitant to a reduced electrochemical surface area. The lower performance at low humidity is concluded to be due to a combination of lower proton conductivity and wettability or interference with oxygen reduction reaction at lower RH.

  • 11.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Kortsdottir, Katrin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Wesselmark, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Active Area Determination of Porous Pt Electrodes Used in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: Temperature and Humidity Effects2010Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, nr 12, s. B1795-B1801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the proper measure of the electrochemically active area (ECA)of carbon supported Pt catalyst in PEM fuel cells employing in situ cyclic voltammetry. The charges of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) and CO stripping peak obtained in situ are compared, and the influence of operation temperature (25–80°C) and relative humidity (40%–90%) is discussed. The results show that the charges of the Hupd decrease with rising temperature, while the corresponding charges of the CO stripping peak are essentially independent of temperature, at least at high relative humidity. The unexpectedly small Hupd charges are explained by the significant overlap with the hydrogen evolution reaction in a fuel cell at elevated temperatures. According to our results, it is proposed that a more reliable value of Pt ECA is estimated from the CO stripping charge. However, with decreasing humidity the charges of both Hupd and CO stripping peaks decrease, which is probably an effect of increasing blockage of Pt active sites by hydrophobic domains in the electrode ionomer. Some implications of varying cell conditions on the estimated Pt ECA and its correlation with fuel cell activity are discussed in an example from a fuel cell degradation test.

  • 12.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Aguinaga, Luis Guerrero
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Ubeda, Diego
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Ingratta, Mark
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Performance of Phosphonated Hydrocarbon Ionomer in the Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Layer2013Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 160, nr 3, s. F269-F277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inexpensive and environmentally friendly electrolyte polymers that can be operated at higher temperatures and drier conditions are highly interesting for PEM fuel cells for automotive, portable power and stationary electricity generation applications. In this study an ionomer based on polysulfone grafted with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PSUgPVPA) in the cathode Pt/C catalyst layer was electrochemically characterized and compared to Nafion. The performance at different levels of humidity at 80 degrees C was evaluated by polarization measurements, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the performance of the PSUgPVPA-based cathode catalyst layer is comparable to that of Nafion-at 100% relative humidity (RH) but with some instabilities. However, at drier conditions significant losses of performance for the PSUgPVPA-based cathode was observed. This could be an effect of catalyst poisoning by the ionomer interfering with ORR. However, the concomitant decrease of the electrochemical surface area, double layer capacitance and increased imaginary impedance, indicate that the poorer performance at low humidity is mainly an effect of reduced catalyst wetting by the ionomer in combination with the decreased proton conduction in the ionomeric phase.

  • 13. Yli-Rantala, E.
    et al.
    Pasanen, A.
    Kauranen, P.
    Ruiz, V.
    Borghei, M.
    Kauppinen, E.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Darab, M.
    Sunde, S.
    Thomassen, M.
    Ma-Andersen, S.
    Skou, E.
    Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC2011Ingår i: Fuel Cells, ISSN 1615-6846, E-ISSN 1615-6854, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 715-725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphitised carbon nanofibres (G-CNFs) show superior thermal stability and corrosion resistance in PEM fuel cell environment over traditional carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube catalyst supports. However, G-CNFs have an inert surface with only very limited amount of surface defects for the anchorage of Pt catalyst nanoparticles. Modification of the fibre surface is therefore needed. In this study Pt nanoparticles have been deposited onto as-received and surface-modified G-CNFs. The surface modifications of the fibres comprise acid treatment and nitrogen doping by pyrolysis of a polyaniline (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported catalyst and the effects of the different surface treatments were discussed. On the basis of these results, new membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were manufactured and tested also for carbon corrosion by in situ FTIR analysis of the cathode exhaust gases. It was observed that the G-CNFs showed 5?times lower carbon corrosion compared to CB based catalyst when potential reached 1.5?V versus RHE in simulated start/stop cycling.

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