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  • 1.
    Alex, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    Business Navigator: Användarcentrerad utveckling av framtidens internetbank2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with an iterative user-centered IT-development project in a bank setting. The aim is to present a solution for deployment of future Internet banking for small businesses. The project features a design of IT-related concepts and ideas with a strong emphasis on scenario-based design and the usage of patterns as a documentation tool.

    The project plan featured an iterative framework and was carried out by a group of designers in collaboration with a reference group representing the future users of the system. This group consisted of company managers and bank employees, all from the small town of Åtvidaberg in Sweden.

    The method used in the development process was Scrum. A total of three sprints were completed with user meetings at the end of every sprint. In these meetings, focus groups were utilized to obtain information from the users. Throughout the process patterns were used to document important concepts and ideas as well as to create project outlines. In meetings with the reference group there was extensive usage of scenario based design.

    The outcome of the project was a prototype demonstrating some of the desired functions in the future software as well as a large pattern map showing the entire project as a whole with all the concepts and ideas that were discovered during the process.

    Patterns were successfully used for documentation as well as development and helped to enhance the communication within the group of designers. Also, scenario based design worked well in the context to bridge the gap between developers and users throughout the project.

  • 2.
    Blomkvist, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    User-centred design and agile development of IT systems2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the knowledge on the interaction between humans and computers, too many IT systems show great deficits when it comes to usability. Every day we run into technology that makes our every day life and our work unnecessarily complex and difficult because of the IT systems that are not designed to support our tasks in a usable way. This thesis deals with different aspects of usability and the process of how to develop usable IT systems effectively. Primarily, the systems concerned are used in professional work, such as case handling systems in large government organisations.

    The main objective of this research is to understand which essential factors in the system development process that facilitate the development of usable IT systems. Another key subject is how human-computer interaction (HCI) knowledge can be integrated into systems development, in particular the integration of user-centred design (UCD) and agile software development. The research is based on a qualitative approach and on reflections from my own experience in development projects. It also includes exploratory studies and design cases.

    The attempts of bridging the gap between HCI and software engineering have not been notably successful in practice. To address some of these problems, there is a need for a more precise definition of user-centred design, which is proposed in the thesis. Also, the complicated reality of systems development is not considered enough by HCI researchers and practitioner. To reach better results, UCD has to be integrated as a natural part of the development process. In the thesis, I argue that the agile approach together with UCD can be a good starting point for this integration. The agile approach emphasises that responding to change in development is more important than strictly adhering to a plan. Also, it prioritises regular deliveries of working software over extensive models and documentation. However, from an HCI perspective, agile processes do not inherently provide the required support for user-centred design. Nevertheless, the basic values and specific methods of agile development may have the potential to work very well together with UCD. For instance, iterative development is fundamental to both user-centred design and agile development.

    Finally, the research addresses how iterative methods can be used to find design solutions that support the users to cope with the problems of overview and control in case handling work.

  • 3.
    Boivie, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    A Fine Balance: Addressing Usability and Users’ Needs in the Development of IT Systems for the Workplace2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    IT systems with poor usability are a serious problem in many workplaces. Many workers, particularly office workers, spend a large part of their workday at the computer, and usability problems can cause frustration and impact negatively on productivity. This thesis discusses some of the problems associated with addressing usability and users’ needs in IT systems development.

    Usability issues and users’ needs are often marginalised or even abandoned in systems development. Technical issues and deadlines are given precedence, while usability activities and user activities are cut back or cancelled. Research shows that there are various obstacles to usability and user involvement, including difficulties with understanding the usability concept, insufficient usability expertise and a lack of time and resources.

    This thesis presents a number of studies that look at the problem from different angles. The main question is why usability and users’ needs are marginalised in bespoke systems development, where IT systems are built for a specific work context. The research presented in this thesis also addresses user-centred systems design as a way of integrating usability issues and users’ needs into systems development. The thesis concludes with a discussion about different ways of viewing and representing the users’ work: the systems theoretical view and the view of work as a social process. The former emphasises the formal aspects of work and views users as components in an overall system, whereas the latter focuses on work as a social process and people as active agents. The discussion concludes with the argument that the conflict between these two views is played out in the systems development process, which may help explain some of the difficulties that arise when working with usability and users’ needs.

  • 4.
    Boivie, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Usability and users’ health issues in systems development2003Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The figures of reported health problems in computer-supported, administrative, work are alarmingly high and increasing. The main health problems are visual discomfort, repetitive strain injuries (RSI) and stress-related disorders. Some important risk factors are poor workstation design, constrained work postures, repetitive work and long hours of computer use every day. Others are high demands, poor control over workload and work pace and poor relations to management and colleagues. There is also evidence that poor design and usability of the computer systems as well as technical problems with the computer add to the pressure perceived by the user, which may in its turn cause stress-related disorders.

    Systems (software) development is often technology-driven and the design and contents of the resulting system shapes the work situation, including factors affecting the users' health and well-being. There are numerous examples in the literature describing how poorly designed systems fail to support the real work practices, introducing new ones that are inadequate and more time-consuming. Thus these, supposedly supporting, computer systems get in the way of efficient and effective work, adding a burden on the workers rather than helping them out.

    This thesis tries to describe some of the relations between the systems development process and users' health complaints, in a work context. I also discuss whether or not the concepts of usability and user experience can be used to address users' health issues in the systems development process. The main results indicate that although usability must be addressed, it is not sufficient. Occupational health issues must be explicitly integrated in systems development, and be given priority. This thesis also describes some potential methods and techniques for doing that.

  • 5.
    Borälv, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Design and usability in telemedicine2001Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A design of computer systems, that effectively supports the user, is a major goal within human-computer interaction. To achieve this, we must understand and master several tasks. These tasks concern firstly what to develop and secondly how to develop the system.

    The design and implementation of effective and efficient user interfaces is a prerequisite for the successful introduction of computer support in the medical domain. We base our work on a fundamental understanding of cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction, as well as on detailed analysis of the specific needs and requirements of the end users, i.e., the medical professionals.

    This thesis presents several approaches for development of systems for computer-supported work in health care. The solutions described concern vital problem areas: (1) the focus on the work tasks to be performed, (2) the cost of software and the way competition works in a networked world. Solutions to these problems can lead to more usable systems from a user's perspective but may also change the nature of computer applications.

  • 6.
    Borälv, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Design in Telemedicine: Development and Implementation of Usable Computer Systems2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing computer systems that effectively support the user is the major goal within human-computer interaction. To achieve this, we must understand and master several tasks. This process must initially deal with the question of knowing what to develop and later, with the question of knowing how to design and develop the system. This view might seem off-target at first, since it does not explicitly mention the goals or functions of the system. However, more often than not, there is no objective goal to aim for that can be formally specified and used as a target criterion that will signal when we have designed an appropriate system. Instead, there is a large set of vague goals – some of which may last through the entire project and some that will not. It is therefore somewhat confounding that most of the current methods of systems development require that these goals are explicitly laid out, in order to steer development.

    For researchers in Human-Computer Interaction, the existence of many varying – and possibly conflicting goals – presents is a great challenge. The constructive main focus on producing usable systems is a matter of understanding this complex situation and knowing how to proceed from there.

    There are many existing approaches that can be used to carry out this complex development process. This thesis presents one approach, based on the notion that the elements that constitute a successful system are also a part of the solution.

    This thesis presents this approach as it is applied to the development of systems for computer-supported work in health care. The projected solution suggests that we need to focus more intently on active user involvement in iterative development that is significantly long-term. The traditional, rather narrow circle of focus that encompasses design, development and evaluation is not sufficient.

  • 7.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Usability – Who Cares?: The Introduction of User-Centred Systems Design in Organisations2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the difficulties encountered in the promotion of usability, especially in relation to occupation health issues, when developing IT systems in a public authority. It examines what happens when User-Centred Systems Design (UCSD) approaches are introduced to organisations with in-house systems development for their employees. It studies how stakeholder values affect the outcomes in terms of usability, occupational health, and institutional acceptance. Moreover, new methods are examined and evaluated as potential tools for assisting the adoption of UCSD. These methods are for example Field studies for system developers, Usability coaching for stakeholders and Management views of usability.

    A stated aim is to influence systems development in practice. Hence an action research paradigm has been employed, carrying out research and change in real life settings, gathering and analysing data using qualitative techniques.

    This thesis is based on a constructivist perspective, where theories in the areas of learning and organisational change have been used in order to better understand the research questions.

    The research demonstrates that most people are enthusiastic to, and interested in, UCSD with a focus on the computerised work environment. Many of the stakeholder groups, such as managers, users, project managers and system developers, changed their construct of identity as well as practice when UCSD was introduced.

    However, this research shows that there are several values that affect systems development and hinder usability work. These include for example value of rationality and objectivity, and differing values and perspectives underpinning descriptions and discourse on work and systems development. Values such as automation, efficiency, and customer satisfaction shape the development of new technology, and ultimately the tasks, work practices integrated in IT systems.

    Moreover, the results demonstrate that even though many consider usability as important, few take active responsibility for it, as the title of this thesis suggests.

  • 8.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Values and perspectives affecting IT systems development and usability work2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer supported work is often stressful and inadequate computer systems and poor usability contribute to the problem. Still the work situation, and work environment of users are seldom considered when developing computer systems, and it is difficult to incorporate the ideas of User Centred Systems Design (UCSD) in practice. Hence, this research addresses the difficulty in integrating usability, UCSD and occupational health issues in IT systems development in order to improve the resulting work situation and well-being of users. How do basic values and perspectives of stakeholders in systems development projects affect the work with UCSD, usability and users’ health issues in the organisations studied?

    This research aims at influencing systems development in practice; hence, research is carried out in real life settings with an action research approach. Data is gathered and analysed with a qualitative research approach with interview studies, meetings with stakeholders, analysis of documentation, observations and field studies. The theoretical framework adheres to situated action, participatory design, and UCSD that stresses the importance of involving users in the design process.

    This research shows that several basic values and perspectives affect systems development and hinder the usability work, for example, the perspective on user representatives, the value of rationality and objectivity, and the perspective underpinning descriptions and discourse on work. Moreover, this research indicates that the strong business values of automation, efficiency and customer satisfaction shape the development of new technology, and ultimately the tasks and work practices of the civil servants. In short, the studies show that there are some contradictions in business values and the implementation of user-centred systems design, usability and health issues in systems development.

    Attitudes and perspectives are not easily changed, and change comes gradually. In these organisations, we continuously discuss the integration of health issues in systems development, and by introducing and changing the models of systems development these will hopefully enable communication and change forwards of new perspectives and values. However, a focus on models alone is insufficient and therefore we need to develop a systematic approach to include reflection and new perspectives. Perhaps the reflection itself would help us see our values and perspectives and to alter them?

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Making sense of usability: Organizational change and sensemaking when introducing user-centred systems design in public authorities2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become an everyday encounter, not at least in work settings. These computers must support the user in order for her to work in an effective and efficient manner. The field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has among other things been focusing on this issue, and there are numerous methods and activities that aim at helping developers to develop usable computer systems. However, the methods and activities must be used in practice in order to be beneficial, not only within research, thus the methods must make sense to the system developers, as well as the organization in which they shall be applied. Furthermore, the organization must change in order to incorporate these methods and activities, and this change must impact a larger part of the organization than just the IT-department.

    My research has revolved around the introduction of usability methods in public authorities, in particular user-centred systems design (UCSD). My methodology has been action research, which implies a close collaboration with practitioners. Some of the methods used to gather data have been interviews, participatory observations, research diaries and field studies.

    In this licentiate thesis I present my work up to date and the theories that have informed my understanding of organizations and organizational change. Furthermore I have been influenced by the sensemaking theory, which can be used in order to understand how people make sense of technology, methods and organizational change. With the help of these theories, I extend my results further than presented in the papers.

    The notion of organizational change when introducing usability issues has not achieved sufficient attention in the HCI-field. This thesis is a step towards an understanding of this issue. Furthermore, I have, with the results from my papers together with the theories presented shown that although formal documents can be used to promote change, it is not enough. Rather there is a need to further explore the interplay between formal aspects and the situated work, and how to enhance sensegiving in this sensemaking process.

  • 10.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Usability in Transportation: Improving the analysis of cognitive work tasks2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In most vehicle domains within the transportation sector, traffic is increasing and vehicles are becoming more technologically advanced. In addition to this, drivers are faced with conflicting goals, such as punctuality, maintaining safety, minimizing fuel consumption, ensuring passenger comfort, etc. When accidents occur, the drivers' actions and mishaps are often in focus, even though the work environment, the organization behind the drivers, and the educational level may provide equally important explanations for incidents and actions.

    In this thesis, factors influencing operators' behaviour are acknowledged and attempts are made to understand how these factors affect vehicle operators in their daily work. Even though modern vehicles are equipped with new technology that supposedly aids drivers, studies of actual work typically reveal that these tools are not necessarily suited for their purpose.

    In a larger perspective, it is necessary not only to improve this technology, but to redesign how vehicle drivers perform their work. In practice, also traditional processes for development of technology affect how the operators work, although then simply a side effect of technology being introduced. Based on a deep understanding of the operators' work, the long-term goal here is to instead design new ways of working that allows the operators to use their skills to do meaningful driving tasks supported by technology.

    To acquire this understanding of how the operators work, a new method of information acquisition has been developed and tested within the rail and marine domains. These studies resulted with an understanding of what train and high-speed ferry operators are occupied with during their journeys, as well as insights into why they perform in certain manners and how they think and reason about these tasks.

  • 11.
    Göransson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Usability Design: A framework for designing usable interactive systems in practice2001Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies have started to become aware of the advantages of doing user-centred design. However, it is extremely rare that companies adopt a fully integrated user-centred design approach in one strategic shift. Rather, companies tend to adopt practices and methods in stages or adopt a particular method or practice only when a complex set of factors align to create readiness. There is a big market for companies vending usability methods, but poor usability of systems and products is still very common, the vendors often blaming it on factors outside their immediate influence. This among other things is a call for us to work for a user-centred design attitude as a major strategy for the system development process.

    The content of this thesis is dedicated to the question of how to develop usable interactive systems in practice. Main focus is on how we can raise the awareness of usability; articulate the need for user-centred design within the industry and development organisations; and practice user-centred design. A framework for usability design as an unpretentious way of applying user-centred design is described and discussed.

  • 12.
    Göransson, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    User-Centred Systems Design: Designing Usable Interactive Systems in Practice2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Have you ever been frustrated with that IT system at work that does not behave the way you expect it to? Or had problems with using the features on your new mobile phone? When systems and appliances do not support us in what we are doing, and do not behave the way we expect them to, then usability is neglected. Poor usability may be frustrating and irritating when trying out your mobile phone, but in a critical work situation poor usability may be disastrous.

    In this thesis, user-centred systems design (UCSD) is advocated as an approach for facilitating the development of usable interactive systems. Systems that suit their intended use and users do not just “emerge”. They are the result of a UCSD process and a user-centred attitude during the development. This means in short that the real users and their needs, goals, context of use, abilities and limitations, drive the development – in contrast to technology-driven development. We define UCSD as: a process focusing on usability throughout the entire development process and further throughout the system life cycle. I argue that this definition along with a set of key principles do help organisations and individual projects in the process of developing usable interactive systems. The key principles include the necessity of having an explicit focus on users and making sure that users are actively involved in the process.

    The thesis provides knowledge and insights gained from real-life situations about what UCSD is and how it can be put into practice. The most significant results are: the proposal of a clear definition of UCSD and a set of key principles encompassing UCSD; a process for usability design and the usability designer role. Furthermore, design cases from different domains are provided as examples and illustrations.

  • 13.
    Hardenborg, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Designing Work and IT Systems: A Participatory Process that Supports Usability and Sustainability2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the use of computers and IT systems has become an essential part of many people’s daily work, the quality of IT systems’ is becoming more important for efficient, healthy and sustainable work. It has often been argued that the full potential of a new, supportive IT system seldom is achieved, because – despite implementation of the new system - outdated work procedures are still being preserved. We can also see an increase in occupational health problems that are related to the use of poorly designed IT systems.

    This thesis addresses the questions of how to create a process for developing a sustainable, IT- supported work for the future and how to provide a solid foundation for the development of IT systems. What underlying perspectives should be applied and how can such a process be carried out in practice?

    Utilizing an action research approach inspired by participatory design methods, a user-centred seminar process called the Vision Seminar Process (VSP) has been developed to address these questions. Observations are presented from three cases in which the VSP has contributed to the organizations’ development and during which the Vision Seminar Process itself continued to evolve.

    The process provides a framework where practitioners and designers cooperate in the design of both sustainable work and usable IT systems. It is of central importance that a reflective in-depth analysis of users’ work practices is carried out, that their entire work situation and organization is questioned and discussed, and that the design process is carried out with a focus on healthy and sustainable work. Underlying perspectives that advocate a focus on a future work are essential for the successful implementation of the process, in that IT should be the engine that drives the development of work and creates the conditions for a healthy, sustainable work.

  • 14.
    Iwar, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    Lundgren, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    Framtidens bank: en studie av hur banker skulle kunna utformas med hjälp av användbarhet och social media2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The retail banks are usually looked upon as conservative. Since the launch of internet banks in the 90's they have not developed much. Meanwhile the internet is developing in a fast pace and social websites are increasing in popularity. The purpose of this essay was to investigate how internet banking will develop in the near future based on interviews, literature and trend studies. With web 2.0 techniques the internet bank could develop to help the costumers take more informed decisions regarding their economic situation. Banks should start by giving the customers better service through budgeting tools and graphical overviews. It is crucial that the layout and usability of the internet banks improve since the customers find it hard to find information. Customers want the bank to help them with a larger portion of thie economy through targeted advice based on information the bank have about the customers spendings, savings, habits and income. The bank could offer comparisons between different electricity companies, insurance companies and other things that greatly affect the personal economy. In addition to this, an anonymous comparison of the statistics of customers in simular situations is of interest to the customers as well as comparisons of different banks services. Furthermore, a niche community for people with specific interest in economics holds potential for the banking industry. A community for private customers on the other hand is not an alternative since the costumers prefer other forms of communities.

  • 15.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Tailor the system or tailor the user?: How to make better use of electronic patient record systems2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care organisations are extremely complex because they consist of heterogeneous groups of people (clinical professions, patients, managers), use advanced technology (medical devices and patient record systems), and apply many organisational and clinical routines. When introducing Electronic Patient Record systems (EPR) in health care organisations, all these aspects get affected. Using a sociotechnical perspective is necessary in order to get a "successful" EPR usage.

    The aim of my PhD studies is to provide health care organisations with knowledge and insights into how they can improve their organisation and practice in relation to usage of EPR systems. In my research I have used a grounded theory methodology for studying, analysing and reflecting on how electronic patient record systems are used by professionals in their practice. Studies have been conducted during a 2.5 years collaborative research project. Within the studied health care organisation there are differing opinions if an EPR system is mainly a technical system or a tool to support the clinical organisation. This conceptual division leads to an uncertainty in who is responsible for the proper function of the EPR system and have a major effect for the clinicians in their clinical practice. During the research seven potential problems areas, mandate, usability, education, participation, improvements, support and evaluation have been identified as crucial for the health care organisation to manage to achieve an effective EPR usage.

    The main results are 1) The health care organisation needs to establish a problem-solving strategy that questions the reasons behind the problems occurred, 2) The different stakeholder groups need to interact, create a better understanding for each other's perspective and agree on the same goal for the EPR system, 3) The clinical organisation needs help to improve their clinical practice in relation to the EPR system, 4) The EPR deployment and usage affect the clinicians in different ways. Their attitude towards the EPR system is dependent on the usability of the EPR system, the deployment process, their experience of participation, education, support and possibilities to improve the system.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Usable IT systems for mobile work2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, mobile technology is making its entry into working life within all sorts of occupations. When the purpose of the technology is to support mobile work, new requirements appear – for both the technology itself and for the emerging new work processes – as a result of these new conditions. Consequently, the introduction of a new IT system will affect the organisation and the way work is performed. This thesis addresses these changes in work processes and ways to provide a supporting IT system. An underlying component of my research work is the belief that the personnel from the organisation itself must participate in a large extent when developing new work processes and when designing supporting IT systems, since they will be using the IT system as a tool in their future work practice.

    To understand the nature of mobility in a work context and how it affects usability in IT systems, I have initiated studies of the area where mobile work is supported by technology. Important characteristics have been found that affect mobile work. My research work has concerned traditional professions, primarily professions within mobile healthcare.

    An exhaustive study of how to design new work processes within the area of home care of the elderly has been carried out, accompanied by field studies of mobile work within the mobile healthcare sector. The results have been described in terms of aspects of future work processes that are effective and sustainable. Moreover, important characteristics of mobile technology that support this kind of mobile work have been identified. The two perspectives are then merged, in order to design usable IT systems for mobile work.

  • 17.
    Kauppi, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    A human-computer interaction approach to train traffic control2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Train traffic in Sweden have increased over the last years and is today at an all time high. At the same time demands for improved punctuality and better predictability are increasing. If it would be possible to improve punctuality and thereby the possibility to use the infrastructural resources more optimally by providing improved systems for controlling train traffic, this could be a very cost efficient way to improve the train traffic.

    This thesis addresses research with a primary goal to investigate how, from a Human-Computer Interaction perspective, systems could be designed to better support the human's capacity and capabilities to control train traffic in an efficient way. Earlier research on humans in control of complex systems contributes to this work. One important part of the research is to gain knowledge on how train dispatchers perform their work today and which difficulties that exist. The research has a user centered approach. In close co-operation with train traffic professionals we try to discuss and develop solutions for improving the situation. Since the project started in 1996 proposals of new strategies for control and also solutions for how such a system can be designed have been developed and to some extent evaluated.

    The Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) is now planning to build an operative control system based on control strategies and ideas from this research project.

  • 18.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Let us be philosophers!: Computerized support for ethical decision making2010Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a computerized tool for ethical decision making. For someone who is unfamiliar with the psychological theory that the tool is based on, it will perhaps first appear as a pointless piece of software. It does not give any guidance to what an ethically correct decision is, it does not suggest relevant ethical principles or guidelines and it does not even make reference to known cases of good moral conduct. In fact, it does not make any moral claims at all. The only two things that the tool does are that it stimulates reflective, analytical and holistic reasoning and blocks automatic, biased and constrained impulses. This approach is chosen to improve the decision maker's ability to consider the relevant circumstances in a situation. By focusing on relevant interests of stakeholders, the scope of consideration in a moral situation can be expanded and the impact of decisions can be evaluated with respect to these. To justify this non-normative approach, the functionality of normative ethics is analyzed. The conclusion stresses the importance of self-conscious deliberation. Further arguments for advocating a systematic, holistic and self-critical handling of moral problems are collected from both philosophy and psychology. The structure and functionality of the tool is founded in psychological theory and especially the problem of cognitive biases in moral decision making is addressed. The tool has been evaluated in two studies, which both indicate that it actually delivers what it was designed to do. Statistically significant results show that the tool helped users to expand the scope of consideration in a moral problem situation compared to using an equivalent paper-and-pen-based method.

  • 19.
    Lárusdóttir, Marta Kristín
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Listen to your users: The effect of usability evaluation on software development practice2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast majority of the people in the western world use software systems on daily basis for achieving their goals. To be able to do that each person needs to communicate what he or she wants to do to the system and receive a response. This communication needs to be easy for the user, especially when the system is new to him or her. Otherwise, the user either quits using the system; it takes a very long time or gets very irritated. A software team that is making new software needs to evaluate the usability of the system and various methods have been introduced in the literature to do that.

    My research focus in this thesis is on usability evaluation. I study particularly, how usability evaluation methods can be compared, what data should be gathered in usability evaluation to gain knowledge on how the software affects users who are getting new software for their daily work and how useful this data is to the recipients.

    Two experiments are reported in this thesis where results from using three different usability evaluation methods are compared. The main result from these two studies is that the think-aloud evaluation method should be used, if the goal of the evaluation is to gather as realistic information as possible on usability problems that the users will have when using the system.

    Furthermore four case studies are described in the thesis, in which usability evaluation was done by using the think-aloud method in co-operation with real users in their real work situation. These studies give much richer information on the actual use of the systems involved.

    The findings from one of these case studies indicate that the results from user observation done on a system that users have not seen before or used only for few days are rather similar to the results from usability evaluation done when users have used the system for a longer period. So the common practice of doing user observation on a software system that the participants have not seen before and then interpreting that the results will be the same for actual usage of the system when users will use the system for their real tasks for shorter or longer period is adequate.

  • 20.
    Löfström, Anette
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Intranet use as a leadership strategy2011Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents results from an investigation of a virtual leadership strategy, which is utilised in the city of Stockholm. The Intranet is used as a strategic tool to implement a steering document in a similar way among all employees in the organisation. In this frame, features like sensemakings of the distributed information, influences of experienced lifeworlds, circumstances at local workplaces, cultural aspects and technological issues are explored.

    The investigation is fully qualitative. Interviews have been processed, recorded and transcribed. A survey with open and unstructured questions has broadened empirical results.

    The aim is to explore opinions towards and driving forces behind taking part of an Intranet based leader strategy and to investigate what circumstances at local workplaces affect the potential success of such a leader strategy.

    A new interpretation of Geert Hofstede’s work is suggested in future works. This is framed in a cultural model.

  • 21.
    Markhed, Jakob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kan teknikutveckling i form av sociala medier vara produktivt för ledarskap?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of social media usage in a professional context, specifically the effects on social media usage in relation to leadership have been studied in order to determine weather or not usage can be productive for leadership in general. The study concludes that there are several benefits as well as drawbacks to leadership in using social media, but has yet to conclude weather productive or not. This study gives an overview of a relatively unexplored subject.

    Leadership in terms of leader, communication and group dynamics have been defined and explained in accordance with existing literature. A  brief review of computer and Internet history attempts to explain the formation and evolution of social media. Risks in terms of risks related to leadership and risks related to IT-security are taken into consideration and have been briefly explained. This together with some examples of social media usage in companies today forms a background on which the problem is built. The problem states that a large portion of today's workforce are using social media, with or without leader's consent and/or knowledge. How is a leader suppose to relate to that fact and is it even necessary to relate to social media at all as a leader?

    The above problem has been the basis for a number of interview questions which have been asked to five professional leaders in five different organizations. The answers in the interviews and the literature background have been the resource of the conclusions and the analysis in this study and are intended as a source to further research.

  • 22.
    Nylander, Stina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Design and Implementation of Multi-Device Services2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for developing multi-device services which allows for the creation of services that are adapted to a wide range of devices.

    Users have a wide selection of electronic services at their disposal such as shopping, banking, gaming, and messaging. They interact with these services using the computing devices they prefer or have access to, which can vary between situations. In some cases, the services that they want to use func-tions with the device they have access to, and sometimes it does not. Thus, in order for users to experience their full benefits, electronic services will need to become more flexible. They will need to be multi-device services, i.e. be accessible from different devices. We show that multi-device services are often used in different ways on different devices due to variations in device capabilities, purpose of use, context of use, and usability. This suggests that multi-device services not only need to be accessible from more than one device, they also need to be able to present functionality and user interfaces that suit various devices and situations of use.

    The key problem addressed in this work is that there are too many device-service combinations for developing a service version for each device. In-stead, there is a need for new methods for developing multi-device services which allows the creation of services that are adapted to various devices and situations.

    The challenge of designing and implementing multi-device services has been addressed in two ways in the present work: through the study of real-life use of multi-device services and through the creation of a development method for multi-device services. Studying use of multi-device services has gener-ated knowledge about how to design such services which give users the best worth. The work with development methods has resulted in a design model building on the separation of form and content, thus making it possible to create different presentations to the same content.

    In concrete terms, the work has resulted in design guidelines for multi-device services and a system prototype based on the principles of separation between form and content, and presentation control.

  • 23.
    Nylander, Stina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    The ubiquitous interactor: Mobile services with multiple user interfaces2003Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis addresses design and development problems that arise when service providers, and service end-users face the variety of computing devices available on the market. The devices are designed for many types of use in various situations and settings, which means that they have different capabilities in terms of presentation, interaction, memory, etc. Service providers often handle these differences by creating a new version for each device. This creates a lot of development and maintenance work, and often leads to restrictions on the set of devices that services are developed for. For service end-users, this means that it can be difficult to combine devices that fit the intended usage context and services that provide the needed content. New development methods that target multiple devices from the start are needed. The differences between devices call for services that can adapt to various devices, and present themselves with device specific user interfaces.

    We propose a way of developing device independent services by using interaction acts to describe user-service interaction. Devices would interpret the interaction acts and generate user interfaces according to their own specific capabilities. Additional presentation information can be encoded in customization forms, to further control how the user interface would be generated. Different devices would generate different user interfaces from the same interaction acts, and a device could generate different user interfaces from the same interaction acts combined with different customization forms.

    In this thesis, the interaction act and customization form concepts are described in detail. A system prototype handling them and two sample services have been implemented. Preliminary evaluations indicate that interaction acts and customization forms constitute a feasible approach for developing services with multiple user interfaces. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the problems arising when evaluating this kind of systems, and some conclusions on how to continue the evaluation process.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Designing Work Support Systems – For and With Skilled Users2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer users often suffer from poorly designed support systems that hinder them from performing their work efficiently and with satisfaction. The evidence is found in observations of users at work, interviews, evaluations of systems, and numerous reports of systems with poor usability that fail from start.

    Those who use the systems are proficient in their work, and those who develop systems are proficient in software engineering. These two groups have often little knowledge and understanding of each other’s worlds and their vocabularies are quite different. In systems development projects, users are often confronted with representations of their work that they hardly recognize. Systems designers compose these representations in an attempt to reduce the complexity of the work practices in a way that is appropriate for systems development. It is very difficult for users to appreciate the consequences fully on their future work situation from such representations, since they are removed from the social setting and often describe work in a fragmentized way. The unfamiliar view of their work may make the users less inclined to participate in the forthcoming design process.

    This thesis presents research performed to increase the usability of systems in working life and to explore conditions that facilitate the design of systems that really support the users work. The research comprises field studies in different work contexts, e.g. health care, dentistry, public service, and transportation. Information on the essentials of work has been gathered and analyzed to learn how such findings can be translated into systems design. Another goal has been to explore how to make the most of users’ experiences and skills to assure systems that better fit their work. Along with a growing awareness of the importance of user involvement in design, a participatory design process including the analysis and design of work has evolved.

  • 25.
    Persson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Basic values in software development and organizational change2003Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is to be seen as a preliminary version of my doctoral thesis. It deals with problems concerning how our basic values influence development processes, mainly within the areas of software development and organizational change. Two main foci are presented, one theoretical and one empirical. The theoretical focus deals with the question: Is there objectivity in the theoretical framework, the knowledge and the experience on which the choices of strategies are based? The empirical focus deals with the question: How can knowledge about healthy work, usability and organizational matters be put into practice in the organizational and software development process? The preliminary conclusion shows that, when put under pressure, basic values are often clearly evident, though not necessarily evident to the individual herself. The will to grasp at models or methods that follow contemporary trends increases as well. In the end, time and money control the process, and all the magnificent ideas of a system built for a better work environment have soon faded away. This loss reflects the basic values in the organization, as well as it reflects a lack of awareness of the consequences of different strategic decisions.

  • 26.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    An Evaluation and Improvement of Scania's Fleet Management Portal and its Graphical User Interface2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a master thesis at the Department of InformationTechnology at Uppsala University. This master thesis has been performed at Scania CV AB, Södertälje, during 2008.

    The purpose of this master thesis was to improve the usability and design of the graphical interface of the Scania Fleet Management Portal. Scania is one of the world's leading manufacturers of trucks for heavy transport that has a solution which connects vehicles to the office. The web based portal is a way for the office to keep track of the logistics for the hauliage.

    A usability study was made with a number of interviews to gather responses from the users of the portal. This evaluation, based on most of the interviews, but also opinions of my own, mentor and employees of Scania, resulted in a new, improved prototype of the portal.

    This report is a summary of the project that was concluded with this master thesis. It consists of four major topics; an introduction to the theory of usability and analysis technologies, a review of related portals, what kind of users there are and how they use the portal and finally, a usability analysis of usability problems with a solution that resulted in the new, improved prototype.

  • 27.
    Sjökvist, Philip
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion.
    Verktyg för informationshämtning vid optimering av beredskap2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes a tool for data mining used to optimize ambulance preparedness. The goal with the tool was that it should be able to retract the information necessary to be able to analyze and calibrate the preparedness model used in the software ResQMap. ResQMap is used by SOS Alarm, who are responsible for the Swedish emergency number 112, as a decision support tool for ambulance operators. It is developed by Carmenta AB, who are the supervisors of the thesis work. Also, a minor study of the preparedness models variables has been performed in order to be able to evaluate the function of the tool. Since the study was carried out with sufficient results, the goals with the tool are seen as accomplished. The thesis concludes with a discussion about future uses and development of the tool.

  • 28.
    Winkler Pettersson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Collaborative Visualization: Designing and evaluating systems for co-located work2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates new ways of using information visualization to support collaboration in co-located work. To study this phenomenon, Multiple Viewer Display Environments (MVDEs) with independent views have been applied to present information such that all viewers at the same time and in the same display can see correct views of 3D models, see correctly oriented text and see different parts and aspects of information in each view. Several prototypes have been developed either as proof of new conceptual designs or to evaluate particular research questions. These prototypes have been used to investigate general properties that apply to co-located collaborative visualizations.

    A prototype system to keep track of the viewpoints and information in the independent views was implemented on MVDE hardware to support discussions on future command and control environments and to provide the necessary framework for conducting empirical studies (Paper II). Another prototype, the in situ tomographic display, was developed to support presentation of spatial 3D data (e.g., temperature or airflow) in 2D views in situ with working environments (Paper III). In addition to the visualization systems, a technique for high precision pen-based interaction in rear-projection display environments - the PixelActiveSurface – was developed (Papers IV and V).

    The empirical studies evaluate how new forms of visualization in MVDEs with independent views affect the way information is perceived and can be shared in collaboration. The conclusion is that multiple independent views can provide more effective and efficient visualization when the following conditions are met: text is oriented towards the viewer (Paper VI), different aspects of information are coordinated between different views of the same display (Paper VIII) and correct views of 3D models are used to compare ordinal information and relations in spatial data (Paper VII). However, for the techniques to support co-located work efficiently, it is necessary that the type of work and the task to be solved are first properly analyzed and understood (Papers VII and IX).

  • 29.
    Åborg, Carl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    How does IT feel @ work? And how to make IT better: Computer use, stress and health in office work2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of computers in working life has changed the very nature of many jobs and the entire work situation for a great number of people. How has this affected the individual´s health and well being? With the large increase in the use of computers we have witnessed an increase in reports on negative effects on users´health. The puropose of this thesis is to describe a number of studies on health effects of office computerisation conducted over a period of 20 years. The emphasis of the early studies was on psychosocial factors and stress effects while the focus in the more recent studies was to take into account occupational health in software development. The following conclusions have been drawn: We still face severe problems concerning the computer users´health and work environment. Much of the negative health effects are associated with stress. The introduction of new computer systems can result in an increase in various work-related health risks. These risks are related to several interacting factors, with two of the more important factors being work organisation and contents and design ot the computer system. Current methods, models and tools for system development are insufficient to prevent work environment and health problems encountered in administrative case handling work. To counteract these problems more attention needs to be given to social and organisational factors during system development.

  • 30.
    Öhman Persson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    The Obvious & The Essential: Interpreting Software Development & Organizational Change2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining how our basic values affect development processes is the overall theme of this thesis. In practice, the question is investigated in relation to software development and organizational change and in research, in relation to science and its relationship to common sense, specifically within the area of Human Computer Interaction. The thesis discusses how it might be possible to discover what is essential for development processes and why the essential may be interpreted as something other than the simply obvious. This thesis examines ways of studying and understanding our social environment and development processes, particularly those concerning people, organizations and software. The empirical examples deal with a software development project and a project that scrutinized the strategy for a governmental authority’s business and information technology. Attitudes are discussed in terms of how they view the user, the customer, the software developers, the software, organizational and implementation processes, organizational management, aesthetic values, functionality and use, research, methods, paradigmatic approaches, ethical issues, psychological reactions, sociological prerequisites, categorizations of people and stress-related health consequences. One particular prerequisite for developing superior computer-supported office work has repeatedly presented itself: an open, questioning attitude towards the software development process, towards organizational change and towards the people working in the organizations. A similar attitude towards research and its design can be crucial to the development of new knowledge. This circumstance can be interpreted as an indication of how important it is that we be aware of and question our preconceived notions, in order to develop an autonomous behavior where we take responsibility for our actions. By doing so, we can avoid misinterpretations and not get trapped into making categorizations that are simply obvious. This is essential and must be emphasized in our search for the path to »healthy work«.

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