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  • 1.
    Aalto-Hardy, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, French.
    Les influences françaises dans la Russie tsariste: sur les réformes culturelles, sociales et politiques2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [fr]

    Le mémoire traite de l’influence des idées françaises des Lumières sur la Russie et son évolution, notamment sociale, politique et culturelle. Cette étude est concentrée sur les deux tsars les plus célèbres et leur règne respectifs, Pierre Ier le Grand et Catherine II la Grande puisqu’ils ont été à l’origine de la plupart des réformes. Une description de la Russie avant l'époque de Pierre Ier et du siècle des Lumières, ses philosophes et ses idées fondamentales, est aussi présentée. Le mémoire se termine par une brève discussion sur les réformes essentielles faites dans la Russie tsariste.

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  • 2. Aamotsbakken, Bente
    Christoffer Dahl, Litteraturstudiets legitimeringar. En analys av skrift och bild i fem läromedel i svenska för gymnasieskolan. Institutionen för litteratur, idéhistoria och religion, Göteborgs universitet. Göteborg 20152016In: Samlaren: Tidskrift för forskning om svensk och annan nordisk litteratur, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 137, p. 222-229Article, book review (Other academic)
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    Samlaren_2016_222-229
  • 3.
    Aanstoot, Janna
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.
    Att mäta progression i svenska som andraspråkstexter2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att analysera hur texter skrivna av studenter i svenska som andraspråk på B-nivå förändras kvantitativt och kvalitativt över tid under sina studier vid Korta vägen, en uppdragsutbildningpå universitet och studieförbund beställd av Arbetsförmedlingen. Nio deltagare producerade en text i början av utbildningen och en i slutet av utbildningen och dessa texter analyserades med avseende på totalt antal ord, medellängd på meningarna (ord/mening = MLM), kvotbisatser vs huvudsatser samt andel felaktiga och svårbedömda satser. Resultatet visar att förändringen av antalet ord bedöms som signifikant på gruppnivå med en effektstorlek på mediumnivå (>0,5) (Cohen’s d = 0,511) mellan den första och andra texten. Vad gäller förändringen av medellängd på meningar över tid bedöms denna som signifikant på lägsta nivå (<0,2) (Cohen’s d =0,367). Den största förändringen som visar sig i studien är dock andelen bisatser vs huvudsatser där effektstorlek bedöms som stor (>0,8) och högst signifikant (Cohen’s d = 1,677). De kvalitativa lingvistiska fel som studenterna gjort har klassificerats i nio kategorier: 1. felaktig interpunktion, 2. problem med svensk ordföljd, 3. adverb uppfattas felaktigt som bisatsinledare, 4. bisats står ensam, 5. bisatsinledaren behärskas inte så studenten gör två huvudsatser, 6. behövlig satsdel saknas, 7. fasta uttryck behärskas inte grammatiskt, 8. inskjutning av ord som inte följer svensk syntax, 9. betydelsen av satsen är svårtolkad. I diskussionen anknyts till Bulté och Housens (2012) modell över språklig komplexitet samt processbarhetsteorin (Pienemann & Håkansson, 1999). Slutsatsen är att både längd och bisatser är en viktig del av progressionen i studenters andraspråkstexter men att kvalitativa felanalyser fortfarande krävs för att bedöma förändringens kvalitet.

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  • 4.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other2016In: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 106-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

  • 5.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text2018In: Brazilian Journalism Research, ISSN 1808-4079, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 676-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the tenets of discourse narratology, this essay identifies and discusses the various narrative and rhetorical features typical of literary journalism/reportage that have evolved from the classical tradition of first-hand observation/eyewitness reporting. I give examples of narrative patterns that have influenced literary journalism throughout the 20th century and up until today, and argue that they differ from structures found in comparable ways of narrating in fiction as well as in autobiographies. I highlight four consequences of a rhetorical “position of witnessing”: a narrative perspective directed from the outside and inward, and an illusion of simultaneity of a reporter being present on the spot and seemingly witnessing and narrating at the same time. Furthermore, the essay explores how realism, in terms of mimetic (scenic) form and scrutinized details, works differently in literary journalism than in realistic fiction. In this article, I attempt to demonstrate how narratology can open new doors to our understanding how literary journalism works in its single structures and how these structures in turn affect the reader’s experience.

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  • 6.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Poetry of Grayness: Stig Dagerman's German Autumn as Postwar Reportage from Germany2022In: The Routledge Companion to World Literary Journalism / [ed] John S. Bak; Bill Reynolds, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 107-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tysk höst (German Autumn) is perhaps the most famous Swedish reportage book from the twentieth century. It was written as a series of reportages by the young author Stig Dagerman and depicts the life of ordinary people in Germany in 1946. Themes such as suffering, guilt, and feelings of dejection are discussed, framed by an atmosphere of grayness. The reader is invited to empathize, not with certain individuals but rather with anyone who is cold, hungry, and bereaved of their beliefs. This chapter explores how these themes are made universally human by an advanced literary technique. Dagerman links the abstract to the concrete, the argumentation to what he has observed on the spot. This is achieved through figurative language, where key words are repeated, gradually transforming them in meaning and blurring the line between illustrated scenes and metaphors. The result becomes a paradoxical kind of gray expressiveness, where the power of the language seems to contradict the gloomy content.

  • 7.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid2020In: Vad är journalistik?: En antologi av journalistiklärare på Södertörns högskola / [ed] Elin Gardeström & Hanna Sofia Rehnberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, p. 67-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid
  • 8. Aare, Cecilia
    Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage2021In: Samlaren: Tidskrift för forskning om svensk och annan nordisk litteratur, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 142, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cecilia Aare, Department of Social Sciences, Södertörn University

    Narrative Commitment and a Complex Narrative Technique in Gustaf Hellström’s War Reportage (Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage)

    The 1910s was a dynamic period in Swedish journalism when reporters became professionals and the largest newspapers engaged their own foreign correspondents. A prominent correspondent of the time was Gustaf Hellström, also a famous writer. His reports from France during the First World War, collected in the book 1 1/2 mil härifrån står världens största slag, are known for their dedicated attitude. An assumption in this essay is that such an attitude corresponds to a narrative commitment, which could be divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion

    Using tools from discourse narratology and cognitive narratology, I investigate narrative techniques and strategies at work when a narrative commitment is constructed in the reportages from France. A conclusion is that parallel perspectives and a multitude of voices within the narrative construction connect the individual to the general and convey empathy with all victims of the war, civilians as well as soldiers on both sides. 

    In a final section, I place Hellström’s series of reportages from France within a broader context where I highlight similarites with Stig Dagerman’s series of reportages Tysk höst from 1946 and Svetlana Alexievich’s documentary books from the 1980s and onwards.

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    Samlaren_2021_5-33.pdf
  • 9.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage2021In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 142, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1910s was a dynamic period in Swedish journalism when reporters became professionals and the largest newspapers engaged their own foreign correspondents. A prominent correspondent of the time was Gustaf Hellström, also a famous writer. His reports from France during the First World War, collected in the book 1 1/2 mil härifrån står världens största slag, are known for their dedicated attitude. An assumption in this essay is that such an attitude corresponds to a narrative commitment, which could be divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion

    Using tools from discourse narratology and cognitive narratology, I investigate narrative techniques and strategies at work when a narrative commitment is constructed in the reportages from France. A conclusion is that parallel perspectives and a multitude of voices within the narrative construction connect the individual to the general and convey empathy with all victims of the war, civilians as well as soldiers on both sides. 

    In a final section, I place Hellström’s series of reportages from France within a broader context where I highlight similarites with Stig Dagerman’s series of reportages Tysk höst from 1946 and Svetlana Alexievich’s documentary books from the 1980s and onwards.

  • 10.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Reportaget som berättelse: En narratologisk undersökning av reportagegenren2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study ­is the first dissertation where the genre of reportage (in the U.S. classified as literary journalism) is systematically mapped with the help of narratology. Using tools primarily from structural discourse narratology, the thesis examines, describes and maps written reportages as narratives. Rhetorical and cognitive narratology complement the approach. 

    The investigation rests on two assumptions. Firstly, a reporter’s professional purpose is to report about people and states of affairs outside the reporter herself. This results in a contextual commitment, which leaves traces in the narrative in the form of a textual commitment. The latter is in turn divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion/sympathy. The thesis highlights the creation of narrative structures and stylistic features in reportages and the overall conclusion is that conceptions about a reporter’s professional purpose in fact do influence the narrativity of the text. 

    Secondly, in contrast to news journalism, reportage is a personal genre that can be considered a directed reality: the content is taken from reality but the form is personal and a consequence of the writing reporter’s choices. The thesis presents a narratological model where the text develops in the interplay between three instances: a director, a narrator (in a first-person reportage a narrating reporter) and experiencing characters (in a first-person reportage including an experiencing reporter). The director should be regarded as a structuring property of the text itself. 

    Part 1 provides a historical background to the reportage genre and the social side of the reporter role. In part 2, narrative characteristics of the genre are explored and defined together with the common roots of reportage and novels within realism and naturalism. Part 3 demonstrates how a contextual commitment can be transformed into a textual commitment. Throughout the dissertation, the director model is used to investigate differences and similarities between subcategories within the genre, sometimes between single texts, sometimes between reportage in general and fictional narrative. In part 4, a typology of reportage is presented. The genre is divided into five types of narration, based on the representational relation between how the physical reporter has collected information and in what ways an experiencing reporter is or is not apparent in the text. 

    The thesis ends with a historicization of consonance and dissonance within the reportage genre. Consonance emphasizes the characters’ “here-and-now” and can be found within a broad, classical tradition of eyewitness reporting. Dissonance emphasizes the narrator’s retrospective perspective and can be found within the modernistic type of American New Journalism and in more experimentally written reportages from the most recent decades. The thesis demonstrates how both these ways of narrating may enable the reader’s narrative empathy with someone else than the experiencing reporter.

    The analyses and conclusions are mainly based on Swedish reportages from 1819 to 2014. This material is complemented with international reportages from 1903 to 2007,  from Norway, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Bohemia, Croatia, Belarus and the U.S. Accordingly, the dissertation demonstrates that traditions of reportage are primarily international and that the observations about narrative patterns within the genre are also relevant outside of Sweden. 

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    Reportaget som berättelse
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    Errata_Reportaget som berättelse
  • 11.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Sverige.
    Reportaget som berättelse: En narratologisk undersökning av reportagegenren2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study ­is the first dissertation where the genre of reportage (in the U.S. classified as literary journalism) is systematically mapped with the help of narratology. Using tools primarily from structural discourse narratology, the thesis examines, describes and maps written reportages as narratives. Rhetorical and cognitive narratology complement the approach. 

    The investigation rests on two assumptions. Firstly, a reporter’s professional purpose is to report about people and states of affairs outside the reporter herself. This results in a contextual commitment, which leaves traces in the narrative in the form of a textual commitment. The latter is in turn divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion/sympathy. The thesis highlights the creation of narrative structures and stylistic features in reportages and the overall conclusion is that conceptions about a reporter’s professional purpose in fact do influence the narrativity of the text. 

    Secondly, in contrast to news journalism, reportage is a personal genre that can be considered a directed reality: the content is taken from reality but the form is personal and a consequence of the writing reporter’s choices. The thesis presents a narratological model where the text develops in the interplay between three instances: a director, a narrator (in a first-person reportage a narrating reporter) and experiencing characters (in a first-person reportage including an experiencing reporter). The director should be regarded as a structuring property of the text itself. 

    Part 1 provides a historical background to the reportage genre and the social side of the reporter role. In part 2, narrative characteristics of the genre are explored and defined together with the common roots of reportage and novels within realism and naturalism. Part 3 demonstrates how a contextual commitment can be transformed into a textual commitment. Throughout the dissertation, the director model is used to investigate differences and similarities between subcategories within the genre, sometimes between single texts, sometimes between reportage in general and fictional narrative. In part 4, a typology of reportage is presented. The genre is divided into five types of narration, based on the representational relation between how the physical reporter has collected information and in what ways an experiencing reporter is or is not apparent in the text. 

    The thesis ends with a historicization of consonance and dissonance within the reportage genre. Consonance emphasizes the characters’ “here-and-now” and can be found within a broad, classical tradition of eyewitness reporting. Dissonance emphasizes the narrator’s retrospective perspective and can be found within the modernistic type of American New Journalism and in more experimentally written reportages from the most recent decades. The thesis demonstrates how both these ways of narrating may enable the reader’s narrative empathy with someone else than the experiencing reporter.

    The analyses and conclusions are mainly based on Swedish reportages from 1819 to 2014. This material is complemented with international reportages from 1903 to 2007,  from Norway, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Bohemia, Croatia, Belarus and the U.S. Accordingly, the dissertation demonstrates that traditions of reportage are primarily international and that the observations about narrative patterns within the genre are also relevant outside of Sweden. 

  • 12.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen2015In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

  • 13.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Skiftande berättarperspektiv och självkritisk reporter komplicerar bilden: Budskap och berättarteknik i tre svenska reportageböcker om gängkriminalitet2023In: Journalistica, ISSN 1901-6220, E-ISSN 1904-7967, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hur ser berättelsen om svensk gängkriminalitet ut i tre aktuella reportageböcker och med vilken berättarteknik är den konstruerad? Med en blandning av narratologisk och medieretorisk analysmetod undersöker den här artikeln hur innehåll och form samspelar i Mammorna av Alexandra Pascalidou, Familjen av Johanna Bäck- ström Lerneby och Tills alla dör av Diamant Salihu. En slutsats är att skiftande berättarperspektiv kan motverka ensidighet, samtidigt som narrativ medkänsla utan parallell narrativ inlevelse kan hindra läsarens möjlighet att föreställa sig de skildrade människornas situation. Dramatiserade händelseförlopp kan öka närvarokänslan, medan en reporter som ifrågasätter sin egen auktoritet uppmuntrar läsaren till att undvika förenklande slutsatser. Till sist bidrar person- beskrivningar och urval av fakta i de tre böckerna till skilda budskap. Studien visar att reportagegenren tack vare sin narrativa form har potential att skildra samhällsproblem på komplexa sätt. Detta gäller särskilt när gestaltningen kombineras med gedigen faktaresearch. 

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  • 14.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Subjectivity conditioned by narrative form: A narratological approach to emotion in narrative journalism2024In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, media researchers have displayed an increased interest in emotion as an element of the content in both news journalism and narrative journalism. These studies lack a theoretical definition of emotion and do not usually specify what characterizes narrative journalism more than it being "not objective" and, consequently, not similar to conventional journalism. In practice, they identify emotion through frames of personalization or explicit expressions of feelings and evaluations. However, narrative journalism integrates implicitly conveyed emotion. To enable a broader understanding of the function of emotion in narrative journalism, this article gives examples of and analyzes how emotion and the related concept subjectivity is used and discussed in two different fields of research: social sciences-influenced journalism studies and literature-influenced studies. The dualistic view on journalism as either subjective or objective is questioned when narrative journalism (also known as reportage or literary journalism) is placed in a professional context, where the genre is based on its own tradition and represents its own form of knowledge, due to its main characteristic: a narrative form. Finally, the article demonstrates how tools drawn from narratology can illuminate diverse storytelling techniques that transmit emotion implicitly rather than explicitly.

  • 15.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Case of Literary Journalism: Rethinking Fictionality, Narrativity, and Imagination2023In: Style, ISSN 0039-4238, E-ISSN 2374-6629, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the genre of literary journalism/reportage against a background of earlier assumptions on fictionality. At a local level in nonfiction, fic- tionality can be expressed through invented stories and scenarios that create a con- trast to the global, nonfictive context. However, fictionality can also be expressed through stylistic devices that traditionally have been associated with narrative fic- tion. A local contrast may appear, but only if the genre in itself is not narrative. If the focus is on the nonfictional and narrative genre of literary journalism/reportage, there will be no contrast. Here, the rhetoric will work just like in narrative fiction and should be considered to be part of the features of narrativity. Furthermore, the concept imagination should be perceived in close relation to Monika Fludernik’s understanding of narrative as experience. The conclusion is a call to partly rethink existing connections between fictionality, narrativity, and imagination in order to better understand the narrative nature of reportage. 

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  • 16.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Literature and History of Ideas.
    "What is it like to be one of these people?": Narrativa strategier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The eyewitnessed reportage has a pronounced character of narrating. The imaginative power of the text helps the reader to empathise with the characters. That makes constructing empathy a necessary skill of reporters. But how can this be done?

    Despite a tradition of story telling among reporters, narratologists virtually have neglected the reportage genre. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how narrative strategies can be used in reportages and, at the same time, suggest methods for investigating those strategies. The main question is: How can empathy be constructed? Empathy is here defined as a function of presence, perspective, selection and disnarration. A screen of covert values is also added.

    The study applies a narratological and a media rhetorical approach to journalistic narratives, and focus is on basic discussions supported by analysis samples. Theories by Gérard Genette, Dorrit Cohn, Seymor Chatman, William C. Booth, Gerald Prince, Göran Rossholm, Bengt Nerman and others are discussed.

    Even though a reportage is about real events, it always represents a personal interpretation. It presents the readers with a represented reality. In a narratological model for the macro level of the reportage I identify the trait of construction as an interaction between three instances: the producer (i. e. the implied author), the narrator and the experiencing reporter. On a micro level this model helps me to explain, for example, how a homodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how another character than the experiencing reporter can be focalised. In the former case I examine the interplay between showing and telling relative to the narrator’s visibility. In the latter case I especially focus on a complex technique for shifting perspectives, both those concerning thoughts, like Free, Indirect Discourse (FID), and those concerning perception. At the same time I study different degrees of perspectivity.  

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    "What is it like to be one of these people?"
  • 17.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

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  • 18.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Gilmartin, Emer
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Breath holds in chat and chunk phases of multiparty casual conversation2020In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2020, 2020, p. 779-783Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Creak in the respiratory cycle2018In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2018 / [ed] B. Yegnanarayana, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 1408-1412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creakiness is a well-known turn-taking cue and has been observed to systematically accompany phrase and turn ends in several languages. In Estonian, creaky voice is frequently used by all speakers without any obvious evidence for its systematic use as a turn-taking cue. Rather, it signals a lack of prominence and is favored by lengthening and later timing in phrases. In this paper, we analyze the occurrence of creak with respect to properties of the respiratory cycle. We show that creak is more likely to accompany longer exhalations. Furthermore, the results suggest there is little difference in lung volume values regardless of the presence of creak, indicating that creaky voice might be employed to preserve air over the course of longer utterances. We discuss the results in connection to processes of speech planning in spontaneous speech.

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  • 20.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 47-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

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    Backchannels and breathing
  • 21.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Breath holds in spontaneous speech2019In: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 13-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a first quantitative overview of the timing and volume-related properties of breath holds in spontaneous conversations. Firstly, we investigate breath holds based on their position within the coinciding respiratory interval amplitude. Secondly, we investigate breath holds based on their timing within the respiratory intervals and in relation to communicative activity following breath holds. We hypothesise that breath holds occur in different regions of the lung capacity range and at different times during the respiratory phase, depending on the conversational and physiological activity following breath holds. The results suggest there is not only considerable variation in both the time and lung capacity scales, but detectable differences are also present in breath holding characteristics involving laughter and speech preparation, while breath holds coinciding with swallowing are difficult to separate from the rest of the data based on temporal and volume information alone.

  • 22.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8-10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.

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  • 23.
    Aase, Zandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Collage etnolingüístico en la poesía mapuche2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the goal to analyze the strategy used by the Mapuche poets so called collage ethno-linguistic and to reveal how it is used by their authors. Given that we will analyze poems in which its authors are Mapuche, we want to investigate whether their own worldview, culture and religiosity is reflected into the poem.

     

    For this purpose we will analyze three poems written by the Chilean Mapuche poets in order to have the proper overview of their lyrical poetry. Those poems are “Huida”, by Maribel Mora Curriao, “Quila” from Pedro Alonzo Retamal, and “Desde aquí” from the poet Jaqueline Caniguán.  On the other hand we will also inquire into other papers of several researchers that have studied the ethno-literature, such as Iván and Hugo Carrasco Muñoz and the paper written by the researcher Maria Ester Greve  in order to support our investigation.

     

     

    Key words: ethnolinguistic collage, Maribel Mora Curriao, Pedro Alonzo Retamal, Jaqueline Caniguán, Mapuche poetry, world view, Mapuche religiosity. 

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  • 24. Aaslestad, Petter
    Anna Forssberg Malm, Kollisioner. Aksel Sandemose som outcast och monument. Brutus Östlings Bokförlag Symposion. Stockholm/Stehag 19981999In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 120, p. 132-138Article, book review (Other academic)
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    Samlaren_1999_132-138
  • 25.
    Abakumova, Olga
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The use of the prepositions to and with after the verb to talk in British and American English: A corpus-based study2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of the use of the prepositions to/with after the verb to talk in British and American English. The research is based on the material from the COBUILDDirect corpus, Longman American Spoken Corpus and New York Times CD-ROM. The common and different features of the use of talk to/with in different genres of American and British English as well as in written and spoken English were studied; special attention was paid to the factors which influence the choice of the prepositions. The research has shown that generally talk with is used much less than talk to and probably is undergoing the process of narrowing of meaning. With after talk seems to be used most often to refer to two-way communication while talk to is used to refer to both one- and two-way communication and is, therefore, more universal than talk with.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Abani, Chris
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Meet Chris Abani2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The poet and author Chris Abani talks about alienation and poetry.

    Download (qt)
    MOVIE01
  • 27.
    Abarca, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Japanese Studies.
    Förebyggandet av självmord: En komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Japan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 28.
    Abazi, Adelina
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Voice and Sites of Resistance: A Woman's Quest for Empowerment and Freedom through Voice in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyzes the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God written by Zora Neale Hurston, 1937. The main focus is how the protagonist Janie uses her voice to subvert patriarchal oppression. In this essay my hypothesis is that she has a voice all along. However, it evolves due to her ability to engage in activities that are subversive to patriarchy. Her journey throughout the novel is a journey where the oppression from her relationships only makes her grow stronger as a woman. During her journey towards self-revelation as an empowered woman, she gradually gains her freedom and her own authentic voice by asserting control over her body and thoughts. The main theoretical terms of this essay are used in direct link to the struggles and achievements of formulating the self in a male dominated society. What I aim to achieve with this essay is to show how Janie emerges as a subject with a voice of her own in Hurston’s novel.

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  • 29.
    Abbas Abdulmehdi, Iman
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society.
    Waiting for Godot: A Play in Which the Main Characters' Lives Are Presented As Meaningless2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this argumentative paper is to study the play Waiting for Godot from a specific point of view. The statement of this thesis is that the lives of Vladimir and Estragon are presented as meaningless, and this claim is based on the analysis of the play and the study of other published scholarship that is associated with the topic. The thesis is divided into three chapters, each chapter discusses each argument and shed light on some philosophical concepts such as Existentialism, Absurdisim, and Nihilism. However, the main focus is on the fundamental meaning of the lives of the main characters, Vladimir and Estragon.

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  • 30.
    Abbas, Malak
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Al-Falahi, Diana
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Digitalt spelbaserat lärande: och dess inverkan på engelska språkinlärning2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schools in general have been digitized to a large extent and the inclusion of digital tools is becoming more and more common. The purpose of this study is to find out what different studies say about the inclusion of digital games-based learning and the impact they have on students' vocabulary learning and motivation in English teaching. It’ll also mention where the different studies have been implemented and which methods have been used. The method used in this study is a literature review that has been collected from ERIC (EBSCO), JSROR, ERIC (ProQuest), and IEEE Explore. The results showed that the implementation of digital games-based learning focusing on vocabulary learning motivates students to learn and improves their English language more than analog learning. It has also been shown that digital games have been effective in developing students' English language skills. This is because the students experience learning as enjoyable, unlike analog teaching where they feel analog learning takes place within a strict framework. The conclusion of this study shows that the students gain increased motivation and interest in learning English as a foreign/second language through digital games.

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    Digitalt spelbaserat lärande: och dess inverkan på engelska språkinlärning
  • 31.
    Abd Alhai, Alaa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    The Use of Subtitled Media in ESL Classrooms to Promote Vocabulary Acquisition2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 32.
    Abd Alwaheb, Frida
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Swedish Language.
    From Clown to Hero: The construction of Volodymyr Zelensky in Swedish newspapers 2019 and 20222022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the linguistic construction of the president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelenskyj, in Swedish newspapers in 2019 and 2022. Using the framework of Critical Discourse Studies along with Cognitive Linguistics the aim of the study is to gain an understanding of what constructs a heroism discourse surrounding Zelensky. Utilizing the Discourse-Historical Approach as the main method allows for a certain qualitative analysis of news texts which illuminate discursive strategies and possible conceptual metaphors. Findings suggest there has been a shift in the discourse concerning Zelensky, and that he in march 2022 is part of a heroism discourse in which he symbolizes change.

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  • 33.
    Abdalla, Fardosa
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Resistance of Female Stereotypes in The Bluest Eye : Destroying Images of Black Womanhood and Motherhood2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stereotypes and myths are created by media to simplify and mystify reality. The two are used to form negative stereotypical images that are used as tools of social oppression in today’s white patriarchy. This essay will focus on how Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye depicts black womanhood and motherhood and resists the reductive images of black women through the narrative technique. In the text we find the stereotypical images of the Mammy and the Matriarch in the character Pauline "Polly" Breedlove, both simplifying and mystifying black motherhood but also condescending towards African-American family constellations. The text resists these images by making readers inhabit Polly who at first fits in to the two archetypes, only to then give us additional information and use an engaging narrative technique that invites the reader to decide if Polly really is the Mammy and the Matriarch.

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  • 34.
    Abdallah, Hiba
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Abdallah, Mariam
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Bortglömd och bortgift: En litteraturstudie av pojkars och mäns position i hederskultur i Arkan Asaads Stjärnlösa nätter2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Arkan Asaads Stjärnlösa nätter(2012) är en roman som beskriver livet för tonåriga Amar som kommer från en kurdisk familj, med en far som är överordnad och starkt dominerande i familjen. Romanen belyser tydligt vilka förväntningar som finns på Amar i släkten och hur heder och skam och allt vad det innebär är det som styr i samhället. För att rädda samt bevara familjens heder och för att Amars far ska bli stolt över honom så var enda utvägen att han skulle gifta sig med sin kusin Amina utan egen vilja.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur pojkar och mäns position inom hederskultur skildras i Arkan Asaads Stjärnlösa nätter.

    Teoretisk bakgrund: De teoretiska ramverken som ligger till grund för denna studie är Connells (2008) maskulinitetsteori och det intersektionella perspektivet och dess maktstrukturer. Vi använder oss också av Schlytter och Rexvid (2016) definition av heder och skam samt Hanssons (2010) beskrivning av heder på individ- och gruppnivå.

    Metod: Vi har valt att göra en närläsning av verket, där vi kommer att analysera samt tolka den, för att tolka den på bästa sätt kommer vi att stödja oss på hermeneutiken, tolkningsläran. Vi gör en kvalitativ innehållsanalys vilket innebär att vi fokuserar på specifika delar av verkets innehåll och de delar som är relevanta i denna studie är patriarkala maktstrukturer inom familjer, hederskultur och skam.

    Resultat: Analysen visar att Asaad (2012) skildrar män och pojkar i familjer med hedersrelaterade värderingar och normer som dominanta, aggressiva, hotfulla och våldsamma. Läsaren får också en inblick i den traditionella familjeordningen i Amars familj och den består av Casim med högsta status, mamman som är underordnad pappan och sönerna med högre status än dottern. Men resultatet visar också att Amar är ett offer för hederskulturen då han efter påfrestningar och påtryckningar tvingas gifta sig med sin kusin och tvingas glömma bortegna målsättningar i livet -- allt i hederns namn. Analysdelen visar hur heder och skam präglar Amars familj. På så sätt visar analysen att skam och heder går hand i hand i familjer med hedersrelaterade värderingar och normer, vilket Amars släkt har. Skammens roll är betydligt större och har mer inflytande över familjen än vad kärlek och respekt har. 

  • 35.
    Abdallah, Hiba
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Abdallah, Mariam
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Stereotypa manliga och kvinnliga egenskaper i We hunt the flame: En litteraturstudie ur ett genusperspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hafsah Faizals We hunt the flame från 2019 är en roman vars berättelse utspelar sig i Arawiya, en värld inspirerad av Ancient Arabia (en värld som fanns innan Islams uppkomst). I berättelsen får vi följa Zafira, en 17-årig kvinna som på grund av samhällets normer får klä ut sig till man, en berömd jägare. Romanen belyser tydligt Arawiyas samhälleliga normer och vad som förväntas av det manliga respektive det kvinnliga könet. För att få chansen att rädda sin hemstad var enda alternativet för henne att klä ut sig till en man eftersom om någon hade vetat om hon var kvinna hade hennes prestationer och hjältelika gärningar blivit fråntagna henne.

    Syfte: Syftet med vårt arbete är att undersöka hur Zafira Bint Iskandar i We Hunt the Flame skildras utifrån ett genusperspektiv och de rådande könsnormerna i romanens värld. Vi ska undersöka om hon är en normbrytare eller inte.

    Teoretisk bakgrund: De teoretiska ramverken som ligger till grund för vårt arbete är Yvonne Hirdmans teori om genusordningen och Maria Nikolajevas motsatsschema.

    Metod: Den valda metoden för detta arbete är en närläsning, vi gör en karaktärsanalys på Zafira för att se hur hon framställs i boken, utifrån Hirdmans genusteori. Vidare stödjer vi oss på den kvalitativa tolkningsmetoden, det hermeneutiska synsättet, men även Nikolajevas motsatsschema.

    Resultat: Analysen visar att Arawiya är ett mansdominerat patriarkalt samhälle där kvinnan är underordnad mannen. Zafira får på grund av omständigheterna dölja sin könstillhörighet för att kunna försörja sin familj. Det gör hon genom att bete sig på ett stereotypiskt maskulint sätt. Genom våra teoretiska utgångspunkter har vi mött en kvinnlig karaktär som kritiserar ett samhälle som begränsar kvinnan, och som bryter mot stereotypiska egenskaper genom att agera på ett sätt som anses vara manligt. I Arawiya är kvinnors positioner begränsade där de inte kan exempelvis bli kalifens efterträdare eller styra ett land. Genom analysen får vi se tydligt hur Hirdmans genusordning bekräftas i Arawiya. Zafira beskrivs ha typiskt manligt kodade egenskaper som att vara självständig, stark, modig, beskyddande och folkets försörjare. Dessa manligt kodade egenskaper är det som stärker hennes mansroll som hon intar då. Trots detta så betyder det inte att hon inte framställs som kvinnlig, då hon gör det i viss mån. Hon betraktades vara sårbar och visar även rädsla vilket är en typiskt kvinnlig egenskap. Det vi har kommit fram till är att protagonisten Zafira Bint Iskandar uppvisar kritik mot genusordningen och bryter mot könsnormerna i Arawiya och faller framförallt i den manliga kategorin i stället för den kvinnliga.

  • 36.
    Abdallah, Narjiss
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Madeline Miller’s Feminist Retelling of Circe: Turning a Cruel Witch into an Empowering Enchantress2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Abdella, Waleed
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Carlsson, Amanda
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Vi vet inte vad vi tycker om en bok förrän vi pratat om den: En studie om boksamtalets betydelse för läsförståelsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om textsamtalets påverkan på elevers läsförståelse. Studien utgår från en undersökning som genomfördes i två skolklasser. Det är två högstadieskolor inom Hallands län och klasserna har delats in i grupp A och B. Grupperna har fått besvara sex frågor till H.C. Andersens saga Flickan med svavelstickorna men testet har bedrivits på två olika sätt. Grupp A fick texten och sex frågor att besvara individuellt utan någon hjälp. Grupp B fick använda sig av ett textsamtal med sina klasskamrater innan de fick besvara de sex frågorna individuellt. Resultatet som framställs från de olika skolorna jämförs på individuell nivå men skolorna jämförs även på skolnivå då det är stora skillnader dem emellan.  Studien har sin relevans då undersökningar har visat att elevers kunskaper inom läsförståelse blir allt sämre och därför är det av vikt att komma fram med strategier för hur vi kan motverka detta.  Resultatet denna studie visar är att samtalet gynnar många elever. Fler elever kan besvara innehållsfrågor till en text efter att ha samtalat om den.

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  • 38.
    Abdi, Suwayda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    A corpus-based diachronic study of the lexemes bro and dude2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Event conceptualisation and aspect in L2 English and Persian: An application of the Heidelberg–Paris model2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present project investigates the impact of the grammaticalised progressive on event conceptualisation in English and Persian. It applies the Heidelberg–Paris framework using single event descriptions for analysis at the sentence level and story re-narrations at the discourse level. The empirical data test the hypothesis that the progressive has an impact on information selection and discourse structuring in event conceptualisation in terms of infrequent endpoint encodings and language-specific patterns of perspective-taking in structuring discourse. Languages lacking the grammaticalised progressive clearly show different effects.

    There are system-based similarities/differences in aspect between English and Persian. They have the progressive in common but differ with respect to the imperfective–perfective distinction. This difference is manifested as an increase in the use of the progressive in English. In contrast, the Persian system with two aspectual non-past forms which are possible for expressions of ongoingness leads to decreased use of the particular dāštan-progressive.

    The key finding for the single, motion event descriptions is that the dāštan-progressive in Persian shows less frequent endpoint encodings, like in English, as compared to languages lacking the progressive. However, the imperfective bare mi-form is associated with frequent endpoints while English shows no such association because the progressive must always be used.

    In narratives, differences emerge again due to the different typology. When the uses of the progressives in re-narrations are differentiated for clause type, the progressive in English is used equally in main and sub-clauses, though more dominantly in sub-clauses in Persian. These sub-results speak about differences in perspective-taking between these L1s.

    The analysis of the complexities involved in aspect establishes that the bare mi-form in Persian can denote ongoingness in cases where the progressive is obligatory in English as it has no optional verb form. Consequently, the typological difference of the absence/presence of the imperfective–perfective categories leads to a significant increase in the use of the progressive in English, which results in a cross-linguistically different, and L1-specific, patterns of perspective-taking in the narrative discourse in English and Persian. Thus, despite the fact that the L1s have the progressive aspect, their principles of use differ as they are dependent on the relevant aspectual system.

    Relating the results to linguistic relativity and cross-linguistic influence, the study shows that owing to the grammatical category of the progressive in common, event conceptualisation is similar in English and Persian in terms of infrequent endpoint encodings in single motion event descriptions, despite the overall typological difference. However, L1-related influence on the principles of use of the progressive in L2 English is considerable in the narrative discourse of the advanced L2 users of English as they seemingly proceed from the principles of use in L1 Persian towards those in L1 English.

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    Event conceptualisation and aspect in L2 English and Persian
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  • 40.
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Perspectivation in narratives in Persian L2 English2011In: EUROSLA 21, 21st Annual Conference of the European Second Language Association, Stockholm University, 8-10 September 2011: Book of Abstracts, 2011, p. 216-216Conference paper (Refereed)
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    abstract
  • 41.
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Reflections on Persian Grammar Developments in Persian Linguistic Scholarship I2017Other (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Abdollahian Barough, Somaje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Temporal frames of reference in Persian L2 English narrations: A reflection of perspectivation in the L1 or the L2?2013In: EuroSLA 23, 23st Annual Conference of the European Second Language Association, Amsterdam University, 28-31 August 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013, p. 24-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates L1 influence on the structuring of events in adult second language acquisition, focusing on temporal perspectivation in film re-tellings by very advanced L2 speakers of English with L1 Persian. The analysis focuses on contrasts in perspectivation with regard to the role of grammaticalised temporal structures of the speaker’s L1, which provides specific means of temporal perspectivation in event representations that differ from English. When organising information for expression in a story-telling task in the L2, grammaticalised L1 features can result in L1-influenced, temporal relations between events that advance the story line, showing transfer as well as possible L2-specific patterns (Carroll, von Stutterheim and Nüse, 2004). Such L1 influence has been established in cross-linguistic analyses of the verbalisation of perceptual input in Germanic, Romance, Semitic, and Slavic languages by the Heidelberg group. The current investigation replicates an analysis of retellings of a film clip by von Stutterheim and Lambert (2005) and Carroll and Lambert (2006), involving an Iranian language, Persian, as L1.

    While progressivity is a prominent feature of the temporal frame in film retellings in English, language change in Persian has led to the following changes for this grammatical category: the conventional mi-prefixed imperfective retains progressivity, while a new periphrastic progressive presents an alternative to this form, along with progressive constructions with verbal nouns.

    The critical results will be retrieved from a quantitative analysis of the L1 Persian data indicating how much the periphrastic progressive is grammaticalised in contrast to the conventional imperfective. Also, a qualitative analysis of the Persian L2 English data identifies the temporal frame used in sequencing events, and compares this with L1 speakers of Persian and English. All three groups of speakers (N=30, in each) were asked to carry out the same task, i.e. retelling of a silent film lasting approximately ten minutes. Finally, the relative distances between the frames of temporal representation in the retellings of Persian advanced learners of L2 English and the two groups of L1 speakers shed light on the way the learners deal with aspectual distinctions in systems that differ typologically and the complexity for the learner. The study thus identifies the role of L1-influenced preferences in the expression of temporal relations in this advanced L2 English learner language with its implications for second language acquisition.

  • 43.
    Abdul Kareem, Ala'a
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Comparative Literature.
    A Psychoanalytical Reading of Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights: An Analysis of the Defense Mechanisms of Some Characters2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents a portrayal of Heathcliff, Catherine and Isabella from a psychoanalytical perspective with regard to four defense mechanisms; namely, repression, denial, sublimation and projection in order to see how these defense mechanisms have affected the characters’ decisions and behaviour, and led them to their destinations in life. It will include three major sections: repression in characters, denial in characters, and sublimation and projection in characters. These terms will be more clearly defined and explained in the subsequent sections.

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  • 44.
    Abdul Samad, Abdul Samad
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Teaching Literature as a Means to Promoting Critical Thinking -A Teacher Perspective2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developing critical thinking and mastering its skills has been a vital priority for the curriculum in Swedish upper-secondary school. The National Curriculum for upper-secondary school and the syllabus for the English subject emphasize the importance of implementing and enhancing the development of the students’ critical thinking which leads to having active learners who are able to think creatively and keeps them away from becoming narrow-minded. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospect of teaching critical thinking through reading literature. Guided by the critical thinking skills that are defined in The Delphi Report including (1) interpretation, (2) analysis, (3) evaluation, (4) inference, (5) explanation and (6) self-regulation, this study explores the possibility of promoting critical thinking skills through reading literature. The study also examines the efficacy of the reader-response approach in helping the students to be critical thinkers and active readers. Using qualitative data from conducting interviews, this study analyses teachers’ perspectives and considered the implications for teaching literature in terms of fostering the students’ critical thinking. The study showed that the teachers’ awareness of the significance of integrating literature in teaching English was found to play a great role in fostering the students as critical thinkers. The study also showed that teachers emphasized the importance of in-class discussions about literary works in order to expand the students’ thinking horizons and enhance their sense of self-confidence as contributors to the learning process. It also showed that the reader-response theory has a significant role in fostering the students’ critical thinking even though it is not clearly stated in the teachers’ perspectives on teaching literature.

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  • 45.
    Abdulahad, Leila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gender representation in Swedish upper secondary ESL: a study on the representation of binary and non-binary genders and LGBTQIA in textbooks2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender representation is a core part of a democratic society. Gender has evolved past the heteronormative construction and is more of a continuum (Fausto-Sterling, 2000 in Motschenbacher, 2011). Educational materials are therefore an important tool where the school system can ensure inclusivity of the non-binary and LGBTQIA+ community. Previous research on English as a second language (ESL) textbooks used in secondary and upper secondary schools around the world have shown a gender imbalance with the male gender being dominant (Bahman and Rahimi, 2010; Barton and Sakwa, 2012: Brusokaitė and Verikaite-Gaigalienė, 2015). The present study is investigating the coverage of binary, non-binary and LGBTQIA+ characters in digital textbooks in upper secondary Swedish schools (English, 5, 6, 7) by employing a content analysis. The content analysis was initiated by first considering female, male, non-binary and LGBTQIA+ characters. The pronouns and names were supported by extending the analyses to adjectives and adverbs of manner used to describe the binary and non-binary genders and the activities performed by them. Data of adjectives and adverbs of manner connected to the binary, non-binary and LGBTQIA+ identities were also collected from the three selected textbooks. The findings reveal that there is a gender imbalance regarding the visibility of the female gender. In two out of the three textbooks male dominance is prevalent with approximately 30 % more male visibility. Non-binary and LGBTQIA+ characters are almost non-existent in the three selected textbooks, with a very limited number of characters included. The analysis also showed that there are multiple occurrences of gender-marked (Stanley, 1977) adjectives. However, the conclusion of the analysis of the adjective is that there is no gender bias because of the variation of the adjectives. 

  • 46.
    Abdulazeez, Shahad Mazin Abdulazeez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Rapportering om Qatarkrisen: En komparativ studie av nyhetsreportage på Al-Jazeera och Al-Arabiya2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I mitten av 2017 uppstod en diplomatisk kris mellan Qatar och fyra grannländer, nämligen Saudiarabien, Förenade Arabemiraten, Bahrain och Egypten. Som följd av krisen avbröt dessa länder sina diplomatiska förbindelser med Qatar.Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka innehållet i nyhetsartiklar om den inträffade diplomatiska krisen från både Al-Jazeera och Al-Arabiya samt att försöka kartlägga hur rapporteringen skilde sig åt. De primära frågeställningarna i denna undersökning kommer att behandla vilka normer de två tv-kanalerna har använt sig av för att producera sina respektive nyhetsstoff samt vilka tillvägagångssätt som har tillämpats för att publicera eller rapportera till respektive publik. Vidare kommer undersökningen att försöka kartlägga, analysera och skildra andra aspekter av värde såsom objektivitetsnivån, hur finansieringen påverkade de två nyhetskanalernas nyhetskvalitet samt deras spridning. Undersökningen kommer att granska om nyhetsartiklarna i båda kanalerna har gett en nyanserad bild eller bara rapporterat en sida av händelsen. Samtliga frågeställningar har sammanfattats i två huvudpunkter. Den första punkten syftar till att klargöra vilka språkliga skillnader som förekommer i rapporteringen om Qatarkrisen i de två satellit-tv-kanalerna Al-Jazeeras och Al-Arabiyas nyhetsartiklar. Den andra punkten avser att undersöka om Al-Jazeera och Al-Arabiya har varit neutrala eller påverkade av sina respektive regeringars politiska inställning i rapporteringen om Qatarkrisen.Jag har analyserat fem artiklar från varje kanal för att se vilken information som förmedlas. Som jag kommer att förtydliga, finns det tydliga tendenser som visar att rapporteringen av vissa händelseförlopp i Qatarkrisen skiljer sig avsevärt åt, vilket eskalerade krisen. Utifrån innehållsanalys och temaanalys med kodning presenterar jag en jämförelse av hur språket och ordvalet skiljer sig i nyhetsrapporteringen. Både innehållsanalys och tematisk analys har samma mål, nämligen att analysera material genom att dela upp texten i små innehållsenheter och sedan analysera texterna (Vaismoradi et al, 2013, ss. 400–402). Resultatet av denna jämförelse visar tydliga skillnader i ordval och parafraser av samma nyheter mellan de båda kanalerna. Till exempel rapporterade Al-Jazeera i den första nyheten att Qatars nyhetsbyrå hade hackats och att falska uttalanden av emiren hade publicerats. Al-Arabiya undvek dock att nämna att nyhetsbyrån hade hackats och rapporterade istället att alla uttalanden av emiren var falska.Denna studie baseras på tidigare forskning av forskarna Leon Brakho och Kristina Riegert, som har skrivit flera böcker om arabiska massmedier. Dessutom har jag använt tre olika teorier för att besvara frågeställningarna, nämligen normativ teori, auktoritär teori och gestaltningsteori.Denna studie baseras på tidigare forskning av forskarna Leon Brakho och Kristina Riegert, som har skrivit flera böcker om arabiska massmedier. Dessutom har jag använt tre olika teorier för att besvara frågeställningarna, nämligen normativ teori, auktoritär teori och gestaltningsteori.Genom jämförelsen mellan nyhetsartiklarna åskådliggörs att kanalerna har använt olika termer och ord om samma händelse. Samtidigt förekommer mer motstridig terminologi i rapporteringen mellan de båda nyhetskanalerna. Det var anmärkningsvärt att se hur uppbyggnaden av varje nyhetsartikel, samt hur varje kanal skildrar eller rapporterar om en viss händelse, skilde sig åt.

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  • 47.
    Abdulgadir, Foosey
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Cultural Clash and Colonial Consequences: A Comprehensive Analysis of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart (1958) within the context of postcolonial theory, focusing on the clash between traditional Igbo culture and the forces of European imperialism. Achebe's work serves as a response to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (1899) and challenges the stereotypical portrayal of Africans. This thesis delves into the impact of missionaries and Christianity on Igbo society, analyzing the mechanisms through which they established influence and sparked conflicts with traditional beliefs. Employing a postcolonial framework, the study scrutinizes power dynamics, colonial strategies, and the consequences of cultural clashes.

    The study’s findings critically assess European colonialism by highlighting how missionaries utilized Christianity for colonization, revealing conflicts between African and European cultures and prompting reflection on the repercussions of cultural interactions in pre- and postcolonial Africa. The research reveals the multifaceted impact of missionaries and Christianity on Igbo society, employing tactics such as education-driven conversion, economic dependence, cultural stigmatization, exploitation of social divisions, and legal/political influence. These strategies were designed to subvert traditional beliefs, reshape cultural values, and establish Christianity as a dominant force, resulting in significant cultural conflicts within the Igbo community.

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  • 48.
    Abdullahi, Bayan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Inlärningsprocessen hos andraspråkselever i ämnet Svenska: En intervjustudie med svensklärare2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa och få kunskap om inlärningsprocessen av andraspråk när de äger rum genom ämnet svenska. Jag vill kartlägga vad det innebär att lära sig ett andra språk samt hur det kan gå till. Undersökningen utgår ifrån intervjuer med lärare i ämnet svenska och visar vilken syn samt vilka erfarenheter av område de har. Syftet är att ge en översikt med förbättring för elever med svenska som andraspråk.

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  • 49.
    Abdullahi, Hibo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Said, Liza
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Förskollärares arbetssätt för att stimulera flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie av förskollärares arbetssätt för att stödja språkutvecklingen hos flerspråkiga barn.2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att undersöka förskollärares arbetssätt för att stödja språkutvecklingen hos flerspråkiga barn. För att uppnå studiens syfte genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta förskollärare från fyra olika mångkulturella förskolor. Det sociokulturella perspektivet har använts för att tolka studiens empiri. Resultatet av studien visade att förskollärarna använder sig av bildstöd, TAKK (teckenstöd) och kroppsspråk för att främja flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling. Vidare framkommer att verbalt språk och läsning är betydelsefulla för att stimulera flerspråkiga barns språkutveckling. Resultatet visar att en viktig komponent i att främja språkutvecklingen hos flerspråkiga barn är att förskollärarna använder sig av benämningar och upprepningar i vardagen för att berika barnens ordförråd. Studiens resultat visar även att samarbetet med vårdnadshavare är en viktig del i arbetet med flerspråkiga barns utveckling av modersmålet och svenska språket.

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  • 50.
    Abdullahi, Idman
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nuuh, Asma
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Flerspråkiga elevers möjlighet till att använda sitt modersmål iundervisningen: En komparativ analys med fokus på läroplanerna 2011 och 2022 i svenska somandraspråk2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår uppsats handlar om jämförelsen mellan läroplanerna 2011 och 2022. Vi har fokuserat på ämnet svenska som andraspråk där vi analyserar i eller vilken mån flerspråkighet samt modersmål tas upp. För drygt 10 år sedan var den genomsnittliga procentandelen av eleverna i skolan som hade ett annat modersmål än svenska 17 procent. När det gäller båda läroplanerna nämns det i ämnets syfte att lärare ska använda sig av olika förutsättningar för att ge eleverna möjligheten att utveckla sitt svenska tal, skriftspråk, mötet av olika typer av texter och även kunskaper i och om svenska språket. Det nämns inget om hur elevernas modersmål ska nyttjas. Sverige har inte lagstiftat vilket språk som är officiellt språk men svenskan är huvudspråket och det står i läroplanen för grundskolan att man ska kunna svenska språket efter genomgången grundskolan. Efter att ha analyserat läroplanerna ser vi att enspråkighetsperspektivet är tydligt och synligt. Flerspråkighet är inte en märklig företeelse som enbart förekommer i Sverige. Trots detta verkar många svenska skolor ha svårigheter med hur de ska arbeta med flerspråkiga elever, vilket vi även ser i läroplanerna. Elever som kommer till ett nytt land i de yngre åldrarna lär sig ett nytt språk snabbare och man ställer inte heller lika höga krav på språket i de yngre åldrarna, jämfört med elever som har invandrat i de högre åldrarna. Det är viktigt att använda sig av elevernas flerspråkighet i undervisningen för att utveckla elevens alla språk. Skolan är också den platsen eleverna skapar sin identitet, det är där eleverna formar sin självbild.

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