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  • 1.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    de Jong, M. P.
    MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of thin film cobalt tetracyanoethylene, Co(TCNE)x2010In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 161, no 17-18, p. 1892-1897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    V(TCNE)x, TCNE=tetracyanoethylene, x~2, is a semiconducting organicbased magnet and one of very few organic-based magnets with critical temperature above room temperature (RT). With the aim to understand the key design criteria for achieving RT organic-based magnets we have started to study the electronic and chemical structure of members of the M(TCNE)x family with significantly lower critical temperatures than V(TCNE)x. In this paper, Co(TCNE)x, x~2, (Tc~44 K, derived from its powder form) were prepared by a method based on physical vapor deposition, resulting in oxygen-free thin films. The results propose Co(TCNE)x to contain to local bonding disorder in contrast to V(TCNE)x thin films, which can be grown virtually defect free. In addition, the Co L-edge does not show any pronounced fine structure, suggesting the crystal field to be very weak. By using a variety of photoemission and X-ray absorption techniques the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of Co(TCNE)x was determined to mainly be TCNE-derived while the states originating from Co(3d) are localized at higher binding energies. This is in stark contrast to V(TCNE)x where V(3d) is mainly responsible for the HOMO. As the HOMO of Fe(TCNE)x (Tc~121 K, derived from its powder form) is TCNE-derived these results show that Co(TCNE)x is more similar to Fe(TCNE)x than to V(TCNE)x in terms of electronic structure.

  • 2.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Characterization of the Ni/V(TCNE)x interface for hybrid spintronics applications2010In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1020-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium tetracyanoethylene, V(TCNE)x, is an organic-based magnet with properties suitable for spintronics applications, e.g. spin valves. In this paper we propose a new hybrid organic spin valve design where V(TCNE)x is used as a spin-transporting and spin-filtering layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic (FM) metal contacts, i.e. FM/V(TCNE)x/FM. As the spin injection and detection of such a device occurs at the interfaces the quality of those are of crucial importance. Therefore, the Ni/V(TCNE)x interface has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) as well as compared with XPS results from a model system, Ni/TCNE. Ni chemically interact with both the vinyl and cyano groups but there is no evidence for significant diffusion of Ni into the V(TCNE)x film. As the chemical interaction affects the spin injection and detection negatively by modifying the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and destroying the magnetic ordering network at the surface, these results indicate that there is need for a buffer layer between V(TCNE)x and Ni, and in extension most likely between V(TCNE)x and any FM contact.

  • 3.
    Dediu, V.
    et al.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Hueso, L.E.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy, Department of Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Bergenti, I.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Riminucci, A.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Borgatti, F.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Graziosi, P.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Newby, C.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Casoli, F.
    IMEM-CNR, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.
    De, Jong M.P.
    De Jong, M.P., Nanoelectronics Group, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Taliani, C.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Room-temperature spintronic effects in Alq3 -based hybrid devices2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on efficient spin polarized injection and transport in long (102 nm) channels of Alq3 organic semiconductor. We employ vertical spin valve devices with a direct interface between the bottom manganite electrode and Alq3, while the top-electrode geometry consists of an insulating tunnel barrier placed between the "soft" organic semiconductor and the top Co electrode. This solution reduces the ubiquitous problem of the so-called ill-defined layer caused by metal penetration, which extends into the organic layer up to distances of about 50-100 nm and prevents the realization of devices with well-defined geometry. For our devices the thickness is defined with an accuracy of about 2.5 nm, which is near the Alq3 molecular size. We demonstrate efficient spin injection at both interfaces in devices with 100- and 200-nm-thick channels. We solve one of the most controversial problems of organic spintronics: the temperature limitations for spin transport in Alq3 -based devices. We clarify this issue by achieving room-temperature spin valve operation through the improvement of spin injection properties of both ferromagnetic/ Alq3 interfaces. In addition, we discuss the nature of the inverse sign of the spin valve effect in such devices proposing a mechanism for spin transport. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  • 4.
    Ding, B.F.
    et al.
    Surface Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Fudan University.
    Sun, Z.Y.
    Surface Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Ding, X.M.
    Surface Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Hou, X.Y.
    Surface Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Wu, Y.Z.
    Surface Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
    Bergenti, I.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Dediu, V.
    ISMN-CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Electroluminescence and magnetoresistance of the organic light-emitting diode with a La0.7 Sr0.3 Mn O3 anode2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroluminescence (EL) with brightness up to 300 cd m2 is observed from organic light-emitting diodes fabricated on oxygen-treated La0.7 Sr0.3 Mn O 3 anodes. An external magnetic field of 150 mT applied parallel to the device surface can enhance the EL intensity by 10%, accompanied by a raised current efficiency. In-plane magnetization of the ferromagnetic anode is found to be the main origin of increase in the current contributable to EL, though magnetoresistance of the organic functional materials also plays a role in the EL enhancement observed in the magnetic field. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 5.
    Li, Fenghong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Graziosi, Patrizio
    Istituto per lo Studio di Materiali Nanostrutturati–Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN-CNR), Bologna, Italy.
    Tang, Qun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dediu, Valentin
    Istituto per lo Studio di Materiali Nanostrutturati–Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISMN-CNR), Bologna, Italy.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure and molecular orientation of pentacene thin films on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO32010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 20, p. 205415-1-205415-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentacene thin films deposited on a ferromagnetic electrode, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), have been studied using near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Here we present electronic structure and molecular orientation of pentacene thin film on LSMO. No evidence related to covalent bonding or significant charge transfer between pentacene and LSMO has been found in the NEXAFS or UPS results. UPS measurements suggest that the vertical ionization potential of pentacene on LSMO is 4.9 eV. Our results extracted from NEXAFS indicate that molecular long axis of pentacene stands on the LSMO substrate surface with a tilt angle of about 22 degrees +/- 2 degrees between the main molecular axis and the substrate surface normal. AFM images show the terracelike crystalline grain formed by stacking pentacene crystalline layers and a rough crystal-layer spacing of 14-15 angstrom. Findings deduced from UPS, NEXAFS, and AFM consistently demonstrate that pentacene stands on LSMO with a tilt angle.

  • 6.
    Li, Fenghong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lee, Tsung-Hsun
    Institute of Innovation and Advanced Studies, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chikamatsu, Akira
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Guo, Tzung-Fang
    Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Lin, Hong-Ji
    National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan.
    Huang, J C A
    Institute of Innovation and Advanced Studies, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modified Surface Electronic and Magnetic Properties of La(0.6)Sr(0.4)MnO(3) Thin Films for Spintronics Applications2011In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 115, no 34, p. 16947-16953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the surface electronic and magnetic properties of half-metal La(0.6)Sr(0.4)MnO(3) (LSMO) thin film modified by a simple cleaning procedure, the so-called SC1 (5 H(2)O, 1 NH(4)OH, I H(2)O(2)), at 85 degrees C for 10-40 min in ambient atmosphere. In this study, photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) are used to characterize these properties of the manganites. Thanks to SC1 treatment, the work function of LSMO changes from 4.0-4.1 to 4.8-4.9 eV obtained from UPS measurements, while its surface roughness changes from 0.268 to 0.796 nm in AFM images. Combined 0 1s, Mn 2p, Sr 3d, La 4d, and Mn 3s core-level XPS spectroscopy investigations suggest that Mn and Sr contents decrease at the surface and the Mn value becomes 3.7 due to SC1 treament. Mn L-edge XAS spectra of LSMO thin film demonstrate that SC1 treatment results in a removal of Mn(2+) and an increase of the Mn(4+) concentration. OK-edge XAS spectra further prove an enhancement of hybridization between O 2p orbitals and e(g)down arrow, of Mn 3d induced by more Mn(4+). XMCD results show that SC1 treatment does not induce any drastic changes of magnetic properties of the LSMO thin film surface.

  • 7.
    Li, Fenghong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhou, Yi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning Work Function of Noble Metals As Promising Cathodes in Organic Electronic Devices2009In: CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, ISSN 0897-4756, Vol. 21, no 13, p. 2798-2802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work function (WF) modification of metal electrodes by adsorbing electron-rich or electron-deficient molecules oil metal surfaces has become a field of significant interest. The barrier for charge carrier injection in organic semiconductor devices can be reduced by molecular adsorption, leading to all interfacial dipole. Here, we demonstrate that the WF of noble metals such as ALL call be decreased significantly by adsorbing air stable n-type dopant acridine orange base (AOB) thin film. When a (sub)monolayer AOB is deposited on sputter-cleaned Au, the WF of the substrate changes from 5.2 to 3.5 eV. At complete coverage of the Au Surface, the WF is further reduced to 3.3 eV. When a (sub) monolayer of AOB is inserted between Au and C-60 thin film, the barrier of electron injection is decreased by 0.4 +/- 0.1 eV as compared to an Au-C-60 interface without AOB. Polymer solar cells with AOB/Au as a cathode have a similar open circuit voltage and comparable power conversion efficiency with devices using LiF/Al as a cathode, demonstrating that the AOB-modified gold electrode is an efficient low-work-function contact. Given the low positive pinning energy of 3.3 eV for AOB, we expect that other conventional high-work-function materials (Ag, ITO. La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and even PEDOT:PSS) can be modified by AOB as effectively as Au.

  • 8.
    Liu, Xianjie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interfacial electronic properties of pentacene tuned by a molecular monolayer of C-602009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 80, no 11, p. 115401-1-115401-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-tuning charge injection barriers between organic materials and electrodes is critical to optimize organic electronic device performance. Here we demonstrate that by modifying gold substrates with a monolayer of fullerene, significant decrease in the hole-injection barrier into pentacene films can be achieved. The insertion of the fullerene monolayer modifies the interfacial dipole and produces an interface where the pentacene molecules form a standing-up orientation with their long axis parallel to the surface normal. The latter effect lowers the vertical ionization energy of the pentacene molecules at the interface as compared to the pentacene-on-Au case, as well as improves the pi-pi overlap between the pentacene molecules that will likely enhance the transport properties in corresponding devices.

  • 9.
    Tran, T. L. A.
    et al.
    University of Twente.
    Wong, P. K. J.
    University of Twente.
    de Jong, M. P.
    University of Twente.
    van der Wiel, W. G.
    University of Twente.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hybridization-induced oscillatory magnetic polarization of C(60) orbitals at the C(60)/Fe(001) interface2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 22, p. 222505-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface between C(60) molecules and a Fe(001) surface. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of C(60) monolayers on Fe(001) surfaces show that hybridization between the frontier orbitals of C(60) and continuum states of Fe leads to a significant magnetic polarization of C(60) pi*-derived orbitals. The magnitude and also the sign of this polarization were found to depend markedly on the excitation energy. These observations underline the importance of tailoring the interfacial spin polarization at the Fermi level of ferromagnet/organic semiconductor interfaces for applications in organic spintronics.

  • 10.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    de Jong, M.P.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Dediu, A.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Energy level alignment and chemical interaction at Alq3/Co interfaces for organic spintronic devices2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 4, article id 045208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure of the interface between tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and cobalt was investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. As demonstrated recently, this interface is characterized by efficient spin injection in organic spintronic devices. A strong interface dipole that reduces the effective work function of cobalt by about 1.5 eV was observed. This leads to a large barrier for hole injection into the highest occupied molecular-orbital (HOMO) level of 2.1 eV, in agreement with a previously proposed model based on electron transport in Co-Alq3 -La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 spin valves. Further experimental results indicate that chemical interaction occurs between the Alq3 molecules and the cobalt atoms, while the latter penetrate the Alq3 layer upon vapor deposition of Co atoms. The data presented lead to significant progress in understanding the electronic structure of the Co-on- Alq3 interface and represent a significant step toward the definition of the interface parameters for the efficient spin injection in Alq3 based spin valves. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  • 11.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmström, Erik
    Instituto de Física, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile) and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (USA).
    Lizarraga, Raquel
    Instituto de Física, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile) and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM (USA).
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Physics and Materials Science Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden).
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient Spin Injection Through Exchange Coupling at Organic Semiconductor/Ferromagnet Heterojunctions2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 14, p. 1626-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The schematic visualization of the Alq(3) molecule on the Fe substrate with the optimized geometry at lowest total energy. When the Alq(3) molecule is relaxed on the surface, only two of the wings are lying down on the Fe surface, and the third wing remains perpendicular to the surface, showing a strong hybridization occurance.

  • 12.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergenti, I
    CNR, Italy.
    Graziosi, P
    CNR, Italy.
    Dediu, V
    CNR, Italy.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of aluminum oxide buffer layer in organic spin-valves performance2009In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 053301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of the 8-hydroxyquinoline-aluminum (Alq(3))/Al2O3/Co interfaces were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. A strong interface dipole was observed, which leads to a reduction in the electron injection barrier. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra further indicate that the Al2O3 buffer layer prevents the chemical interaction between Alq(3) molecules and Co atoms. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results demonstrate that a Co layer deposited on an Al2O3 buffered Alq(3) layer shows better magnetic ordering in the interface region than directly deposited Co, which suggests a better performance of spin valves with such a buffer layer. This is consistent with the recent results from [Dediu , Phys. Rev. B 78, 115203 (2008)].

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