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  • 301.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Linking product design to flexibility in an assembly system: A case study2017In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 28, no 5, 610-630 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The recent shift towards accommodating flexibility in manufacturing companies and the complexity resulting from product variety highlight the significance of flexible assembly systems and designing products for them. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design from the assembly system's standpoint. Design/methodology/approach - To fulfil the purpose of the paper, a literature review and a case study were performed. The case study was conducted with an interactive research approach in a global market leader company within the heavy vehicle manufacturing industry. Findings - The findings indicate that common assembly sequence, similar assembly interfaces, and common parts are the main requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design which reduce complexity and facilitate various flexibility dimensions. Accordingly, a model is proposed to broaden the understanding of these requirements from the assembly system's standpoint. Research limitations/implications - This study contributes to the overlapping research area of flexible assembly systems and product design. Practical implications - The proposed model is largely based on practical data and clarifies the role of product design in facilitating flexibility in an assembly system. It can be used by assembly managers, assembly engineers, and product designers. Originality/value - The key originality of this paper compared to the previous studies lies in presenting a novel assembly-oriented design model. The model enhances understanding of a flexible assembly system's requirements for product design with regard to reducing complexity and managing variation in a flexible assembly system. These requirements can be applied to product design across various product families within a company's product portfolio.

  • 302.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats R.
    Fundin, Anders P.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards Establishing Similar Assembly Interfaces for a Mixed-product Assembly System2016In: Procedia CIRP, 2016, 635-640 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a mixed-product assembly line (MPAL) is an elaborate task due to the complexity raised by product variety. This paper proposes that securing similar assembly interfaces across distinct product families is an essential requirement of MPALs which facilitates flexibility and reduces complexity. The concept of similar assembly interfaces has been developed and analysed in a case study at a heavy vehicle manufacturing company. The results suggest that assembly interfaces can be defined according to generic assembly operation steps: pick, place and attach. The paper highlights the need for development of a cross-functional methodology to analyse and establish similar assembly interfaces.

  • 303.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Schedin, Joel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Considering assembly requirement specifications in product development: identification and approach2014In: FAIM 2014 - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation, 2014, 969-976 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the major advantages such as reduced time to market and improved quality at lowered cost, the principles of design for assembly capabilities and concurrent engineering are of great significance when developing new products. However, identifying assembly requirement specifications and considering them in New Product Development (NPD) in a timely manner, while securing efficiency and robustness of assembly processes, still remains a challenging task. In presenting a case study of an NPD project in a manufacturing company, this article focuses on the process of capturing and incorporating the requirements related to the assembly system during the early phases of NPD. Further, the results of the research study indicate the different assembly requirements in the case company and pinpoint the challenges in practices involved in handling them. The assembly requirements identified in this research reflect some of the challenges encountered in handling the requirements, through the investigated requirement practice. Based on the results, the issues of when and how to consider the assembly requirements are highlighted in the conclusions and suggestions for future research are made.

  • 304.
    Asadi, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Enhancing the Monitoring of Real-Time Performance in Linux2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing trend in applying Linux operating system in the domain of embeddedsystems. This is due to the important features that Linux benets from, such as beingopen source, its light weight compared to other major operating systems, its adaptabilityto dierent platforms, and its more stable performance speed. However, there are up-grades that still need to be done in order to use Linux for real-time purposes. A numberof dierent approaches have been suggested in order to improve Linux's performance inreal-time environment. Nevertheless, proposing a correct-by-construction system is verydicult in real-time environment, mainly due to the complexity and unpredictability ofthem. Thus, run-time monitoring can be a helpful approach in order to provide the userwith data regarding to the actual timing behavior of the system which can be used foranalysis and modication of it. In this thesis work, a design for run-time monitoringis suggested and implemented on a real-time scheduler module that assists Linux withreal-time tasks. Besides providing crucial data regarding the timing performance of thesystem, this monitor predicts violations of timing requirements based on the currenttrace of the system performance.

  • 305. Asadi, Nima
    et al.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Run-Time Monitoring of Timing Constraints: A Survey of Methods and Tools2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the availability of static analysis methods to achieve a correct-by-construction design for different systems in terms of timing behavior, violations of timing constraints can still occur at run-time due to different reasons. The aim of monitoring of system performance with respect to the timing constraints is to detect the violations of timing specifications, or to predict them based on the current system performance data. Considerable work has been dedicated to suggesting efficient performance monitoring approaches during the past years. This paper presents a survey and classification of those approaches in order to help researchers gain a better view over different methods and developments in monitoring of timing behavior of systems. Classifications of the mentioned approaches are given based on different items that are seen as important in developing a monitoring system, i.e. the use of additional hardware, the data collection approach, etc. Moreover, a description of how these different methods work is presented in this paper along with the advantages and downsides of each of them.

  • 306.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending the FTT-SE Protocol for Multi-Master/Multi-Slave Networks2012Student thesis
  • 307.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Multi-Hop Real-Time Communication over Switched Ethernet Technology2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Switched Ethernet technology has been introduced to be exploited in real-time communication systems due to its features such as its high throughput and wide availability, hence being a cost-effective solution. Many real-time switched Ethernet protocols have been developed, preserving the profits of traditional Ethernet technology, to overcome the limitations imposed by using commercially available (COTS) switches. These limitations mainly originate from the non-deterministic behavior of the Ethernet switches inherent in the use of FIFO queues and a limited number of priority levels.

     

    In our research we focus on two particular real-time communication technologies, one based on COTS Ethernet switches named the FTT-SE architecture and the other using a modified Ethernet switch called the HaRTES architecture. Both architectures are based on a master-slave technique supporting different and temporally isolated traffic types including real-time periodic, real-time sporadic and non-real-time traffic. Also, they provide mechanisms implementing adaptivity as a response to the requirements imposed by dynamic real-time applications. Nevertheless, the two mentioned architectures were originally developed for a simple network consisting of a single switch, and they were lacking support for multi-hop communication. In industrial applications, multi-hop communication is essential as the networks comprise a high number of nodes, that is far beyond the capability of a single switch.

     

    In this thesis, we study the challenges of building multi-hop communication using the FTT-SE and the HaRTES architectures. We propose different architectures to provide multi-hop communication while preserving the key characteristics of the single-switch architecture such as timeliness guarantee, resource efficiency, adaptivity and dynamicity. We develop a response time analysis for each proposed architecture and we compare them to assess their corresponding benefits and limitations. Further, we develop a simulation tool to evaluate the solutions.

  • 308.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Real-Time Communication over Switched Ethernet with Resource Reservation2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the need for advanced computer-controlled functionality in distributed embedded systems the requirements on network communication are becoming overly intricate. This dissertation targets the requirements that are concerned with real-time guarantees, run-time adaptation, resource utilization and flexibility during the development. The Flexible Time-Triggered Switched Ethernet (FTT-SE) and Hard Real-Time Ethernet Switching (HaRTES) network architectures have emerged as two promising solutions that can cater for these requirements. However, these architectures do not support multi-hop communication as they are originally developed for single-switch networks. This dissertation presents a fundamental contribution in multi-hop real-time communication over the FTT-SE and HaRTES architectures targeting the above mentioned requirements. It proposes and evaluates various solutions for scheduling and forwarding the traffic through multiple switches in these architectures. These solutions preserve the ability of dynamic adaptation without jeopardizing real-time properties of the architectures. Moreover, the dissertation presents schedulability analyses for the timeliness verification and evaluation of the proposed solutions as well as several protocols to support run-time adaptation in the multi-hop communication. Finally, the work led to an end-to-end resource reservation framework, based on the proposed multi-hop architectures, to support flexibility during the development of the systems. The efficiency of the proposed solutions is evaluated on various case studies that are inspired from industrial systems.

  • 309.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MTU Assignment in a Master-Slave Switched Ethernet Network2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of selecting the Maximal Transmission Unit (MTU) size that maximizes the schedulability of real-time messages. We focus on a bandwidth-efficient master-slave switched Ethernet protocol, namely the FTT-SE protocol. We propose an algorithm to find the MTU for each message in order to maximize the schedulability of the messages. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed algorithm and we show that setting the MTU for messages using the algorithm increases the schedulability of messages compared with assigning the MTU to the maximum value that the protocol can support.

  • 310.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MTU Configuration for Real-Time Switched Ethernet Networks2016In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 70, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show that in real-time switched Ethernet networks reducing the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size may cause an increase or decrease in the response time of messages. This contradicting behavior arises an optimization problem for configuring the MTU size. We formulate the optimization problem in the context of the multi-hop HaRTES architecture, which is a hard real-time Ethernet protocol. As part of the solution, we propose a search-based algorithm to achieve optimum solutions. We modify the algorithm by presenting two techniques to reduce the search space. Then, we propose a heuristic algorithm with a pseudo-polynomial time complexity based on the search-based algorithm. We perform several experiments, and we show that the proposed heuristic results in an improvement regarding messages response times, compared with configuring the MTU to the maximum or minimum values. Moreover, we show in small network configurations that the heuristic performs as good as the search-based algorithm in many cases.

  • 311.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Analysis of Master-Slave Multi-Hop Switched Ethernet Networks2013In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2013, 2013, 280-289 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing trend towards using switched Ethernet in real-time distributed systems due to features like absence of collisions and high throughput. Nevertheless, a few problems persist, in particular related to priority inversion and limited length in queues. In this paper we focus on a protocol which uses a master-slave technique over standard switched Ethernet in order to overcome such problems, namely FTT-SE protocol. We present an improved response time analysis for such a network and we compare, analytically and with simulations, the results achieved with Network Calculus on a worst-case scenario. We show that our proposed response time analysis gives tighter bounds compared to Network Calculus. Moreover, we compare the performance of different solutions to scale the FTT-SE protocol with respect to the bandwidth utilization. Finally, we propose a new architecture to improve the average performance of master-slave switched Ethernet networks.

  • 312.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    SEtSim: A modular simulation tool for switched Ethernet networks2016In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 65, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using high bandwidth network technologies in real-time applications, for example in automotive systems, is rapidly increasing. In this context, switched Ethernet-based protocols are becoming more popular due to their features such as providing a collision-free domain for transmission of messages. Moreover, switched Ethernet is a mature technology. Several protocols based on switched Ethernet have been proposed over the years, tuned for time critical applications. However, research for improving the features and performance of these protocols is still on-going. In order to evaluate the performance of early stage proposed protocols, the mathematical analysis and/or experiments are required. However, performing an experiment for complex network topologies with a large set of messages is not effortless. Therefore, using a simulation based approach for evaluating a protocol's performance and/or properties is highly useful. As a response to this we have developed a simulator, called SEtSim, for switched Ethernet networks. SEtSim is developed based on Simulink, and it currently supports different network topologies of the FIT-SE protocol as well as Ethernet AVB protocol. However, the kernel of SEtSim is designed such that it is possible to add and integrate other switched Ethernet-based protocols. In this paper, we describe the design of SEtSim and we show its scalability.

  • 313.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    SEtSim: A Modular Simulation Tool for Switched Ethernet Networks2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using high bandwidth network technologies in real-time applications, for example in automotive systems, is rapidly increasing. In this context, switched Ethernet-based protocols are becoming more popular due to their features such as providing a collision-free domain for transmission of messages. Moreover, switched Ethernet is a mature technology. Several protocols based on switched Ethernet have been proposed over the years, tuned for time critical applications. However, research for improving the features and performance of these protocols is still on-going. In order to evaluate the performance of early stage proposed protocols, the mathematical analysis and/or experiments are required. However, performing an experiment for complex network topologies with a large set of messages is not effortless. Therefore, using a simulation based approach for evaluating a protocol's performance and/or properties is highly useful. As a response to this we have, based on Simulink, developed a simulator, called SEtSim, for switched Ethernet networks. SEtSim currently supports different network topologies of the FTT-SE protocol, a master-slave protocol designed for standard Ethernet switches, as well as Ethernet AVB protocol. However, the kernel of SEtSim is designed such that it is possible to add and integrate other switched Ethernet-based protocols. In this paper, we describe the design of SEtSim and we show its scalability.

  • 314.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Design and Implementation of a Simulator for Switched Ethernet Networks2012In: 3rd International Workshop on Analysis Tools andMethodologies for Embeddedand Real-time Systems / [ed] Tommaso Cucinotta and Giuseppe Lipari, 2012, 57-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Switched Ethernet, the Flexible Time-Triggered Switched Ethernet protocol (FTT-SE) was proposed to overcome the limitations and related problems of using COTS switches in real-time networks, such as overflow of switch queues due to uncontrolled arrival of packets. Although the FTT-SE protocol has been validated by several experiments on real applications, evaluation of different architectures as well as evaluation of large scale networks is not straightforward. Therefore, a simulator to evaluate different network architectures based on the FTT-SE protocol is useful. In this paper we present such a simulator. We address the extended FTT-SE protocol using multiple switches and we present a modular simulator based on Simulink/Matlab to visualize message transmissions and to evaluate end-to-end delay bounds of messages.

  • 315.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto.
    Marau, Ricardo
    University of Porto.
    A Compact Approach to Clustered Master-Slave Ethernet Networks2012In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2012, 157-160 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet switches are increasingly used in real-time distributed systems as a technical solution to guarantee the timeliness in communications. However, there are still limitations related to real-time behavior caused by the limited number of priority levels and the possibility of memory overruns with consequent message losses. These limitations can be eliminated using a master/slave technique such as proposed by the FTT paradigm. This led to the FTT-SE protocol that schedules transmissions centrally in a master node. While this protocol has already been well studied and investigated for small networks with a single switch, its extension to larger networks is still an open issue. In this paper we propose a compact clustered solution to scale the FTT-SE protocol to networks of multiple switches by organizing the network in sub-networks composed of one master and one switch each and which can be connected directly, without bridges. This paper also shows how the timeliness of the traffic can still be enforced. The validation is currently on-going.

  • 316.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reduced Buffering Solution for Multi-Hop HaRTES Switched Ethernet Networks2014In: The 20th IEEE International Conference on embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'14, 2014, Article number 6910504- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of switched Ethernet networks, multi-hop communication is essential as the networks in industrial applications comprise a high amount of nodes, that is far beyond the capability of a single switch. In this paper, we focus on multi-hop communication using HaRTES switches. The HaRTES switch is a modified Ethernet switch that provides real-time traffic scheduling, dynamic Quality-of-Service and temporal isolation between real-time and non-real-time traffic. Herein, we propose a method, called Reduced Buffering Scheme, to conduct the traffic through multiple HaRTES switches in a multi-hop HaRTES architecture. In order to enable the new scheduling method we propose to modify the HaRTES switch structure. Moreover, we develop a response time analysis for the new method. We also compare the proposed method with a method previously proposed, called Distributed Global Scheduling, based on their traffic response times. We show that, the new method forwards all types of traffic including the highest, the medium and the lowest priority, faster than the previous method in most of the cases. Furthermore, we show that the new method performs even better for larger networks compared with the previous one.

  • 317.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementing a Clock Synchronization Protocol on a Multi-Master Switched Ethernet Network2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest to use Switched Ethernet technologies in real-time communication is increasing due to its absence of collisions when transmitting messages. Nevertheless, using COTS switches affect the timeliness guarantee inherent in potentially overflowing internal FIFO queues. In this paper we focus on a solution, called the FTT-SE protocol, which is developed based on a master-slave technique. Recently, an extension of the FTT-SE protocol has been proposed where the transmission of messages are controlled using multiple master nodes. In order to guarantee the correctness of the protocol, the masters should be timely synchronized. Therefore, in this paper we investigate using a clock synchronization protocol, based on the IEEE 1588 standard, among master nodes and we study the effects of this protocol on the network performance. In addition, we present a formal verification of this solution by means of model checking to prove the correctness of the FTT-SE protocol when the clock synchronization protocol is applied.

  • 318.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Du, Yong
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dynamic reconfiguration in HaRTES switched ethernet networks2016In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, Article number 7496510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of reconfiguring a system during runtime is essential for dynamic real-time applications in which resource usage is traded online for quality of service. The HaRTES switch, which is a modified Ethernet switch, holds this ability for the network resource, and at the same time it provides hard real-time support for both periodic and sporadic traffic. Although the HaRTES switch technologically caters this ability, a protocol to actually perform the dynamic reconfiguration is missing in multi-hop HaRTES networks. In this paper we introduce such a protocol that is compatible with the traffic scheduling method used in the architecture. We prove the correctness of the protocol using a model checking technique. Moreover, we conduct a set of simulation experiments to show the performance of the protocol and we also show that the reconfiguration process is terminated within a bounded time. 

  • 319.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Designing End-to-end Resource Reservations in Predictable Distributed Embedded SystemsIn: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Liu, Meng
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mifdaoui, A.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Worst-case delay analysis of master-slave switched ethernet networks2012In: Proceeings of the 2nd International Workshop on Worst-Case Traversal Time: Proceeding, 2012, 15-21 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switched Ethernet is increasingly used in real-time communication due to its intrinsic features such as micro segmentation and high throughput. However, COTS switches may impose long blocking times due to their FIFO queues and can also experience buffer overflow in outgoing queues due to uncontrolled packets arrival. The FTT-SE protocol uses a Master-Slave technique to overcome the COTS switch limitations in real-time applications. Recently, we extended the protocol for large scale networks and in this paper we present the worst-case delay analysis using the Network Calculus formalism for such a network. Moreover, we assess the end-to-end delay of traffic with simulation concluding that the obtained analytical results present a good match with the observed delays, providing uppers bounds that vary between 0% and 50% above the maximum measured values. © 2012 ACM.

  • 321.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    End-to-end Resource Reservations in Distributed Embedded Systems2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2016, 2016, 1-11 p., 7579921Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource reservation techniques provide effective means to lower the software complexity, ensure predictability and allow flexibility during the development and execution of complex distributed embedded systems. In this paper we propose a new end-to-end resource reservation model for distributed embedded systems. The model is comprehensive in such a way that it supports end-to-end resource reservations on distributed transactions with various activation patterns that are commonly used in industrial control systems. The model allows resource reservations on processors and real-time network protocols. We also present timing analysis for the distributed embedded systems that are developed using the proposed model. The timing analysis computes the end-to-end response times as well as delays such as data age and reaction delays. The presented analysis also supports real-time networks that can autonomously initiate transmissions. Such networks are not supported by the existing analyses. We also include a case study to show the usability of the model and end-to-end timing analysis with resource reservations.

  • 322.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    End-to-end Resource Reservation Model2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Patti, Gaetano
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Alderisi, Giuliana
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Schedulability Analysis of Ethernet Audio Video Bridging Networks with Scheduled Traffic Support2017In: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 53, no 4, 526-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB) technology is nowadays under consideration in several automation domains, such as, automotive, avionics, and industrial communications. AVB offers several benefits, such as open specifications, the existence of multiple providers of electronic components, and the real-time support, as AVB provides bounded latency to real-time traffic classes. In addition to the above mentioned properties, in the automotive domain, comparing with the existing in-vehicle networks, AVB offers significant advantages in terms of high bandwidth, significant reduction of cabling costs, thickness and weight, while meeting the challenging EMC/EMI requirements. Recently, an improvement of the AVB protocol, called the AVB ST, was proposed in the literature, which allows for supporting scheduled traffic, i.e., a class of time-sensitive traffic that requires time-driven transmission and low latency. In this paper, we present a schedulability analysis for the real-time traffic crossing through the AVB ST network. In addition, we formally prove that, if the bandwidth in the network is allocated according to the AVB standard, the schedulability test based on response time analysis will fail for most cases even if, in reality, these cases are schedulable. In order to provide guarantees based on analysis test a bandwidth over-reservation is required. In this paper, we propose a solution to obtain a minimized bandwidth over-reservation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to formally spot the limitation and to propose a solution for overcoming it. The proposed analysis is applied to both the AVB standard and the AVB ST. The analysis results are compared with the results of several simulative assessments, obtained using OMNeT++, on both automotive and industrial case studies. The comparison between the results of the analysis and the simulation ones shows the effectiveness of the analysis proposed in this work.

  • 324.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, P.
    University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluation of dynamic reconfiguration architecture in multi-hop switched ethernet networks2014In: 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2014, 2014, Article number 7005322- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-the-fly adaptability and reconfigurability are recently becoming an interest in real-time communications. To assure a continued real-time behavior, the admission control with a quality-of-service mechanism is required, that screen all adaptation and reconfiguration requests. In the context of switched Ethernet networks, the FTT-SE protocol provides adaptive real-time communication. Recently, we proposed two methods to perform the online reconfiguration in multi-hop FTT-SE architectures. However, the methods lack the experimental evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate both methods in terms of the reconfiguration time. 

  • 325.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, P.
    DETI/IT, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands .
    Almeida, L.
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e), Netherlands .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Response time analysis of multi-hop HaRTES Ethernet Switch networks2014In: IEEE Int. Workshop Factory Commun. Syst. Proc. WFCS, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on micro-segmented switched-Ethernet networks with HaRTES switches. HaRTES switches provide synchronous and asynchronous real-time traffic scheduling, dynamic Quality-of-Service adaptation and transparent integration of real-time and non-real-time nodes. Herein we investigate the challenges of connecting multiple HaRTES switches in order to build multi-hop communication and we propose a method, named Distributed Global Scheduling, to handle the traffic forwarding in such an architecture while preserving the unique properties of the single HaRTES switch case. Moreover, we develop a response time analysis for the method. We also evaluate the level of pessimism embodied in the anal-ysis. Finally, we show the applicability of the proposed method in an industrial setting by applying it in an automotive case study.

  • 326.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dynamic Reconfiguration in Multi-Hop Switched Ethernet Networks2014In: ACM SIGBED Review. Special Issue on 6th Workshop on Adaptive and Reconfigurable Embedded Systems (APRES 2014), ISSN 1551-3688, Vol. 11, no 3, 62-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The FTT-SE protocol provides adaptive real-time communication on Ethernet networks. To assure a continued real-time behavior, FTT-SE integrates admission control with a quality-of-service mechanism, which screen all adaptation and reconfiguration requests, accepting only those that do not compromise the system timeliness. The adaptability and reconfigurability have been deeply studied in the case of single switch FTT-SE architectures, whereas the extension of that for the multi-hop FTT-SE architecture was not yet investigated. Therefore, in this paper we study the challenges of enabling dynamic reconfiguration in multi-hop FTT-SE networks, we propose two methods (one centralized and one distributed) and we present a qualitative comparison between them.

  • 327.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Supporting Multi-Hop Communications with HaRTES Ethernet Switches2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we identify the challenges of multi-hop communication when using a micro-segmented switched-Ethernet protocol with enhanced HaRTES switches. The HaRTES architecture has been explored in the scope of single-switch topology, and provides dynamic virtual channels that can be composed hierarchically and provide bounded latency together with temporal isolation. Herein we propose two different solutions regarding the traffic forwarding in multi-switch architectures, while maintaining the unique properties of the single HaRTES switch case. In the first approach, the traffic is buffered and scheduled sequentially in each hop. In the second solution the traffic is scheduled once and forwarded immediately through multiple switches without buffering. In this paper we present a brief comparison of both approaches and we report on the on-going work towards effective support to real-time communications in dynamic and complex Cyber-Physical Systems.

  • 328.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. MRTC Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Silva, Luis
    DETI IT Univ Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. MRTC Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    DETI IT Univ Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Tech Univ Eindhoven TU E, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. MRTC Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden.;IT DEEC Univ Porto, Oporto, Portugal..
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. MRTC Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Improved Message Forwarding for Multi-Hop HaRTES Real-Time Ethernet Networks2016In: Journal of Signal Processing Systems, ISSN 1939-8018, E-ISSN 1939-8115, Vol. 84, no 1, 47-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, switched Ethernet networks are used in complex systems that encompass tens to hundreds of nodes and thousands of signals. Such scenarios require multi-switch architectures where communications frequently occur in multiple hops. In this paper we investigate techniques to allow efficient multi-hop communication using HaRTES switches. These are modified Ethernet switches that provide real-time traffic scheduling, dynamic bandwidth management and temporal isolation between real-time and non-real-time traffic. This paper addresses the problem of forwarding traffic in HaRTES networks. Two methods have been recently proposed, namely Distributed Global Scheduling (DGS) that buffers traffic between switches, and Reduced Buffering Scheme (RBS), that uses immediate forwarding. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of RBS within HaRTES and we carry out an experimental validation with a prototype implementation. Then, we carry out a comparison between RBS and DGS using worst-case response time analysis and simulation. The comparison clearly establishes the superiority of RBS concerning end-to-end response times. In fact, with sample message sets, we achieved reductions in end-to-end delay that were as high as 80 %.

  • 329.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending FTT-SE protocol for Multi-Master/Multi-Slave Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet Switches are widely used in real-time distributed systems as a solution to guarantee the real-time behavior in communication. In this solution there are still some limitations which are the important obstacles obtaining timeliness in the network. These limitations are the limited number of priority levels as well as the possibility of memory overruns with consequent messages. The mentioned limitations can be eliminated using a master/slave technique along with FTT paradigm. The FTT-SE protocol which is a technique based on the master/slave and FTT methods was proposed to overcome the mentioned limitations. However, the FTT-SE protocol has been investigated for a small network architecture with a single switch and master node. Extension of this solution to larger networks is still an open issue. Three different architectures were suggested to scale the FTT-SE to large scale network. In this thesis we propose a solution that extends the FTT-SEprotocol while keeping the real-time behavior of the network. In this solution, we divided the network into a set of sub-networks, each contains one switch, set of slave nodes and one master node that connected to the associated switch in the network. Moreover, the switches are connected together directly without gateways and form a tree topology network. The solution includes both synchronous and asynchronous traffic in the network. We also show that the timeliness of the traffic can still be enforced. Moreover, to validate the solution we have designed and implemented a simulator based on the Matlab/Simulink which is a tool to evaluate different network architecture using Simulink blocks. All transmission can be visualized by the ordinary Scope block in the Simulink. Moreover, the end-to-end delay for all messages is calculated after the simulation running to show the response time of the network. Furthermore, the response time analysis is done for both synchronous and asynchronous messages in this thesis according to the proposed solution. The results from simulation and the analysis are compared together to validate the investigations.

  • 330.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Enhancing Smart Maintenance Management Using Fog Computing Technology2017In: 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management IEEM, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Modeling and Timing Analysis of Vehicle Functions Distributed over Switched Ethernet2017In: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an approach to model switched Ethernet communication within a model- and component-based software development framework for vehicular distributed embedded systems. The paper also presents a method to extract the network timing model from the systems that use switched Ethernet networks. In order to provide a proof of concept, an existing industrial component model and its tool suite, namely RCM and Rubus-ICE respectively, are extended by implementing the modeling technique, the timing model extraction method and response-time analysis of the Ethernet AVB protocol. The extensions to RCM are backward compatible with the modeling and end-to-end timing analysis of traditional in-vehicle networks and legacy (previously developed) vehicular distributed embedded systems. Furthermore, the paper discusses the implementation and test strategy used in this work. Finally, the usability of the modeling approach and implemented timing analysis is demonstrated by modeling and time analyzing a vehicular application case study with the extended component model and tool suite.

  • 332.
    Ask, A
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Flexible and Mobile Production – Demonstrator for Small Series Production Modules2006In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Tools and Methods for Competitive Engineering, TMCE, 18-22nd of April 2006, Ljubljana, Slovenia / [ed] Duhovnik, J., Horváth, I, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Ask, Andréas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Factory-in-a-Box: An Enabler to Realize Mass Customization2006In: Proceedings of the international conference on agile manufacturing, ICAM 2006, 2006, 44-54 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Ask, P.
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, K.
    ?.
    Hult, P.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pettersson, N. -E
    Örebro County Council, Sweden.
    NovaMedTech - A regional program for supporting new medical technologies in personalized health care2012In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2012, 71-75 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NovaMedTech is an initiative funded from EU structural funds for supporting new medical technologies for personalized health care. It aims at bringing these technologies into clinical use and to the health care market. The program has participants from health care, industry and academia in East middle Sweden. The first three year period of the program was successful in terms of product concepts tried clinically, and number of products brought to a commercialization phase. Further, the program has led to a large number of scientific publications. Among projects supported, we can mention: Intelligent sensor networks; A digital pen to collect medical information about health status from patients; A web-based intelligent stethoscope; Methodologies to measure local blood flow and nutrition using optical techniques; Blood flow assessment from ankle pressure measurements; Technologies for pressure ulcer prevention; An IR thermometer for improved accuracy; A technique that identifies individuals prone to commit suicide among depressed patients; Detection of infectious disease using an electronic nose; Identification of the lactate threshold from breath; Obesity measurements using special software and MR camera; and An optical probe guided tumor resection. During the present three years period emphasis will be on entrepreneurial activities supporting the commercialization and bringing products to the market.

  • 335. Ask, Per
    et al.
    Ekstrand, Kristina
    Hult, Peter
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Nils-Erik
    A regional program for supporting new medical technologies in personalized health care2012In: PHealth 2012, 2012, 71-75 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hult, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pettersson, Nils-Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ekstrand, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    NovaMedTechs satsning pa medicinsk teknik for individualiserad vard2011In: Svenska Lakaresallskapets riksstamma 2011, 30 Nov-2 Dec, Stockholm, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Askri, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of material- & tied-up capital flow in Inbound2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is performed on behalf of Volvo Group Trucks Operations Logistics Services in Eskilstuna, which is also the final part of the Master in Engineering program – Innovation, production and logistics at Mälardalen University.

    Logistics Services central warehouse in Eskilstuna ensures that parts are available all over the world, material is transported to the production facilities, packaging is available and vehicles are distributed to the dealers. The current need is to reduce costs and improve the production process at the Inbound department. The aim of this project has been to analyze the current flow of materials and tied-up capital in the inbound flow and give improvement suggestions on reducing lead times and the tied-up capital, as well as give suggestions on common performance metrics for all the sub departments at Inbound.

    The report is based on theoretical and empirical study, where the theory concerns the topics; logistics, lean philosophy and supply chain management. The empirical study was carried out by data collection through time measurements in the plant and by BEAT-report, observations and discussions with the operators, and interviews with production managers and process developers. The collected data was analyzed and the products in the flow were divided into groups, where the inbound material flow was mapped by the VSM tool. Product groups were analyzed by amount of received material reports, quantity, value and lead time, and the product groups that tied the highest value were defined as well as where in the flow the value was located. For each sub department calculations on production capacity and utilization were performed to analyze the current state and be able to compare the departments with each other. The interviews contributed with knowledge to create a reliable and valid SWOT analysis for each sub department at Inbound, where common factors could be defined concerning deviations, performance metrics and other hidden problems, but also opportunities.

    Finally, in this report the current state in the Inbound department has been analyzed. Products have been categorized into groups and the materials flow mapped. It has been defined where in the flow and how much value that is tied up, and by which product groups. Hidden problems and deviations have been brought up to surface. Improvement suggestions have been given concerning decreasing of lead times and the tied up value, and also suggestions on common performance metrics for all the sub departments have been given.

  • 338.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bringing Visibility in the Clouds: using Security, Transparency and Assurance Services2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cloud computing allows the provisioning of IT resources over the Internet and promises many benefits for both - the service users and providers. Despite various benefits offered by cloud based services, many users hesitate in moving their IT systems to the cloud mainly due to many new security problems introduced by cloud environments. In fact, the characteristics of cloud computing become basis of new problems, for example, support of third party hosting introduces loss of user control on the hardware; similarly, on-demand availability requires reliance on complex and possibly insecure API interfaces; seamless scalability relies on the use of sub-providers; global access over public Internet exposes to broader attack surface; and use of shared resources for better resource utilization introduces isolation problems in a multi-tenant environment. These new security issues in addition to existing security challenges (that exist in today's classic IT environments) become major reasons for the lack of user trust in cloud based services categorized in Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) or Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS).

    The focus of this thesis is on IaaS model which allows users to lease IT resources (e.g. computing power, memory, storage, etc.) from a public cloud to create Virtual Machine (VM) instances. The public cloud deployment model considered in this thesis exhibits most elasticity (i.e. degree of freedom to lease/release IT resources according to user demand) but is least secure as compared to private or hybrid models. As a result, public clouds are not trusted for many use cases which involve processing of security critical data such as health records, financial data, government data, etc. However, public IaaS clouds can also be made trustworthy and viable for these use cases by providing better transparency and security assurance services for the user. In this thesis, we consider such assurance services and identify security aspects which are important for making public clouds trustworthy. Based upon our findings, we propose solutions which promise to improve cloud transparency thereby realizing trustworthy clouds.

    The solutions presented in this thesis mainly deal with the secure life cycle management of the user VM which include protocols and their implementation for secure VM launch and migration. The VM launch and migration solutions ensure that the user VM is always hosted on correct cloud platforms which are setup according to a profile that fulfills the use case relevant security requirements. This is done by using an automated platform security audit and certification mechanism which uses trusted computing and security automation techniques in an integrated solution. In addition to provide the assurance about the cloud platforms, we also propose a solution which provides assurance about the placement of user data in correct and approved geographical locations which is critical from many legal aspects and usually an important requirement of the user. Finally, the assurance solutions provided in this thesis increase cloud transparency which is important for user trust and to realize trustworthy clouds.

  • 339.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Secure Service Provisioning in a Public Cloud2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cloud technologies which allows the provisioning of IT resources over the Internet promises many benefits for the individuals and enterprises alike. However, this new resource provisioning model comes with the security challenges which did not exist in the traditional resource procurement mechanisms. We focus on the possible security concerns of a cloud user (e.g. an organization, government department, etc.) to lease cloud services such as resources in the form of Virtual Machines (VM) from a public Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider. There are many security critical areas in the cloud systems, such as data confidentiality, resource integrity, service compliance, security audits etc. In this thesis, we focus on the security aspects which result in the trust deficit among the cloud stakeholders and hence hinder a security sensitive user to benefit from the opportunities offered by the cloud computing. Based upon our findings from the security requirements analysis,we propose solutions that enable user trust in the public IaaS clouds. Our solutions mainly deal with the secure life cycle management of the user VM which include mechanisms for VM launch and migration. The VM launch and migration solutions ensure that the user VM is always protected in the cloud by only allowing it to run on the user trusted platforms. This is done by using trusted computing techniques that allow the users to remotely attest and hence rate the cloud platforms trusted or untrusted. We also provide a prototype implementation to prove the implementation feasibility of the proposed trust enabling principles used in the VM launch and migration solutions.

  • 340.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Deploying Virtual Machines on Shared Platforms2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we describe mechanisms for secure deployment of virtual machines on shared platforms looking into a telecommunication cloud use case, which is also presented in this report. The architecture we present focuses on the security requirements of the major stakeholders’ part of the scenario we present. This report comprehensively covers all major security aspects including different security mechanisms and protocols, leveraging existing standards and state-of-the art wherever applicable. In particular, our architecture uses TCG technologies for trust establishment in the deployment of operator virtual machines on shared resource platforms. We also propose a novel procedure for securely launching and cryptographically binding a virtual machine to a target platform thereby protecting the operator virtual machine and its related credentials.

  • 341.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    TCG Based Approach for Secure Management of Virtualized Platforms: state-of-the-art2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong trend shift in the favor of adopting virtualization to get business benefits. The provisioning of virtualized enterprise resources is one kind of many possible scenarios. Where virtualization promises clear advantages it also poses new security challenges which need to be addressed to gain stakeholders confidence in the dynamics of new environment. One important facet of these challenges is establishing 'Trust' which is a basic primitive for any viable business model. The Trusted computing group (TCG) offers technologies and mechanisms required to establish this trust in the target platforms. Moreover, TCG technologies enable protecting of sensitive data in rest and transit. This report explores the applicability of relevant TCG concepts to virtualize enterprise resources securely for provisioning, establish trust in the target platforms and securely manage these virtualized Trusted Platforms.

  • 342.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    ASArP: Automated Security Assessment & Audit of Remote Platforms: using TCG-SCAP synergies2015In: Journal of Internet Services and Applications JISA-14, ISSN 1869-0238, Vol. 22, 28-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many enterprise solutions today are built upon complex distributed systems which are accessible to the users globally. Due to this global access, the security of the host platforms becomes critical. The platform administrators use security automation techniques such as those provided by Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) standards to protect the systems from the vulnerabilities that are reported daily; furthermore, they are responsible for keeping their systems compliant to the relevant security recommendations (governmental or industrial). Additionally, third party audit and certification processes are used to increase user trust in enterprise solutions. However, traditional audit and certification mechanisms are not continuous, that is, not frequent enough to deal with the daily reported vulnerabilities, and for that matter even auditors expect platform administrators to keep the systems updated. As a result, the end user is also forced to trust the platform administrators about the latest state of the platform. In this paper we develop an automated security audit and certification system (ASArP) which can be used by platform users or by third party auditors. We use security automation techniques for continuous monitoring of the platform security posture and make the results trustworthy by using trusted computing (TCG) techniques. The prototype development of ASArP validates the implementation feasibility; it also provides performance benchmarks which show that the ASArP based audit and certification can be done much more frequently (e.g. daily or weekly). The feasibility of ASArP based continuous audits is significantly better than traditional platform audits which are dependent on the physical presence of the auditors, thus making frequent audits much more expensive and operationally infeasible.

  • 343.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Continuous Security Evaluation and Auditing of Remote Platforms by Combining Trusted Computing and Security Automation Techniques2013In: SIN 2013 - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks, 2013, 136-143 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many new distributed systems paradigms such a cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), electronic banking, etc. the security of the host platforms is very critical which is managed by the platform owner. The platform administrators use security automation techniques such as those provided by Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) standards to ensure that the outsourced platforms are set up correctly and follow the security recommendations (governmental or industry). However, the remote platform users still have to trust the platform administrators. The third party security audits, used to shift the required user trust from the platform owner to a trusted entity, are scheduled and are not very frequent to deal with the daily reported vulnerabilities which can be exploited by the attackers. In this paper we propose a remote platform evaluation mechanism which can be used by the remote platform users themselves, or by the auditors to perform frequent platform security audits for the platform users. We analyze the existing SCAP and trusted computing (TCG) standards for our solution, identify their shortcomings, and suggest ways to integrate them. Our proposed platform security evaluation framework uses the synergy of TCG and SCAP to address the limitations of each technology when used separately

  • 344.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Security and Trust Preserving VM Migrations in Public Clouds2012In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference onTrust, Security and Privacy in Computingand Communications (TrustCom-2012), IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2012, 869-876 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the security and trustimplications of virtual machine (VM) migration from one cloudplatform to the other in an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud service model. We show how to extend and complement previous Trusted Computing techniques for secure VM launchto also cover the VM migration case. In particular, we propose a Trust_Token based VM migration protocol which guarantees that the user VM can only be migrated to a trustworthy cloud platform. Different from previous schemes, our solution is not dependent on an active (on-line) trusted third party. We show how our proposed mechanisms fulfill major security and trust requirements for secure VM migration in cloud environments.

  • 345.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista.
    Rasmusson, Lars
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Securely Launching Virtual Machines on Trustworthy Platforms in a Public Cloud2012In: CLOSER 2012 - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science, 2012, 511-521 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud model which allows cloud users to run their own virtual machines (VMs) on available cloud computing resources. IaaS gives enterprises the possibility to outsource their process workloads with minimal effort and expense. However, one major problem with existing approaches of cloud leasing, is that the users can only get contractual guarantees regarding the integrity of the offered platforms. The fact that the IaaS user himself or herself cannot verify the provider promised cloud platform integrity, is a security risk which threatens to prevent the IaaS business in general. In this paper we address this issue and propose a novel secure VM launch protocol using Trusted Computing techniques. This protocol allows the cloud IaaS users to securely bind the VM to a trusted computer configuration such that the clear text VM only will run on a platform that has been booted into a trustworthy state. This capability builds user confidence and can serve as an important enabler for creating trust in public clouds. We evaluate the feasibility of our proposed protocol via a full scale system implementation and perform a system security analysis.

  • 346.
    Asp, Josefin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Goldkuhl, Mathias
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Industriellt innovationsfrämjande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur företag inom industrin arbetar med innovationskraft och intraprenörskap från produktionspersonal i den operativa kärnan i samband med företagsstrukturen. Genom studien skall förbättringsområden för innovationsfrämjande inom intervjuade företag läggas fram.

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer användes. Totalt 6 personer deltog i tre intervjuer på större industriföretag.

    Slutsats: Vi har sett en stor möjlighet att öka innovationskraften i de företag som samarbetats med. Detta genom att involvera all personal till att aktivt stimulera idéskapande och ge tid och positiv uppmärksamhet för innovationsarbete. Författarna har sett att det ständigt kommer många små förbättringsförslag från personal som jobbar nära produktionsprocessen då de ges möjlighet. Större företag behöver kontroll och detta kan skapa en motsträvighet att avsätta tid för innovationsarbete då det är osäkert vad resultaten kan bli. Ofta införs tidskrävande kontroller vilket ökar kostnader för innovationsarbete. För att minska kostnad och tid för förändringsarbete behövs en miljö som tillåter idéer och är decentraliserade där personalen har mandat att välja ut idéer och implementera dessa. För att göra detta krävs att personalen har den kunskap som behövs för att göra en förbättring utan negativa konsekvenser

  • 347.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johnson, B.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Burns, Alan
    Session Summary: The Ravenscar Profile and Implementation Issues1999In: ACM SIGAda Ada Letters, Vol. XIX, no 2, 12-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Safety Critical Systems Based on Formal Models2000In: ACM SIGAda Letters, ISSN 1094-3641, Vol. XX, no 4, 32-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ravenscar profile for high integrity systems using Ada 95 is well defined in all real-time aspects. The complexity of the run-time system has been reduced to allow full utilization of formal methods for applications using the Ravenscar profile. In the Mana project a tool set is being developed including a formal model of a Ravenscar compliant run-time system, a gnat compatible run-time system, and an ASIS based tool to allow for the verification of a system including both COTS and code that is reused.

  • 349.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States .
    The Gurkh Project: A Framework for Verification and Execution of Mission Critical Applications2003In: AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings, vol. 2, 2003, 10.B.1/1-10.B.1/9 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper contributes with three methods that together will make a complete tool-set for verification of mission critical applications. The first method is the transformation of existing Ada or VHDL code into an intermediate form. This form is used for verification by numerous different model checkers. The second method is a predictable runtime kernel that has both a verifiable formal model and is implemented in hardware to achieve full predictability. Finally, a method for transforming the intermediate form of the complete system into a hardware unit, the SafetyChip that performs runtime control of the system. This SafetyChip can catch 'out-of-state' behaviors.

  • 350.
    Aspö, Ida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Illustration av blomväxters livscykel i ett handledningsmaterial för årskurs 4-92014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, I explain how and what I have done to create an illustrated learning material that can explain the different events in the life cycle of flowering plants for pupils in grades 4-9. This has has been a collaboration between me and the Uppsala Botanical Garden. This material is meant to be used by teachers or personnel during visits at the Uppsala Botanical Garden to teach pupils about flowering plants. The information in the finished material include how the lifecycle of flowering plants might look like, how these plants can spread their seeds and how flowers are pollinated.To find out how to illustrate the important information of these evenets I have used principles of information design. A situational analysis and target audience analysis has also been conducted to investigate how this kind of learning materials might look like and under what conditions the pupils understand the information.

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