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  • 4501.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments for Automated Testing - An Empirical Analysis of a User Support Discussion Board2014In: Seventh IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation ICST 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 113-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the challenges encountered by users and developers of automatic software testing, we have performed an empirical investigation of a discussion board used for support of a test automation framework having several hundred users. The messages on the discussion board were stratified into problem reports, help requests, development information, and feature requests. The messages in the problem report and help request strata were then sampled and analyzed using thematic analysis, searching for common patterns. Our analysis indicate that a large part of the impediments discussed on the board are related to issues related to the centralized IT environment, and to erroneous behavior connected to the use of the framework and related components. We also observed a large amount of impediments related to the use of software development tools. Turning to the help requests, we found that the majority of the help requests were about designing test scripts and not about the areas that appear to be most problematic. From our results and previous publications, we see a clear need to simplify the use, installation, and configuration of test systems of this type. The problems attributable to software development tools suggest that testers implementing test automation need more skills in handling those tools, than historically has been assumed. Finally, we propose that further research into the benefits of centralization of tools and IT environments, as well as structured deployment and efficient use of test automation, is performed.

  • 4502.
    Wiklund, Kristian
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Impediments in Agile Software Development: An Empirical Investigation2013In: Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7983: 14th International Conference, PROFES 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, June 12-14, 2013. Proceedings, Springer , 2013, p. 35-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report on a case study on development impediments encountered in the early phase of a transformation to agile methods in a software development organization. Drawing from literature and anecdotal evidence, it was assumed that the majority of the impediments were related to software testing. To investigate this, we performed a case study seeking qualitative and quantitative evidence from task boards, interviews, and observations. Our analysis indicates that the major challenge in the transformation undertaken by the studied organization was coordination and communication in the large, and that testing was the major challenge only when the unit of analysis was restricted to the teams in the department.

  • 4503.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Design Process Based on Visualization2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global market of today is tough and the competition between companies demands new ways of developing products and services. The current challenge for the design research community is to provide designers with a wider range of methods and tools to support specific activities within the design process and to improve its overall coordination.

    It is uncertain whether problem-solving alone can be the tool for developing even simple products or services, as we are less open to the variety of opportunities that arise in the process. When approaching a problem, the cognitive mindset demanded to solve the problem differs from that required when searching for opportunities in creating something completely new. This emphasizes the importance of design thinking, using tools and methods for conducting Human Centered Design (HCD), empathy, and intuition along with the use of visualization.

    By focusing on the creative process and the use of sketches or models, this research will explore the possibility to develop tools and methods for conducting NPD projects in a more efficient, effective way.

    This research provides a prescriptive model of using visualization in New Product Development (NPD). This model is a result of clarifying the problem, understanding the factors that affect the problem and the development of support and a solution for implementing the model in industry. The model works as a supportive tool for project teams and guidelines for management.

  • 4504.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Reference Model For Using Visualization Within Product Realization Projects2009In: ICED 09 - THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, VOL 1: DESIGN PROCESSES, Stanford, USA: Design Society , 2009, p. 399-409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to develop and implement new innovative methods and models that will support and strengthen SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) to generate new ideas and realize these into successful products and improved processes. The use of visualization (in the early stages) in the innovation process is the focus in this research. The current understanding of the situation within visualization for innovation is that it is important to use visualization but few have a developed approach in how. However there are some examples in how visualization is an active part within the innovation process. IDEO and Decathlon are examples of companies that use visualization in a strategic and structured way. This paper presents a reference model on how visualization can be used within an innovation process. The model will look in to the existing situation, and highlight the problem that is relevant in this research topic. The model will also point out the factors that are most suitable to take in to consideration when improving the situation.

  • 4505.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    idPeo a Multidisciplinary Approach to Innovative Product RealizationConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for effectiveness and efficiency in product development is increasing and learning organizations need to deliver knowledge and people with the right mindset to society. IdPeo is a suggested model to support innovative product realization. The model focuses on a collaborative approach of needed expertise knowledge, key activities, and decisions.

  • 4506.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    idPeo a Multidisciplinary Approach to Innovative ProductRealization2008In:  , Turin, Italy: UPA Europe , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for effectiveness and efficiency in product development is increasing and learning organizations need to deliver knowledge and people with the right mindset to society. IdPeo is a suggested model to support innovative product realization. The model focuses on a collaborative approach of needed expertise knowledge, key activities, and decisions.

  • 4507.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Storyboarding: Framing and Reframing Opportunities in the Front-Front end of Innovation2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research proposes that design and visual thinking in combination with narrative theory contribute to enhance knowledge of innovation processes and support managers in their work. In particular, the focus is on the use of Storyboarding to support a better definition of a project’s brief. Innovation studies have shown that the initial phases of innovation processes (typically called the “front end of innovation”) are crucial for success. A proper definition of a brief, that occurs at the front of the front end, is therefore one of the most relevant events in innovation. This study investigates the early phases of innovation by developing and evaluating a new method for developing a brief.

    First, an explorative approach has been used in order to develop knowledge of challenges in the front end of innovation and how design thinking, visual thinking and narratives can bring new insights in teamwork. In this explorative search the use of case studies has been employed. Then, the explorative search has focused onthe use of Storyboarding as a tool for reflection, and in particular for igniting dynamics of framing and reframing of innovation problems. Finally, in order to create a deeper knowledge in the use of storyboarding three hypotheses has been evaluated, four experiments has been conducted with the involvement of more than 60 people defining innovation briefs. In these experiments, storyboarding (visual and narrative) has been used to support “thinking” that leads to the brief. In other words, storyboarding has been seen as a process to enable innovation teams to think differently or more precisely, rather than just a tool to represent or to communicate the brief. The experiments show that using storyboarding has effects that can support innovation management. First, storyboarding is useful if management wants to “stimulate” a reflection on meaning when developing a brief, i.e. when they want an innovation team to consider both utilitarian and emotional/symbolic factors in an innovation process. Second, Storyboarding brings a narrower focus, compared to traditional written briefs, within the “area of interest” brought up by management, which sometimes may be asked for when the organization is in search for reframing the direction of innovation.

  • 4508.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Visualization – a Catalyst for Creativity in New Product Development (NPD)2010In: DS 66-2: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Design Creativity, ICDC 2010, Design Society , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a keen need for research within the area of product development. The use of visualizations in the development process, especially, is often unstructured and ad hoc. By focusing on the creative process and the use of sketches and external representation, it is possible to develop better tools and methods for realizing new products in a more efficient, effective way. By increasing knowledge regarding the positive creative effects of using different rendering types when developing new products and learning when to use those types, one could consider developing the entire New Product Development (NPD) process. A model for creative use of visualization within NPD projects will be presented and advocated.

  • 4509.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Öberg, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Use of Storyboard to Capture Experience2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 10: Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, Design Society , 2011, p. 331-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, product realization is becoming more squeezed in time and the need to capture experience from previous projects is an important factor for being successful in developing new products and services. This paper aims to investigate the use of storyboard to highlight earlier experiences from a narrative theory perspective and in relation to contemporary cognitive theories regarding how external representations facilitate collaborative work. This paper will discuss and come up with suggestions as to why storyboard can be a supportive method through the use of narrative theories. One of the objectives of the actual research project is to assist industry in developing strategies and methods to capture “lessons learned” in previous projects and use earlier experiences to avoid repeating mistakes. This will then release working capacity to be used for creativity and innovations instead. The conclusion of the paper presents storyboard as a supportive method for capturing earlier experience from a product realization project. It also argues that it is valid to borrow the concept focalizer from narrative theory.

  • 4510.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Berglund, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Narrative Approach Towards Understanding Innovation2011In: Proceedings of 18th International Product Development Management Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4511.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Everskog, A
    Forsberg Wallin, A
    Hyltefors, M
    Larsen, S
    Verganti, R
    Storyboarding: Framing the “frame” of opportunity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design brief is commonly a written description of a scope for a design problem that requires some kind of visual design. The exploration of opportunities before formulating the design brief results in framing and reframing the problem to create a common shared understanding of the problem. In this paper the applicability of Storyboard, the actual making of the storyboard, and its values to the front-front end of innovation is examined. Experiments has been performed in order to test three hypotheses and validate the results, in total four experiments was performed consisting of 25 teams developing 17 concepts. The three hypotheses focus, regarding type of innovation, scope and level of ambiguity, creates understanding of the values storyboarding can add with regards to framing opportunity for innovation in the front-front end of innovation. The result shows that storyboarding contribute to a narrow focus in creating the brief. Regarding the innovation type the hypothesis could not be confirmed, but storyboarding enables a reflection on both meaning and function. There were also some indications on ambiguity in the brief, but this hypothesis was not confirmed.

  • 4512.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Everskog, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Forsberg Wallin, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hyltefors, Maja
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsen, Sofie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Storyboarding - Framing the "frame" of opportunity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design brief is commonly a written description of a scope for a design problem that requires some kind of visual design. The exploration of opportunities before formulating the design brief results in framing and reframing the problem to create a common shared understanding of the problem. In this paper the applicability of Storyboard, the actual making of the storyboard, and its values to the front-front end of innovation is examined. Experiments has been performed in order to test three hypotheses and validate the results, in total four experiments was performed consisting of 25 teams developing 17 concepts. The three hypotheses focus, regarding type of innovation, scope and level of ambiguity, creates understanding of the values storyboarding can add with regards to framing opportunity for innovation in the front-front end of innovation. The result shows that storyboarding contribute to a narrow focus in creating the brief. Regarding the innovation type the hypothesis could not be confirmed, but storyboarding enables a reflection on both meaning and function. There were also some indications on ambiguity in the brief, but this hypothesis was not confirmed.© 2013 The Design Society.

  • 4513.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Demystifying Innovation and Design - the Importanze of Visualization in Ideation and Conceptual Design2012In: Proceedings of DESIGN 2012, the 12th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, vol. 1, 2012, p. 1627-1635Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss how design and design thinking can contribute to an innovative development process in a conscious, controlled, and cost effective way. The subject will be reviewed from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In order to analyse and build an understanding of the design thinking phenomenon in practice, the paper will analyse a case study based on interviews at IDEO, a company successful in its work with innovative development using design thinking and comparing this with generic success factors and Schön’s paradigm of the reflective practice.

  • 4514.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Visualization in Reflective Practice - Support for Management2012In: Design Management Journal, ISSN 1045-7194, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4515.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy .
    Exploring storyboarding in prebrief activities2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED: Volume 7 DS75-07, 2013,, 2013, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating ideas is no longer seen as a challenge within companies, creative sessions and brainstorming is widespread in most companies. However, when creating a design brief there is a lack of tools and methods finding problems and framing situations of interest. This paper examines the characteristics of storyboarding, the making of the storyboard, in pre-brief activities. In an explorative study 54 teams participating in an idea development workshop is analyzed. The workshop was developed using theories from design, visual thinking and narrative, using visual tools in every step with a focus on framing a situation of interest. This study provides an initial understanding of storyboarding in a new area and tentatively suggests that storyboarding stimulate creativity and reflection on emotions in the situation of interest. It also seems like storyboarding stimulates teams in organizing and discussing raw data widely. Storyboarding seems promising as a method but needs to be compared to the traditional way of describing a brief, a written document. An experiment is suggested to evaluate the differences between pre-brief activities made with storyboarding compared to written.

  • 4516.
    Wikström, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Storyboarding: Framing and reframing the design brief2013In: DS 75-7: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Design for Harmonies, Vol.7: Human Behaviour in Design, Seoul, Korea, 19-22.08.2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from an explanatory experiment, developing understandingabout Storyboarding in the front front end of innovation. The experiment set-up is to test howStoryboard is different from the common way of working before creating a design brief,writing documents, and to create a research agenda in order to explore this phenomena indepth. The experiment was performed in the context of a multidisciplinary conceptdevelopment course with eight teams. These teams were divided in two groups where onegroup created a Storyboard brief and the other a written brief. As results three hypotheses aredeveloped for further research. Also we conclude that Storyboard seems to be more promisingto support innovation projects that need focusing in a narrower area, but in that area moreopen to freedom of interpretation and reframing of a problem at its roots.

  • 4517.
    Wikström, Cira
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    MAT PÅ 30 MINUTER!: Ett designförslag på hur seriellt berättande kan främja matlagningen för den unga nybörjaren i köket2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens ungdomar lagar för lite mat själva och konsumerar för mycket halv- och helfabrikat. De har växt upp i ett samhälle där snabbmaten är så lättillgänglig att de inte behövt eller känt behov av att lära sig laga mat, förutsatt att de inte har ett genuint intresse för matlagning. Denna brist på kunskap och erfarenhet kring matlagning resulterar i allt för ohälsosamma matvanor när de väl flyttat hemifrån och står på egna ben. När vi dessutom lever i en tid där skola, träningar och andra aktiviteter tar stor del av vår vardagliga tid, är den egna tiden i köket och viljan att försöka lära sig, något som lätt prioriteras bort. Syftet med detta examensarbete är därför att skapa ett designförslag, ett fiktivt supplement till ICA Bokförlags Rutiga Kokboken, som skall förbättra förutsättningarna för ungdomars vardagliga matlagning och därmed främja deras matvanor. Jag har genom ett nära samarbete med Birgitta Rasmusson; kvinnan bakom Rutiga Kokboken, genom kvalitativa intervjuer med målgruppen och teorier om olika medel för visuell kommunikation så som illustration, seriellt berättande och gestaltlagar, studerat hur man skapar en informativ gestaltning mot målgruppens behov och Rutiga Kokbokens grafiska profil. Resultatet blev ett designförslag på en lös bilaga anpassad för Rutiga Kokboken och målgruppen, kvinnor och män 18-25 år. Bilagan är en vardaglig matguide för nybörjaren i köket, som tar upp vardagliga redskap, råvaror och kryddor, samt användningen av dem vid tillredning av mat. Detta genom att servera målgruppen färdiga förslag på näringsrik, enkel mat i form av seriellt berättande illustrationer. Två av de viktigaste faktorerna att tänka på vid val av recept var, förutom utseende, tidsaspekten på max 30 minuter, samt bredden och variationen mellan receptförslagen.

  • 4518.
    Wikström, Karolin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Att skylta lagom: Ett examensarbete om att finna balans mellan frihet och struktur i informationsförmedlingen i en utställningsmiljö.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study about the balance between freedom and structure in the information design of an exhibition based on hands-on education. Work is focused on the exhibition The Human Body at Tom Tits Experiment in Södertälje. The exhibition, which was built in 1997, was designed with the idea that signs create barriers and a reluctance to advertise about the "right way".

    The exhibition space has now been compressed and experiments have been grouped into two sections. In connection with this change, the signs in the exhibition come to be reviewed. This is because parents and other adult visitors expressed a desire for more information. The need for information is divided into labels for individual experiments and signage for the exhibition's theme. How this demand can be met without going against the pedagogy and aesthetics that Tom Tits believe is the central point of the work. The solution was based on the thesis that it is possible to gather information at one point to minimize the number of signs in the exhibition.

    Through methods as qualitative interviews, questionnaire survey and spatial analysis have an understanding of the complexity of the problem created. Which largely deals with the contrasts between the child's curiosity and the controlling adult world. The design solution that has been developed, resulting in three (instead of one) points where the focus has been on establishing the exhibition's theme and encourage interactivity. There has also been a quest for uniformity and flexibility, then the problem is not found to the current exhibition and information design throughout the house lacks a common thread. Whereupon consideration has been given to Tom Tits visual profile and the aesthetic that is seen as characteristic of the business. Studies circuits thus largely about Tom Tits, but it is hoped that the work interests a number of players, then a pursuit of general guidelines for the transmission of information have existed.

  • 4519.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Method for Modelling and Evaluation of Assembly Systems: a Way to Concurrent Engineering1998In: ISATA’98, International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation, Dusseldorf , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4520.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Assembly System Design – an immature field of practice?2000In: Delft Workshop on Assembly Automation, Delft University of Technology, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4521.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Drivers for life cycle perspectives in Product Realization2012In: Acta Technica Corviniensis : Bulletin of Engineering, ISSN 2067-3809, Vol. 5, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4522.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Early Performance Assessment in Design of Car Assembly Systems2000In: 33rd CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, Stockholm, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4523.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modelling and Evaluation of Large Assembly Systems: An Approach to a Support Tool for Conceptual Design1998In: CESA’98, IMACS/IEEE international multiconference on Computational Engineering in Systems Applications, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4524.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The impact of legacy in production system design2012In: Annals of Faculty Engineering Hunedoara : International Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1584-2665, Vol. 10, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4525.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Andersson, T.
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Broman, M.
    Swedish Institute of Prod. Eng. Res., Stockholm, Sweden .
    A note on the specification of assembly systems2000In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, Vol. 38, no 16, p. 3997-4002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the characteristics and cost of any technical system are highly influenced by the early design phases, little focus has been on thestructure and use of the specification in manufacturing system design, in this paper exemplified by assembly systems for large, high-volume products. This paper proposes a framework for elaborating such specifications. The framework is based on a division in qualifying and winning criteria, and is structured into four classes: functional requirements; internal design constraints; external design constraints; and winning criteria. Defining the specification by these terms is justified and explained by comparing standard mathematical formulation for this kind of problem to theframework. Future research efforts are pointed out where the framework is used throughout the development project for goal-focus, as thespecification is used and refined in an iterative manner.

  • 4526.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sustainable Manufacturing - Challenges and Possibilities for Research and Industry from a Swedish perspective2008In: The 41st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4527.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reducing environmental impact from manufacturing – an industrial case study2011In: Journal of Production Research & Management, ISSN 2249-4766, Vol. 1, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for technologies and strategies that will reduce environmental impact from manufacturing globally. This paper presents an industrial case study with three objects of study where manufacturing of ‘green’ products are analysed and solutions are presented on reducing environmental impact from manufacturing. The objects represent a conceptual product, a manufacturing ready product and an update of an existing product. The case study also builds the base for presenting a draft analysis scheme for designing a more environmentally sustainable production system. The examples and the proposed analysis scheme are discussed in the context of designing a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable production system.

  • 4528.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Reducing Environmental Impact from Manufacturing: Three Industrial Cases for the Manufacturing of ‘Green’ Products2009In: 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Grenoble, France, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a gigantic need for technologies and strategies that will reduce CO2 emissions globally. This paper presents three industrial cases in Sweden where manufacturing of ‘green’ products are analysed and solutions are presented where environmental impact from manufacturing is reduced. The cases represent a conceptual product, a manufacturing ready product and an update of an existing product. The cases also build the base for presenting a draft analysis scheme for designing a more environmentally sustainable production system. The cases and the proposed analysis scheme are discussed in the context of designing a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable production system.

  • 4529.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lundin, Mats
    Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Södergren, B.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Automation and flexibility: An apparent or real dilemma?2017In: International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, vol. 255, Springer New York LLC , 2017, p. 35-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are trade-offs between cost and capabilities throughout specification, implementation and operation of automated solutions in manufacturing companies. This chapter describes four identified dilemmas or contradictions while balancing flexibility to automation, based on an empirical study with interviews and workshop in five internationally competitive manufacturing companies. The study generated insights on experienced challenges while implementing automated solutions in manufacturing, and these apparent conflicts between automated solutions and maintaining a high operational flexibility need to be managed as manufacturing automation will continue to increase on all levels. 

  • 4530.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Lundin, Mats
    Swerea IVF Mölndal, Sweden .
    Södergren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Automation and Flexibility: Exploring Contradictions in Manufacturing Operations2016In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4531.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Groth, Margareta
    Conditions for Innovation: Insights from a multi-case study2011In: Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, ISSN 0718-2724, E-ISSN 0718-2724, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is based on a multiple-case study of conditions for product-based innovations. Key actors from 18 cases were interviewed concerning the specific character of the innovation process, its parts and phases, with a focus on the realization phase. The cases are analyzed and discussed on the basis of an experience-based framework with seven specific components. In addition, the data are illustrated and discussed by more general themes of successful and unsuccessful innovation processes. It is concluded that the components of the used framework are necessary but individually not sufficient to maintain a continuous friction-free innovation process. The dynamics of the innovation processes are well illustrated by the framework.

  • 4532.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Romvall, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Competitiveness by integrating the green perspective in production: A review presenting challenges for research and industry2010In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM 2010), 2010, p. 318-325Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern has risen as an important topic in management research as well as within the manufacturing industry. The realization that environmental sustainability should be viewed from a value-adding perspective and not only from a regulatory or cost perspective has implied a dramatic change of focus when creating competitive strategies. In production system research, some argue that green is the next great leap after lean, and many publications on the synergies and contradictions of lean and green have been published. This paper aims at high-lighting relevant topics related to environmental sustainability within a production system from the view of academia as well as industry. A review of related research has been performed together with an orienting empirical study of three companies in Sweden. The result reveals that the holistic view is often lost due to trade-offs and uncertainty, implying that incorporating environmental sustainability in an organization becomes difficult. This indicates that there is a growing need for methodology and decision support tools for integrating the green perspective at all levels of the production system. The concepts of continuous improvements and “lean and green” are identified as favorable options to succeed with this integration, implying important areas for future research.

  • 4533.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, Industriell Produktion.
    Kjellberg, Torsten
    KTH, Industriell Produktion.
    Life Cycle Approaches on Product Realization: meeting the challenges of future production research2010In: Proceedings of 43rd CIRP International Conference on Manufacturing Systems, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 2010, p. 204-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global increase of manufacturing activities and the need for sustainability, calls for manufacturing strategies and technologies with reduced environmental impact. This paper presents a part of a strategic research initiative in Sweden, established by an ambitious industry-academic collaboration. A cross-organizational and cross-disciplinary focus area has been formulated to develop leading-edge production research for the future: Life cycle approaches on product realization. The research considers the total life cycle of the product and production system on three levels: (1) On a process level, with manufacturing technologies supporting products with high energy efficiency and low materials usage. (2) On a system level, with an extended production system design for the total life cycle of the production and product portfolio. (3) On an information level, with methods and tools covering the life cycles of products and production.

  • 4534.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Södergren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Asplund, Ola
    IF Metall, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Exploring Site roles in Global Corporations: Balancing Local identity to Global responsibility2016In: 23rd EurOMA conference EUROMA 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how the lead plant role within an international manufacturing network (IMN) is expressed from a site perspective, in relation to key competitive factors. A participative observational study of a workshop series with five Swedish manufacturing sites, all working within international companies, showed how the sites’ interests challenges and supports the interests of the IMNs. The lead plants are to lead the development and dissemination of new knowledge, but still being competitive in efficiency and delivery. Strong positions within the six analysed competitive factors were generally expressed as positive abilities for being a lead plant within an IMN.

  • 4535.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Varanasi, S.
    University of Florida, US.
    Bai, S.X.
    University of Florida, US.
    An optimal production flow control problem with impulsive demand1997In: Mathematical and Computer Modelling, ISSN 0895-7177, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 53-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a system consisting of a single machine cell and producing one part type. The machine cell has a finite capacity and is reliable. We consider a finite planning horizon containing N impulsive demands. The demand occurs instantaneously. Each such demand is known by its size and when it occurs in the planning horizon. In order to keep the production as close to the demand as possible there is a trade off between building up inventory and letting customers wait. An optimal control problem is formulated to determine the optimal production strategy. Solution technique is developed via Pontryagin's Minimum Principle.

  • 4536.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wikström, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekman, Sten
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Developing idPeo –- A Multidiciplinary Approach to Product Realization2009In: ICED 09 - THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, VOL 6: DESIGN METHODS AND TOOLS, 2009, p. 67-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the background of a changing industrial landscape and key elements of the realization of complex integrated products, this paper discuss and explore an "innovative" approach towards product concept development methodologies by focusing on creativity, multidisciplinary teams, and decision-making. Throughout 2006-2009 a product realization methodology, the idPeo methodology, has been developed in a university/industry collaboration milieu. Based on a briefly reported literature review, the paper presents the methodology, briefly the three generations of conducted cases and the evolution of the methodology over the years. It is argued that the approach for innovative product realization in concept development, if implemented correctly also into companies' product development process, could contribute to increased flexibility, creativity and tolerance for change. It could also decrease lead time, increase product performance, and decrease uncertainty. 

  • 4537. Wilhelm, Reinhard
    et al.
    Engblom, Jakob
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Holsti, Niklas
    Thesing, Stephan
    Whalley, David
    Bernat, Guillem
    Ferdinand, Christian
    Heckmann, Reinhold
    Mitra, Tulika
    Muller, Frank
    Puaut, Isabelle
    Puschner, Peter
    Staschulat, Jan
    Stenström, Per
    The worst-case execution-time problem—overview of methods and survey of tools2008In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 7, no 3, p. article nr: 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of upper bounds on execution times, commonly called worst-case execution times (WCETs), is a necessary step in the development and validation process for hard real-time systems. This problem is hard if the underlying processor architecture has components, such as caches, pipelines, branch prediction, and other speculative components. This article describes different approaches to this problem and surveys several commercially available tools(1) and research prototypes. 

  • 4538.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    et al.
    Pedagogiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Johansson, Peter E
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Döös, Marianne
    Pedagogiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Influencing work-integrated learning: Learning oriented leadership2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4539.
    Wilhelmsson, Ann-Catrin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hur kommunicerar lekparken säkerhet?: – en fallstudie av Djäknebergets lekpark2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om hur lekutrustningen i en lekpark kommunicerar säkerhet till användarna genom sin formgivning

  • 4540.
    Wilhelmsson, Emelie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Läs mig: Att omarbeta längre texter ur dagstidningen för webben2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most swedish newspapers have a homepage where their news are presented. Existing guidelines describing how to write for the web often recommends you to keep it short and stay objective. But how about longer pieces of content presented in the print version? What will become of reports, interviews and essays as we’ve come to know them as the printed newspaper goes digital?

    Interviews with representatives of five swedish newspapers shows that the extent to wich content is being published on the web is connected to the overall purpose of the web presence. The fact that many newspapers does not publish longer pieces of text on the web rather seems to be an economic issue, than a matter of good readability.

    Past studies shows that longer pieces of text may well work on the web, if the reader’s interest is big enough. But how about the readers that does not active seek out for the article? How can you make them stop and read the text? What makes a text tempting? The litterature says:

    • Text appeal (interesting content, structured graphic design, low demands on the reader).

    • An overview of the content of the article. • Possible entries in the text (headlines, between headings, preambles, fact

    boxes, pictures, captions, videos, sounds). • Tempting, informative and reliable headlines.

    It was found that is not the text itself, but the visual presentation that needs to be reconsidered. With that in mind, I produced an interpretation that be­ came the discussion material in a focus group interview. The outcomes of the latter confirmed several of the above stated factors that make a piece of text seem interesting. However, personal habits and preferences also seems to be important.

    I find existing guidelines for presenting written material on the web relevant also in other contexts. But when it comes to longer, deeper text based on drama or connotation that had been lost in the revision, theres is a need to rethink. Just keeping on placing the original piece of text in the the type of interface that most online newspapers is presented in today will lead to fewer readers when the reading experience offered by a printed paper –with an overview, entries in the text and surrounding information– goes to waste. 

  • 4541.
    Wilhelmsson, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Sweden.
    Åberg, Marie
    Högskolan i Dalarna, Sweden.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Köping Olsson, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention2015In: Journal of Transformative Education, ISSN 1541-3446, E-ISSN 1552-7840, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 219-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in theworkplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were taken as the point of departure, and qualitative data were used for the purpose of analyzing aspects of learning. An educative research intervention may support a transformative learning quality when the manager and employees have to deal with severe difficulties, and they succeed in doing so by sharing responsibilities and having the strength to engage in thedevelopment process in the workplace. It is possible to support transformative learning in the workplace through an educative research intervention that encourages managers to educate themselves and their employees to think and act in new ways, aiming at integrated autonomy, increased interaction, and learning.

  • 4542.
    Willén, Isabelle
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Den eländiga elen: En studie om att utforma information om elförbrukning på webben med syfte att öka medvetenheten hos unga vuxna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4543.
    Winberg, Olov
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Examining Automatic Texture Mapping of Arbitrary Terrains2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, methods for texture mapping voxel based terrain of arbitrary topology, are studied. Traditional methods for generating terrain often use 2D height maps which has its limitations in topology, but often can rely on fast and simple planar projection for texture mapping. To generate terrain of arbitrary topology and support features like caves, overhangs and vertical cliffs, the terrain representation needs to expand from two dimensions and surface rendering to three dimensions and volumetric rendering, and also needs other, more elaborate methods for texture mapping.

    The initial part of the thesis recounts \emph{Marching Cubes}, the main method used for volumetric rendering, and also some basics on texture mapping. A survey reviews different related work on the area and lists some of the features. Some initial tests, to achieve texture mapping on arbitrary terrain, are performed and are explained and evaluated. These tests focus on partition the terrain into submeshes of similar directional faces, using the initial voxel grid as a natural boundary, and project each submesh to a planar texture space called \emph{charts}. The texture of each chart is defined by the highest resolution of each submesh and all charts are stored in one \emph{texture atlas}. The charts then represent the texture used for all different resolutions of the submesh. The method results in gaps in the final texture due to mismatch occurring from the different mesh resolutions. To avoid the mismatch each chart is mapped to fixed shapes, namely triangles or quads. This solves the problem with gaps along chart boundaries but instead introduce heavy distortion in the texture due to stretching and resizing. Some tests have also been performed on editing the underlying scalar field directly by identifying and avoiding some unwanted cases, and creating a simpler mesh.

  • 4544.
    Winberg, Olov
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Parallell beräkning av omslutande volymer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents techniques for speeding up commonly used algorithms forbounding volume (BV) computation, such as the AABB, sphere and k-DOP. Byexploiting the possibilities of parallelismin modern processors, the result exceedsthe expected theoretical result. The methods focus on data-level-parallelism(DLP) using Intel’s SSE instructions, for operations on 4 parallel independentsingle precision floating point values, with a theoretical speed-up factor of 4 ondata throughput. Still, a speed-up between 7–9 are shown in the computation ofAABBs and k-DOPs. For the computation of tight fitting spheres the speed-upfactor halts at approximately 4 due to a limiting data dependency. In addition,further parallelization by multithreading algorithms on multi-core CPUs showsspeed-up factors of 14 on 2 cores and reaching 25 on 4 cores, compared to nonparallel algorithms.

  • 4545.
    Wirtl, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design and Prototypic Implementation of a Reliable and Secure Bus System in an Industrial Context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of bus systems is complex. In a combination with industrial requirements, additional challenges have to be faced. A practical approach shows a possible solution for a complete replacement of a RS485 based bus system, currently used in an industrial product. Besides requirements for reliability and security, restrictions given by a company are taken into account. Based on related  work, a communication protocol is defined for the system,  which is optimized for an underlying CAN bus. Moreover, an analysis of  the hardware leads to a replacement of some of the system's components as well as their firmware. In addition, a bus security scheme is introduced based on actual cryptographic standards. Implementations for 8-bit microcontrollers are therefore developed in order to allow the generation of random numbers, public-key cryptography and symmetric cryptography.  As a result, a first prototypic system can be presented which fits the given requirements.

  • 4546.
    Wittur, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Läsflöde eller läsmöda?: Ett arbete om hur läsning påverkas (och inte påverkas) av olika element på en webbplats förstasida.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to find out how reading is affected, and not affected, by different elements on a start page. The site I was studied belongs to the magazine Fitness Magazine, and the current site has a problem. The editorial texts and articles don’t reach out to the visitors. The goal was to make a proposal for a new first page of the web site that highlights the texts and the reading.With the help of interviews, user testing and textual analysis, I studied if the texts were in itself that caused the problem or if it was the design. I found that it was a combination of text and design that caused the problems. The results showed that some elements of a website is needed to help the reader in the right direction while some elements was more noise that destroyed communication. The noise consisted of color combinations that fooled the brain, a logo that did not appear right, wrongly-placed ads, articles that were not suited for the web and a menu that was not located and designed to benefit the reading. I have made a design in which I tried to remove the noise to make the information more readable to visitors.

  • 4547.
    Wodén, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Informationssystem i utemiljö på Camp Ripan2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet som redovisas i den här rapporten beskriver utformningen av ett nytt informationssystem till friluftsanläggningen Camp Ripan i Kiruna. Utifrån mina kunskaper i informationsdesign har jag utformat ett skissförslag som visar flera delar av ett informationssystem. De beståndsdelar som jag har tagit fram är informationsskylt, landmärke, vägvisare och orienteringsskyltar.

    Syftet med arbetet har varit att skapa ett informationssystem som ska underlätta för besökare att hitta till och på Camp Ripans område. Uppdragsgivaren önskar att det ska leda till fler gäster, som får en mer bekväm och berikande vistelse på anläggningen. Förslaget skulle vara informativt, uppseendeväckande och knyta an till Camp Ripans grafiska profil och gestaltningsplan.

    Arbetet har genomförts med hjälp av intervju, observation och utprovning. Genom intervjuer har jag tagit del av företagets önskemål och åsikter kring ett nytt skyltsystem. Observation av platsen har lett till en analys av funktioner och kvaliteter på anläggningens område. Upprepade utprovningar av olika idéförslag genomfördes med hjälp av personal på Camp Ripan. Resultatet ledde till det slutgiltiga förlaget.

    Förslagets samtida uttryck matchar Camp Ripans moderna formspråk. Samtidigt skiljer det sig från den moderna omgivningen genom materialval, vilket framhäver informationen och skapar kontrast. I det här förslaget leder ett enhetligt informationssystem vägen till Camp Ripan.

     

  • 4548.
    Wohlin, C.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Wnuk, K.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Smite, D.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Franke, U.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista.
    Badampudi, D.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden .
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Supporting strategic decision-making for selection of software assets2016In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 240, 2016, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models). 

  • 4549.
    Wojtczak, Andrzej
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Click4Alert – System för Felanmälan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4550.
    Wolvers, Adrianus Hendrikus Cornelis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Integrating requirements authoring and design tools for heterogeneous and multicore embedded systems.: Using the iFEST Tool Integration Framework2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s practical reality there are many different tools being used in their respective phases of thesystem development lifecycle. Every tool employs its own underlying metamodel and these metamodelstend to vary greatly in size and complexity, making them difficult to integrate. One solution to overcomethis problem is to build a tool integration framework that is based on a single, shared metamodel.The iFEST project aims to specify and develop such a tool integration framework for tools used in thedevelopment of heterogeneous and multi-core embedded systems. This framework is known as the iFESTTool Integration Framework or iFEST IF.The iFEST IF uses Web services based on the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC)standards and specifications to make the tools within the tool chain communicate with each other. Tovalidate the framework, an industrial case study called ‘Wind Turbine’, using several embedded systemstools, has been carried out. Tools used to design, implement and test a controller for a wind turbine havebeen integrated in a prototype tool chain. To expose tools’ internal data through Web services, a tooladaptor is needed. This work reports on the development of such a tool adaptor for the RequirementsManagement module of HP Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), one of the tools used in the WindTurbine industrial case study. A generalization of the challenges faced while developing the tool adaptoris made. These challenges indicate that, despite having a tool integration framework, tool integration canstill be a difficult task with many obstacles to overcome. Especially when tools are not developed with tool integration in mind from the start.

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