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  • 1. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Sur, Patrick
    Estep, Kara
    Lee, Alex
    Marczak, Laurie
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Vos, Theo
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Amini, Erfan
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Baye, Estifanos
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Biryukov, Stan
    Bjertness, Espen
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Furst, Thomas
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Gold, Audra
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Goto, Atsushi
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hay, Simon I.
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Kamal, Ritul
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Yun J.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Ku, Tiffany
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Liu, Patrick
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mensah, George A.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Patton, George C.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Safiri, Saeid
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Stranges, Saverio
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    Thakur, J. S.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wesana, Joshua
    Westerman, Ronny
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yonga, Gerald
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. 

  • 2. Feigin, Valery L.
    et al.
    Nichols, Emma
    Alam, Tahiya
    Bannick, Marlena S.
    Beghi, Ettore
    Blake, Natacha
    Culpepper, William J.
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Elbaz, Alexis
    Ellenbogen, Richard G.
    Fisher, James L.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Glennie, Linda
    James, Spencer L.
    Johnson, Catherine Owens
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Marin, Benoit
    Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff
    Nguyen, Minh
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Patel, Anoop P.
    Piccininni, Marco
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Steiner, Timothy J.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Theadom, Alice
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wallin, Mitchell Taylor
    Wright, Claire
    Zunt, Joseph Raymond
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdelalim, Ahmed
    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Acharya, Dilaram
    Adamu, Abdu A.
    Adebayo, Oladimeji M.
    Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Aichour, Amani Nidhal
    Aichour, Ibtihel
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Akseer, Nadia
    Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Altirkawi, Khalid
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Anber, Nahla Hamed
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Arabloo, Jalal
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    Atalay, Hagos Tasew
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Badawi, Alaa
    Banach, Maciej
    Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Barnighausen, Till Winfried
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Behzadifar, Masoud
    Behzadifar, Meysam
    Bejot, Yannick
    Bekele, Bayu Begashaw
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Beuran, Mircea
    Bhattacharyya, Krittika
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Biadgo, Belete
    Bijani, Ali
    Bililign, Nigus
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Blazes, Christopher Kynrint
    Brayne, Carol
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Cantu-Brito, Carlos
    Car, Mate
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Castro, Franz
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Chaiah, Yazan
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chatziralli, Irini
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Christensen, Hanne
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
    Costa, Vera M.
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Crowe, Christopher Stephen
    Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
    Daryani, Ahmad
    De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa
    Pio De la Hoz, Fernando
    De Leo, Diego
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Deribe, Kebede
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Diaz, Daniel
    Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Doku, David Teye
    Dubey, Manisha
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    El-Khatib, Ziad
    Endres, Matthias
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Farhadi, Farzaneh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein
    Fatima, Batool
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Fukumoto, Takeshi
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A.
    Gebre, Abadi Kahsu
    Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo
    Gelaw, Belayneh K.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Gezae, Kebede Embaye
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gidey, Mahari Y.
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grada, Ayman
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guo, Yuming
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Hao, Yuantao
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Hassankhani, Hadi
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hegazy, Mohamed I.
    Heidari, Behnam
    Henok, Andualem
    Heydarpour, Fatemeh
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Hole, Michael K.
    Rad, Enayatollah Homaie
    Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa
    Hu, Guoqing
    Igumbor, Ehimario U.
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Jobanputra, Yash B.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Jurisson, Mikk
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Kamil, Teshome Abegaz
    Kanchan, Tanuj
    Karami, Manoochehr
    Karch, Andre
    Karimi, Narges
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale
    Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes
    Kaul, Anil
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khazaie, Habibolah
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.
    Kiirithio, Daniel N.
    Kim, Anthony S.
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Young-Eun
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krishnamurthi, Rita V.
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kumar, Manasi
    Lacey, Ben
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Latifi, Arman
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Li, Shanshan
    Liao, Yu
    Linn, Shai
    Lo, Warren David
    Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur
    Majdan, Marek
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Manafi, Navid
    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni
    Marz, Winfried
    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa
    Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
    Mate, Kedar K. V.
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGrath, John J.
    Mehta, Varshil
    Meier, Toni
    Meles, Hagazi Gebre
    Melese, Addisu
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mestrovic, Tomislav
    Miazgowski, Bartosz
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mini, G. K.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Moazen, Babak
    Mohajer, Bahram
    Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh
    Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Mohebi, Farnam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moodley, Yoshan
    Moosazadeh, Mahmood
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Moradinazar, Mehdi
    Moraga, Paula
    Velasquez, Ilais Moreno
    Morrison, Shane Douglas
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Muhammed, Oumer Sada
    Muruet, Walter
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Mustafa, Ghulam
    Naderi, Mehdi
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Najafi, Farid
    Nangia, Vinay
    Negoi, Ionut
    Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
    Newton, Charles Richard James
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Norrving, Bo
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour
    Nyasulu, Peter S.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Olagunju, Tinuke O.
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
    Oren, Eyal
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
    Patel, Sangram Kishor
    Pereira, David M.
    Petzold, Max
    Pillay, Julian David
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Poulton, Richie
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Prakash, Swayam
    Prakash, V.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Rahim, Fakher
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Rajati, Fatemeh
    Ram, Usha
    Ranta, Anna
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Rawaf, Salman
    Reinig, Nickolas
    Reis, Cesar
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
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    Rezaeian, Shahab
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel Rios
    Roberts, Nicholas L. S.
    Roever, Leonardo
    Ronfani, Luca
    Roro, Elias Merdassa
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Sabbagh, Parisa
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saddik, Basema
    Safari, Hosein
    Safari-Faramani, Roya
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sagar, Rajesh
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salamati, Payman
    Zahabi, Saleh Salehi
    Salimi, Yahya
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sarvi, Shahabeddin
    Sathian, Brijesh
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawant, Arundhati R.
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Schottker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C.
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shabaninejad, Hosein
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakir, Raad A.
    Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
    Shamsizadeh, Morteza
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi
    She, Jun
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shirkoohi, Reza
    Shiue, Ivy
    Siabani, Soraya
    Siddiqi, Tariq J.
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    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
    Silberberg, Donald H.
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    Smith, Mari
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    Sobhani, Soheila
    Soofi, Moslem
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    Stein, Murray B.
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    Sylaja, Pn
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    Ao, Braden James Te
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
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    Temsah, Omar
    Thakur, Jarnail Singh
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tran, Khanh Bao
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel
    Car, Lorainne Tudor
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Usman, Muhammad Shariq
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vasanthan, Rajagopalan
    Veisani, Yousef
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Vosoughi, Kia
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vujcic, Isidora S.
    Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw
    Waheed, Yasir
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weiss, Jordan
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadollahpour, Ali
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Yatsuya, Hiroshi
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yip, Paul
    Yisma, Engida
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Zandian, Hamed
    Zare, Zohreh
    Zhang, Yunquan
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Vos, Theo
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019Ingår i: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 459-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.

    Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.

    Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).

    Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

    Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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    Westerman, Ronny
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    Whiteford, Harvey A.
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    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
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    Wondimkun, Yohanes Ayele
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    Xavier, Denis
    Xu, Gelin
    Yan, Lijing L.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Yimer, Nigus Bililign
    Yin, Peng
    Yip, Paul
    Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yonga, Gerald
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Yotebieng, Marcel
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zadnik, Vesna
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zhu, Jun
    Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162018Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 391, nr 10136, s. 2236-2271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016.

    Methods: Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0–100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita.

    Findings: In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8–98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9–97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5–97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1–24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3–23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2–26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1–93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4–53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6–68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3–38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries.

    Interpretation: GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view—and subsequent provision—of quality health care for all populations.

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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Directorate Hlth Informat & Res, Pieta, Malta;Malta Coll Family Doctors, Gzira, Malta.
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    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA.
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    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;King Faisal Specialist Hosp & Res Ctr, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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    Univ London, London, England;SIR Management Consultants, Oxford, England;Inst & Fac Actuaries, Oxford, England.
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    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France.
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    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
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    Birmingham City Univ Dept Publ Hlth & Therapies, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
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    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
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    Comenius Univ, Inst Epidemiol, Fac Med, Bratislava, Slovakia.
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    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
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    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
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    Nanyang Technol Univ, LKCMed, Singapore, Singapore;Imperial Coll London, London, England.
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    Imperial Coll London, London, England;Minist Hlth Republ Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia.
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    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
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    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden.
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    Univ Porto, Fac Pharm, Porto, Portugal.
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    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia;Univ Nacl Colombia, Publ Hlth Dept, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia.
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    Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica;Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
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    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain;Univ Valencia, CIBERSAM, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain;Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Natl Hlth Res Inst, Zgunan Town, Taiwan;Natl Yang Ming Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
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    Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Sch Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan.
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    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
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    Tata Mem Hosp, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
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    Gold Coast Hlth, Clin Governance Unit, Southport, Qld, Australia.
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Choi, Jee-Young J.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Lib, Seoul, South Korea.
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Chung, Sheng-Chia
    UCL, Inst Hlth Informat, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England.
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Univ Salerno, Baronissi, Italy.
    Colombara, Danny
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Conti, Sara
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Oxford, NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England;Univ Southampton, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Res Ctr Publ Hlth, Monza, Italy.
    Cortinovis, Monica
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
    Pereira, Alexandre Costa
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Heart, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Cousin, Ewerton
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.
    Cromwell, Elizabeth A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Crowe, Christopher Stephen
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Crump, John A.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Daba, Alemneh Kabeta
    Hawassa Univ, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
    Dachew, Berihun Assefa
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia;Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
    Dadi, Abel Fekadu
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia;Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England.
    Daryani, Ahmad
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Toxoplasmosis Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.
    Daryani, Maryam
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sari, Iran.
    Das, Jai
    Aga Khan Univ, Dept Paediat & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Das, Siddharth Kumar
    KG Med Univ, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Porto, Portugal;Univ Porto, Inst Invest & Inovacao Sande I3S, Porto, Portugal.
    Weaver, Nicole Davis
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    de Courten, Barbora
    Monash Univ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Monash Med Ctr, Clayton, Vic, Australia.
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    De Neve, Jan-Walter
    Heidelberg Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA;Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA.
    Demoz, Gebre
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Aksum Univ, Aksum, Ethiopia.
    Deribe, Kebede
    Addis Ababa Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Des Jarlais, Don C.
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Dey, Subhojit
    Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurugram, India.
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Dhimal, Meghnath
    Govt Nepal, Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Res & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Doku, David Teye
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana;Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Dolan, Kate
    UNSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA.
    Bender dos Santos, Kadine Priscila
    Univ Estado Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Populat Hlth, Dept Global Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia;RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Driscoll, Tim R.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Microbiol & Immunol, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil;Univ N Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Echko, Michelle
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Edessa, Dumessa
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Edvardsson, David
    La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia;Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Ehrlich, Joshua R.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Eldrenkamp, Erika
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    El-Khatib, Ziad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Global Hlth & Social Med, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Endres, Matthias
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran.
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Multiple Sclerosis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Fakhar, Mahdi
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Mol & Cell Biol Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.
    Farag, Tamer
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
    Univ Philippines Manila, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines;Univ Philippines Manila, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines;Dept Hlth, Manila, Philippines.
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Fatusi, Adesegun
    Obafemi Awolowo Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Community Hlth, Ife, Nigeria.
    Fazeli, Mir Sohail
    Doctor Evidence, Santa Monica, CA USA.
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Feigl, Andrea B.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard T H Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Fentahun, Netsanet
    Jimma Univ, Inst Hlth, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Behav & Soc, Jimma, Ethiopia.
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Univ Porto, Dept Chem Sci, Porto, Portugal.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Catholic Univ Portugal, Fac Biotechnol, CBQF Ctr Biotechnol & Fine Chem Associate Lab, Porto, Portugal.
    Fijabi, Daniel Obadare
    Brandeis Univ, Heller Grad Sch, Waltham, MA USA.
    Filip, Irina
    Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA USA.
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Sch Publ Hlth, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Div Hematol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.
    Flaxman, Abraham D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Flor, Luisa Sorio
    Escola Nacl Sande Publ Sergio Arouca, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;Univ Fed Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil.
    Foigt, Nataliya
    Acad Med Sci, Inst Gerontol, Kiev, Ukraine. Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Frostad, Joseph J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Fuerst, Thomas
    Futran, Neal D.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Gallus, Silvano
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy;Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florian6poliss, Brazil.
    Gambashidze, Ketevan
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Gamkrelidze, Amiran
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Gebre, Abadi Kahsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa
    Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Gondar, Ethiopia;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Gething, Peter W.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.
    Ghadimi, Reza
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran;Dept Nutr, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Giroud, Maurice
    Univ Hosp Dijon, Dijon, France.
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Giussani, Giorgia
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
    Godwin, William W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Goli, Srinivas
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, New Delhi, India.
    Gomez-Dantes, Hector
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient Serv Alta Tecnol INDICASAT AIP, Ciudad Saber, Panama.
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia.
    Goryakin, Yevgeniy
    Org Econ Cooperat & Dev, Paris, France.
    Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho
    Univ Sao Paulo, Univ Hosp, Ctr Clin, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Univ Sao Paulo, Univ Hosp, Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Grada, Ayman
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Griswold, Max
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Univ Hosp Policlin Vittorio Emanuele, Catania, Italy;NNEdPro Global Ctr Nutr & Hlth, Cambridge, England.
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Quarter, Anguilla;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Quarter, Anguilla.
    Guo, Yuming
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Eternal Heart Care Ctr, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India;Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Gupta, Tanush
    Montefiore Med Ctr, Bronx, NY 10467 USA;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.
    Gupta, Tarun
    Indian Inst Technol Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India.
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Hachinski, Vladimir
    Western Univ, London, ON, Canada.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Harewood, Heather C.
    Eunice Gibson Polyclin, Bridgetown, Barbados.
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Parc Sanitari St Joan Deu CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Aman, Ethiopia.
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.
    He, Jiawei
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hearps, Stephen J. C.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Hosp, Child Neuropsychol, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    Hegazy, Mohamed I.
    Cairo Univ, Fac Med, Cairo, Egypt.
    Heibati, Behzad
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Air Pollut Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Heidari, Mohsen
    Hormozgan Univ Med Sci, Fac Hlth, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Henry, Nathaniel J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Herrera Ballesteros, Victor Hugo
    Gorgas Mem Inst Studies Hlth, Panama City, Panama;Univ Panama, Panama City, Panama.
    Herteliu, Claudiu
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.
    Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw
    Hawassa Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
    Hiluf, Molla Kahssay
    Samara Univ, Samara, Ethiopia.
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands;Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY 10027 USA.
    Rad, Enayatollah Homaie
    Guilan Univ Med Sci, Guilan Rd Trauma Res Ctr, Rasht, Iran.
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA.
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    Hosseini, Seyed Reza
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Social Determinants Hlth Res Ctr, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Hostiuc, Mihaela
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Hostiuc, Sorin
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Hoy, Damian G.
    Pacific Community, Publ Hlth Div, Noumea, New Caledonia.
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Salah Azaiz Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Peoples R China.
    Huang, John J.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA.
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Idris, Fachmi
    Sriwijaya Univ, Palembang, Indonesia;Social Secur Administering Body Hlth, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Igumbor, Ehimario Uche
    US Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Pretoria, South Africa;Univ Western Cape, Sch Publ Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Ikeda, Chad
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania.
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka S.
    Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Monrovia, CA, Liberia.
    Innos, Kaire
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Prevent Metab Disorders Res Ctr, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran;Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Irvine, Caleb M. S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Islami, Farhad
    Amer Canc Soc, Surveillance & Hlth Serv Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA.
    Jacobs, Troy A.
    USAID Global Hlth Bur, HIDN, MCH Div, Washington, DC USA.
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
    George Mason Univ, Dept Global & Community Hlth, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA.
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran.
    Jain, Rajesh
    Jain Hosp MSS, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Jain, Sudhir Kumar
    Natl Ctr Dis Control Delhi, Delhi, India.
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo M.
    Univ Washington, Ctr Hlth Trends & Forecasts, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia.
    Jalu, Moti Tolera
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia;St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Jamal, Amr A.
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurugram, India;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India.
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Jha, Vivekanand
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India.
    Jozwiak, Jacek
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Inst Hlth & Nutr Sci, Czestochowa, Poland.
    John, Oommen
    George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India.
    Johnson, Sarah Charlotte
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
    Joshua, Vasna
    Indian Council Med Res, Natl Inst Epidemiol, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Juerisson, Mikk
    Univ Tartu, Inst Family Med & Publ Hlth, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Kadel, Rajendra
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, London, England.
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kar, Chittaranjan
    SCB Med Coll, Cuttack, Orissa, India.
    Karanikolos, Marina
    European Observ Hlth Syst & Policies, London, England.
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover, Germany.
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland. Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland;Qual & Equity Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Karimi, Seyed M.
    Univ Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA USA.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Malignancies Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Kassa, Dessalegn Haile
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
    Kassa, Getachew Mullu
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
    Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA.
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Kaul, Anil
    Oklahoma State Univ, Tulsa, OK USA.
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Publ Hlth, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kazanjan, Konstantin
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Kebede, Seifu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kemp, Grant Rodgers
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Kereselidze, Maia
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Ketema, Ezra Belay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan;Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Appl Med Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Div Phys Therapy, Irbid, Jordan.
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Ahwaz, Iran.
    Khajavi, Alireza
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Gulfaraz
    United Arab Emirates Univ, Coll Med Hlth Sci, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates.
    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman
    Univ Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia;Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam Univ, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
    Khan, Muhammad Ali
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA;Univ Tennessee, Hlth Sci Ctr, Memphis, TN 38163 USA.
    Khanal, Mukti Nath
    Dept Hlth Serv Hlth Management Informat Syst, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Coll Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Ctr, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea.
    Khater, Mona M.
    Cairo Univ, Fac Med, Cairo, Egypt;Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Clin Global Hlth Educ, Baltimore, MD USA;Mohammed Ibn Saudi Univ, Coll Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Mohammed Ibn Saudi Univ, Coll Med, Dept Family Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Khosravi, Ardeshir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Iranian Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA.
    Kibret, Getiye Dejenu
    Addis Ababa Univ, Coll Vet Med & Agr, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
    Kiirithio, Daniel Ngari
    Kenya Revenue Author, Nairobi, Kenya;Synotech Consultants, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Xiamen Univ, Sch Med, Malaysia Campus, Sepang, Malaysia.
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Action Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Kinra, Sanjay
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Kisa, Adnan
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Kochhar, Sonali
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Global Healthcare Consulting, New Delhi, India.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Natl Inst Hlth Res Dev, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Kashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari St Joan Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia.
    Krishan, Kewal
    Panjab Univ, Chandigarh, India.
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada;Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada;Univ Montreal, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Kumar, Pushpendra
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kuzin, Igor
    Minist Hlth Ukraine, State Inst Publ Hlth Ctr, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Lad, Deepesh Pravinkumar
    Postgrad Inst Med Educ & Res, Chandigarh, India.
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Lam, Hilton
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Natl Inst Hlth, Manila, Philippines.
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Rockville, MD USA.
    Lang, Justin J.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada;Childrens Hosp, Eastern Ontario Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Help Me See Inc, New York, NY USA;Inst Mexicano Oftalmol, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Lansky, Sonia
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Sch Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil;Secretaria Municipal Sande, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Latifi, Arman
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran.
    Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor
    Univ Barcelona, Hosp Clin, ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, CHIP, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA.
    Lee, Paul H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Legesse, Yirga
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
    Leta, Samson
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY 12222 USA.
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy.
    Li, Yongmei
    San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA USA.
    Liang, Juan
    Sichuan Univ, West China Univ Hosp 2, Natl Off Maternal & Child Hlth Surveillance, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Liben, Misgan Legesse
    Samara Univ, Samara, Ethiopia.
    Lim, Lee-Ling
    Univ Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Lind, Margaret
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Listl, Stefan
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany;Radboud Univ Nijmegen Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Liu, Patrick Y.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Liu, Shiwei
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lodha, Rakesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Lorch, Scott A.
    Univ Penn, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Inst Nutr, Jena, Germany;Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NutriCA, Jena, Germany.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Lucas, Timothy C. D.
    Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford Big Data Inst, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Lurton, Gregoire
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Swansea Univ, Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Maalouf, Fadi
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Dept Psychiat, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King
    Harvard Univ, Ariadne Labs, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia;Royal Childrens Hosp Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Maddison, Emilie R.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Madotto, Fabiana
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt;Aswan Univ Hosp, Aswan Fac Med, Aswan, Egypt.
    Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia.
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Knowledge Utilizat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Community Based Participatory Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Natl Inst Hlth Res, Tehran, Iran.
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Malhotra, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Mamun, Abdullah A.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Manguerra, Helena
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Manhertz, Treh
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Tehran, Iran.
    Mantovani, Lorenzo G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Manyazewal, Tsegahun
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Mapoma, Chabila C.
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Margono, Christopher
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain;CEU Cardinal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Spain.
    Martins, Sheila Cristina Ouriques
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil;Hosp Moinhos Vento, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio
    Fed Inst Educ Sci & Technol Ceara, Caucaia, Brazil. Synlab Acad, Mannheim, Germany. Med Univ Graz, Clin Inst Med & Chem Lab Diagnost, Graz, Austria.
    Martopullo, Ira
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Maerz, Winfried
    Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
    Univ Washington, Dept Surg, Div Plast Surg, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Program Global Surg & Social Change, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Mathur, Manu Raj
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India;UCL, London, England.
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth India, New Delhi, India;Univ Oxford, George Inst Global Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn Food & Nutr Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    McAlinden, Colm
    Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, Bristol, Avon, England;Publ Hlth Wales, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Aarhus Univ, Aarhus Sch Business & Social Sci, Natl Ctr Register Based Res, Aarhus, Denmark;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Pk Ctr Mental Hlth, Wacol, Qld, Australia.
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Mehata, Suresh
    Ipas Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Mehrotra, Ravi
    Natl Inst Canc Prevent Res, Noida, India.
    Mehta, Kala M.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Mehta, Varshil
    MGM Med Coll, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Medizin Epidemiol Biometrie & Informat, Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NutriCA, Saale, Germany.
    Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia;Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Melku, Mulugeta
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Memiah, Peter
    Univ West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 USA.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru.
    Mengiste, Degu Abate
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Menota, Bereket Gebremichael
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Natl Inst Hlth, Manila, Philippines.
    Meretoja, Atte
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Dept Neurol, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Org,Work Disability Program, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Szczecin, Poland.
    Micha, Renata
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Milam, Robert
    Doctor Evidence, Santa Monica, CA USA.
    Millear, Anoushka
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Miller, Ted R.
    Curtin Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia;Pacific Inst Res Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.
    Mini, G. K.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India;Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, India.
    Minnig, Shawn
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Mirica, Andreea
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Misganaw, Awoke
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Mitchell, Philip B.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vision Sci, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Kensington, NSW, Australia.
    Mlashu, Fitsum Weldegebreal
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Moazen, Babak
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Endocrinol & Metab Res Inst, Tehran, Iran;Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med Mannheim, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Salahaddin Univ, Erbil, Iraq;Ishik Univ, Erbil, Iraq.
    Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh
    Hamedan Univ Med Sci, Hamadan, Iran.
    Mohammed, Ebrahim
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Mohammed, Mohammed A.
    Jigjiga Univ, Jigjiga, Ethiopia;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria.
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Mola, Glen Liddell D.
    Univ Papua New Guinea, Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Reprod Hlth & ObGyn, Boroko, Papua N Guinea.
    Molokhia, Mariam
    Kings Coll London, London, England.
    Momeniha, Fatemeh
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Engn, Tehran, Iran.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy.
    Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Moosazadeh, Mahmood
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Hlth Sci Res Ctr, Addict Inst, Sari, Iran.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Iran Univ Med Sci, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Moraga, Paula
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster Med Sch, Lancaster, England.
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Velasquez, Ilais Moreno
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    Mori, Rintaro
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan.
    Morrison, Shane D.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Moses, Mark
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Management & Econ, Tehran, Iran.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Murhekar, Manoj
    ICMR Natl Inst Epidemiol, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Murthy, Srinivas
    Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Musa, Jonah
    Univ Jos, Jos, Nigeria;Jos Univ, Teaching Hosp, Jos, Nigeria.
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sci Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
    Mustafa, Ghulam
    Helping Hands Fdn, Multan, Pakistan;Nishtar Med Univ, Multan, Pakistan.
    Muthupandian, Saravanan
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia;Mekelle Univ, Inst Biomed Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia;Mekelle Univ, Dept Med Microbiol, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Nagata, Chie
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Naik, Gurudatta A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Naik, Nitish
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Najafi, Farid
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Naldi, Luigi
    Azienda Osped Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
    Nansseu, Jobert Richie Njingang
    Univ Yaounde, Fac Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Yaounde, Cameroon;Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Control Dis Epidem & Pandem, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Narayan, K. M. Venkat
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.
    Nascimento, Bruno Ramos
    Hosp Univ Ciencias Med, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Negoi, Ionut
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania;Emergency Hosp Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.
    Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Newton, Charles R.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;KEMRI Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya.
    Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nguyen, Grant
    Nguyen, Long
    Nguyen, Trang Huyen
    Nichols, Emma
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Semarang State Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Semarang City, Indonesia;Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Nolte, Ellen
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Observ Hlth Syst & Policies, London, England.
    Nong, Vuong Minh
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Norrving, Bo
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Nyandwi, Alypio
    Rwanda Minist Hlth, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Dept Psychiat, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Monash Univ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    South Africa & Univ KwaZulu Natal, Human Sci Res Council, Durban, South Africa.
    Olagunju, Andrew Toyin
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Univ Lagos, Coll Med, Dept Psychiat, Lagos, Nigeria;Lagos Univ, Teaching Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada;Western Univ, London, ON, Canada.
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile.
    Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Patricia Pereira
    Minist Hlth Brazil, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Healthy Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Ong, Kanyin
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Opio, John Nelson
    Lira Municipal Council, Lira Dist Local Govt, Kampala, Uganda.
    Oren, Eyal
    San Diego State Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Biostat, San Diego, CA 92182 USA.
    Ortega-Altamirano, Doris V.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Ortiz, Alberto
    UAM, IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Ozdemir, Raziye
    Karabuk Univ, Karabuk, Turkey. JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pain, Amanda W.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Palone, Marcos Roberto Tovani
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med Mannheim, Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Pandian, Jeyaraj D.
    Christian Med Coll Ludhiana, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea.
    Parsian, Hadi
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Patel, Tejas
    White Plains Hosp, White Plains, NY USA.
    Pati, Sanghamitra
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Patil, Snehal T.
    Deemed Univ, Krishan Inst Med Sci, Sch Dent Sci, Karad, India.
    Patle, Ajay
    Minist Hlth Family Welf, Natl Hlth Syst Resource Ctr, New Delhi, India.
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Paturi, Vishnupriya Rao
    Diabet Res Soc, Clin Res, Hyderabad, India;DiabetOmics, Portland, OR USA.
    Paudel, Deepak
    UK Dept Int Dev, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Pedroso, Marcel de Moares
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Comunicacao & Informacao Cientif & Tecnol Sa, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pedroza, Sandra P.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, Dept Quim, REQUIMTE,LAQV,Lab Farmacognosia, Porto, Portugal.
    Perico, Norberto
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
    Peterson, Hannah
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa;Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Piel, Frederic B.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England. Imperial Coll London, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Pigott, David M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa.
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands;Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Prakash, Swayam
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Prakash, V.
    Charotar Univ Sci & Technol, Anand, Gujarat, India.
    Prasad, Narayan
    Sanjay Gandhi Post Grad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Prasad, Noela Marie
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia;Fred Hollows Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Purcell, Caroline
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran.
    Quintana, Hedley Knewjen
    Commemorat Gorgas Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA.
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Mol & Cell Biol Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Iranian Natl Ctr Addict Studies, Tehran, Iran.
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    Sweidi Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Sufi, India.
    Raju, Bhushan
    Nizams Inst Med Sci, Hyderabad, India.
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Rankin, Zane
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Rasella, Davide
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Goncalo Muniz, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr, London, England;North Hampshire Hosp, Basingstoke, Hants, England;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England.
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Ray, Sarah E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Aspacia Razo-Garcia, Christian
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Reddy, Priscilla
    Human Sci Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Reis, Cesar
    Loma Linda Univ Med Ctr, Loma Linda, CA USA.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy;Azienda Sociosanitaria Terr, Bergamo, Italy;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy.
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vision Sci, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Kensington, NSW, Australia.
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Sari, Iran.
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Rios Blancas, Maria Jesus
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Roever, Leonardo
    Univ Fed Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil.
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.
    Rostami, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Infect Dis & Trop Med Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany.
    Roy, Ambuj
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Roy, Nobhojit
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;HBNI Univ, BARC Hosp, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Ruhago, George Mugambage
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Sabde, Yogesh Damodar
    Natl Inst Res Environm Hlth, Bhopal, India.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Optometry & Vision Sci, Brien Holden Vision Inst, Kensington, NSW, Australia;Prince Wales Hosp, Randwick, NSW, Australia.
    Sadat, Nafis
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Safdarian, Mahdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran.
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Univ Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran.
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, MS Res Ctr, Neurosci Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Sajadi, Haniye Sadat
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Tehran, Iran.
    Salama, Joseph
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Salamati, Payman
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Saldanha, Raphael de Freitas
    Fiocruz MS, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Salimzadeh, Hamideh
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard T H Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Ain Shams Univ, Fac Sci, Cairo, Egypt.
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, Edwards Sch Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Huntington, WV USA;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Sancheti, Parag K.
    Sancheti Inst Orthopaed Rehabil, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Santomauro, Damian
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Internal Med Dept, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Belgrade, Serbia;Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada;Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Inst, Esfahan, Iran.
    Sartorius, Benn
    South African Med Res Council, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa;Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa.
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Utkal Univ, Ctr Adv Study Psychol, Bhubaneswar, India.
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Edwards Sch Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Huntington, WV USA.
    Saxena, Sonia
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Saylan, Mete I.
    Bayer Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Schaeffner, Elke
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Food & Agr Org, Global Perspect Studies, Rome, Italy.
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florian6poliss, Brazil.
    Schumacher, Austin E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    South African Med Res Council, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Cape Town, South Africa;North West Univ, Hypertens Africa Res Team, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Schwendicke, Falk
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Sekerija, Mario
    Croatian Inst Publ Hlth, Croatian Natl Canc Registry, Zagreb, Croatia;Univ Zagreb, Sch Publ Hlth Dr Andrija A Tampar, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuemavaca, Mexico.
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    NYU, Langone Med Ctr, Dept Rehabil Med, New York, NY 10003 USA.
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakh-Nazarova, Marina
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Sharafi, Heidar
    Deakin Univ, Middle East Liver Dis Ctr, Inst Phys Activ & Nutr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.
    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    George Inst Global Hlth, New Delhi, India;Deakin Univ, Middle East Liver Dis Ctr, Inst Phys Activ & Nutr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.
    Sharma, Meenakshi
    Indian Council Med Res, Natl Inst Epidemiol, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Delhi Technol Univ, Univ Sch Management & Entrepreneurship, Delhi, India.
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Zhongshan Hosp, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Harvard Med Sch, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Shfare, Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin
    Aksum Univ, Coll Hlth Sci & Referral Hosp, Aksum, Ethiopia.
    Shi, Peilin
    Tufts Univ, Friedman Sch Nutr Sci & Policy, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Shields, Chloe
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shinohara, Yukito
    Tachikawa Hosp, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Org,Work Disability Program, Helsinki, Finland.
    Shirkoohi, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Canc Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Shiue, Ivy
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Medizin Epidemiol Biometrie & Informat, Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NutriCA, Saale, Germany;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Med Sch, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Shukla, Sharvari Rahul
    Symbiosis Int Univ, Symbiosis Inst Hlth Sci, Pune, Maharashtra, India;KEM Hosp Res Ctr, Diabet Unit, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Siabani, Soraya
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran;Univ Technol Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Silberberg, Donald H.
    Univ Penn, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Silva, Joao Pedro
    Univ Porto, Fac Pharm, Toxicol Grp, UCIBIO REQUIMTE, Porto, Portugal.
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Singh, Lavanya
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Singh, Narinder Pal
    Max Hosp, Ghaziabad, India.
    Singh, Virendra
    Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
    Sch Prevent Oncol, Patna, Bihar, India;Natl Inst Canc Prevent, CTC Global Knowledge Hub Smokeless Tobacco, Noida, India.
    Sinke, Abiy Hiruye
    Ethiopian Med Assoc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Sisay, Mekonnen
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Columbia Univ, New York, NY 10027 USA;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.
    Sliwa, Karen
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Smith, Alison
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Soares Filho, Adauto Martins
    Sobaih, Badr H. A.
    King Khalid Univ Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Somai, Melek
    Tunisian Ctr Publ Hlth, Les Berges Du Lac, Tunisia.
    Soneji, Samir
    Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.
    Soofi, Moslem
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Inst Invest Hosp Univ Princesa IISP, Madrid, Spain;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Soyiri, Ireneous N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Western Univ, Dept Clin Neurol Sci, London, ON, Canada.
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Srinivasan, Vinay
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Stanaway, Jeffrey D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece.
    Steel, Nicholas
    Univ East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, England;Publ Hlth England, London, England.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa;South African Med Res Council, Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stokes, Mark Andrew
    Deakin Univ, Middle East Liver Dis Ctr, Inst Phys Activ & Nutr, Burwood, Vic, Australia.
    Sturua, Lela
    Natl Ctr Dis Control & Publ Hlth, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria.
    Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Sunguya, Bruno F.
    Sur, Patrick J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol Law & Soc Sociol & Publ Hlth, Irvine, CA USA.
    Sylaja, P. N.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia.
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain;Univ Valencia, CIBERSAM, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.
    Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Tadesse, Andualem Henok
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
    Taffere, Getachew Redae
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Tandon, Nikhil
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Tariku, Amare Tariku
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia;Univ Adelaide, Sch Med, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Taveira, Nuno
    Inst Super Ciencias Sande Egas Moniz, Almada, Portugal;Univ Lisbon, Fac Pharm, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Shifa, Girma Temam
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Cleveland Clin, Consortium Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Tesfaye, Dawit Jember
    Hawassa Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
    Tessema, Belay
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Thakur, J. S.
    Post Grad Inst Med Educ & Res, Sch Publ Hlth, Chandigarh, India.
    Thomas, Nihal
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Thompson, Matthew J.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Tillmann, Taavi
    UCL, Inst Epidemiol & Hlth, London, England.
    To, Quyen G.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Fac Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Torre, Anna
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Tortajada, Miguel
    Hosp Univ Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain;Univ Valencia, Sch Med, Valencia, Spain.
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Clin Global Hlth Educ, Baltimore, MD USA;Med Univ Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Tran, Khanh Bao
    Tripathi, Avnish
    Univ Louisville, Sch Med, Louisville, KY 40292 USA.
    Tripathy, Srikanth Prasad
    Natl Inst Res TB, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Troeger, Christopher
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Truelsen, Thomas
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tsoi, Derrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Car, Lorainne Tudor
    Nanyang Technol Univ, LKCMed, Singapore, Singapore;Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Tuem, Kald Beshir
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundaci6 Sant de Joan Deu, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.
    Uchendu, Uche S.
    US Dept Vet Affairs, Washington, DC USA.
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
    Ullah, Irfan
    Gomal Univ, Gomal Ctr Biochem & Biotechnol, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan;Mufti Mehmood Mem Teaching Hosp, Programmat Management Drug Resistant TB Unit, TB Culture Lab, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.
    Updike, Rachel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi
    Univ Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria.
    Ruben Valdez, Pascual
    Sociedad Argentina Med, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina;Hosp Velez Sarsfield, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Varughese, Santosh
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia.
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway.
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Wagnew, Fasil
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
    Waheed, Yasir
    Fdn Univ, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Wallin, Mitchell T.
    VA Med Ctr, Washington, DC USA;Georgetown Univ, Neurol Dept, Washington, DC USA.
    Walson, Judd L.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Nat Hist Museum, London, England.
    Wang, Yafeng
    Fudan Univ, Zhongshan Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China;Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China;Univ Sao Paulo, Med Sch, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Wassie, Molla Mesele
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia;Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Weaver, Marcia R.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Weiss, Jordan
    Univ Penn, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    West, T. Eoin
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany;German Natl Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany.
    White, Richard G.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Widecka, Justyna
    VitroLive Sp Zoo, Szczecin, Poland.
    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Tech Univ Munich, Klinikum Rechts Isar, Ctr Global Hlth, Dept Neurol, Munich, Germany;Univ Oslo, Ctr Global Hlth, Inst Hlth & Soc, Oslo, Norway.
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Stellenbosch Univ, Cape Town, South Africa;South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Kings Coll London, Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England;Kings Coll London, London, England;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Natl Inst Hlth, Res Comprehens Biomed Res Ctr, London, England.
    Wondimkun, Yohanes Ayele
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    NHS Natl Serv Scotland, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland;Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Xavier, Denis
    St Johns Med Coll & Res Inst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Jinling Hosp, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Lijing L.
    Duke Kunshan Univ, Global Hlth Res Ctr, Kunshan, Peoples R China.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Yimer, Nigus Bililign
    Woldia Univ, Woldia, Ethiopia.
    Yin, Peng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Univ South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan.
    Yonga, Gerald
    Aga Khan Univ, NCD Res Policy Unit, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Coll Med, Dept Prevent Med, S, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yotebieng, Marcel
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Univ Kinshasa, Sch Publ Hlth, Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO.
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS 39217 USA.
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Global Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Zadnik, Vesna
    Inst Oncol Ljubljana, Epidemiol & Canc Registry, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp Setif, Setif, Algeria.
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Babol Sar, Iran.
    Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Chron & Noncommunicable Dis Control & Pr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jun
    Natl Off MCH Surveillance China, Chengdu, Peoples R China.
    Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurugram, India.
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Red Cross War Mem Childrens Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162018Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 391, nr 10136, s. 2236-2271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016.

    Methods: Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita.

    Findings: In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97.1 (95% UI 95.8-98.1) in Iceland, followed by 96.6 (94.9-97.9) in Norway and 96.1 (94.5-97.3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18.6 (13.1-24.4) in the Central African Republic, 19.0 (14.3-23.7) in Somalia, and 23.4 (20.2-26.8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91.5 (89.1-936) in Beijing to 48.0 (43.4-53.2) in Tibet (a 43.5-point difference), while India saw a 30.8-point disparity, from 64.8 (59.6-68.8) in Goa to 34.0 (30.3-38.1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4.8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20.9-point to 17.0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17.2-point to 20.4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries.

    Interpretation: GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view and subsequent provision of quality health care for all populations.

  • 5.
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Azzopardi, Peter
    SAHMRI, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Cini, Karly
    Ctr Adolescent Hlth, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Kennedy, Elissa
    Burnet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia. Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Sawyer, Susan
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    El Bcheraoui, Charbel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Charara, Raghid
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Tehran, Iran.
    Collison, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Afifi, Rima A.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Al-Raiby, Jamela
    WHO, Cairo, Egypt.
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Daoud, Farah
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA.
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Olsen, Helen E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Smith, Alison
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Stanaway, Jeffrey D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Orthoped, Lund, Sweden.
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Parkville, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Minist Hlth, Muscat, Oman.
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia.
    Anber, Nahla
    Mansoura Univ, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Coll Publ Hlth, Manila, Philippines.
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Artaman, Al
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Sch Paramed, Dept Med Emergency, Qom, Iran.
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
    Beghi, Ettore
    IRCCS, Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Inst Nacl Salud, Bogota, DC, Colombia;Univ Nacl Colombia, Publ Hlth Dept, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia.
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Valencia, Spain;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain;Ottawa Hosp Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Danawi, Hadi
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Denno, Donna
    Univ Washington, Dept Pediat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Deribe, Kebede
    Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Jarlais, Don C. Des
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Dey, Subhojit
    Indian Inst Publ Hlth Delhi, Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India.
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Undersecretary Res & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Fischer, Florian
    Bielefeld Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
    Gugnani, Harish Chander
    St James Sch Med, Dept Microbiol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;St James Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates.
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu GIBERSAM, Sant Boi De Llobregat, Spain.
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Int Fdn Dermatol London, London, England;Kings Coll London, London, England.
    Hearps, Stephen J. C.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Hosp, Child Neuropsychol, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Bentley, WA, Australia.
    Hotez, Peter J.
    Baylor Univ, Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Karimi, Seyed M.
    Univ Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA USA.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Kebede, Seifu
    Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;Mekelle Univ, Mekele, Ethiopia.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khosravi, Ardeshir
    Iranian Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Natl Inst Hlth Res & Dev, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL USA.
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Li, Yongmei
    San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA USA.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Mansoura Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Knowledge Utilizat Res Ctr & Community Based Part, Tehran, Iran.
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Memiah, Peter
    Univ Florida, Pensacola, FL USA.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru.
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Bagamoyo, Tanzania.
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA;Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Mitchell, Philip B.
    Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.
    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
    Amer Univ Beirut, Ctr Res Populat & Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Coll Med, Busan, South Korea.
    Parry, Matti
    WHO, Reprod Hlth & Res Adolescents & Rsk Populat RHR A, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Dept Quim, Lab Farmacognosia, REQUIMTE LAQV,Fac Farm, Porto, Portugal.
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China;Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran.
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA.
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan;Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India.
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr, London, England;North Hampshire Hosp, Basingstroke, England;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England.
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Reavley, Nicola
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Penrith, NSW, Australia.
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Sadegh-Rezai, Mohammad
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci ences, Infect Dis Res Ctr Focus Nosocomial Infect, Sari, Iran.
    Rios-Zertuche, Diego
    Salud Mesoamer 2015 Initiat, Panama City, Panama.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany.
    Safdarian, Mahdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran.
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Neurosci Inst, Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Salamati, Payman
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Santomauro, Damian
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Sartorius, Benn
    SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Durban, South Africa.
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Seedat, Soraya
    Stellenbosch Univ, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Setegn, Tesfaye
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    Shaheen, Amira
    An Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Palestine.
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shiri, Rahman
    Univ Helsinki, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth,Work Org,Work Diabil Program, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham Vet Affairs Med Ctr, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Sobaih, Badr H. A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Univ Virginia, Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Cleveland Clin, Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH USA.
    Thomson, Alan J.
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA;Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland.
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Bergen, Norway;Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden;Canc Registry Norway, Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway;Univ Tromso, Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Community Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Tromso, Norway;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan.
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA.
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China;Wuhan Univ, Global Hlth Inst, Wuhan, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Jumaan, Aisha O.
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Adolescent health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, s. 79-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 22 countries of the East Mediterranean Region (EMR) have large populations of adolescents aged 10-24 years. These adolescents are central to assuring the health, development, and peace of this region. We described their health needs. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we report the leading causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents in the EMR from 1990 to 2015. We also report the prevalence of key health risk behaviors and determinants. Communicable diseases and the health consequences of natural disasters reduced substantially between 1990 and 2015. However, these gains have largely been offset by the health impacts of war and the emergence of non-communicable diseases (including mental health disorders), unintentional injury, and self-harm. Tobacco smoking and high body mass were common health risks amongst adolescents. Additionally, many EMR countries had high rates of adolescent pregnancy and unmet need for contraception. Even with the return of peace and security, adolescents will have a persisting poor health profile that will pose a barrier to socioeconomic growth and development of the EMR.

  • 6.
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    El Bcheraoui, Charbel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Charara, Raghid
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Collison, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA.
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Ahmadieh, Hamid
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Labbafinejad Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Oromiya, Ethiopia.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA.
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Parkville, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Minist Hlth, Muscat, Oman.
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci ences, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.
    Alkaabi, Juma M.
    Coll Med & Hlth Sci UAEU, ALAIN UAE, Abu Zaby, U Arab Emirates.
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    LIH, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia.
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Anber, Nahla
    Mansoura Univ, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Atey, Tesfay Mehari
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Drew, Charles R.
    Geffen, David
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
    Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Pharm, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Bikbov, Boris
    Haramaya Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Harar, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Birhanu, Mulugeta M.
    Univ Groningen, UMCG, Groningen, Netherlands;Mekelle Univ, Mekelle 03, Ayder, Ethiopia.
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Carpenter, David O.
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine J.
    Seoul Natl Univ Hosp, Seoul, South Korea;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Lib, Seoul, South Korea.
    Danawi, Hadi
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ Tehran, Undersecretary Res & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Shariati Hosp, Liver & Pancreaticobiliary Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Arba Minch, Snnpr, Ethiopia.
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Genom Vulnerable Populat & Hlth D, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, North Rhine Wes, Germany.
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govern Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Pohnpei, Micronesia.
    Gyawali, Bishal
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates.
    Horino, Masako
    Bur Child Family Community Wellness, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson City, NV USA.
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Salah Azaiz Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac Kragujevac, Cent Serbia Sumadija, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia;Univ Washington, IHME, Ctr Hlth Trends & Forecasts, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Jimenez-Corona, Aida
    Inst Ophthalmol Condede Valencia, Dept Ocular Epidemiol & Visual Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico;Minist Hlth, Gen Directorate Epidemiol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    John, Denny
    Int Ctr Res Women, Delhi, India.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.
    Ketema, Ezra Belay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Fac Chinese Med, Skudai, Malaysia.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Action Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Barcelona, Spain.
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk kemi.
    Li, Yongmei
    San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA USA.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru.
    Mengistie, Mubarek Abera
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA;Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Mohammed, Muktar Sano Kedir
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Quyen Le
    Nong, Vuong Minh
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA.
    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Perico, Norberto
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
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    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran.
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, W Bengal, India.
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan;Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr, London, England;North Hampshire Hosp, Basingstroke, England;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England.
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy;Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale, Papa Giovanni23, Bergamo, Italy;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy.
    Renzaho, Andre M. N. N.
    Univ Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.
    Bacher, Dietrich Rothen
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany.
    Safdarian, Mahdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran.
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr, Inst Neurosci, Tehran, Iran.
    Salamati, Payman
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Social Med, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia;Univ Belgrade, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia.
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    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa;SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Durban, South Africa.
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    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
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    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
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    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
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    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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    Univ Valencia, Incliva Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.
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    Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;King Faisal Specialist Hosp & Res Ctr, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland.
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    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA;Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
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    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wakayo, Tolassa
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Werdecker, Andrea
    German Natl Cohort, Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
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    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
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    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan.
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA.
    Zhang, Anthony Lin
    RMIT Univ, Sch Hlth & Biomed Sci, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Jumaan, Aisha O.
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, LiKa Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, s. 177-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to update our previous publication on the burden of diabetes and chronic kidney disease due to diabetes (CKD-DM) during 1990-2015. We extracted GBD 2015 estimates for prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of diabetes (including burden of low vision due to diabetes, neuropathy, and amputations and CKD-DM for 22 countries of the EMR from the GBD visualization tools. In 2015, 135,230 (95% UI 123,034-148,184) individuals died from diabetes and 16,470 (95% UI 13,977-18,961) from CKD-DM, 216 and 179% increases, respectively, compared to 1990. The total number of people with diabetes was 42.3 million (95% UI 38.6-46.4 million) in 2015. DALY rates of diabetes in 2015 were significantly higher than the expected rates based on Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Our study showed a large and increasing burden of diabetes in the region. There is an urgency in dealing with diabetes and its consequences, and these efforts should be at the forefront of health prevention and promotion.

  • 7. Nichols, Emma
    et al.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdela, Jemal
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus O.
    Alahdab, Fares
    Asgedom, Solomon W.
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bejot, Yannick
    Belachew, Abate B.
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bijani, Belete Biadgo Ali
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Brayne, Carol
    Carpenter, David O.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Choi, Jee-Young J.
    Dang, Ahn K.
    Degefa, Meaza G.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Dubey, Manisha
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Endres, Matthias
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Gebre, Abadi K.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Hachinski, Vladimir
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Haro, Josep M.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Irvani, Seyed Sina N.
    Jha, Ravi P.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Karch, Andre
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khanna, Tripti
    Khoja, Tawfik A. M.
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Majdan, Marek
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Massano, Joao
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Nguyen, Long H.
    Nguyen, Trang H.
    Nirayo, Yirga L.
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Passos, Valeria M. de Azeredo
    Pereira, David M.
    Pinilla-Monsalve, Gabriel D.
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Pond, Constance D.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Robinson, Stephen R.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Russ, Tom C.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Safari, Hosein
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Salimi, Yahya
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawhney, Monika
    Saylan, Mete
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood A.
    Sahraian, Mohammad A.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Silva, Joao P.
    Smith, Mari
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Stein, Dan J.
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos R.
    Tran, Bach X.
    Tran, Tung T.
    Tsegay, Amanuel T.
    Ullah, Irfan
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiss, Jordan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zare, Zohreh
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019Ingår i: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 88-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists.

    Methods: GBD 2016 obtained data on dementia from vital registration systems, published scientific literature and surveys, and data from health-service encounters on deaths, excess mortality, prevalence, and incidence from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, through systematic review and additional data-seeking efforts. To correct for differences in cause of death coding across time and locations, we modelled mortality due to dementia using prevalence data and estimates of excess mortality derived from countries that were most likely to code deaths to dementia relative to prevalence. Data were analysed by standardised methods to estimate deaths, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; computed as the sum of YLLs and YLDs), and the fractions of these metrics that were attributable to four risk factors that met GBD criteria for assessment (high body-mass index [BMI], high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a diet high in sugarsweetened beverages).

    Findings: In 2016, the global number of individuals who lived with dementia was 43.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3 7. 8-51.0), increased from 20.2 million (17. 4-23 5) in 1990. This increase of 117% (95% UI 114-121) contrasted with a minor increase in age-standardised prevalence of 1.7% (1.0-2.4), from 701 cases (95% UI 602-815) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 712 cases (614-828) per 100 000 population in 2016. More women than men had dementia in 2016 (27.0 million, 95% UI 23 .3-31. 4, vs 16.8 million, 14.4-19.6), and dementia was the fifth leading cause of death globally, accounting for 2.4 million (95% UI 2.1-2.8) deaths. Overall, 28.8 million (95% UI 24. 5-34. 0) DALYs were attributed to dementia; 6.4 million (95% UI 3 .4-10. 5) of these could be attributed to the modifiable GBD risk factors of high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Interpretation: The global number of people living with dementia more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, mainly due to increases in population ageing and growth. Although differences in coding for causes of death and the heterogeneity in case-ascertainment methods constitute major challenges to the estimation of the burden of dementia, future analyses should improve on the methods for the correction of these biases. Until breakthroughs are made in prevention or curative treatment, dementia will constitute an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide.

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