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  • 1. Darab, Mandi
    et al.
    Barnett, Alejandro Oyarce
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. SINTEF, Norway.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Thomassen, Magnus Skinlo
    Sunde, Svein
    The Influence of Catalyst Layer Thickness on the Performance and Degradation of PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Constant Catalyst Loading2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 232, p. 505-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three catalytic layers containing Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbon of different Pt loading but with the same total amount of platinum and therefore of different thickness were employed as cathode catalytic layers (CCLs) in a PEM fuel cell. The layers were subjected to a degradation protocol with an upper potential limit of 1.5 V. Upon exposure to the degradation protocol particle size increased, the electrochemical areas (ECAs) of the catalysts decreased, the catalytic layers became thinner, and the average pore size decreased, indicating both carbon and Pt corrosion. The relative decrease in the ECA was approximately the same for all three layers and was therefore approximately independent of CCL thickness. For all samples the reaction order with respect to oxygen was one half and the samples showed doubling of the slope of the potential vs. log current curve (dEld logi) at high current densities. This indicates that kinetics control the potential at low currents and kinetics and proton migration (ohmic drops in the catalytic layer) at high. However, the degradation protocol also introduced limitations due to oxygen diffusion in the agglomerates. This led to a quadrupling of the dEld logi-slope in 13% oxygen in the samples with the highest catalyst area per volume. For the sample with the lowest catalyst area per volume this slope increased by a factor of six in 13% oxygen, indicating that the local current density exceeded that required for the Tafel slope of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) to double.

  • 2.
    Gomez, Yasna Acevedo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 3, p. F189-F197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reformate hydrogen from biogas is an attractive fuel alternative for energy conversion in PEM fuel cells. However, in the reformate traces of ammonia may be found, e.g. if the biogas is produced from agricultural resources. In this investigation the effect of ammonia in the fuel gas, on each part of the fuel cell, is studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), symmetrical hydrogen cell (H2|H2)- and real fuel cell operation. A considerable degradation in performance is observed by introducing 200 ppm ammonia. The results show that ammonia not only affects the polymer electrolyte membrane but also the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes, whereas the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is the worst affected. In the short-term, the performance is reversible if running the cell on neat hydrogen after ammonia exposure, but this does not apply for long-term exposure. A mitigation method with air bleed is tested but gives no improvement of the performance.

  • 3.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrode degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is the degradation of fuel cell electrodes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In particular, the degradation associated with localized fuel starvation, which is often encountered during start-ups and shut-downs (SUs/SDs) of PEMFCs. At SU/SD, O2 and H2 usually coexist in the anode compartment. This situation forces the opposite electrode, i.e. the cathode, to very high potentials, resulting in the corrosion of the carbon supporting the catalyst, referred to as carbon corrosion. The aim of this thesis has been to develop methods, materials and strategies to address the issues associated to carbon corrosion in PEMFC.The extent of catalyst degradation is commonly evaluated determining the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of fuel cell electrode. Therefore, it was considered important to study the effect of RH, temperature and type of accelerated degradation test (ADT) on the ECSA. Low RH decreases the ECSA of the electrode, attributed to re-structuring the ionomer and loss of contact with the catalyst.In the search for more durable supports, we evaluated different accelerated degradation tests (ADTs) for carbon corrosion. Potentiostatic holds at 1.2 V vs. RHE were found to be too mild. Potentiostatic holds at 1.4 V vs. RHE were found to induce a large degree of reversibility, also attributed to ionomer re-structuring. Triangle-wave potential cycling was found to irreversibly degrade the electrode within a reasonable amount of time, closely simulating SU/SD conditions.Corrosion of carbon-based supports not only degrades the catalyst by lowering the ECSA, but also has a profound effect on the electrode morphology. Decreased electrode porosity, increased agglomerate size and ionomer enrichment all contribute to the degradation of the mass-transport properties of the cathode. Graphitized carbon fibers were found to be 5 times more corrosion resistant than conventional carbons, primarily attributed to their lower surface area. Furthermore, fibers were found to better maintain the integrity of the electrode morphology, generally showing less degradation of the mass-transport losses. Different system strategies for shut-down were evaluated. Not doing anything to the fuel cell during shut-downs is detrimental for the fuel cell. O2 consumption with a load and H2 purge of the cathode were found to give around 100 times lower degradation rates compared to not doing anything and almost 10 times lower degradation rate than a simple air purge of the anode. Finally, in-situ measurements of contact resistance showed that the contact resistance between GDL and BPP is highly dynamic and changes with operating conditions.

  • 4.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Gonzalez, Carlos
    Lima, Raquel Bohn
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Direct sorbitol proton exchange membrane fuel cell using moderate catalyst loadings2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 116, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in biomass hydrolysis has made it interesting to study the use of sorbitol for electricity generation. In this study, sorbitol and glucose are used as fuels in proton exchange membrane fuel cells having 0.9 mg cm(-2) PtRu/C at the anode and 0.3 mg cm(-2) Pt/C at the cathode. The sorbitol oxidation was found to have slower kinetics than glucose oxidation. However, at low temperatures the direct sorbitol fuel cell shows higher performance than the direct glucose fuel cell, attributed to a lower degree of catalyst poisoning. The performance of both fuel cells is considerably improved at higher temperatures. High temperatures lower the poisoning, allowing the direct glucose fuel cell to reach a higher performance than the direct sorbitol fuel cell. The mass specific peak power densities of the direct sorbitol and direct glucose fuel cells at 65 degrees C was 3.2 mW Mg-catalyst(-1) and 3.5 mW Mg-catalyst(-1), respectively. Both of these values are one order of magnitude larger than mass specific peak power densities of earlier reported direct glucose fuel cells using proton exchange membranes. Furthermore, both the fuel cells showed a considerably decrease in performance with time, which is partially attributed to sorbitol and glucose crossover poisoning the Pt/C cathode.

  • 5.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Holmström, Nicklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Boden, A.
    Randstrom, S.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    In-situ Measurements of Contact Resistance and In-situ Durability studies of Steels and Coatings to be used as Bipolar Plates in PEMFCs2009In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1791-1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a fast, low cost and reliable methodology for bipolar plate material screening and testing is presented. Ex-situ measurements of contact resistance are used as a screening tool, while in-situ measurements such as: fuel cell performance, in-situ contact resistance, high frequency impedance spectroscopy, together with post analysis of stainless steel surfaces, MEAs and fuel cell effluent water evaluates the real performance of the most promising stainless steels and coatings, providing reliable data for future fuel cell stack test.

  • 6.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Holmström, Nicklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Bodén, A.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Operating conditions affecting the contact resistance of bi-polar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 231, p. 246-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both ex-situ and in-situ measurements of contact resistance between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and bi-polar plate (BPP) were carried out using the same fuel cell hardware. Each BPP sample was submitted to ex-situ testing at room temperature, ex-situ testing in simulated fuel cell environment and in-situ testing, isolating the effect of specific operating conditions on the contact resistance. Increasing cell temperatures and relative humidity (RH) of the gases lowered the contact resistance. However, the presence of liquid water, measured as an increase in pressure drop over the cathode, affected the contact resistance negatively. High current density operation raises the temperature of the cell, but simultaneously increases the water content at the cathode, causing an increase of the contact resistance. In the case of uncoated steel 316L and gold-coated steel 316L, high current density operation for an extended period of time also caused a progressive deterioration of the contact resistance, which without this in-situ measurement could have been mistaken for other ohmic losses, e.g. increased membrane resistance due to metal ion poisoning.

  • 7.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hussami, Linda L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Corkey, Robert W.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Polyhedral Carbon Nanoforms as catalyst support in a Proton Exchange Membrance cathodeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    The Electrochemical Response of a Corroded PEMFC Cathode: Mass-transport at low RHManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Zakrisson, Erik
    Ivity, Matthew
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Baumann Ofstad, Axel
    Bodén, Andreas
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Comparing shut-down strategies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 254, p. 232-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of system strategies for mitigating carbon corrosion of the catalyst support in proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFCs) is a requirement for PEMFC systems, especially in the case of systems for transport application undergoing thousands of start-ups and shut-downs (SU/SD) during its lifetime. This study compares several of the most common shut-down strategies for 1100 cycles SU/SD cycles at 70 C and 80% RH using commercially available fuel cell components. Each cycle simulates a prolonged shut-down, i.e. finishing each cycle with air filled anode and cathode. Furthermore, all start-ups are unprotected, i.e. introducing the H2 rich gas into an air filled anode. Finally, each cycle also includes normal fuel cell operation at 0.5 A cm-2 using synthetic reformate/air. H2 purge of the cathode and O2 consumption using a load were found to be the most effective strategies. The degradation rate using the H2 purge strategy was 23 μV cycle-1 at 0.86 A cm-2 using H 2 and air at the anode and cathode, respectively. This degradation rate may be regarded as a generally low value, especially considering that this value also includes the degradation rate caused by unprotected start-ups.

  • 10.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Aguinaga, Luis Guerrero
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ubeda, Diego
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ingratta, Mark
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Fuel cell performance using a phosphonated polysulphone ionomer (PSUgPVPA) in the PEM cathode electrode2013In: Fuel Cell Membranes, Electrode Binders, And Mea Performance, Electrochemical Society, 2013, no 23, p. 33-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inexpensive and environmentally friendly electrolyte polymers that can be operated at higher temperatures and drier conditions are highly interesting for PEM fuel cells for automotive, portable power and stationary electricity generation applications. In this study an ionomer based on polysulfone grafted with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PSUgPVPA) in the cathode Pt/C catalyst layer (CL) was electrochemically characterized and compared to Nafion (R). The performance at different levels of humidity at 80 degrees C was evaluated by polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the performance of the PSUgPVPA-based cathode CL is comparable to that of Nafion (R) at 100% relative humidity (RH) but with some instabilities. However, at drier conditions significant losses of performance for the PSUgPVPA-based cathode was observed, concomitant to a reduced electrochemical surface area. The lower performance at low humidity is concluded to be due to a combination of lower proton conductivity and wettability or interference with oxygen reduction reaction at lower RH.

  • 11.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Kortsdottir, Katrin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wesselmark, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Active Area Determination of Porous Pt Electrodes Used in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: Temperature and Humidity Effects2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 12, p. B1795-B1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the proper measure of the electrochemically active area (ECA)of carbon supported Pt catalyst in PEM fuel cells employing in situ cyclic voltammetry. The charges of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) and CO stripping peak obtained in situ are compared, and the influence of operation temperature (25–80°C) and relative humidity (40%–90%) is discussed. The results show that the charges of the Hupd decrease with rising temperature, while the corresponding charges of the CO stripping peak are essentially independent of temperature, at least at high relative humidity. The unexpectedly small Hupd charges are explained by the significant overlap with the hydrogen evolution reaction in a fuel cell at elevated temperatures. According to our results, it is proposed that a more reliable value of Pt ECA is estimated from the CO stripping charge. However, with decreasing humidity the charges of both Hupd and CO stripping peaks decrease, which is probably an effect of increasing blockage of Pt active sites by hydrophobic domains in the electrode ionomer. Some implications of varying cell conditions on the estimated Pt ECA and its correlation with fuel cell activity are discussed in an example from a fuel cell degradation test.

  • 12.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Aguinaga, Luis Guerrero
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ubeda, Diego
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ingratta, Mark
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Performance of Phosphonated Hydrocarbon Ionomer in the Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Layer2013In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 160, no 3, p. F269-F277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inexpensive and environmentally friendly electrolyte polymers that can be operated at higher temperatures and drier conditions are highly interesting for PEM fuel cells for automotive, portable power and stationary electricity generation applications. In this study an ionomer based on polysulfone grafted with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PSUgPVPA) in the cathode Pt/C catalyst layer was electrochemically characterized and compared to Nafion. The performance at different levels of humidity at 80 degrees C was evaluated by polarization measurements, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the performance of the PSUgPVPA-based cathode catalyst layer is comparable to that of Nafion-at 100% relative humidity (RH) but with some instabilities. However, at drier conditions significant losses of performance for the PSUgPVPA-based cathode was observed. This could be an effect of catalyst poisoning by the ionomer interfering with ORR. However, the concomitant decrease of the electrochemical surface area, double layer capacitance and increased imaginary impedance, indicate that the poorer performance at low humidity is mainly an effect of reduced catalyst wetting by the ionomer in combination with the decreased proton conduction in the ionomeric phase.

  • 13. Yli-Rantala, E.
    et al.
    Pasanen, A.
    Kauranen, P.
    Ruiz, V.
    Borghei, M.
    Kauppinen, E.
    Oyarce, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Darab, M.
    Sunde, S.
    Thomassen, M.
    Ma-Andersen, S.
    Skou, E.
    Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC2011In: Fuel Cells, ISSN 1615-6846, E-ISSN 1615-6854, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 715-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphitised carbon nanofibres (G-CNFs) show superior thermal stability and corrosion resistance in PEM fuel cell environment over traditional carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube catalyst supports. However, G-CNFs have an inert surface with only very limited amount of surface defects for the anchorage of Pt catalyst nanoparticles. Modification of the fibre surface is therefore needed. In this study Pt nanoparticles have been deposited onto as-received and surface-modified G-CNFs. The surface modifications of the fibres comprise acid treatment and nitrogen doping by pyrolysis of a polyaniline (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported catalyst and the effects of the different surface treatments were discussed. On the basis of these results, new membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were manufactured and tested also for carbon corrosion by in situ FTIR analysis of the cathode exhaust gases. It was observed that the G-CNFs showed 5?times lower carbon corrosion compared to CB based catalyst when potential reached 1.5?V versus RHE in simulated start/stop cycling.

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