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  • 1. Johanson, K.A.
    et al.
    Kjer, K
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Testing the monophyly of the New Zealand and Australian endemic family Conoesucidae Ross based on combined molecular and morphological data (Insecta: Trichoptera: Sericostomatoidea)2009In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 563-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conoesucidae (Trichoptera, Insecta) are restricted to SE Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. The family includes 42 described species in 12 genera, and each genus is endemic to either New Zealand or Australia. Although monophyly has been previously assumed, no morphological characters have been proposed to represent synapomorphies for the group. We collected molecular data from two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase I), one nuclear gene (elongation factor 1-alpha) (2237-2277 bp in total), and 12 morphological characters to produce the first phylogeny of the family. We combined the molecular and morphological characters and performed both a maximum parsimony analysis and a Bayesian analysis to test the monophyly of the family, and to hypothesize the phylogeny among its genera. The parsimony analysis revealed a single most parsimonious tree with Conoesucidae being a monophyletic taxon and sistergroup to the Calocidae. The Bayesian inference produced a distribution of trees, the consensus of which is supported with posterior probabilities of 100% for 15 out of 22 possible ingroup clades including the most basal branch of the family, indicating strong support for a monophyletic Conoesucidae. The most parsimonious tree and the tree from the Bayesian analysis were identical except that the ingroup genus Pycnocentria changed position by jumping to a neighbouring clade. Based on the assumption that the ancestral conoesucid species was present on both New Zealand and Australia, a biogeographical analysis using the dispersal-vicariance criteria demonstrated that one or two (depending on which of the two phylogenetic reconstructions were applied) sympatric speciation events took place on New Zealand prior to a single, late dispersal from New Zealand to Australia.

  • 2.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Testing the monophyly of Calocidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) based on multiple molecular data2010In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 54, p. 535-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calocidae constitute a hypothesised monophyletic group of caddisflies (Trichoptera) being geographically restricted to New Zealand (one genus) and Australia (five genera). This analysis tests the monophyly of the family based on sequences from five different molecular genes. The complete data set includes 29 species and covers a complete genus representation of the Calocidae as well as representatives of other families in which one or more calocid genera have been classified. Sequences from two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S) and three nuclear (elongation factor 1-a, RNA polymerase-II, and Cadherin) genes were used, resulting in a 3958 bp data set and 37.1% parsimony informative characters. The Cadherin (CAD) and RNA polymerase-II (POL-II) genes are used for the first time for revealing Trichoptera phylogenies. The character matrix was analyzed by using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian criteria, the latter by applying three different partition strategies for comparison. Two most parsimonious trees were found, differing in the position of one clade within the sister-group to a monophyletic Calocidae. The Bayesian tree based on the maximum number of partitions differs from trees based on a reduced partition analysis with respect to taxa outside the current circumscription of Calocidae. Both the MP and Bayesian analyses left Calocidae monophyletic, with a monophyletic clade of all Australian genera being sister-group to the New Zealand genus. The results from the agreement subtree analysis demonstrates that CAD performs well both separately and in combination with other genes and adds substantial resolution to the calocid phylogeny in a combined MP analysis.

  • 3.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Malm, Tobias
    Espeland, Marianne
    Molecular phylogeny of Sericostomatoidea(Trichoptera) with the establishment of three newfamilies2017In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 42, p. 240-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among 58 genera of Sericostom-atoidea, representing all previously accepted families as well as genera that were notplaced in established families. The analyses were based on ve fragments of the proteincoding genes carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPSase of CAD), isocitrate dehydroge-nase (IDH), Elongation factor 1a (EF-1a), RNA polymerase II (POL II) and cytochromeoxidase I (COI). The data set was analysed using Bayesian methods with a mixedmodel, , and parsimony. The various methods generated slightly different resultsregarding relationships among families, but the shared results comprise support for: (i)a monophyletic Sericostomatoidea; (ii) a paraphyletic Parasericostoma due to inclusionof Myotrichia murina, leading to synonymization of Myotrichia with Parasericostoma;(iii) a polyphyletic Sericostomatidae, which is divided into two families, Sericostom-atidae sensu stricto and Parasericostomatidae fam.n.; (iv) a polyphyletic Helicophidaewhich is divided into Helicophidae sensu stricto and Heloccabucidae fam.n.; ( v) hypoth-esized phylogenetic placement of the former incerta sedis genera Ngoya, Seselpsycheand Karomana; (vi) a paraphyletic Costora (Conoesucidae) that should be divided intoseveral genera after more careful examination of morphological data; (vii) reinstatementof Gyrocarisa as a valid genus within Petrothrincidae. A third family, Ceylanopsychi-dae fam.n., is established based on morphological characters alone. A hypothesis ofthe relationship among 14 of the 15 families in the superfamily is presented. A key tothe families is presented based on adults (males). Taxonomic history, diagnosis, habitatpreference and distribution data for all sericostomatoid families are presented.

  • 4. Johanson, Kjell Arne
    et al.
    Wells, Alice
    Malm, Tobias
    Espeland, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    The Trichoptera of Vanuatu2011In: Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, ISSN 0012-0073, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 279-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trichoptera diversity of Vanuatu is reviewed based on earlier and recently collected material. Altogether, 20 species in 12 genera and 8 families are now recognized for the country, of which 12 species are described as new to science in the families Hydrobiosidae (1 species), Hydroptilidae (5 species), Philopotamidae (3 species) and Leptoceridae (3 species). The previously known species from Vanuatu are re-described with illustrations and photographs. A key to adults of the Trichoptera fauna of Vanuatu is provided.

  • 5. Leppänen, Sanna A.
    et al.
    Malm, Tobias
    Värri, Kaisa
    Nyman, Tommi
    A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Differentiation across Six Shared Willow Host Species in Leaf- and Bud-Galling Sawflies2015In: PLOS ONE, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD) have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  • 6.
    Leppänen, Sanna
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Värri, Kaisa
    Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Nyman, Tommi
    Department of Ecosystems in the Barents Region, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Svanvik, Norway.
    A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Differentiation across Six Shared Willow Host Species in Leaf- and Bud-Galling Sawflies2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 1-19, article id e116286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD) have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  • 7.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Becoming a rock band: The challenges of group identity2017In: Journal of Popular Music Education, ISSN 2397-6721, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 165-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock bands feature increasingly in music education. They are essential parts of popular culture and are increasingly highlighted as entrepreneurial organizations in a global music industry. However, to develop and stay together as a band is a difficult task. This study aims to develop an understanding of the challenges of becoming a rock band, shedding new light on previously underexplored complexities of band life by considering the impact of group identities. The methodology entails storytelling and identity work, inspired by a biographical approach. Six explorative interviews with band members were conducted. The results suggest that productive activities form several kinds of work group identities, whereas low-activity periods threaten group identification. The article discusses how diversity of group identities promotes development while uniformity promotes stability. To cope with this paradox, this article suggests that band members ought to learn to develop multiple group identities and flexible ways of relating to one another.

  • 8.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Climbing the Trichoptera Tree: Investigations of Branches and Leaves2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is the largest of the primary aquatic insect orders, currently including more than 13,500 species. With more than 100 species new to science described annually, the known caddisfly diversity is rapidly increasing. In the first four papers of this Thesis, a total of 22 species new to science are described. The first three papers include revisions of the New Caledonian species for the genera Symphitoneuria, Gracilipsodes and Triplectides, with descriptions of 3, 7 and 11 new species, respectively. In these papers I strengthen our image of New Caledonia as a biodiversity hotspot. The fourth paper describes a new genus and species from Madagascar, another biodiversity hotspot. These four papers all deal with species and genera of the family Leptoceridae, which ranks among the three largest families within Trichoptera. The family comprises high species diversity together with a widespread distribution and has been of interest to many trichopterologists. However, the classification used for genera and tribes within the family follows a phylogenetic hypothesis from 1981. In paper V I apply a molecular approach for hypothesising phylogenetic relationships within the family, revealing support for the erection of two tribes to subfamily level and for the synonymisations of 2 pairs of genera. At order level, the progress of illuminating the evolutionary history of Trichoptera is advancing with recent analyses using molecular based data. Previously published phylogenetic hypotheses of the order were to a large degree dependent on ribosomal DNA, a source of molecular data not without its controversies, particularly regarding alignment procedures. Paper VI presents Trichoptera phylogenies based on sequences of protein-coding nuclear and mitochondrial genes. My results correspond well to previously published hypotheses among suborder relationships, but show additional and contrasting resolution within suborders.

  • 9.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Zoologisk systematik och evolutionsforskning.
    Diving into the Leptoceridae (Trichoptera)2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Konsten att hålla ihop: Om lärande och organisering i rockband2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock bands are foundational for modern day music life. These small groups provide well-being and self-fulfillment to its members, as well as fuel for the cultural life and the increasingly highlighted creative industries. Rock bands, however, are particularly difficult to organize. Bands face a range of challenges in keeping together and developing as a group.

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to develop knowledge on rock band formation and development over time. Based in the discipline of education, the thesis mainly contributes to the fields of organization studies, social theories of learning, and music and cultural life research.

    The thesis uses the theory of situated learning to explore rock band formation and development. The methodology is qualitative and ethnographic, and the research design builds on three studies: an interview study with three rock bands and two case studies. All five bands are Swedish and have found different degrees of success and popularity.

    The thesis investigates band activities and courses of events, band members’ identities, and challenges faced. The findings indicate that a rock band’s activities shift between a production mode – i.e. highly productive times associated with public performances, record releases and marketing, and behind the scenes processes of creating, recording and planning – and a contrasting less active hibernation mode without bigger public projects or goals. The amount of time spent in production mode depends on the band’s degree of “membership” in the music industry. Moreover, a band member forms and actualizes identities of colleague, creator, entrepreneur, friend, hobbyist and professional, in differing combinations, situations and modes. Furthermore, the members’ most significant challenges relate to identity dilemmas.

    Based on these findings, the thesis formulates a model for a rock band’s learning trajectory and argues that a band may develop as it approaches, or becomes a more central member in, the music industry. This development demands increased public success and organizational ability: the band members’ ability to form business-oriented practices, to participate uniformly in an overarching community of practice, and to be flexible as they must identify with, and ascribe meaning to, a variety of activities in different and sometimes contradictory ways.

    The thesis concludes that the challenges of persistence as a rock band or similar group relates chiefly to group member difficulties in identifying with different activities and situations that are necessary to sustain and develop as a collective. Eventually, individual members tend to handle the experience of uncertainty and ambivalence by holding on to one singular identity, which may prevent group development, foster intra- and interpersonal tensions, and ultimately can lead to significant conflicts and/or a band’s breakup.

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  • 11.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning to develop as a rock band: The contradiction between creativity and entrepreneurship2020In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity and entrepreneurship are increasingly celebrated features of today’s societal life. However, small creative groups face many challenges in developing as a productive unit together, and there is still little research on how they learn to handle these challenges. The aim of this article is to provide an understanding of learning within a rock band and its potential for assisting organizational development. It presents an ethnographically inspired case study and uses the theory of communities of practice to analyze the learning processes involved in a band’s organizing of its practices. The findings illustrate how band members learn to become a micro-organization at times of production, while, in time periods between production, they learn to become a loosely held together partial community of creators and entrepreneurs. The article argues that a rock band’s organizational development relates to its members’ ability to handle a seldom highlighted contradiction between creativity and entrepreneurship. It concludes that the group’s members may develop organizationally by learning to identify with and organize for creativity and entrepreneurship in so-called multi-memberships. It also suggests that a rock band not always develops and its multi-membership abilities may as well decrease because of personal, line-up or commercial issues.

  • 12.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organiseringsprocesser i ett popband: bakom kulisser och mellan människor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gap between thought and action in smaller organizations. Unawareness of its own activities has led to misleading explanations for both successful and unsuccessful organizing. This study therefore aims to develop knowledge and understanding of processes of organizing in smaller organizations and specifically in pop bands. The research design is a longitudinal case study of a pop band. The methodology was inspired by ethnography and has an abductive approach. The main source for data collection has been observation of chatting, however direct observations, interviews and a meeting of stimulated recall has also been conducted. The results show how the pop band is organized in projects and the importance of complexity and the collective sense that it can make. Analysis is based on Czarniawska's theory of organizing and Weick's theory of sensemaking. It is concluded that sustained and coherent processes of organizing are associated with processes of collective sensemaking. An endeavor for collective sense is an endeavor to realize the organization as a collective. The implications for well-functioning activities in smaller organizations proposed to be to endeavor for complexity by involving the most sensible projects according to all participants into one another, and to schedule meetings and to have multiple deadlines, and avoid authoritarian leadership, avoid competing buddy collective, avoid delegation and allocation of areas of responsibility and avoid the pursuit of a common view.

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    Malm_[2015]-Organiseringsprocesser_i_ett_popband
  • 13.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Recognizing the practitioner-self: lessons from studying rock bands at-home2018In: Journal of Organizational Ethnography, ISSN 2046-6749, E-ISSN 2046-6757, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss some of the possibilities and risks that one can encounter in the process of doing ethnographic organization research with an at-home approach.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper draws on self-reflexive analyses of a four-year research process, where the author – a rock musician – investigated how rock bands within the author’s social networks organize their activities. The materials used for analysis were notes and diaries, as well as reflections on memories.

    Findings

    The findings illustrate aspects of the researcher’s “breaking out” process, which involved the researcher’s initial impulse to leave his practitioner-self, a subsequent lack of interest and eventually a return to what felt genuinely intriguing for him to study. The paper argues that one important aspect of the at-home researcher’s breaking out process may involve an active recognition of his/her practitioner-self as a resource – not least to avoid losing interest or getting lost in abstractions.

    Originality/value

    This paper conceptualizes and builds further upon previous discussions on at-home research, adding insights into the “breaking out” process and the curious paradox of the proposed necessity for the researcher to leave and utilize his/her at-home experience and familiarity.

  • 14.
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The ambivalence of becoming a small business: Learning processes within an aspiring rock band2020In: Popular Music, ISSN 0261-1430, E-ISSN 1474-0095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock musicians’ careers are dependent on their bands’ micro-organisational development. However, the many challenges a band must face to endure and progress together seem somewhat underemphasised in popular music studies. This article therefore aims to provide an understanding of aspiring rock musicians’ learning processes in becoming a small business and focusing the identities they learn through participation in communities of practice. The findings from a yearlong ethnographic study illustrate how band members form contradictory identities. The article argues that members, who learn to become both professionals and hobbyists, and live with the resulting ambivalence, may develop a readiness to tackle some of their challenges, which include burnout, loss of motivation and interpersonal conflicts. In conclusion, the article problematises how categorisations of small creative groups as either professional or hobbyist neglect how their members may, and perhaps need to, contextualise the activities differently in various situations and at certain times.

  • 15.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Leptoceridae is among the three largest families within the order Trichoptera (caddisflies). The current classification is founded on a phylogenetic work from the 1980’s, mainly based on morphological characters from adult males, i.e. wing venation, tibial spur formula and genital morphology. In order to get a second opinion about the relationships within the family, we have undertaken a molecular study of the family based on sequences from five genes; one mitochondrial and four nuclear. 

    Results

    The resulting phylogenetical hypotheses are more or less congruent with the morphologically based classification, with most genera and tribes recovered as monophyletic, but with some major differences. For monophyly of the two subfamilies Triplectidinae and Leptoceriane, one tribe of each had to be removed and erected to subfamily status and the monophyly of some genera and tribes have to be questioned. All clades but the subfamily Leptocerinae were stable across different analysis methods, results presumably based on the taxon sampling.

    Conclusions

    With support from the results obtained here we erect the tribes Grumichellini and Leptorussini to subfamily status, Grumichellinae and Leptorussinae, respectively. We are also confident in the discovery of a few non-valid genera that are synonymised, e.g. Ptochoecetis with Oecetis and Condocerus with Hudsonema.

  • 16.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular data2011In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 11, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leptoceridae are among the three largest families of Trichoptera (caddisflies). The current classification is founded on a phylogenetic work from the 1980's, based on morphological characters from adult males, i.e. wing venation, tibial spur formula and genital morphology. In order to get a new opinion about the relationships within the family, we undertook a molecular study of the family based on sequences from five genes, mitochondrial COI and the four nuclear genes CAD, EF-1 alpha, IDH and POL. Results: The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses are more or less congruent with the morphologically based classification, with most genera and tribes recovered as monophyletic, but with some major differences. For monophyly of the two subfamilies Triplectidinae and Leptocerinae, one tribe of each was removed and elevated to subfamily status; however monophyly of some genera and tribes is in question. All clades except Leptocerinae, were stable across different analysis methods. Conclusions: We elevate the tribes Grumichellini and Leptorussini to subfamily status, Grumichellinae and Leptorussinae, respectively. We also propose the synonymies of Ptochoecetis with Oecetis and Condocerus with Hudsonema.

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  • 17.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Description of eleven new Triplectides species (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia2008In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5334, no 1816, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Oceanian country of New Caledonia has been shown to have a great diversity of Trichoptera, but prior to this work only 3 species from the large Leptoceridae genus Triplectides were known from there. Extensive sampling on the main island, Grande Terre, revealed 11 new species in the genus, as well as a male of the seemingly widespread species Triplectides australis. These 11 new species are here described and illustrated, and a key to males of the New Caledonian Triplectides species is provided. The new species are: T. mouiensis, new species; T. abnormalis, new species; T. minutus,new species; T. noumeiensis, new species; T. tigrinus, new species; T. koghiensis, new species; T. wardi, new species; T. nathaliae, new species; T. mariannae, new species; T. dawnae, new species; T. aequalichelatus, new species. Fifteen species within the genus are now known from New Caledonia; relative to land mass, this is a high diversity compared to the 25 species recorded from Australia.

  • 18.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Madagacerina, a new genus of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) from MadagascarManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The caddisfly genus Madagacerina, new genus (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) is described for the Madagascaran species Madagacerina forcipata, new species. The genus is characterised by having the tibial spur formula 2, 2, 2; wings with sessile bifurcation of M; genitalia with preanal appendages fused with segment IX and greatly produced posterad, and a tergum X with an anteriorly extended ventral base articulating with a sclerotised spine-like process of the phallic shield. The new genus is most closely related to Blyzophilus, and placed in the tribe Blyzophilini. With this generic addition, the Madagascaran Leptoceridae fauna includes 8 genera.

  • 19.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Revision of the New Caledonian endemic genus Gracilipsodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Grumichellini)2008In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 425-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxonomy and systematics of the New Caledonian endemic caddisfly genus Gracilipsodes Sykora, 1967 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Grumichellini) are reviewed. Seven new species represented by males are described and illustrated: Gracilipsodes aoupiniensis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes aureus sp. nov., Gracilipsodes aurorus sp. nov., Gracilipsodes grandis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes koghiensis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes lanceolatus sp. nov., and Gracilipsodes robustus sp. nov. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are applied to discern the relationships among the species of the genus and their closest relatives, based on sequence characters from the nuclear gene translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and the three mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I (COI), COII, and ribosomal large subunit (16S). The data are analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian inference, revealing a monophyletic Gracilipsodes with the eastern Australian monotypic genus Triplexa as its closest relative. Gracilipsodes is in turn divided into two major lineages.

  • 20.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Systematik och Evolutionsforskning.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Three new species of Symphitoneuria Ulmer (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia2007In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera, 2007, p. 181-190Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three new species of Symphitoneuria Ulmer (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia are described and illustrated. These are Symphitoneuria lacsiensis, new species, Symphitoneuria digitata, new species and Symphitoneuria triangulata, new species. Together with these the genus now holds 11 species, and the New Caledonian Symphitoneuria now consists of 5 species, including the previously described Symphitoneuria licmetica Neboiss and Symphitoneuria clara Ward. A key to the males of the New Caledonian Symphitoneuria species is provided.

  • 21.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Johanson, Kjell Arne
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Enheten för Entomologi.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    University of Turku, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Genetics.
    Highlighting the Trichoptera tree with new molecular markersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present phylogenetic hypotheses of the insect order Trichoptera, based on molecular data from four nuclear protein-coding genes, Cadherin-like gene (CAD), Elongation-factor 1 alpha (EF1a), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and RNA polymerase II (POL), and the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Ribosomal RNA and morphological characters have previously been widely used for reconstructing phylogenetic hypothesis at order level among insects, but were excluded from this study in order to explore the potential of only using easily amplified and aligned protein-coding genes in resolving phylogenies of this level. Analyses were performed to investigate the signal and contribution of each gene in light of the final phylogeny derived from combined data. The study is based on 139 specimens from 46 families of the order Trichoptera, as well as 10 outgroup taxa from the sistergroup Lepidoptera. The results show great similarities to previously published phylogenies mainly based on rRNA and morphology, but differ from those in some interesting aspects. The CAD, IDH and COI genes provided strong signal to the phylogeny, whereas EF1a and POL provided less strong signal, but nevertheless did all the genes contribute well to the combined data phylogenies.

  • 22.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Development of a real-time multiplayer gamefor the computer tablet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis discusses game development on the computer tablet, with Apple’s iPadas the target platform. Its main focus is development of non-trivial components such asonline multiplayer and touch(screen) controls for a real-time action game, using frameworksand APIs that are mainly free and open source. For each non-trivial component problems arepointed out and possible solutions are presented, the resulting game, Battle Angels, isevaluated along with the game design and development. Battle Angels is a 2D real-timemultiplayer action game, the development of it lead to the conclusions and results in thisthesis.The abstract nature of the subject of this thesis makes it impossible to present a set of numerical values that can be compared to existing research. The result is therefore presented byshowing images from the actual game with a discussion. It could be concluded that designing and implementing a fast paced multiplayer game on a computer tablet system is a majorchallenge. It typically requires developers to incorporate a variety of different technologiesinto their implementation in order to succeed. It could also be concluded that each technology in its isolation were not a major issue, however combining them and allowing them toco-exist were.

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  • 23.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Nyman, Tommi
    Department of Ecosystems in the Barents Region, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Svanvik, Norway.
    Phylogeny of the symphytan grade of Hymenoptera: new pieces into the old jigsaw(fly) puzzle2015In: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 31, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hymenoptera constitutes one of the largest, and ecologically and economically most important, insect orders. During thepast decade, a number of hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships among hymenopteran families and superfamilies have beenpresented, based on analyses of molecular and/or morphological data. Nevertheless, many questions still remain, particularly concerningrelationships within the hyperdiverse suborder Apocrita, but also when it comes to the evolutionary history of the ancestrallyherbivorous “sawfly” lineages that form the basal, paraphyletic grade Symphyta. Because a large part of the uncertaintyappears to stem from limited molecular and taxonomic sampling, we set out to investigate the phylogeny of Hymenoptera usingnine protein-coding genes, of which five are new to analyses of the order. In addition, we more than tripled the taxon coverageacross the symphytan grade, introducing representatives for many previously unsampled lineages. We recover a well supportedphylogenetic structure for these early herbivorous hymenopteran clades, with new information regarding the monophyly of Xyelidae,the placement of the superfamily Pamphilioidea as sister to Tenthredinoidea + Unicalcarida, as well as the interrelationshipsamong the tenthredinoid families Tenthredinidae, Cimbicidae, and Diprionidae. Based on the obtained phylogenies, and to preventparaphyly of Tenthredinidae, we propose erection of the tribe Heptamelini to family status (Heptamelidae). In particular, ourresults give new insights into subfamilial relationships within the Tenthredinidae and other species-rich sawfly families. Thee xpanded gene set provides a useful toolbox for future detailed analyses of symphytan subgroups, especially within the diversesuperfamily Tenthredinoidea.

  • 24.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Rota, Jadranka
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chazot, Nicolas
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Peña, Carlos
    HipLead, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A simple method for data partitioning based on relative evolutionary rates2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, p. 1-21, article id 6:e5498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Multiple studies have demonstrated that partitioning of molecular datasets is important in model-based phylogenetic analyses. Commonly, partitioning is done a priori based on some known properties of sequence evolution, e.g. differences in rate of evolution among codon positions of a protein-coding gene. Here we propose a new method for data partitioning based on relative evolutionary rates of the sites in the alignment of the dataset being analysed. The rates are inferred using the previously published Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER), and the partitioning is conducted using our novel python script RatePartitions. We conducted simulations to assess the performance of our new method, and we applied it to eight published multi-locus phylogenetic datasets, representing different taxonomic ranks within the insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and one phylogenomic dataset, which included ultra-conserved elements as well as introns.

    Methods. We used TIGER-rates to generate relative evolutionary rates for all sites in the alignments. Then, using RatePartitions, we partitioned the data into partitions based on their relative evolutionary rate. RatePartitions applies a simple formula that ensures a distribution of sites into partitions following the distribution of rates of the characters from the full dataset. This ensures that the invariable sites are placed in a partition with slowly evolving sites, avoiding the pitfalls of previously used methods, such as kmeans. Different partitioning strategies were evaluated using BIC scores as calculated by PartitionFinder.

    Results. Simulations did not highlight any misbehaviour of our partitioning approach, even under difficult parameter conditions or missing data. In all eight phylogenetic datasets, partitioning using TIGER-rates and RatePartitions was significantly better as measured by the BIC scores than other partitioning strategies, such as the commonly used partitioning by gene and codon position. We compared the resulting topologies and node support for these eight datasets as well as for the phylogenomic dataset.

    Discussion. We developed a new method of partitioning phylogenetic datasets without using any prior knowledge (e.g. DNA sequence evolution). This method is entirely based on the properties of the data being analysed and can be applied to DNA sequences (protein-coding, introns, ultra-conserved elements), protein sequences, as well as morphological characters. A likely explanation for why our method performs better than other tested partitioning strategies is that it accounts for the heterogeneity in the data to a much greater extent than when data are simply subdivided based on prior knowledge.

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  • 25.
    Malm, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    St Laurent, Ryan
    McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, USA.
    McCabe, Timothy
    Dept. of Entomology, New York State Museum, USA.
    Revision of the genus Aleyda Schaus, 1928 with the description of one new species(Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae)2018In: SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología, ISSN 0300-5267, E-ISSN 2340-4078, Vol. 46, no 181, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Aleyda Schaus, 1928 is revised. The male of the type species of Aleyda, A. accipiter, is redescribed,and the female is figured for the first time. Aleyda heppneri St Laurent, McCabe & Malm, sp. n. from Panamá andFrench Guiana is newly described. Male and female genitalia of both species are figured for the first time.

  • 26.
    Nyman, Tommi
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystems in the Barents Region, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Svanvik, Norway.
    Onstein, Renske
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Silvestro, Daniele
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle–Jena–Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Wutke, Saskia
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg and Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Sweden.
    Taeger, Andreas
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Müncheberg, Germany.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Blank, Stephan
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Müncheberg, Germany.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    The early wasp plucks the flower: disparate extant diversity of sawfly superfamilies (Hymenoptera:‘Symphyta’) may reflect asynchronous switching to angiosperm hosts2019In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 128, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The insect order Hymenoptera originated during the Permian nearly 300 Mya. Ancestrally herbivorous hymenopteran lineages today make up the paraphyletic suborder ‘Symphyta’, which encompasses c. 8200 species with very diverse host-plant associations. We use phylogeny-based statistical analyses to explore the drivers of diversity dynamics within the ‘Symphyta’, with a particular focus on the hypothesis that diversification of herbivorous insects has been driven by the explosive radiation of angiosperms during and after the Cretaceous. Our ancestral-state estimates reveal that the first symphytans fed on gymnosperms, and that shifts onto angiosperms and pteridophytes – and back – have occurred at different time intervals in different groups. Trait-dependent analyses indicate that average net diversification rates do not differ between symphytan lineages feeding on angiosperms, gymnosperms or pteridophytes, but trait-independent models show that the highest diversification rates are found in a few angiosperm-feeding lineages that may have been favoured by the radiations of their host taxa during the Cenozoic. Intriguingly, lineages-through-time plots show signs of an early Cretaceous mass extinction, with a recovery starting first in angiosperm-associated clades. Hence, the oft-invoked assumption of herbivore diversification driven by the rise of flowering plants may overlook a Cretaceous global turnover in insect herbivore communities during the rapid displacement of gymnosperm- and pteridophyte-dominated floras by angiosperms.

  • 27.
    Prous, Marko
    et al.
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Blank, Stephan M.
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Goulet, Henri
    Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada.
    Heibo, Erik
    Ento Consulting, Lierskogen, Norway.
    Liston, Andrew
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Nyman, Tommi
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Schmidt, Stefan
    Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany.
    Smith, Dave
    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States of America.
    Vårdal, Hege
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Viitasaari, Matti
    Unaffiliated, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vikberg, Veli
    Unaffiliated, Turenki, Finland.
    Taeger, Andreas
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)2014In: Journal of Hymenoptera Research, ISSN 1314-2607, Vol. 40, p. 1-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α), to include a fourth (NaK) and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms of Nematus Panzer, 1801: Craesus Leach, 1817, Hypolaepus W.F. Kirby, 1882, and Paranematus Zinovjev, 1978. Synonyms of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810: Diphadnus Hartig, 1837, Lygaeonematus Konow, 1890, Micronematus Konow, 1890, Gymnonychus Marlatt, 1896, Neopareophora MacGillivray, 1908, syn. n., Neotomostethus MacGillivray, 1908, Dineuridea Rohwer, 1912, Sala Ross, 1937, Pristola Ross, 1945, syn. n., Nepionema Benson, 1960, syn. n., Melastola Wong, 1968, syn. n., Sharliphora Wong, 1969, Oligonematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, Lygaeotus Liston, 1993, Lygaeophora Liston, 1993, and Pristicampus Zinovjev, 1993, syn. n. Varna Ross, 1937, syn. n. is treated as a synonym of Dineura Dahlbom 1835. Stauronematus Benson, 1953 is treated as a separate genus from Pristiphora. Names of 20 species-group taxa are junior secondary homonyms when combined with Euura. Replacement names are proposed for these. To facilitate the identification of Nematinae genera, we provide an illustrated key to the 31 extant genera of world Nematinae.

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  • 28. Sadowska-Woda, Izabela
    et al.
    Cherot, Frederic
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fulvius Stal (Hemiptera:Miridae Cylapinae) based on molecular data2008In: Insect Systematics & Evolution, ISSN 1399-560X, E-ISSN 1876-312X, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 407-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The systematics and phylogeny of the genus Fulvius STAL remains unclear. We present herein the first analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Fulvius based Oil DNA sequences. The phylogenetic interrelationships in the genus Fulvius are investigated using partial DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, the 16S ribosomal large subunit and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI). DNA sequences for Fulvius species representing three different subgroups distinguished previously on the base of morphological characters alone are compared to sequences from the closely related genera Rhinocylapidius and Cylapus. The data are analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian inference. The results confirm that on the basis of molecular data we can distinguish the same congruent groups of Fulvius species as using morphological characters, however with inclusion of the specimens of the genus Rhinocylapidius in the bifenestratus-group. Additional Studies are needed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Fulviini, as well as within the genus Fulvius and its relation to Rhinocylapidius. However, the results of this study Suggest that 16S and COI sequences Will be very useful as molecular markets for such Studies among, these species-groups.

  • 29.
    Schmidt, Stefan
    et al.
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Taeger, Andreas
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Morinière, Jérôme
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Liston, Andrew
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Blank, Stephan
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Kramp, Katja
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Kraus, Manfred
    Nürnberg, Germany.
    Schmidt, Olga
    SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.
    Heibo, Erik
    Lierskogen, Norway.
    Prous, Marko
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Nyman, Tommi
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Malm, Tobias
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology.
    Stahlhut, Julie
    Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Identification of sawflies and horntails (Hymenoptera, ‘Symphyta’) through DNA barcodes: successes and caveats2017In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 17, p. 670-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Symphyta’ is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5360 specimens of ‘Symphyta’, mainly adults, and 4362 sequences covering 1037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin. The utility of barcoding for species identification and taxonomy of ‘Symphyta’ is discussed on the basis of examples from each of the included families. A significant level of cryptic species diversity was apparent in many groups. Other attractive applications include the identification of immature stages without the need to rear them, community analyses based on metabarcoding of bulk samples and association of the sexes of adults.

  • 30.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Systematic Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Malm, Tobias
    Partial degeneration - a solution to LBA and saturation problemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are many factors to consider when studying evolutionary relationships. The effect of substitution saturation and compositional heterogeneity may result in erroneous relationships and long-branch attraction artifacts (LBA) are all too real for a researcher in this field. A well-used method of avoiding LBA is removal or degeneration of the faster evolving third codon positions in protein coding genes and while successful, it possibly reduces valuable information in the process. We want to test the effectiveness of degenerating synonymous sites (i.e. degen1 coding) used on only a selective part of a dataset and how it compares to the common methods otherwise used. Testing these methods, two protein coding gene datasets covering Hymenoptera and Diptera, differing in size, hierarchal level and evolutionary age, was analyzed using maximum likelihood. 

    Results: Both data sets, with high support across the trees, displayed LBA in the early lineages when all codon positions were included. Both methods of dataset alteration yielded similar and more likely trees, but the partial degeneration method showed higher number of supported nodes and as well as a higher median support.

    Conclusions: Partial degeneration is able to solve LBA artifacts and is a more efficient method to use when data is poorly sampled or suffers from substitution saturation and/or compositional heterogeneity. 

  • 31.
    Åhlén, Erik
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Malm, Tobias
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Erfarenheter av hjärtrehabilitering hos patienter med kardiovaskulära sjukdomar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases is the most common cause of death in the world. Cardiac rehabilitation is an difficult time for the affected. Health professionals need insight in patients experiences of cardiac rehabilitation to be able to provide good and person centered care. The aim of the structured literature study was to explore patients affected by cardiovascular diseases experiences of cardiac rehabilitation. the result of the study was based on 11 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. Three main themes emerged: Experiences of support, Experiences of information and Experiences of physical activity. The result illustrate the significance of peer support in cardiac rehabilitation for participants, both social and psychological. Participants experienced insecurity regarding physical activity, especially because it reminded them of their negative experiences of chest pain and increased heart rate.The information received at the acute phase was hard for the patients to absorb. The information was perceived as general by the patients and not customized for their specific situation. A need for further education about patients experiences for health professionals is seen for them to be able to provide a good and person centered care

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