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  • 1.
    Abbas, Monika
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Bedömning av variabler vid postocklusiv reaktiv hyperemi (PORH)-test med Laser Doppler Flowmetry teknik2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Abdallah Athumani, Ngenya
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Characterization of tick-born encephalitis and West Nile virus non-structural 5 protein interactions with host factors involved in immune evasion and cellular apoptosis.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 3. Abdelfatah Possnert, Heba
    Detection of Thymidine Kinase 1 Activity in Whole Blood Using an Oligonucleotide System2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s medical science studies, many tumor markers are being used to monitor cancer cell proliferation, but the number of assays for analysis of these markers are few. The aim of this study was to find an easier and more time-efficient way to measure the activity of a specific tumor marker called tymidine kinase 1 (TK1). This tumor marker is an important enzyme involved in cell proliferation and is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway. TK1 activity is related to the occurrence of hematological malignancies and cell activity and therefore have been used as a marker when monitoring this group of patients in treatment. Measurement of the enzyme activity in this study was performed by using an oligonucleotide assay. Detection of the enzyme activity in whole blood and in plasma has not previously been shown. The TK1 activity measured in whole blood and plasma correlated with TK1 activity measured in serum (R2=0,8651 and R2 =0,9845, respectively). It was found that it is possible to determine the TK1 activity in whole blood but only if the activity was measured on the same day as the blood samples were taken. The results shows that the activity measurement of TK1 in plasma and whole blood can be used as a marker to verify patients' therapy in cancer care. This study is only the beginning and further investigations should be made in the future to determine if the method that is subject to this study has the requested effects.

  • 4.
    Abdirashid, Abdulle
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Detektion av kloratreduktas och kloritdismutas med hjälp av 2D elektrofores2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 5.
    Abdullah, Sara Alawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Lång respektive fördröjd provtransport ger försämrad blodprovskvalitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 6.
    Abdulleteef, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Förekomst av humant papillomvirus i tonsillcancer i norra regionen i Sverige 2000-20122013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 7.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    3D Active Human Motion Estimation for Biomedical Applications2012Inngår i: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China / [ed] Mian Long, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , s. 4s. 1014-1017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement disorders forbid many people from enjoying their daily lives. As with other diseases, diagnosis and analysis are key issues in treating such disorders. Computer vision-based motion capture systems are helpful tools for accomplishing this task. However Classical motion tracking systems suffer from several limitations. First they are not cost effective. Second these systems cannot detect minute motions accurately. Finally they are spatially limited to the lab environment where the system is installed. In this project, we propose an innovative solution to solve the above-mentioned issues. Mounting the camera on human body, we build a convenient, low cost motion capture system that can be used by the patient while practicing daily-life activities. We refer to this system as active motion capture, which is not confined to the lab environment. Real-time experiments in our lab revealed the robustness and accuracy of the system.

  • 8.
    Abelson, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Acetylcholine in Spinal Pain Modulation: An in vivo Study in the Rat2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The spinal cord is an important component in the processing and modulation of painful stimuli. Nerve signals from the periphery are relayed and further conducted to the brain (nociception) in the spinal cord, and the most essential modulation of painful information (antinociception) occurs here. Several neurotransmitters are involved in spinal pain modulation, among them acetylcholine. However, the role of acetylcholine has previously been little investigated.

    In the present thesis, the acetylcholine release in the spinal cord was studied in vivo. By using spinal microdialysis on anaesthetised rats, the effects on the intraspinal acetylcholine release of various receptor ligands and analgesic agents were examined. This, together with pain behavioural tests and in vitro pharmacological assays, was used to evaluate the role of acetylcholine in spinal pain modulation. The four studies in this thesis resulted in the following conclusions:

    An increased release of spinal acetylcholine is associated with an elevated pain threshold, while a decreased acetylcholine release is associated with hyperalgesia, as seen after systemic treatment with a muscarinic agonist and an antagonist.

    Lidocaine is a potent analgesic when given systemically. It was found to produce an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine after intravenous injection of analgesic doses. This effect was attenuated after muscarinic, and abolished after nicotinic, receptor blockade.

    Various a2-adrenergic ligands, associated with nociceptive or antinociceptive effects, were found to affect intraspinal acetylcholine release via action on nicotinic receptors.

    Finally, the involvement of spinal acetylcholine in the analgesic effects of aspirin and paracetamol was examined. It was found that spinal acetylcholine could participate in the analgesic effects of aspirin, but not of paracetamol.

    The present thesis provides data that clearly demonstrate a relationship between intraspinal acetylcholine and antinociception, and elucidate interactions between acetylcholine and other mechanisms that mediate antinociception in the spinal cord.

  • 9.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Hau, Jann
    Carlsson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Undergraduate and postgraduate students' responses to mandatory courses (FELASA category C) in laboratory animal science 1997-20032005Inngår i: Internationalisation and Harmonisation of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Issues: Proceedings of the Ninth FELASA Symposium 14-17 June 2004, Nantes, France / [ed] M. R. Gamble, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats2002Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 317, nr 2, s. 93-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The local anesthetic lidocaine suppresses different pain conditions when administered systemically. Part of the antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via receptor mechanisms. We have previously shown that muscarinic and nicotinic agonists that produce antinociception increase the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. In the present study it was hypothesized that systemically administered lidocaine is acting through the same mechanisms as cholinergic agonists and affects the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Microdialysis probes were placed in anesthetized rats for sampling of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced by systemically administered lidocaine is mediated through an action on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  • 11.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats2002Inngår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0901-9928, E-ISSN 1600-0773, Vol. 90, nr 4, s. 187-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Both systemically and intrathecally administered cholinergic agonists produce antinociception while cholinergic antagonists decrease pain threshold. The mechanism and the site of action of these substances are not known. In the present study it was hypothesized that systemically administered muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10–300 μg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 μg/kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2–C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100 and 5000 μg/kg), or subcutaneously with oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 μg/kg). Subcutaneous administration of oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 μg/kg) significantly increased the tail-flick latency. These doses of oxotremorine dose-dependently increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Intravenously administered atropine, in a dose that produced hyperalgesia (5000 μg/kg) in the tail-flick test, significantly decreased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Our results suggest an association between pain threshold and acetylcholine release in spinal cord. It is also suggested that an approximately 30% increase in basal ACh release produces antinociception and that a 30% decrease in basal release produces hyperalgesia.

  • 12.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat2004Inngår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 94, nr 4, s. 153-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinalacetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as a2-adrenergic receptors.To fully understand these interactions, the effects of various receptor ligands on the cholinergic system must be investigatedin detail. This study was initiated to investigate the effects of the a2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidineand the a2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan on spinal cholinergic receptors in the rat. Spinalmicrodialysis was used to measure in vivo changes of acetylcholine after administration of the ligands, with or withoutnicotinic receptor blockade. In addition, in vitro binding properties of the ligands on muscarinic and nicotinic receptorswere investigated. It was found that clonidine and rilmenidine increased, while yohimbine decreased spinal acetylcholinerelease. Efaroxan affected acetylcholine release differently depending on concentration. Nicotinic receptor blockade atten-uated the effect of all ligands. All ligands showed poor binding affinity for muscarinic receptors. On the other hand, allligands possessed affinity for nicotinic receptors. Clonidine and yohimbine binding was best fit to a one site binding curveand rilmenidine and efaroxan to a two site binding curve. The present study demonstrates that the tested a2-adrenergicreceptor ligands affect intraspinal acetylcholine release in the rat evoked by nicotinic receptor mechanisms in vivo, andthat they possess binding affinity to nicotinic receptors in vitro. The binding of a2-adrenergic receptor ligands to nicotinicreceptors might affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine.

  • 13.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Försöksdjursvetenskap.
    Kommalage, Mahinda
    Höglund, Urban
    Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats2004Inngår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, Vol. 368, nr 1, s. 116-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N.
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    El-Azzouny, Aida A.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Attia, Mohamed I.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt.;King Saud Univ, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    Maklad, Yousreya A.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Pharmacol Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Amin, Kamilia M.
    Cairo Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    El-Behairy, Mohammed F.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Design and synthesis of novel stiripentol analogues as potential anticonvulsants2012Inngår i: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 47, s. 360-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of stiripentol (SIP) analogues namely, 2-1(1E)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ylidene]-N-(aryl/H)hydrazinecarboxamides 7a-h, (+/-)-(5RS)-N-(aryl/H)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamides (+/-)-8a-h, and (+/-)-[(5RS)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl](aryl)methanones (+/-)-13a-f was synthesized by adopting appropriate synthetic routes and was pharmacologically evaluated in the preliminary anticonvulsant screens. The selected bioactive new chemical entities were subjected to ED50 determination and neurotoxicity evaluation. The most active congeners are 7h in MES screen and (+/-)-13b in scPTZ screen which displayed ED50 values of 87 and 110 mg/kg, respectively, as compared to that of STP (ED50 = 277.7 and 115 mg/kg in MES and scPTZ, respectively). (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Detektion av herpesvirus i hjärnvävnad med q-PCR: Utvärdering av KAPA Express Extract kit och KAPA PROBE FORCE q-PCR kit2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Åberg, Anna-Maja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Blind, Per Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Outcome of microdialysis sampling on liver surface and parenchyma2016Inngår i: Journal of Surgical Research, ISSN 0022-4804, E-ISSN 1095-8673, Vol. 200, nr 2, s. 480-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate whether surface microdialysis (μD) sampling in probes covered by a plastic film, as compared to noncovered and to intraparenchymatous probes, would increase the technique's sensitivity for pathophysiologic events occurring in a liver ischemia-reperfusion model. Placement of μD probes in the parenchyma of an organ, as is conventionally done, may cause adverse effects, e.g., bleeding, possibly influencing outcome.

    Methods: A transient ischemia-reperfusion model of the liver was used in six anesthetized normoventilated pigs. μD probes were placed in the parenchyma and on the liver surface. Surface probes were either left uncovered or were covered by plastic film.

    Results: Lactate and glucose levels were significantly higher in plastic film covered probes than in uncovered surface probes throughout the ischemic period. Glycerol levels were significantly higher in plastic film covered probes than in uncovered surface probes at 30 and 45 min into ischemia.

    Conclusions: Covering the μD probe increases the sensibility of the μD–technique in monitoring an ischemic insult and reperfusion in the liver. These findings confirm that the principle of surface μD works, possibly replacing need of intraparenchymatous placement of μD probes. Surface μD seemingly allows, noninvasively from an organ's surface, via the extracellular compartment, assessment of intracellular metabolic events. The finding that covered surface μD probes allows detection of local metabolic changes earlier than do intraparenchymatous probes, merit further investigation focusing on μD probe design.

  • 17. Abtahi, F
    et al.
    Seoane, F
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Lindecrantz, K
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy in time-variant systems: Is undersampling always a problem?2014Inngår i: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, ISSN 1891-5469, E-ISSN 1891-5469, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 28-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied mainly by using the frequency-sweep technique, across a range of many different applications. Traditionally, the tissue under study is considered to be time-invariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored by treating the changes as a noise source. A new trend in EBIS is simultaneous electrical stimulation with several frequencies, through the application of a multi-sine, rectangular or other waveform. This method can provide measurements fast enough to sample dynamic changes of different tissues, such as cardiac muscle. This high sampling rate comes at a price of reduction in SNR and the increase in complexity of devices. Although the frequency-sweep technique is often inadequate for monitoring the dynamic changes in a variant system, it can be used successfully in applications focused on the time-invariant or slowly-variant part of a system. However, in order to successfully use frequency-sweep EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to consider the effects of aliasing and especially the folding of higher frequencies, on the desired frequency e.g. DC level. This paper discusses sub-Nyquist sampling of thoracic EBIS measurements and its application in the case of monitoring pulmonary oedema. It is concluded that by considering aliasing, and with proper implementation of smoothing filters, as well as by using random sampling, frequency-sweep EBIS can be used for assessing time-invariant or slowly-variant properties of time-variant biological systems, even in the presence of aliasing. In general, undersampling is not always a problem, but does always require proper consideration.

  • 18.
    Adelholt, Denise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    The Effects of Cell Culture Medium and Supplements on the Differentiation of Boundary Cap Neural Crest Stem Cells2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) are multipotent cells that form a barrier between CNS and PNS, playing an important role in ingrowth of neurites into the spinal cord during development. Because of the stemness and multipotency of bNCSCs, they self-renew and can be used directly for transplantation or as a source of matured neural cells. It is important that cells used for cell therapy differentiate and develop into the mature cells that the recipient needs. To ensure this, cells are guided towards specific cell fates, and one way of doing this is with medium supplements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of three different media with supplements on the differentiation of bNCSCs. Two cell lineages of bNCSCs expressing green- and red fluorescent protein were treated with different media for differentiation. The effects of the media supplements neurotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cilinary neurotrophic factor (CTNF) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared, with one medium containing no additional factors. It was found that when GDNF and CTNF are supplemented in the differentiation media, bNCSCs are guided towards astrocytes. Interestingly, the medium containing no additional factors gave rise to an even amount of neurons and astrocytes. FBS had an inhibitory effect on overall differentiation of bNCSCs, giving rise to the smallest amount of neurons and astrocytes. The bNCSCs are promising for cell therapy, as their differentiation can be guided with the use of medium supplements.

  • 19. Adinda, Mathia
    Nutrition supplements when undergoing orthopedic surgery2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Malnutrition is prevalent in elderly populations with orthopedic disabilities, which is especially critical during surgery when the body is under much stress. It is important that these patients are well nourished to be able to cope when mechanisms such as immune system are activated. Nutrition is also important after surgery when the body is healing and sometimes struggling against different complications as infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate if nutrition supplements decreases the time needed for rehabilitation and improve the outcome after orthopedic surgeries. This was performed by analyzing biomarkers involved in wound healing. The study population comprised of 100 surgical patients at the age of 50 or older. The participant where divided into two groups, one test group that received nutrition supplements and one control group who did not receive any extra nutrition. Sandwich ELISA was used to measure myostatin, cathepsin S and cathepsin B concentrations in patient serum before and after surgery. There were no significant difference between the control group and the test group for any of the three biomarkers. The conclusion is that nutrition supplement does not decrease the rehabilitation time and outcome according to the results in this study.

  • 20.
    Adolfsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Visual Evaluation of 3D Image Enhancement2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies in image acquisition have developed and often provide image volumes in more than two dimensions. Computer tomography and magnet resonance imaging provide image volumes in three spatial dimensions. The image enhancement methods have developed as well and in this thesis work 3D image enhancement with filter networks is evaluated.

    The aims of this work are; to find a method which makes the initial parameter settings in the 3D image enhancement processing easier, to compare 2D and 3D processed image volumes visualized with different visualization techniques and to give an illustration of the benefits with 3D image enhancement processing visualized using these techniques.

    The results of this work are;

    1. a parameter setting tool that makes the initial parameter setting much easier and

    2. an evaluation of 3D image enhancement with filter networks that shows a significant enhanced image quality in 3D processed image volumes with a high noise level compared to the 2D processed volumes. These results are shown in slices, MIP and volume rendering. The differences are even more pronounced if the volume is presented in a different projection than the volume is 2D processed in.

  • 21.
    Agid, Nyroz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Sjöqvist, Evelina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin.
    Prevalence of hookworm infection evaluated with Willis flotation and Formal Ethyl Acetate concentration: A field study in Da Nang, Vietnam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hookworm infection can cause nausea, stomach pain and anemia, with the most harmful effect being found among women of reproductive age and children. The infection rates is high in poor parts of the world with a high number of infected in Asia. The infection is many times neglected since it rarely causes mortality, however the morbidity can be destructive. In Vietnam the prevalence of hookworm is largely unknown, but there is believed to be a 29-80 % infection rate in the country. Through a field study in Da Nang, Vietnam, the prevalence of hookworm was identified using two methods, Willis flotation and formal ethyl acetate concentration. Any correlation between hookworm infection and individuals’ gender, age and geographic area was evaluated. A total of 101 consecutive selected samples from hospitals and communities in rural and urban parts of the city were obtained from both gender ranging between 1-72 years in age. No quantitative differences were found between the two methods nor any correlation between genders (p-value 0,143). The overall prevalence was 16,8%. The rural part of the city showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the urban districts (p-value 0,001). Individuals in the age group 25-48 showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the other age groups (p-value 0,035). 

  • 22.
    Ahlebrand, August
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap. 920801117.
    Investigating the effects of pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise.: An electromyographic study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise has been shown to alter the firing patterns in the muscles during the exercise. Pre-exhausting a muscle is done by exercising a muscle group to fatigue with a single joint exercise prior to an exercise.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to further investigate the effects of pre-exhausting the triceps brachii prior to performing a bench press, measuring the EMG activity in pectoralis major, triceps brachii and deltoid anterior.

    Methods: 30 participants, men (n=15) and women (n=15), performed two different protocols (T1 and T2) while the muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. Electrodes were placed on pectoralis major, triceps brachii and deltoid anterior. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was performed prior to performing protocols in order to get reference values.

    Results: Pectoralis major and deltoid anterior activation was significantly higher when preexhausting triceps brachii before bench press compared to no PRE, but no significant increase was seen in triceps brachii (p=0.000, p=.0009 and p=0.405 respectively) MVIC expressed in percentages and mean values ± standard deviation during protocol T1 for pectoralis major 45.3(±12.4), triceps brachii 56.28(±15.9) and deltoid anterior 63.45(±31.4) and during protocol T2 pectoralis major 56.41(±18.4), triceps brachii 58.49(±20.07) and deltoid anterior 71.65(±42.7).

    Conclusion: These results suggest that pre-exhausting a synergist prior to a compound exercise may change the muscle activity in the involved muscles. This can be used in a practical sense to develop weak points in the muscles by changing the activation pattern in the muscles hence being able to target specific muscles better.

  • 23.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Fysiologisk mätteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Processing of the Phonocardiographic Signal: methods for the intelligent stethoscope2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonocardiographic signals contain bioacoustic information reflecting the operation of the heart. Normally there are two heart sounds, and additional sounds indicate disease. If a third heart sound is present it could be a sign of heart failure whereas a murmur indicates defective valves or an orifice in the septal wall. The primary aim of this thesis is to use signal processing tools to improve the diagnostic value of this information. More specifically, three different methods have been developed:

    • A nonlinear change detection method has been applied to automatically detect heart sounds. The first and the second heart sounds can be found using recurrence times of the first kind while the third heart sound can be found using recurrence times of the second kind. Most third heart sound occurrences were detected (98 %), but the amount of false extra detections was rather high (7 % of the heart cycles).

    • Heart sounds obscure the interpretation of lung sounds. A new method based on nonlinear prediction has been developed to remove this undesired disturbance. High similarity was obtained when comparing actual lung sounds with lung sounds after removal of heart sounds.

    • Analysis methods such as Shannon energy, wavelets and recurrence quantification analysis were used to extract information from the phonocardiographic signal. The most prominent features, determined by a feature selection method, were used to create a new feature set for heart murmur classification. The classification result was 86 % when separating patients with aortic stenosis, mitral insufficiency and physiological murmurs.

    The derived methods give reasonable results, and they all provide a step forward in the quest for an intelligent stethoscope, a universal phonocardiography tool able to enhance auscultation by improving sound quality, emphasizing abnormal events in the heart cycle and distinguishing different heart murmurs.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Aden
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Utveckling av en PCR-baserad metod för detektion av plasmidburna kolistinresistens, mcr-1 och mcr-3 gener i extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producerande enterobacteriaceae2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kolistin är ett gammalt polypeptidantibiotikum och används som sista utväg för behandling av allvarliga infektioner orsakad av multiresistenta gramnegativa bakterier. Nya studier har påvisat kolistinresistensgener, mcr (mobil colistin resistance), hos extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producerande Enterobacteriaceae. Mcr-genen ligger i plasmider som kan överföras mellan bakterier, vilket innebär att det är mycket svårare att behandla människor och djur vid infektion orsakad av patogen som erhållit denna resistens. Syfte med detta projekt var att utveckla en PCR-baserad metod för detektion av mcr-1 och mcr-3 gener. I denna studie optimerades en PCR-metod och sedan screenades 60 ESBL-isolat från Kristianstads vattenrike. Därefter undersöktes PCR-produkt med hjälp av agarosgelselektrofores. Resultatet visade att 51oC är den optimala annealingtemperaturen vid multiplex-PCR för detektion av mcr-1 och mcr-3. Ingen av mcr-generna kunde detekteras i de 60 ESBL-isolaten. Positiva kontrollstammar med specifika primers kunde detekteras i PCR-analyser som genomfördes i denna studie, vilket tyder på att den optimerade PCR metoden kan vara pålitlig för detektion av mcr-1 och mcr-3 generna.

     

  • 25.
    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Polymerkemi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zeiai, Said
    Fossum, Magdalena
    Hilborn, Jöns G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Polymerkemi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Constructs of electrospun PLGA, compressed collagen and minced urothelium for minimally manipulated autologous bladder tissue expansion2014Inngår i: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 35, nr 22, s. 5741-5748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bladder regeneration based on minced bladder mucosa in vivo expansion is an alternative to in vitro culturing of urothelial cells. Here, we present the design of a hybrid, electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - plastically compressed (PC) collagen scaffold that could allow in vivo bladder mucosa expansion. Optimisation of electrospinning was performed in order to obtain increased pore sizes and porosity to consolidate the construct and to support neovascularisation and tissue ingrowth. Tensile tests showed an increase in average tensile strength from 0.6 MPa for PC collagen to 3.57 MPa for the hybrid construct. The optimised PLGA support scaffold was placed between two collagen gels, and the minced tissue was distributed either on top or both on top and inside the construct prior to PC; this was then cultured for up to four weeks. Morphology, histology and SEM demonstrated that the construct maintained its integrity throughout cell culture. Cells from minced tissue migrated, expanded and re-organised to a confluent cell layer on the top of the construct after two weeks and formed a multilayered urothelium after four weeks. Cell morphology and phenotype was typical for urothelial mucosa during tissue culture. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Akgun, Kocere Kurdé
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Evaluation of Different Extraction- and Analysis Methods for Calprotectin in Feces2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background Calprotectin is a protein expressed in the cytoplasm inside the neutrophile granulocytes. During inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the neutrophile granulocytes are involved in a complex interaction at the inflammatory area where they die and release their content into the intestinal lumen. Therefore, calprotectin in stool is a suitable marker for diagnosis and measurement of the disease-activity in patients with IBD. The most commonly used method to detect calprotectin in stool is ELISA, but the process of manual preparation of stool samples is time-consuming.

    Aim The objective of the study was to evaluate an extraction method that could replace manual preparation of fecal samples and to compare different methods for measuring Calprotectin in stool using two ELISA-methods from two manufacturers and one rapidtest.

    Methods For extraction of calprotectin from stool samples we used sample collector tubes from Epitope Diagnostics and fecal preparation kits from Roche. Two different ELISA-kits for measuring calprotectin concentration in stool were compared. Measurements of calprotectin with rapid-test from Epitope Diagnostics were also performed and were compared with the two ELISA kits.

    Results The results indicate a poor correlation between two extraction methods with Sample Collector Tube and Roche preparation kit. The comparison between the two ELISA-kits showed poor correlation. Evaluation of rapid test showed 33% false negative results with a cut-off value at 50 mg/kg.

    Conclusion Evaluation of products from Epitope Diagnostics showed poor correlation with the Bühlmann ELISA and an unreliable rapid test. Therefore, none of evaluated products from Epitope Diagnostics is accurate enough to be used for clinical diagnosis in the laboratory.

  • 27.
    Akhras, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Stanford Univ, Palo Alto CA, USA.
    Pettersson, Erik
    Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Stanford Univ, Palo Alto CA, USA.
    Diamond, Lisa
    Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Stanford Univ, Palo Alto CA, USA.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Region Örebro län.
    Okamoto, Jennifer
    Dept Bioengn, Stanford Univ, Stanford CA, USA.; Howard Hughes Med Inst, Stanford Univ, Stanford CA, USA.
    Davis, Ronald W.
    Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Stanford Univ, Palo Alto CA , USA.
    Pourmand, Nader
    Dept Biomol Engn, University of California, Santa Cruz CA, USA.
    The Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a Next-Generation Digital Suspension Array2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikkel-id UNSP e76696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe the novel Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a complete assay for molecular diagnostics and typing applications. SBA is a digital suspension array using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), to replace conventional optical readout platforms. The technology allows for reducing the number of instruments required in a laboratory setting, where the same NGS instrument could be employed from whole-genome and targeted sequencing to SBA broad-range biomarker detection and genotyping. As proof-of-concept, a model assay was designed that could distinguish ten Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. SBA was used to genotype 20 cervical tumor samples and, when compared with amplicon pyrosequencing, was able to detect two additional co-infections due to increased sensitivity. We also introduce in-house software Sphix, enabling easy accessibility and interpretation of results. The technology offers a multi-parallel, rapid, robust, and scalable system that is readily adaptable for a multitude of microarray diagnostic and typing applications, e. g. genetic signatures, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), structural variations, and immunoassays. SBA has the potential to dramatically change the way we perform probe-based applications, and allow for a smooth transition towards the technology offered by genomic sequencing.

  • 28.
    Akula, Ilona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Hjärtfunktion vid ärftlig transtyretin-amyloidos: Jämförelse av hjärtfrekvensvariabilitet och ekokardiografi mellan två amyloidfibrilltyper2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 29.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Mohammadamin, Sayran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Kemisk biologi.
    Fc Receptors for Immunoglobulins and Their Appearance during Vertebrate Evolution2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. e96903-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR gamma chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR.

  • 30.
    Al Hwamdeh, Yaseen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Urinary Stone Diagnosis Non: Contrast Computed Tomography versus Intravenous Urography2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 31.
    Al Rabiey, Ahmed
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Detektion av aktin i paraffinsnitt från human vävnad2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 32.
    Al-Asafi, Zainab
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Förekomst av Mycobacterium avium i vattenprover från barns närmiljö: med fokus på badleksaker2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Mykobakterier är grampositiva bakterier som hör till familjen Mycobacteriaceae. Inom släktet Mycobacterium finns det mer än 50 arter av mykobakterier som ger upphov till sjukdomar hos människan, där den viktigaste arten är M. tuberculosis. Icke-tuberkulösa mykobakterier benämns även som miljömykobakterier. En del arter kan leva i miljöer med mycket låga halter av näringsämnen samt i akvatiska miljöer och återfinns i bl.a. vatten, jord, kärr och sumpmarker. Vissa miljömykobakteriearter är patogena och framkallar sjukdomar hos människan och även djur. Oftast är de opportunistiskt patogena, dvs. angriper och infekterar människan vid starkt nedsatt immunförsvar eller kronisk sjukdom.

    Två mykobakteriearter vid namn Mykobakterium avium avium och Mykobakterium avium hominissuis tillhör undergruppen Mykobakterium avium komplex (MAC).

    Friska barn mellan 1 och 5 år är en utsatt grupp för MAC-infektioner. När barnen infekteras med MAC, uppstår en lymfkörtelinflammation (lymfadenit) runt halsområdet. Eftersom det inte konstaterats någon MAC-smitta människor emellan, spekuleras det över andra möjliga vägar för MAC-bakterier att nå och infektera vuxna och barn med lymfadenit.  Det antas att MAC infekterar människan via naturen samt dricksvattnet. 

    Syftet med studien var att utveckla en metod för att detektera förekomst av M. avium bakterier i vanligt kranvatten från Öland, Kalmar och Hultsfred, inkuberat i badankor. I syftet ingick också att experimentellt undersöka om M. avium överlever och/ eller anrikar sig i badanksmiljön. De metoder som utvärderades var odling med efterföljande detektion via MALDI-TOF samt triplex q-PCR.  

    Studien utfördes på rena (nya) och smutsiga (använda) badankor innehållande kranvatten från Öland, Kalmar och Hultsfred, där vissa injicerades med kända stammar av M. avium avium och M. avium hominissuis och inkuberades i fem veckor. Från vattnet från respektive badanka extraherades DNA som analyserades med q-PCR. Dessutom gjordes utstryk från vattenproven och odlades på näringsrik agar för att senare, om möjligt, detektera med MALDI-TOF.

    Resultatet av studien med q-PCR visade detektion av bakterierna M. avium avium och M. avium hominissus i samtliga miljöprover. En trolig orsak till detta kan vara att extraktionslösningarna som användes varit kontaminerade. Studien visade dock att mykobakterier överlevde i badanksmiljö.

  • 33.
    Albeer, Merna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Evaluation of ELISA and rapid test for the analysis of fecal Calprotectin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background Calprotectin is a protein found in the cytoplasm of neutrophile granulocytes. In the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), calprotectin is released during chronic inflammation in the gut. Activation of neutrophils during the inflammation is followed by activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules such as calprotectin. Calprotectin is stable in stool up to 7 days and can therefore be used as a non-invasive marker for diagnosis, treatment and measurement of the disease activity in patients with IBD. The most common method for analysis of calprotectin concentration is ELISA. This method is time-consuming and many manufactures have therefore developed rapid tests as a faster alternative for quantification of calprotectin in stool.

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate one ELISA and one rapid test from the same manufacture compare the data with the existing ELISA-method used in the laboratory for routine analysis.

    Methods A rapid test (CalFast) and an ELISA method (CalPrest) from Eurospital, were used for analysis of calprotectin in stool. These two methods were compared with known concentrations of calprotectin obtained by the ELISA method from Bühlmann used in the routine work. 

    Results The results showed poor correlation between the rapid test and the ELISA method. Furthermore, the comparison between the two ELISA-methods showed a poor correlation.

    Conclusion Evaluation of the two new methods showed poor correlation with the existing ELISA method from Bühlmann. Evaluation of the rapid test did not show any correlation with the two ELISA methods and the data cannot be trusted. It is difficult to conclude which of the two ELISA methods gives accurate results due to the absence of an international standard.

  • 34.
    Albertsson, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Effekt av förbehandling vid detektion av muterat superoxiddismutas-1 protein: Immunohistokemisk detektion av SOD1 aggregat hos G93A transgena möss2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 hpOppgave
  • 35.
    Albertsson, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Effekt av förbehandling vid detektion av muterat superoxiddismutas-1 protein: Immunohistokemisk detektion av SOD1 aggregat hos G93A transgena möss2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 36.
    Ali, Iman
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Pan Genera Detection-​test, a new bacterial detection systems for durability extension of platelets2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Platelets are blood cells that important for transfusion and blood coagulation. Patients will get transfusion with manufactured platelets if they have platelet disorder or extensive blood loss. Platelets isolated from 5 buffy-coats by different ways at a blood center are usable for about 5 days. The sustainability of platelets could be extended by various methods. The previously used method in Gävle BLC was the bacterial culture method using aerobic and anaerobic bottles, which took 5 days to receive an answer. Therefore, this project used Pan Genera Detection (PGD) test as an alternative method to extend the sustainability of platelets. The PGD ​​Test is a rapid method that only takes about 30 minutes. This study showed that PGD the test yielded good results to reduced costs compared with the old method. The durability was extended by 36 h and the analysis runs in routine now at Gävle blood center.

    Finally, this project has shown that PGD-test is a cheaper, faster and safer approach for patient health compared to the old method, the bacterial culture method.

  • 37.
    Ali, Jalal
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Fluorescerande Chlamydia trachomatis-mCherry för analys av nya antimikrobiella substanser2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 38. Allabwani, Haifaa
    Verification of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella holmesii withreal-time PCR2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, which is a very dangerous disease especially for children. A correct diagnose is very important. Bordetella pertussis usually misidentifies with Bordetella holmesii by routine polymerase chain reaction.The aim of the study is to evaluate a target sequence that can verify a Bordetella pertussis infection and distinguish it from other Bordetella species, in specific Bordetella holmesii.The target sequences' sensitivities were tested on the control bacterial strains. Sixty-five clinical samples were analyzed with real-time PCR.The study concludes that both IS481 and ptxA target sequences are highly specific to detect B. pertussis, while both ho_IS1001 and IS481 are specific to detect B. holmesii. Pa_IS1001 is specific to detect B. parapertussis. Culturing is less sensitive to detect Bordetella infection than real-time PCR.

  • 39.
    Ally Lalloo, Arshad
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Mapping the Role of ATP Binding and Hydrolysis of ClpB Domain in Francisella tularensis2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 40.
    Al-Masaraa, Nahil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Terpenmetabolism i Artemisia annua: rekombinant produktion och karaktärisering av seskviterpensyntaser.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Malaria är en tropisk sjukdom som orsakas av encelliga organismer, protozoer från Plasmodium släktet. Varje år drabbas ungefär en halv miljard människor av malaria och cirka en miljon av dessa dör. Okomplicerad malaria är en mild form av malaria som enligt WHO rekommendationer ska behandlas med artemisinin baserad kombinationsterapi (ACT). Artemisinin produceras naturligt i låg mängd från växten Artemisia annua. Trots att medicinen har visat sig effektiv mot malaria med färre biverkningar är den höga kostnaden en nackdel. Forskning pågår för att hitta nya syntetiska vägar för framställning av artemisinin i växten genom att studera terpenmetabolism och vilka aktiva enzymer det finns som har en avgörande roll i utbytet av artemisinin i växten. Syftet med denna studie var att med hjälp av genteknik och molekylärbiologiska metoder producera och identifiera två rekombinanta enzymer, seskviterpensyntaser från A. annua. Experimentet inleddes med att transformera klonade T-DNA (AaTS-1 och AaTS-2) som kodar för seskviterpensyntaser från A. annua med hjälp av Agrobacterium tumefaciens vartefter transienta transkriptionen av generna som finns i en binär vektor initierades i blad från växten Nicotiana benthamiana genom infiltration. Totalt RNA extraherades från växten och översattes till cDNA för att sedan studera förhållandet av transient uttryck i bladen med qPCR. Enzymerna extraherades från bladen och inkuberades med farnesyldifosfat övernatt och produkten identifierades följande dag med gaskromatografi-masspektrofotometri (GC-MS). Resultatet blev att inget genuttryck av AaTS-1 och AaTS-2 kunde detekteras i bladen. Resultat från GC-MS visade att ingen proteinprodukt genererades. De negativa resultaten berodde främst på brist av resultat som verifierar att plasmiderna var konstruerade med selektionsgenerna, men även på grund av en icke effektiv transformation, orsakad av bakteriecellklumpar som förhindrade infiltreringsmedium att nå inre delarna av bladen.    

  • 41. Almeflo, Sandra
    The effect of shifting host plants on growth of butterfly larvae of Polygonia c-album.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 42.
    Almeros, Isak
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Bindning av Adenovirus typ 40 till kommensala grampositiva och gramnegativa bakterier2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 43.
    Alrifaiy, Ahmed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF). Luleå University of Technology.
    Bitaraf, Nazanin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF). Luleå University of Technology.
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Luleå University of Technology.
    Ramser, K
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för medicinsk teknik och fysik (CMTF). Luleå University of Technology.
    Hypoxia on a chip: a novel approach for patch-clamp studies in a microfluidic system with full oxygen control2013Inngår i: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China / [ed] Mian Long, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 313-316Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach to perform patch-clamp experiments on living cells under controlled anoxic and normoxic conditions was developed and tested. To provide an optimal control over the oxygen content and the biochemical environment a patch-clamp recording micropipette was integrated within an oxygen tight poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) based microchip. The oxygen content within the microfluidic chamber surrounding patch-clamp micropipette was maintained at 0.5-1.5 % by a continuous flow of artificial extracellular solution purged with nitrogen. The nerve and glial cells acutely obtained from the male rat brain were trapped by the optical tweezers and steered towards the patch-clamp micropipette through the channels of the microchip in order to achieve a close contact between the pipette and the cellular membrane. The patch-clamp recordings revealed that optical tweezers did not affect the electrophysiological properties of the tested cells suggesting that optical trapping is a safe and non-traumatizing method to manipulate living cells in the microfluidic system. Thus, our approach of combining optical tweezers and a gas-tight microfluidic chamber may be applied in various electrophysiological investigations of single cells were optimal control of the experimental conditions and the sample in a closed environment are necessary.

  • 44. Alrifaiy, Ahmed
    et al.
    Lindahl, Olof A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Polymer-based microfluidic devices for pharmacy, biology and tissue engineering2012Inngår i: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 1349-1398Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews microfluidic technologies with emphasis on applications in the fields of pharmacy, biology, and tissue engineering. Design and fabrication of microfluidic systems are discussed with respect to specific biological concerns, such as biocompatibility and cell viability. Recent applications and developments on genetic analysis, cell culture, cell manipulation, biosensors, pathogen detection systems, diagnostic devices, high-throughput screening and biomaterial synthesis for tissue engineering are presented. The pros and cons of materials like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), glass, and silicon are discussed in terms of biocompatibility and fabrication aspects. Microfluidic devices are widely used in life sciences. Here, commercialization and research trends of microfluidics as new, easy to use, and cost-effective measurement tools at the cell/tissue level are critically reviewed.

  • 45. Alsaadi, Hani
    A new High Sensitive Functional Nephelometrical Assay for Assaying C- reactive protein in Serum Based on Phosphocholine Interaction2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is able to bind phosphocholine in the presence of calcium ions. According to a previous functional property of CRP, we tried to develop an affordable and cheap high sensitive nephelometric CRP assay using soy oil.

    Serum samples were measured by Nephelometer BNII (Siemens), by mixing the serum with diluted soy oil emulsion (Intralipid

    ®

    20%) and Tris-calcium buffer (PH 7.5). The measurement took place after 12 min incubation time at 37°C by measuring the agglutination between CRP and phosphocholine. Results from our automated functional assay were compared with results obtained using an immunoturbidimetric CRP assay.

    Results showed a good correlation coefficient for method comparison between functional nephelometric CRP assay and immunoturbidimetric CRP assay, r = 0.895, significance level p <0.0001. The limit of detection for the functional nephelometric CRP assay was 0.1 mg/L. However, the within run % CV values for the functional assay were 6.1 % (20 mg/L), 4.7 % (50 mg/L) and 4.5 % (100 mg/L). The between-run % CV values were 17.6 % (20 mg/L), 18.8 % (50 mg/L), and 11.3 % (100 mg/L).

    The new functional nephelometric CRP assay enables high sensitive CRP measurement in serum in the range of 0.1 mg/L to 300 mg/L. The functional assay could be used for veterinary analysis due to the ability to measure CRP according to the functional properties, not the morphological properties which depend on specific antibodies.

  • 46.
    Alstermark, Bror
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Hultborn, H
    University of Copenhagen Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology Copenhagen N. Denmark.
    Jankowska, E
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg Department of Physiology Gothenburg Sweden.
    Pettersson, L-G
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg Department of Physiology Gothenburg Sweden.
    Anders Lundberg (1920-2009).2010Inngår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 200, nr 3-4, s. 193-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Anders Lundberg was one of the founding editorial board members for EBR when it began its life in 1976 under the editorship of John Eccles. He was also one of the most prolific contributors to the journal with a total of 49 papers, including a series of 16 on the topic of “integration in descending motor pathways controlling the forelimb in the cat”. He continued as an editor of the journal until volume 16 when he persuaded his younger colleague Hans Hultborn to take his place. Hans is one of the authors of the obituary. –John Rothwell

  • 47.
    Altun, O.
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Athlin, Simon
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Almuhayawi, M.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Strålin, K.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Özenci, V.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures by using the ImmuLex, Slidex and Wellcogen latex agglutination tests and the BinaxNOW antigen test2016Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 579-585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood culture (BC) bottles is important for early directed antimicrobial therapy in pneumococcal bacteraemia. We evaluated a new latex agglutination (LA) test on BC bottles, the ImmuLex™ S. pneumoniae Omni (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark), and compared the performance with the Slidex® pneumo-Kit (bioMérieux, France) and the Wellcogen™ S. pneumoniae (Remel, UK) LA tests, as well as the BinaxNOW® S. pneumoniae (Alere, USA) antigen test. The four tests were directly applied on 358 positive BC bottles with Gram-positive cocci in pairs or chains and on 15 negative bottles. Valid test results were recorded in all cases for ImmuLex and BinaxNOW and in 88.5 % (330/373) and 94.1 % (351/373) of cases for Slidex and Wellcogen, respectively. Based on bottles positive for S. pneumoniae by conventional methods, the sensitivity of ImmuLex was 99.6 %, similar to the other tests (range, 99.6-100 %). Based on bottles positive for non-pneumococcal pathogens, the specificity of ImmuLex was 82.6 %, in comparison to 97.6 % for Slidex (p < 0.01) and 85.4 % for Wellcogen (p = ns). The BinaxNOW test had a lower specificity (64.1 %) than any LA test (p < 0.01). On BC bottles positive for α-haemolytic streptococci, ImmuLex was positive in 12/67 (17.9 %) cases, Slidex in 2/59 (3.4 %) cases, Wellcogen in 11/64 (17.2 %) cases and BinaxNOW in 25/67 (37.3 %) cases. In conclusion, the ImmuLex test provides a valid and sensitive technique for the rapid detection of S. pneumoniae in BC bottles, similar to the other compared methods. However, the specificity was sub-optimal, since the test may cross-react with other Gram-positive bacteria.

  • 48.
    Alverup, Josefin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Biomedicinsk laboratorievetenskap.
    Förekomst av bakterier i hudstrukturer med sjukdomen Hidradenitis suppurativa: propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum och Staphylococcus species detektion med immunofluorescens2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 49. Amer-Wåhlin, I
    et al.
    Kjellmer, I
    Maršál, K
    Olofsson, P
    Rosén, Karl Gustaf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Swedish randomized controlled trial of cardiotocography only versus cardiotocography plus ST analysis of fetal electrocardiogram revisited: analysis of data according to standard versus modified intention-to-treat principle.2011Inngår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 90, nr 9, s. 990-996Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To undertake a renewed analysis of data from the previously published Swedish randomized controlled trial on intrapartum fetal monitoring with cardiotocography (CTG-only) vs. CTG plus ST analysis of fetal electrocardiogram (CTG+ST), using current standards of intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and to compare the results with those of the modified ITT (mITT) and per protocol analyses. METHODS: Renewed extraction of data from the original database including all cases randomized according to primary case allocation (n=5 049). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Metabolic acidosis in umbilical artery at birth (pH <7.05, base deficit in extracellular fluid >12.0 mmol/l) including samples of umbilical vein blood or neonatal blood if umbilical artery blood was missing. RESULTS: The metabolic acidosis rates were 0.66% (17 of 2 565) and 1.33% (33 of 2 484) in the CTG+ST and CTG-only groups, respectively [relative risk (RR) 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.88; p=0.019]. The original mITT gave RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.25-0.86 (p=0.015), mITT with correction for 10 previously misclassified cases RR 0.48, 95%CI 0.24-0.96 (p=0.038) and per protocol analysis RR 0.40, 95%CI 0.20-0.80 (p=0.009). The level of significance of the difference in metabolic acidosis rates between the two groups remained unchanged in all analyses. CONCLUSION: Re-analysis of data according to the ITT principle showed that regardless of the method of analysis, the Swedish randomized controlled trial maintained its ability to demonstrate a significant reduction in metabolic acidosis rate when using CTG+ST analysis for fetal surveillance in labor.

  • 50.
    Anani, Adi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Diagnostic instrument for children with reading disorders2006Inngår i: International Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1021-0806, Vol. 16, s. 167-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and cost-effective wearable gaze tracking system is designed to observe the readingpattern of patients with reading disorders in order to facilitate for the work of ophthalmologists andthe multidisciplinary treating teams in making reliable diagnosis. The system constitutes of twominiaturized cameras mounted on a headset; one for eye tracking and one for the scene. The eyetracking information is combined with information extracted from the picture of the forwardlooking camera to online identify the gaze point. When reading a text the gaze point moves and areading pattern is created.

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