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  • 4501.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Prototyping Hierarchically Scheduled Systems using Task Automata and TIMES2010In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Embedded and Multimedia Computing (EMC-10), 2010, article nr: 5575626- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In hierarchical scheduling, a system is organized into multiple levels of individually scheduled subsystems (hierarchical scheduling tree), which provides several benefits for developers including possibilities for parallel development of subsystems. In this paper, we study how the model of task automata and the Times tool can be applied to provide support for rapid and early prototyping of hierarchically scheduled embedded systems. As a main result, we show how a single node, in an arbitrary level in a hierarchical scheduling tree (scheduled with fixed-priority preemptive scheduling), can easily be analyzed in Times by replacing all interfering nodes with a small set of higher priority (dummy) tasks. We show with an algorithm how these dummy tasks are generated (including task-parameters such as period, offset etc.). Further, we generate executable source code, with the Times code-generator, that emulates the scheduling environment (with our dummy tasks), i.e., the hierarchical scheduling tree and all of its preemptions, of a small example system. Yet another contribution is that we transform the generated (brickOS) source code to run on an industrial oriented platform (VxWorks), and conduct an performance evaluation.

  • 4502.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Evaluating the Run-Time Performance of Synthesised Resource-Reservation Schedulers Using TAtoC, UPPAAL and Frama-C2013Report (Other academic)
  • 4503.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Modelling, Verification and Synthesis of Two-Tier Hierarchical Fixed-Priority Preemptive Scheduling2011In: Proceedings - 23rd EUROMICRO Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS'11), 2011, 172-181 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchical scheduling has major benefits when it comes to integrating hard real-time applications. One of those benefits is that it gives a clear runtime separation of applications in the time domain. This in turn gives a protection against timing error propagation in between applications. However, these benefits rely on the assumption that the scheduler itself schedules applications correctly according to the scheduling parameters and the chosen scheduling policy. A faulty scheduler can affect all applications in a negative way. Hence, being able to guarantee that the scheduler is correct is of great importance. Therefore, in this paper, we study how properties of hierarchical scheduling can be verified. We model a hierarchically scheduled system using task automata, and we conduct verification with model checking using the Times tool. Further, we generate C-code from the model and we execute the hierarchical scheduler in the Vx Works kernel. The CPU and memory overhead of the modelled scheduler is compared against an equivalent manually coded two-level hierarchical scheduler. We show that the worst-case memory consumption is similar and that there is a considerable difference in CPU overhead.

  • 4504.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Wardak, Claire
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Baraduc, Pierre
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Ben Hamed, Suliann
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Direct Two-Dimensional Access to the Spatial Location of Covert Attention in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 13, 1699-1704 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct access to motor cortical information now enables tetraplegic patients to precisely control neuroprostheses and recover some autonomy. Incontrast, explicit access to higher cortical cognitive functions, such as covert attention, has been missing. Indeed, this cognitive information, known only to the subject, can solely be inferred by an observer from the subject's overt behavior. Here, we present direct two-dimensional real-time access to where monkeys are covertly paying attention, using machine-learning decoding methods applied to their ongoing prefrontal cortical activity. Decoded attention was highly predictive of overt behavior in a cued target-detection task. Indeed, monkeys had a higher probability of detecting a visual stimulus as the distance between decoded attention and stimulus location decreased. This was true whether the visual stimulus was presented at the cued target location or at another distractor location. In error trials, in which the animals failed to detect the cued target stimulus, both the locations of attention and visual cue were misencoded. This misencoding coincided with a specific state of the prefrontal cortical population in which the shared variability between its different neurons (or noise correlations) was high, even before trial onset. This observation strongly suggests a functional link between high noise-correlation states and attentional failure. Overall, this real-time access to the attentional spotlight, as well as the identification of a neural signature of attentional lapses, open new perspectives both to the study of the neural bases of attention and to the remediation or enhancement of the attentional function using neurofeedback.

  • 4505.
    Åteg, Mattias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åberg, Marie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Köping Olsson, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Önnered, Loe
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tasks in the generative leadership; creating conditions for autonomy and integration2009In: The 6th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning, Roskilde, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4506.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kalaykov, Ivan
    Robotics for SME´s – increased flexibility through mobility and ease of use2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4507.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Industrial Robots with Human Like Moral Responsibilities2010In: 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010, Osaka, Japan, 2010, 85-86 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots do not have any capability of taking moral responsibility. At the same time industrial robotics is entering a new era with "intelligent" robots sharing workbench with humans. Teams consisting of humans and industrial robots are no longer science fiction. The biggest worry in this scenario is the fear of humans losing control and robots running amok. We believe that the current way of implementing safety measures have shortcomings, and cannot address challenges related to close collaboration between humans and robots. We propose that "intelligent" industrial robots of the future should have moral responsibilities towards their human colleagues. We also propose that implementation of moral responsibility is radically different from standard safety measures.

  • 4508.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lansner, Anders
    Configuration-specific facilitation phenomena explained by layer 2/3 summation pools in V12009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4509.
    Öberg, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Innovation driven by meaning2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hi-tech companies that want to innovate their products use, quite often, and quite naturally, technology as a driver. But, technology is only one of several drivers of change within product development. It is becoming more and more accessible and alone, cannot serve as the only mean to stay competitive.  This research sheds light on a different driver of innovation – namely, through the perspective of “meaning”. An innovation, driven by the search for a new meaning of a product, is connected to the purpose of “why” a product is used. It is not about “how” it is used. In this sense, innovations driven by meaning, are connected to a human’s new experience of use – rather than to the improvement of an existing performance. This type of innovation builds on people and their interpretation of why a product or service make sense in their life and therefore, it is subjective rather than objective. It represents a move, from the classic business perspectives of optimization and control to approach the unpredictable and ambiguous views of humans in a wider, cultural context.   

    A company that reconsidered the meaning of their product, is Germany-based KUKA with their “RoboCoaster”. This product uses existing technology to transform an industrial robot from a powerful, efficient and accurate tool into an exciting amusement ride system, delivering excitement, enjoyment and pleasurable fear. Another example is the Da Vinci surgical system in which, instead of replacing humans in an industrial application, a robot interacts with humans by acting as a surgeon in performing invasive surgery.  Through finding new applications of existing technologies – (the Robocoaster )– or through new technologies (the Da Vinci surgical system) – these products are not “better” than existing industrial robots: they have changed the reason why people use them. 

    But, theories on how to innovate with a “meaning” perspective, (i.e. on how to develop new interpretations for products and services) are rare. Indeed, dominant streams of innovation research have been connected to problem solving (Simon, 1996, Clark, 1985, Pahl and Beitz, 1988, Clark and Fujimoto, 1991, Teece et al., 1997 , Krishnan and Ulrich 2001) or idea generation (Brown, 2008, Martin, 2007). This research instead, set the focus on the context. It is a move from a cognitive focus to a social one. A move from user driven innovation strategies to also embrace a wider network of actors in the process of interpretation. The nature of this innovation is different and therefore, it requires a different approach. In this licentiate thesis the nature of innovation of meaning is examined and its relevance and practice discussed with the help of hermeneutics. The research suggests that innovation of meaning calls for new theoretical frames in innovation studies: from innovation as a process of problem solving and creative thinking to innovation as a process of interpreting and envisioning

  • 4510.
    Öberg, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Politecnico di Milano.
    Striving for meaning - a study of innovation processes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, innovation processes have often focused on creatively solving problems with the help of new technology or business models. However, when describing products in terms of function or visual appearance, the reflection on a less visible dimension, the product meaning, is left out. The perspective of meaning is an alternative path to innovation that pays attention to the reason for using a product, its “why” rather than its “how”. Nevertheless, within the field of innovation management, research on meaning is still in its infancy and lacks well developed frameworks.

    The objective of this study is to increase the understanding of the dimension of meaning within the innovation processes in companies and - in particular - the practices that support such a process, looking particularly at nine cases where managers sought to develop directions of new product meaning - spanning businesses within manufacturing, consumer goods and fashion.

    The study shows that companies used practices often opposite to what is described in innovation literature. Rather than taking out and leaving their opinions behind to reach a “beginner's mind”, the managers showed a silent evolving of interest and a conscious exposing of their own personal beliefs. They moved beyond standard procedures of information sharing to a practice of a multifaceted criticizing. Rather than outsourcing the product solutions, a practice of embodying the proposed product meaning was observed. In-depth studies showed that when the participants do not expose their thoughts with conviction, the process of searching to innovate product meaning seems to struggle. The act of exposing does not happen in a moment but when individuals open up and let old interpretations fade away, leaving room for new perspectives. Moreover, these studies showed that external sources, so called interpreters, fuel discussions on product meaning by leveraging a critical ability that includes practices described as asking, giving, daring and playing.

    The study contributes with an increased understanding of the meaning dimension within innovation management by leveraging theories of hermeneutics, design and leadership. It shows that this type of innovation process is relevant but differs from processes of creatively solving problems. Rather than being driven to find solutions, a meaning perspective includes a process of striving towards new potential product meaning.

  • 4511.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Altuna, Naiara
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano.
    INTERPRETERS: a source of innovations driven by meaning2014In: Innovation through engineering, business and design, University of Limercik, 2014, 173- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      There are a number of ways of “thinking new”, the “Google” way –ideas oriented– and the “Interpreting” way –meaning oriented– among others. In this article, we describe one valuable part in the emergence of new meanings, the source of external experts, or, the so-called interpreters. The interpreters’ contribution to the ”Interpreting” way depends on their characteristics, the conversational process where their insights are exchanged with others and - the company and its capability to absorb and transform these insights. This research is focused on the first: the characteristics.

    To answer this, we first review one of the most important features of an interpreter, namely the ability to be critical, second, we conduct one in-depth case study of a large multinational company that has convened seven interpreters to develop new emerging meanings for a special product in their portfolio.

    The paper connects to different types of critical thinking/stance from both the educational and philosophical field, but also to theory from psychology. It concludes that conversations and discussions are eased if the interpreters possess certain abilities besides knowledge. Thus, for the process of interpreting, knowledge, per se is not enough. Instead it needs to be mediated by individual behaviour. A behaviour that is closer to criticism than to creativity.

  • 4512.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    CARVING OUT THE PRODUCT MEANING: from Pre-emptying to Embodying2014In: "Innovation through engineering, business and design", 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When companies stay within the existing thinking frame of a product they risk to miss an important aspect, namely the meaning of it. By describing products in terms of function or visual appearance they tend to surface the product rather than deeply understand the reason of using it, its “why”, i.e. its meaning.

    To compensate for “locked in” interpretations of products many different approaches have been proposed, like deBonos hats (deBono 1986), “design thinking” (Brown 2009 ) and user innovation (von Hippel 2005). These approaches often result in a vast amount of ideas about solutions aimed at improving functionality, but they hardly dig into the interpretation of product meaning. They appear effective in innovating solutions, the “how” of a product, but: are they adequate as well when it comes to innovating the meaning of a product, its “why”?

     

    This paper explores what happens when firms move innovation deeper, and instead of innovating a solution for an existing problem or meaning, they want to change the product meaning. In particular it focuses on the process of innovation of meaning, and its differences with more traditional and well-known processes that aim at innovate solutions. It tells the story of four companies that went through several stages of reflection on product meaning. Our objective is to detect the nature of the process of innovation of meaning and understand if it aligns with the basic principles of problems solving that has been proposed by innovation literature in the last decade.

     

    By digging into the stories of meaning driven innovation projects of these firms, we unveil that: (1) the process of innovation of meaning differs substantially from the process of innovation of solutions; indeed, its principles are mostly opposite than to what is stated from innovation literature focused on problem solving. (2) The process of innovation of meaning evolves along four major phases: from a silent evolving of interest, to a conscious pre-emptying of existing beliefs, an iterative and multifaceted conversing and finally the embodying of the new proposed meaning. (3) These four phases are in line with the dynamic of change processes explored by scholars who have received less attention in the innovation literature. And these are researchers who have addressed change in humans and society from the perspective of the interpretation and search for meaning: philosophers of hermeneutics (Gadamer, Ricoeur), leadership (Scharmer), human disciplines (Hekkert). Aligning the process of innovation of meaning with different domains of knowledge is both a confirmation of the need for new approaches within innovation research -  and an invitation to search for new frames of within the same. The aim of this study has been to propose and spur research to understand no only how to find new solutions, but also, how to create products and services that are give new meaning to people and businesses.

  • 4513.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Meaning: An Unexplored Path of Innovation2014In: International Journal of Innovation in Management, ISSN 2308-1295, Vol. 2, no 2, 77-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last ten years, the practice and research around innovation has been dominated by one perspective: innovation is an activity of “creative problem solving”. According to this perspective, users have problems or needs, and innovation implies an understanding of those problems and the creation of better ideas to solve them (Kelley, 2001, Chesbrough, 2003, Brown, 2009, Martin, 2009). There is, however, a level of innovation that has been overlooked: the level of meaning. People are continuously searching for meaning. Whenever they do something in life, there is a meaning behind that action, a purpose, and a “why”. They also use products and services that support this search for meaning. For example, they use fast robots with the purpose of improving the productivity of a process. Firms often assume that meanings exist “out there” in the market. They just have to be understood, not innovated. Therefore, they search for new solutions, a new “how”, to serve this existing purpose better: a faster robot, for example. However, people are not only searching for new solutions to existing problems. They are also searching for new meanings because their life keeps changing and because they are delighted by the discovery of new directions. For example, hospitals buy slow robots, such as the DaVinci system, the leading prostatectomy device, not to replace doctors and increase productivity, but to help them in complex operations. This article contends that there is a third type of innovation that is overlooked by the existing frameworks of innovation, which focus on the innovation of technologies and markets: innovation as driven by meaning. By leveraging case studies of firms in consumer and industrial markets, this article: (1) identifies and defines this third type of innovation, the innovation of meaning (2) positions it in relation to the two other main drivers of innovation (technologies and markets); (3) identifies the peculiar nature of the innovation of meaning; and (4) indicates a possible research strategy to explore the process of the innovation of meaning

  • 4514.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Poitecnico di Milano.
    Pre-emptying and the myth of the naïve mind2014In: Proceedings of the 19th DMI International Design Management Research Conference: Design Management in an Era of Disruption, 2014, -225 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the mantras of innovation and design in the last years is that innovation requires a "beginner's mind". Innovation is hoped to come from people who are non-experts, unaware of existing solution heuristics and therefore free from pre-conceptions.

    But, innovation does not always concern the search for new solutions. It can involve a search for new meaning. By meaning we refer to the purpose of a product, the “why” it is used, rather than the “how”. Meanings come from individuals and influence how they interpret their personal and business reality; they create myths. Are pre-conceptions detrimental also when searching for new meanings? Should companies therefore look for beginner’s minds, or clean the minds of their organization, also when innovating meaning?

    This article contends that, in the context of innovation of meaning, “the naïve mind” looks like a naïve theoretical construct itself. Our research shows that rather then searching for innovators with a beginner’s mind (who hardly exist) and rather than trying to challenge an organization’s pre-conceptions, companies may positively leverage the existence of pre-understanding. By a deliberate act of “pre-emptying”, employees can clearly express the meaning they believe in, not to challenge and clean it, but in order to use it as a precious ingredient to be melted and framed into a new interpretation of product meaning. In this paper “pre-emptying” will be discussed in the light of hermeneutics, theory U by Scharmer and four empirical cases of global corporations. 

  • 4515.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Taking a Meaning Perspective: – A Third Dimension of Innovation2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of innovation, and especially of radical innovation, have often overlooked the innovation of meanings, especially in its more radical form. In this chapter we will illustrate how this innovation is related to other types of innovation, will discuss its nature and will show that radical innovation of meanings always occur, in every industry, and has the power to shape competition thereafter.

  • 4516.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vision and Innovation of Meaning - Hermeneutics and the search for technology epiphanies2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Product Development Management Conference, Delft, Netherlands, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical innovation strategies have traditionally been connected to either technology or market realted issues. The focus has been on solving problems and more recently on generating ideas. An alternative way to innovation is to search for a new meaningful experience of a product or technology. It includes an interpretation of the the human in a wider context and it links innovation to the fields of both design and hermeneutics. To discover technological applications with a radically new meaning (named technology epiphanies) this article propose four themes roted in the framework of hermeneutics: Designing scenarios of meaning, Debating, Building critical capabilites and Envisioning new meaning. These themes show why the creation of meanings is context-dependent and why they cannot be optimized. Moreover, we show that the search for new meanings includes a process of both questioning the existing beliefs in an industry but also to propose new market scenarios. By presenting cases both from business to business environments and consumer markets we conclude that the search for new meaningful products finds it way through the iterative process of interpreting and envisioning.

  • 4517.
    Öberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    When meaning drives innovation: - A study of innovation dynamics in the robotic industry2012In: When meaning drives innovation, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No one nowadays dare to question the value of innovation. Indeed, several studies, from macroeconomics, to innovation economics, from strategy to innovation management, have investigated and discussed how innovation drives competitive advantage and the wealth of nations. However, in most studies, “innovation” is usually a shortcut for “technological innovation”, i.e. improvement driven by technological change. There are instead multiple drivers of change, within which technology is only one (and not necessarily what builds most value) both in business and society. In this article we focus on another driver of innovation, namely the search for “meaning”. Innovation of meaning is defined as a change in the “purpose” for people to buy and use products. It’s not necessarily associated to an improvement in performance, but, rather, by a change of performance and the creation of a new reason for people to use things. Meanings are concerned with the “why” of use, not the “how”. It is about making sense of an experience of use.

      Innovation of meaning seems to be a significant driver of differentiation, as shown in Verganti, 2009, Hekkert et al., 2011, Verganti and Öberg, 2012 and in some extent also in studies on technologies (Christensen, 1997) and market innovation (Kim and Mauborgne, 2005, Moon, 2010). However, we lack a deep understanding of if and how innovation of meaning creates value, and how it shapes competition in industries. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to contribute to create a better understanding of the value of innovation of meaning. Is innovation of meaning relevant for business and competition? If so, “how” (i.e. through which assets and economics is a new product meaning contributing to create value for businesses), and “when” (i.e. in which context is innovation of meaning a more or less fruitful strategy?). These questions are not marginal and cannot rely on traditional theories on the value of innovation. If indeed technological innovation creates an improvement in performance and therefore has a direct impact on value, innovation of meaning cannot be put on a scale (i.e. it is impossible to quantitatively claim that a meaning is “better” than another meaning). Therefore assessing the value of a change in meaning implies to redefine our assumptions about the value of innovation and challenges the related theoretical frameworks.    

      In order to grasp the profound dynamics of innovation and its impacts on competition, our analysis focuses on a specific industry: industrial robotics. By analyzing major changes in meanings in this industry, and in particular innovations associated with safe robotics (a breakthrough in meaning for industrial robots, whose traditional meaning was of being dangerous and to be kept far from people), we show that innovation of meaning can indeed create significant value, even in an business-to-business environment that is typically considered to be driven by performance rather than by purpose. We also show that innovation of meaning may create value through several factors. Not only sales volumes, but also, and above all, through profit margins, brand, and positioning. Even if a change in meaning does not necessarily substitute an incumbent dominant solution. This implies that, differently than technological change, that is predestined to saturation cycles, there is always a potential for creating value (or destroying value) by a change in meaning. In fact, it leaves major questions open about how to assess and capture this potential. We therefore conclude by discussing the major theoretical questions about when and how investments in innovation of meaning are more likely to create value and possible research directions, namely: what are the circumstances that make people willing to re-interpret the meaning of a product? And, conversely, what are the circumstances that make people prefer to stay within the existing meaning of a product? And most of all, how can businesses recognize these two different situations?

  • 4518.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Wireless measurement systems for health and safety2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents an advanced wireless system, built on a single hardware platform, for applications in medicine and health. In order to design a single system, adaptable for different context, an accurate system specification is required.

    The technical requirements are authenticated by actual tests in the environment where the system is intended to be used. The results of these measurements give an understanding of the possibilities of designing a real system but also acts as a base for deriving the empirical formulas to be used as the basis of the development and verification.

    In summary, this work has included a larger measurement campaign and a verification of subsystems to support the development of wireless systems on a single hardware platform. This can be used for different measurements in medical healthcare and rescue work.

    Previous systems for endurance tests have limitations in that they are not adapted to different sizes of mammals and they also have shortcomings in the quantification of data and scalability.

    The developed system was validated on mice and humans. On mice the measurement parameters was the hormone dopamine and locomotion. For humans it was measured time for given distances. Both validation tests showed high correlation with the respective reference methods. The correlation coefficients of mice between the developed system and the former system ranged from 0.916 to 0.967. In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system clock and a manual stop watch. The lowest correlation coefficient was 0.864. Advantages with the developed system is that it is scalable and measures the activity level quantitatively in the unit meters and it can also be used for different sizes of mammals in different environments.

    In tracking devices for rescue it is important that the transmitted signal can be detected at distances as large as possible. A support in the design work is to simulate path loss. This requires a path loss exponent, which was calculated after the measurement campaign. The results showed that the exponent of the height dependency decreases with antenna height above water. For the frequency 200 MHz, the exponent for the antenna height is 0.4 (vertical polarization) and 1.5 (horizontal polarization). For the distance dependency, the exponent was 3.59 (vertical polarization) and 3.22 (horizontal polarization). The path loss exponent is 2 for both the free space- and the ground reflection model.

    An antenna’s physical dimension is to a large extent dependent on the lowest frequency. The research’s aim was to reduce the physical size by introducing a resonance frequency. The physical length was from the beginning 0.43 meter given by the lowest frequency used (0.7 GHz) and the antenna was reduced in size to 0.22 meter. 

  • 4519.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Saab Electronic Defense Systems, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Larsson, C.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Saab Dynamics, Linköping, Sweden .
    Reflection/transmission study of two fabrics with microwave properties2014In: Stud. Health Technol. Informatics, 2014, 95-100 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the transmission and reflection of two conductive fabrics are investigated in the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz. One of the fabrics is a non-woven polypyrrole, and the other consists of a polyethylene warp with steel threads in the weft. Reflection and transmission measurements are performed in order to characterize the electromagnetic properties of the materials. Reflection measurements are performed for two polarizations at normal, 0°, and 60° incident angles. Transmission measurements are also done for two polarization directions at normal incidence. The results show that the fabric with the steel filler reflects most of the incident radiation, and has very low transmission with some polarization dependence. The polypyrrole non-woven fabric, on the other hand, has reflection and transmission properties that show that it is absorbing the incident radiation. Wearable on-body sensors that in addition are comfortable to wear can be integrated in the textile of clothes. These sensors can e.g., be used to monitor health or analyze gait. The fabrics have the potential to be used in health applications when designing on-body sensors, e.g. for movement analysis.

  • 4520.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Saab Electronic Defence Systems, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Welinder, J.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Andersson, N.
    Södra Älvsborgs Hospital, Borås, Sweden .
    Otterskog, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ödman, N.
    Larsson, C.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A study of different fabrics to increase radar cross section of humans2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 211, 2015, 201-206 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This purpose of the study was to increase the visibility on radar for unprotected pedestrians with the aid of conducting fabric. The experiment comprised measurements of four types of fabric to determine the radio frequency properties, such as radar cross section (RCS) for the vehicle radar frequency 77 GHz and transmission (shielding) in the frequency range 3-18 GHz. Two different thicknesses of polypyrrole (PPy) nonvowen fabric were tested and one thickness for 30 % and 40 % stainless steel fabrics respectively. A jacket with the thinner nonvowen material and one with 40 % steel were tested and compared to an unmodified jacket in the RCS measurement. The measurement showed an increase in RCS of 4 dB for the jacket with the 40 % steel lining compared to the unmodified jacket. The transmission measurement was aimed at determining the fabric with the highest transmission of an incoming radio wave. The 30 % steel fabric and the two thicknesses of the nonvowen fabrics were tested. One practical application is for example the use of radar reflective material in search and rescue (SAR) clothes. The study showed that the 30 % steel fabric was the best candidate for further RCS measurements.

  • 4521.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Saab Combitech, Sweden.
    Ödman, N
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Sweden.
    Rabotchi, E
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Åkervall, s
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Sweden.
    Comparison between Two Exercise Systems for Rodents2014In: IFMBE Proceedings Volume 41, 2014, Springer , 2014, 1575-1578 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a comparison between two measurement systems for medical endurance test for rodents, a new running wheel system and an old system named ADEA. The ADEA test chamber system has been criticized because it is cumbersome and involves a lot of manual work which therefore limits the number of test cells that can be run simultaneously. Comparison between the systems has been done via measurements of dopamine levels and thereafter calculating correlation factor. The running wheel system has shown to provide at least as good physical strain as the well tested ADEA system.

  • 4522.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ödman, Natalia
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Borås, Sweden.
    Rabotchi, Eugeni
    Ericsson AB, Borås, Swede.
    Åkervall, Sigvard
    Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Borås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Development and Validation of a Universal Measurement System for Measuring the Performance of Mammals2014In: International journal of system dynamics applications, ISSN 2160-9772, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise wheels for mammals are commonly used as test systems in many medical research areas. Studies may be related to many different areas such as vitamins, hormones (as dopamine), and physical endurance. As research develops the scope and size of the studies increase and the requirements of the test system might change. In order to conduct the experiments effectively, there is a need to increase the number of test stations, and the test station may also be required to handle physically larger mammals. This study presents and validates a wireless system for endurance tests. The system was validated on mice and humans. It is scalable, and can be expandable up to 254 test stations. In the case of the exercise wheel with mice, the ADEA system was used as a reference. The initial validation was done by comparing the activity measured by both systems in mice with different hormone dopamine levels. The correlation coefficients between the systems estimated activity levels were in the range from 0.916 to 0.967. The new system enables quantitative measurements of the activity level using standard SI units (meters and seconds, respectively). In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system and manually. The lowest correlation coefficient obtained during these measurements was 0.864. Thus, both applications showed a high correlation with conventional methods.

  • 4523.
    Öhman, Emanuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Utveckling av häckvagn inom friidrott2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras det examensarbete som Emanuel Öhman utfört under vårterminen 2012 på Mälardalens Högskola. I rapporten redovisas det projekt som utförts för att vidareutveckla en häckvagn som används inom friidrott.

    Uppdragsgivaren Nordic Sport AB har i dagsläget en häckvagn på marknaden, som bland annat kommer användas i friidrotts-EM 2012 i Helsingfors. Syftet till vidareutvecklingen av häckvagnen är att sänka produktens fraktkostnad.

    Direktiven var att ta fram ett koncept som uppfyller kundkraven som ställs på produkten, samt att minska produktens volym och vikt, då dessa är direkt styrande av fraktkostnaden.

    Projektet börjades med en problemförståelsefas för att få en ökad kunskap, samt ta reda på vilka önskemål och krav som ställs på produkten. Utvecklingen av den befintliga produkten utfördes med olika produktutvecklingsverktyg.

    Resultatet blev en häckvagn vars helhet påminner om Nordic Sports nuvarande häckvagn, där vikt och volym reducerades. Samt att vagnens ramkonstruktion kunde dimensioneras ned efter simuleringar och beräkningar.

    Analysen visar att konceptet uppfyller de krav som ställs på produkten på ett mer resurseffektivt sätt än vad Nordic Sports nuvarande produkt gör och projektets mål kan ses som uppnått.

    I slutsatsen framgår det att projektet gått bra. En rekommendation till Nordic Sport är att göra en djupare materialanalys, eftersom detta inte gjordes.

  • 4524.
    Öhman, Jasmin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kvalitetssäkring av produktionsdokument2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Analys av ett företag inom bilbranschen görs med avseende på kvalitetssäkring av produktionsdokument. Företagets PPAP analyseras.

    Företagets operationsbeskrivningar och kontrollplaner överrensstämmer inte alltid enligt företagets krav i kvalitetsnormerna.

    Examensarbetet ger företaget konkreta förslag på vad de kan göra för att i framtiden säkra att dessa dokument kommer att överrensstämma. Dessutom ger författaren en framtidsbild av hur kvalitetssäkringsarbetet kan utvecklas på företaget.

  • 4525.
    Öhrwall, Rosanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hur hittar jag till…?: En studie om visualiseringen av kartor i varuhusmiljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur hittar jag till är ett examensarbete i informationsdesign som vilar på forskningsgrund. Syftet med arbetet är att studera hur kartor i varuhusmiljö bör visualiseras för att understödja orienteringen i varuhuset IKEA kungens kurva. Arbetet tar också upp hur man underlätta den kognitiva belastningen i kartor som innehåller mycket information. Arbetet ska resultera i att gestalta en karta som är lämpligt utformad rent visuellt för att förhindrar att kunderna lämnar varuhuset eller känner sig osäkra med orienteringen och ständigt måste fråga personalen. Arbetet tar upp problematiken samt fördelarna med en karta visualiserad i perspektiv. Men också hur man på bästa sätt strukturerar en karta med mycket information så att den underlättar för den kognitiva belastningen.       En karta skapades för inte så länge sedan utifrån nya direktiv från huvudkontoret, kartan har dessvärre visat sig vara otydlig för besökarna utifrån empiriska undersökningar och analyser som gjorts i samband med examensarbetet.

    Från resultatet av undersökningarna har en karta i planvy samt parallellperspektiv testats på besökarna för att se hur de tolkar dem. Tidigare teorier inom bl.a. wayshowing, kontraster, gestaltlagar och spatiala perceptioner säger att en karta är lättare att ta till sig om man är konsekvent och förstår hur användaren ser på kartor utifrån olika perspektiv och vad som får inhämtningen av information att bli så lättolkad som möjligt. Gestaltningsförslaget har sedan tagits fram utifrån de empiriska undersökningarna samt teorier. Genom att använda sig av enkla pictogram och avskalade omgivningar som enbart visar det som är relevant tillsammans med ett perspektiv som gynnar varuhusets överblick, så har kartan efter användartester med besökarna, visat sig vara mer lättförståelig.   

  • 4526.
    Ölund, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Josefin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Iden om skärningspunkter genom arbetsmetoder: A WELL KEPT SECRET2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering

    Författarna anser att organisationer ofta associeras med formaliserade beteenden, men vad skulle hända om vi bryter dessa associationshinder i ett försök att skapa skärnings-punkter. Går det att genom arbetsmetoder främja möjligheter för skärningspunkter och öka innovationsförmågan genom intraprenörernas roll i organisationer?

    Syfte

    Syftet är att tolka Frans Johanssons (2005) teorier om skärningspunkter och översätta dem till arbetsmetoder.

    Metod

    Genom studien har författarna pendlat mellan olika abstraktionsnivåer och insamlat te-ori och empiri allteftersom. De har genom tolkning, applicerat teorier till arbetsmetoder och utfört en empirisk workshop. I analysen har författarna kopplat samman teorin och empirin för att diskutera kring, samt försöka besvara studiens syfte.

    Slutsats

    Studien visar att det är möjligt att använda Frans Johanssons (2005) teorier kring skär-ningspunkter i arbetsmetoder. Så länge man försöker hitta och anpassa övningar till vald situation och ha de faktorer som kan påverka med i beaktning, går det att skapa och ar-beta i metoder som gynnar skärningspunkter.

  • 4527.
    Önder, Metin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Maintenance as a contributor in green production systems: Interviews with Volvo, Scania, and Dynamate2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reviews and analyses the potential impact of maintenance on the fulfilment of Green Production Systems. Overall aim is to highlight how maintenance may contribute to decreasing the environmental impact of production. The thesis is based on the combination of literature studies and set of qualitative interviews conducted in selected companies. Three Swedish manufacturers were interviewed about their way of working, as well as their views on sustainability within operation management including maintenance.

    The results of the research explains why some organisations fail to recognize maintenance’s role to achieve sustainability, and how maintenance has been characterized in these organisations, namely by: short term pressures, reactive approach, neglecting hidden costs, lack of teamworking between production and maintenance departments, and low focus (hierarchical low status) on maintenance importance, resulting in lack of skilled labor available in organizations. In contrast, practices and strategies to succeed found to be based on the following: long term thinking, structured way of working, a proactive approach to maintenance, aiming to integrate core values into operational work, and establishing an environment which fosters continuous improvement and employee development. Same study identifies areas and "effects of poor maintenance" to be dealt with in the journey toward sustainable production, these are: economic, quality, processes wastes, emissions, resource consumption, safety and work environment related. It is therefore suggested that organizations may choose a proactive approach to maintenance that is best suited to their needs, which allows efficient production and long-term profitability, while considering safety and environmental aspects. Various concepts are available, but the organisation has to optimise on the combination of various practices.

    Following to the findings, a proposal is made that proactive culture should be integrated into daily work in a practical way such as Safety-Quality-Environment becomes everyone's responsibility. Sustainable perspective and sticking to best course of proactive measures are prioritized against short term pressures. To support this proposal a toolkit is developed that can be used at team/level continuous improvement programs, based on the PDCA model. Finally, the thesis emphasizes what benefits the optimum maintenance can provide on the fulfilment of competitive and resource-efficient production systems.

  • 4528.
    Önnered, L
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design elements for clarifying business information.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4529.
    Öqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Sandberg, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Idélab en innovativ organisation?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med den ökade globaliseringen, ställs det dagligen nya krav och förväntningar på organisationer att möta de fluktuerande behov som omvärlden ställer på dem. Användningen och spridningen av begreppet innovation har aldrig varit så stort eller starkt som idag och det sträcker sig alltifrån regeringspropositioner, forskning, varumärken och konsumentartiklar. Alla vill ta del av det nya ”inne ordet - innovation” men vad är egentligen innovation och vad innebär det för en organisation att vara innovativa? Vi har valt att försöka samla dessa begrepp för att åstadkomma en förståelse för vad innovation egentligen är och hur en organisation kan dra nytta av det.

  • 4530.
    Östberg, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norgren, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Intelligent Gripper2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human hand is a great generic gripper as it can grasp objects of unknown shapes, weights and surfaces. Most robotic grippers in today's industry have to be custom made and tuned for each application by engineers, thus many man hours are required to get the desired behavior and repeatability. To be able to adapt some of the capabilities of the human hand into robust industrial robotic grippers would enhance their usability and ease the tuning by engineers once installed.

    This thesis discusses the development of a robust intelligent gripper for industrial use, based on piezo sensors which have the ability to both sense slippage and detect objects. First, an experimental sensor prototype was developed successfully using an amplification circuit and algorithms implemented in LabView. Secondly, a final prototype containing a signal board, an FPGA board, a simple gripper with linear units and more robust sensor modules where developed.

    The thesis further discusses which parts of the intelligent gripper that have been successfully implemented within the project time frame and which parts that needs to be further implemented, tested and improved.

  • 4531.
    Österberg, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Taxonomi för databashanterare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop a taxonomy for database management systems (DBMS) that can simplify the choice of DBMS, when this usually can be a long and complicated process. The taxonomy classifies criteria of DBMS that are considered important in the literature of several articles. The work also shows a structured process to go from requirements to the choice of the DBMS in form of a score based system that uses the taxonomy and the management system’s ranking on different criteria. User choices and other mandatory information is taken into consideration by the process to represent the most suitable DBMS, without requiring time and advanced skills of the user.

  • 4532.
    Österman, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring approaches how to measure a lean process2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of the research is to explore a practical method of measuring the implementation of lean in a process. The method will be based on examining the abilities of a group. At this scale the ability to work standardized and solve problems is important. These two abilities are dependent of each other and are fundamental for the group’s ability to create a stable result. In this context the method of standardized work (SW) is define to be the methods used in a process to generate stable results. Problem solving (PS) is defined as the methods used to return a process to a condition where SW is possible. Methodology / approach The research is conducted in a multiple case study in four large global manufacturing companies. The order of the data collection is: Firstly, interviews with the individuals that are centrally responsible for overall implementation of lean in the organization. Secondly, observe the implementation of SW and PS at the group level. In total 7 groups have been studied and 19 respondents interviewed. Findings Results show that the central definition of the methods for standardized work does not by itself have a direct impact on success of implementation of SW at group level. The method of SW where similar on a general level in the different cases, but with varying levels of implementation at group level. Results also show that key factors for a successful implementation of standardized work on group level are: Ownership of the process, Direct connection to result of process, Correct workload and Leader demand. Methods of PS at group level where dissimilar despite a superficially similar approach. The evaluation method used was successful in providing comparable results between the cases. Research limitations A limitation of this research is within the scale of the measurement, as it only examines the group level. The research is further limited to four companies and seven groups. Originality/value of paper This paper aims to fill a gap in the established measurement methods of lean, as it examines the abilities of SW and PS at the group level of a process. These abilities are often referred to as essential in lean theory. However, there has been little scholarly work in defining the methods of SW and PS or the key factors affecting the methods at an operational level.

  • 4533.
    Östlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vad säger cylindern?: Om utformningen av en vandringsutställning.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet är en studie i hur en vandringsutställning på gallerior och köpcentrum kan utformas. Utställningen ska tillfälligt fylla tomma ytor i gallerior och köpcentrum. Målsättningen har varit att det ska bidra till en mer attraktiv och aktiv miljö.

    Arbetet har utgått från organisationen Protect our Winters, vilka arbetar med att informera och engagera människor i kampen om klimatet och vinterns framtid. De har efterfrågat en rumslig installation för att på så sätt nå utanför skidvärldens befintliga kanaler.

    Studien och gestaltningsförslaget har baserats på teorier om utställningsmediet, former, designprinciper och gestaltlagar samt metoderna intervju, formalanalys och behavioral mapping.

  • 4534.
    Öström, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Building and experimentally evaluating a smart antenna for low power wireless communication2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless communication there is commonly much unnecessary communication made in directions not pointing towards the recipient. Normally omni directional antennas are being used which sends the same amount of energy in all directions equally. This waste of energy reduces the lifetime of battery powered units and causes more traffic collisions than necessary. One way of minimizing this wasted energy and traffic collisions, is to use another type of antenna called “smart antenna”. These antennas can use selectable radiation patterns depending on the situation and thus drastically minimize the unnecessary energy waste. Smart antennas also provide the ability to sense the direction of incoming signals which is favorable for physical layout mapping such as orientation.

    This thesis presents the prototyping of a new type of smart antenna called the SPIDA smart antenna. This antenna is a cheap to produce smart antenna designed for the 2.4 GHz frequency band. The SPIDA smart antenna can use sixty-four different signal patterns with the control of six separate directional modes, amongst these patterns are six single direction patterns, an omni-directional signal pattern and fifty-six combi-direction patterns. The thesis presents complete building instructions, evaluation data and functional drivers for the SPIDA smart antenna.

  • 4535.
    Öström, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    BUILDING AND EXPERIMENTALLYEVALUATING A SMART ANTENNA FOR LOWPOWER WIRELESS COMMUNICATION2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless communication there is commonly much unnecessarycommunication made in directions not pointing towards the recipient. Normallyomni directional antennas are being used which sends the same amount ofenergy in all directions equally. This waste of energy reduces the lifetime ofbattery powered units and causes more traffic collisions than necessary. Oneway of minimizing this wasted energy and traffic collisions, is to use anothertype of antenna called “smart antenna”. These antennas can use selectableradiation patterns depending on the situation and thus drastically minimize theunnecessary energy waste. Smart antennas also provide the ability to sense thedirection of incoming signals which is favorable for physical layout mappingsuch as orientation.This thesis presents the prototyping of a new type of smart antenna called theSPIDA smart antenna. This antenna is a cheap to produce smart antennadesigned for the 2.4 GHz frequency band. The SPIDA smart antenna can usesixty-four different signal patterns with the control of six separate directionalmodes, amongst these patterns are six single direction patterns, an omnidirectionalsignal pattern and fifty-six combi-direction patterns. The thesispresents complete building instructions, evaluation data and functional driversfor the SPIDA smart antenna.

  • 4536.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Quality of Test Design in Test Driven Development2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most emphasised software testing activities in an Agile environment is the usage of the Test Driven Development (TDD) approach. TDD is a development activity where test cases are created by developers before writing the code, and all for the purpose of guiding the actual development process. In other words, test cases created when following TDD could be considered as a by-product of software development. However, TDD is not fully adopted by the industry, as indicated by respondents from our industrial survey who pointed out that TDD is the most preferred but least practised activity.

    Our further research identified seven potentially limiting factors for industrial adoption of TDD, out of which one of the prominent factor was lack of developers’ testing skills. We subsequently defined and categorised appropriate quality attributes which describe the quality of test case design when following TDD. Through a number of empirical studies, we have clearly established the effect of “positive test bias”, where the participants focused mainly on the functionality while generating test cases. In other words, there existed less number of “negative test cases” exercising the system beyond the specified functionality, which is an important requirement for high reliability systems. On an average, in our studies, around 70% of test cases created by the participants were positive while only 30% were negative. However, when measuring defect detecting ability of those sets of test cases, an opposite ratio was observed. Defect detecting ability of negative test cases were above 70% while positive test cases contributed only by 30%.

    We propose a TDDHQ concept as an approach for achieving higher quality testing in TDD by using combinations of quality improvement aspects and test design techniques to facilitate consideration of unspecified requirements during the development to a higher extent and thus minimise the impact of potentially inherent positive test bias in TDD. This way developers do not necessarily focus only on verifying functionality, but they can as well increase security, robustness, performance and many other quality improvement aspects for the given software product. An additional empirical study, evaluating this method, showed a noticeable improvement in the quality of test cases created by developers utilising TDDHQ concept. Our research findings are expected to pave way for further enhancements to the way of performing TDD, eventually resulting in better adoption of it by the industry.

  • 4537.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Testing in Agile Development: Technological and Organisational Challenges2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging industrial trend towards agile software development processes brings forth new concerns, challenges as well as opportunities. One of the main concerns is with respect to the achievable quality levels of the final product, for which testing is the well-known assurance mechanism. However, it is not well defined for the community on how to perform testing using existing expertise in an agile environment. This uncertainty may create confusion and contra productivity that can lead to testing teams and their practices considered as an obstacle for full implementation of agile processes within an organisation.

     

    This thesis outlines our current research activities towards identifying and addressing important organisational and technical challenges in the agile environment.  In this context, we propose a new role for traditional testers which will enable them to integrate into the agile team as well as to fully exploit their knowledge in the new context. We have conducted an elaborate industrial survey on the preferences and practices with respect to the contemporary aspects of software testing and identified test-driven development as an important technical area for improvement.  A systematic review on empirical evidences related to test-driven development was performed subsequently, which revealed a list of factors limiting its widespread industrial acceptance. Knowledge of testing was identified as one of those factors and was further investigated in a controlled experiment performed with undergraduate students.

     

    Our future works aim to confirm these research findings in wider as well as industrial settings and investigate other limiting factors in detail, with the aim of providing guidelines for achieving better utilisation of testers and testing practices.

     

  • 4538.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Land, Rikard
    Maximatecc AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sellin, Ola
    Bombardier Transportation, Väserås, Sweden.
    Automated Regression Test Generation Using Record & Replay Approach: A Case Study on Train Control Management System2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations tend to limit their investment in test automation due to the lack of information on the actual tests reuse and when will automated tests really pay off. However, to perform efficient regression testing of software systems, it is expected from a development team to posses a certain level of test automation infrastructure in place, where at the minimum the test execution is scripted and automated. In this paper we are proposing the usage of record & replay approach to observe the functional usage of a component under test, while its being invoked as part of the whole system or only in a certain portion of it. Afterwords, executable tests are automatically derived, containing both test inputs and test verdict, allowing its later usage as part of a regression testing. With as minimal effort as one manual test execution, developers are provided with automated tests, minimizing any concerns on the investment in automation. A case study from Bombardier Transportation is provided showing how the proposed approach substantially reduced the test effort needed when performing regression testing of the train control management system for the Stockholm C30 metro train.

  • 4539.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Seceleanu, Cristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Distributed energy management case study: A formal approach to analyzing utility functions2014In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2014, 74-87 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service-oriented paradigm has been established to enable quicker development of new applications from already existing services. Service negotiation is a key technique to provide a way of deciding and choosing the most suitable service, out of possibly many services delivering similar functionality but having different response times, resource usages, prices, etc. In this paper, we present a formal approach to the clients-providers negotiation of distributed energy management. The models are described in our recently introduced REMES HDCL language, with timed automata semantics that allows us to apply UPPAALbased tools for model-checking various scenarios of service negotiation. Our target is to compute ways of reaching the price- and reliability-optimal values of the utility function, at the end of the service negotiation.

  • 4540.
    Čaušević, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Formal Approaches for Behavioral Modeling and Analysis of Design-time Services and Service Negotiations2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade service-orientation has become a popular design paradigm, offering an approach in which services are the functional building blocks. Services are self-contained units of composition, built to be invoked, composed, and destroyed on (user) demand. Service-oriented systems (SOS) are a collection of services that are developed based on several design principles such as: (i) loose coupling between services (e.g., inter-service communication can involve either simple data passing or two or more connected services coordinating some activity) that allows services to be independent, yet highly interoperable when required; (ii) service abstraction, which emphasizes the need to hide as many implementation details as possible, yet still exposing functional and extra-functional capabilities that can be offered to service users; (iii) service reusability provided by the existing services in a rapid and flexible development process; (iv) service composability as one of the main assets of SOS that provide a design platform for services to be composed and decomposed, etc. One of the main concerns in such systems is ensuring service quality per se, but also guaranteeing the quality of newly composed services. To accomplish the above, we consider two system perspectives: the developer's and the user's view, respectively. In the former, one can be assumed to have access to the internal service representation: functionality, enabled actions, resource usage, and interactions with other services. In the second, one has information primarily on the service interface and exposed capabilities (attributes/features). Means of checking that services and service compositions meet the expected requirements, the so-called correctness issue, can enable optimization and possibility to guarantee a satisfactory level of a service composition quality. In order to accomplish exhaustive correctness checks of design-time SOS, we employ model-checking as the main formal verification technique, which eventually provides necessary information about quality-of-service (QoS), already at early stages of system development. ~As opposed to the traditional approach of software system construction, in SOS the same service may be offered at various prices, QoS, and other conditions, depending on the user needs. In such a setting, the interaction between involved parties requires the negotiation of what is possible at request time, aiming at meeting needs on demand. The service negotiation process often proceeds with timing, price, and resource constraints, under which users and providers exchange information on their respective goals, until reaching a consensus. Hence, a mathematically driven technique to analyze a priori various ways to achieve such goals is beneficial for understanding what and how can particular goals be achieved.

    This thesis presents the research that we have been carrying out over the past few years, which resulted in developing methods and tools for the specification, modeling, and formal analysis of services and service compositions in SOS. The contributions of the thesis consist of: (i)constructs for the formal description of services and service compositions using the resource-aware timed behavioral language called REMES; (ii) deductive and algorithmic approaches for checking correctness of services and service compositions;(iii) a model of service negotiation that includes different negotiation strategies, formally analyzed against timing and resource constraints; (iv) a tool-chain (REMES SOS IDE) that provides an editor and verification support (by integration with the UPPAAL model-checker) to REMES-based service-oriented designs;(v) a relevant case-study by which we exercise the applicability of our framework.The presented work has also been applied on other smaller examples presented in the published papers.

  • 4541.
    Čaušević, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Formal Approaches to Service-oriented Design: From Behavioral Modeling to Service Analysis2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented systems (SOS) have recently emerged as context-independent component-based systems. In contrast to components, services can be created, invoked, composed and destroyed at run-time. Services are assumed to be platform independent and available for use within heterogeneous applications. One of the main assets in SOS is service composability. It allows the development of composite services with the main goal of reusable functionality provided by existing services in a low cost and rapid development process at run-time. However, in such distributed systems it becomes difficult to guarantee the quality of services (QoS), both in isolation, as well as of the newly created service compositions. Means of checking correctness of service composition can enable optimization w.r.t. the function and resource-usage of composed services, as well as provide a higher degree of QoS assurance of a service composition. To accomplish such goals, we employ model-checking technique for both single and composed services. The verification eventually provides necessaryinformation about QoS, already at early development stage.This thesis presents the research that we have been carrying out, on developing of methods and tools for specification, modeling, and formal analysis of services and service compositions in SOS. In this work, we first show how to formally check QoS in terms of performance and reliability for formallyspecified component-based systems (CBS). Next, we outline the commonalities and differences between SOS and CBS. Third, we develop constructs for the formal description of services using the resource-aware timed behavioral language called REMES, including development of language to support service compositions. At last, we show how to check service and service composition(functional, timing and resource-wise) correctness by employing the strongest post condition semantics. For less complex services and service compositions we choose to prove correctness using Hoare triples and the guarded command language. In case of complex services described as priced timed automata(PTA), we prove correctness via algorithmic computation of strongest post-condition of PTA.

  • 4542.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reuse of safety-relevant components that constitute the system is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying safety case artefacts that include the safety argument and the supporting evidence. The difficulties with reuse of the such artefacts within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of such artefacts.

    In this thesis we focus on developing the notion of safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. More specifically, we explore the following issues: in which way such contracts should be specified, how they can be derived, and in which way they can be utilised for reuse of safety artefacts. First, we characterise the contracts as either “strong” or “weak” to facilitate capturing different behaviours reusable components can exhibit in different systems. Then, we present methods for deriving safety contracts from failure analyses. As the basis of the safety-critical systems development lies in the failure analyses and identifying which malfunctions eventually can lead to accidents, we deem that the basis for specifying the safety contracts lies in capturing information identified by such failure analyses within the contracts. Finally, we provide methods for generative reuse of the safety case artefacts by utilising the safety contracts. Moreover, we define a safety contracts development process as guidance for systematic reuse based on the safety contracts. We use a real-world case to demonstrate the proposed process. 

  • 4543.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems2017In: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

  • 4544.
    Švogor, I.
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Vrček, N.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Multi-Criteria Software Component Allocation on a Heterogeneous Platform2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 2013, 2013, 341-346 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent development of heterogeneous platforms (i.e. those containing different types of computing units such as multicore CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs) has enabled significant improvements in perfo-rmance processing large amount of data in realtime. This possibility however is still not fully utilized due to a lack of methods for optimal configuration of software; the allocation of different software components to different computing unit types is crucial for getting the maximal utilization of the platform, but for more complex systems it is difficult to find ad-hoc a good enough or the best configuration. In this paper we present an approach to find a feasible and locally optimal solution for allocating software components to processing units in a heterogeneous platform.

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