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  • 1.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan. KTH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för jazz. KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för musik- och medieproduktion. KTH.
    Misgeld, Olof
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för folkmusik. KTH.
    Mattias, Sköld
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för folkmusik. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019Ingår i: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, 2019, s. 36-42Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions.  We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 2.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Misgeld, Olof
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019Ingår i: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, Stockholm, 2019, s. 36-42Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions. 

    We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 3.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Computer-aided Composition Using a Sound-Based NotationIngår i: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the music data format of the recently introduced Sound Notation system, and how it makes possible computer-aided composition of scores represent- ing sound-based music. The Sound Notation system is an adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation, developed for composition and analysis. A detailed description of the data format is followed by two examples of its application in a computer-aided composi- tion process resulting in the sounding interpretation of two score excerpts of an electroacoustic composition. Generat- ing sound structures as symbolic notation data in this way provided possibilities for the creation of sound-based mu- sic otherwise limited to works of traditional notation.

  • 4.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Notation as visual representation of sound-based music2022Ingår i: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 51, nr 2-3, s. 186-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This text describes the musical evaluation of a hybrid music notation system that combines traditional notation with symbols and concepts from spectromorphological analysis. During three academic years from 2017 to 2020, three groups of composition students learned to work with sound notation, recreating and interpreting short electroacoustic music sketches based solely on their notation transcriptions – they had not heard the original sketches. The students’ score interpretations bore obvious similarities to the original music sketches and their written reflections showed that there were no major difficulties in understanding the notation although some difficulties existed concerning finding suitable sounds, especially sounds with stable pitch.

  • 5.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Sound Notation: The visual representation of sound for composition and analysis2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna sammanläggningsavhandling beskriver steg som tagits för att utveckla och utvärdera Sound Notation, ett nytt notationssystem för komposition, analys och transkription med kapacitet att beskriva alla typer av ljud. Idéer från elektroakustisk musikanalys kombineras med traditionell notation för att bilda ett hybridsystem. I denna notation är alla symboler relaterade till fysiska egenskaper i ljudet, så att en person eller en dator kan identifiera symbolerna från deras sonifiering eller musikaliska tolkning.

    Pierre Schaeffer identifierade tidigt musique concrètes brist på musikteori och musikvokabulär som ett stort problem för dess integration med musikteori och musikvetenskap. Schaeffer, Denis Smalley och senare Lasse Thoresen skulle gå långt för att förse genren elektroakustisk musik med klassificering, terminologi och grafiska symboler till förmån för dess studium. Men om vi ska tänka på musik som ett språk blir det uppenbart att avsaknaden av ett delat intersubjektivt notsystem är ett problem. Ett sådant notsystem skulle ge ljudbaserad musik möjligheter som tidigare endast erbjöds musik baserad på tonhöjdsstrukturer. Detta inkluderar transkriptioner och omtolkningar av musikaliska verk, notationsbaserad gehörsträning och (datorunderstödd) komposition.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Mattias Sköld - Sound Notation
  • 6.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The notation of sound for composition and transcription: An adaptation of Lasse Thoresen's spectromorphological analysis2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation -- TENOR'20 / [ed] Rama Gottfried, Georg Hajdu, Jacob Sello, Alessandro Anatrini, John MacCallum, Hamburg, 2020, s. 106-113Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details my adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation for the sake of composition and transcription, re-imagining the analysis symbols for use over a spectrum staff system over which pitch and spectra can be indicated with great detail, and possibly interpreted by musicians and computers for performance. A sound object is notated with regard to its spectral width, density, centroid frequency, significant sound components, modulation and amplitude envelope. It can also have a spectrum reference. The symbols are placed over a spectrum grand-staff with a frequency scale to show each parameter both from a frequency and pitch perspective. Also included are suggestions for the visual representation of spatialisation where positions and movements are displayed in two or three dimensions above the sound notation while constant rotations are notated as modulations. 

  • 7.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The visual representation of spatialisation for composition and analysis2019Ingår i: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019 / [ed] Andre Holzapfel and Sandra Pauletto, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2019, s. 70-77Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this text is my ongoing research into creating a uniform and comprehensive notation system for music regardless of sound sources, acoustic or electronic. I propose a way to visually represent the positions and movements of sound in composition and analysis of music which in different ways utilises space as a parameter. I address a number of aspects of spatialised music to take into account when defining a notation language for the music. I suggest visually representing the room in different ways depending on how the music relates to the concept of space: as projections from the center of a sphere for more structural work, or as coordinates in a cubic room for works that depict a physical or imagined space. I also show how these descriptions of space are integrated with my existing notation system.

  • 8.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The Visual Representation of Timbre2022Ingår i: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 387-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This text deals with the difficult task of notating timbre by addressing how it can be classified, synthesised, recognised and related to visual correspondences, and then looking at the relevance of these topics for notational purposes. Timbre is understood as dependent on both spectral and time-dependent features that can be notated in ways that make sense in relation to both perception and acoustics. This is achieved by taking the starting point in Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis. Symbols originally developed for perception-based analysis are adapted for use over a hybrid spectrum-staff system to indicate the spectral qualities of timbre. To test the system, it was used to transcribe excerpts of three classic electroacoustic music works. In addition to the benefit of being able to compare the three excerpts transcribed with the same system, there is the advantage that the visual representation is based on spectral measurable qualities in the music. The notation system’s intuitiveness was also explored in listening tests, showing that it was possible to understand spectral notation symbols placed over a staff system, particularly for examples with two sound objects instead of one.

  • 9.
    Panariello, Claudio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KMH Royal College of Music.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    From vocal sketching to sound models by means of a sound-based musical transcription system2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences, CERN , 2019, s. 167-173Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how notation developed for the representation of sound-based musical structures could be used for the transcription of vocal sketches representing expressive robot movements. A mime actor initially produced expressive movements which were translated to a humanoid robot. The same actor was then asked to illustrate these movements using vocal sketching. The vocal sketches were transcribed by two composers using sound-based notation. The same composers later synthesized new sonic sketches from the annotated data. Different transcriptions and synthesized versions of these were compared in order to investigate how the audible outcome changes for different transcriptions and synthesis routines. This method provides a palette of sound models suitable for the sonification of expressive body movements.

  • 10.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Combining Sound- and Pitch-Based Notation for Teaching and Composition2018Ingår i: Proceedings Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation: TENOR'18 / [ed] Bhagwati, Sandeep & Bresson, Jean, Montreal, Canada, 2018, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    My research is concerned with finding a common notation for pitch-based, sound-based and spatialized music in an attempt to bridge the gap between acoustic and electronic music, also working towards the possibility of a holistic system for algorithmic composition based on music representation. This paper describes the first step towards this goal, focusing on the combination of pitch-based and sound-based musical structures, introducing a graphical notation system that combines traditional music notation with electroacoustic music analysis notation. I present how this was tested in practice in a case study within the framework of composition education at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm, where composition students were working with, and reacting to, the system.

  • 11.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Computer-aided Composition Using a Sound-Based NotationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the music data format of the recently introduced Sound Notation system, and how it makes possible computer-aided composition of scores represent- ing sound-based music. The Sound Notation system is an adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation, developed for composition and analysis. A detailed description of the data format is followed by two examples of its application in a computer-aided composi- tion process resulting in the sounding interpretation of two score excerpts of an electroacoustic composition. Generat- ing sound structures as symbolic notation data in this way provided possibilities for the creation of sound-based mu- sic otherwise limited to works of traditional notation.

  • 12.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Notation as visual representation of sound-based music2023Ingår i: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This text describes the musical evaluation of a hybrid music notation system that combines traditional notation with symbols and concepts from spectromorphological analysis. During three academic years from 2017 to 2020, three groups of composition students learned to work with sound notation, recreating and interpreting short electroacoustic music sketches based solely on their notation transcriptions – they had not heard the original sketches. The students’ score interpretations bore obvious similarities to the original music sketches and their written reflections showed that there were no major difficulties in understanding the notation although some difficulties existed concerning finding suitable sounds, especially sounds with stable pitch.

  • 13.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    The Harmony of Noise: Constructing a Unified System for Representation of Pitch, Noise and Spatialization2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research / [ed] Richard Kronland-Martinet, Sølvi Ystad, Mitsuko Aramaki, Marseille: Les éditions de PRISM , 2017, s. 550-555Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a composer of both electroacoustic and acosutic works, I have been puzzled by the lasting discrepancy between the theoretical frameworks surrounding instrumental and electroacoustic music theory, particularly with regard to algorithmic composition. This text outlines the basic ideas for my doctoral studies, focusing on the digital representation of sound for composition, analysis and performance, both as data and graphic notation with the aim of bringing the worlds of acoustic and electronic music closer together.

  • 14.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The notation of sound for composition and transcription: An adaptation of Lasse Thoresen's spectromorphological analysis2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation -- TENOR'20 / [ed] Rama Gottfried, Georg Hajdu, Jacob Sello, Alessandro Anatrini, John MacCallum, Hamburg, 2020, s. 106-113Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details my adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation for the sake of composition and transcription, re-imagining the analysis symbols for use over a spectrum staff system over which pitch and spectra can be indicated with great detail, and possibly interpreted by musicians and computers for performance. A sound object is notated with regard to its spectral width, density, centroid frequency, significant sound components, modulation and amplitude envelope. It can also have a spectrum reference. The symbols are placed over a spectrum grand-staff with a frequency scale to show each parameter both from a frequency and pitch perspective. Also included are suggestions for the visual representation of spatialisation where positions and movements are displayed in two or three dimensions above the sound notation while constant rotations are notated as modulations. 

  • 15.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The visual representation of spatialisation for composition and analysis2019Ingår i: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019 / [ed] Andre Holzapfel and Sandra Pauletto, Stockholm, 2019, s. 70-77Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this text is my ongoing research into creating a uniform and comprehensive notation system for music regardless of sound sources, acoustic or electronic. I propose a way to visually represent the positions and movements of sound in composition and analysis of music which in different ways utilises space as a parameter. I address a number of aspects of spatialised music to take into account when defining a notation language for the music. I suggest visually representing the room in different ways depending on how the music relates to the concept of space: as projections from the center of a sphere for more structural work, or as coordinates in a cubic room for works that depict a physical or imagined space. I also show how these descriptions of space are integrated with my existing notation system.

  • 16.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    The Visual Representation of Timbre2022Ingår i: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This text deals with the difficult task of notating timbre by addressing how it can be classified, synthesised, recognised and related to visual correspondences, and then looking at the relevance of these topics for notational purposes. Timbre is understood as dependent on both spectral and time-dependent features that can be notated in ways that make sense in relation to both perception and acoustics. This is achieved by taking the starting point in Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis. Symbols originally developed for perception-based analysis are adapted for use over a hybrid spectrum-staff system to indicate the spectral qualities of timbre. To test the system, it was used to transcribe excerpts of three classic electroacoustic music works. In addition to the benefit of being able to compare the three excerpts transcribed with the same system, there is the advantage that the visual representation is based on spectral measurable qualities in the music. The notation system’s intuitiveness was also explored in listening tests, showing that it was possible to understand spectral notation symbols placed over a staff system, particularly for examples with two sound objects instead of one.

  • 17.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Visual Representation of Musical Rhythm in Relation to MusicTechnology Interfaces - an Overview2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research / [ed] M. Aramaki, O. Derrien, R. Kronland-Martinet, S. Ystad, Marseille, 2019, s. 725-736Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents an overview of the ways we make sense of rhythm through visual means in music in terms of visual representation and notation, relating this to the user interfaces of music technology. Besides enabling the communication of rhythmical ideas, our systems of music representation reflect how we make sense of rhythm as a music parameter. Because of the complexity of visually representing rhythm, only software-based solutions provide flexible enough representations of rhythm in user interfaces. While the user interfaces of much rhythm oriented music technology deal with rhythm in looped phrases of 4/4 time, there are several examples of tools that challenge conventional ways of working with and visually representing rhythm.

  • 18.
    Sköld, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Sonification of Complex Spectral Structures2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, Vol. 16Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present our work on the sonification of notated complex spectral structures. It is part of a larger research project about the design of a new notation system for representing sound-based musical structures. Complex spectral structures are notated with special symbols in the scores, which can be digitally rendered so that the user can hear key aspects of what has been notated. This hearing of the notated data is significantly different from reading the same data, and reveals the complexity hidden in its simplified notation. The digitally played score is not the music itself but can provide essential information about the music in ways that can only be obtained in sounding form. The playback needs to be designed so that the user can make relevant sonic readings of the sonified data. The sound notation system used here is an adaptation of Thoresen and Hedman’s spectromorphological analysis notation. Symbols originally developed by Lasse Thoresen from Pierre Schaeffer’s typo-morphology have in this system been adapted to display measurable spectral features of timbrel structure for the composition and transcription of sound-based musical structures. Spectrum category symbols are placed over a spectral grand-staff that combines indications of pitch and frequency values for the combined display of music related to pitch-based and spectral values. Spectral features of a musical structure such as spectral width and density are represented as graphical symbols and sonically rendered. In perceptual experiments we have verified that users can identify spectral notation parameters based on their sonification. This confirms the main principle of sonification that is that the data/dimensions relations in one domain, in our case notated representation of spectral features, are transformed in perceived relations in the audio domain, and back.

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