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  • 301.
    Bhoomgoud, Uday
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    P, Kiran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    An Empirical Study On Requirements Engineering Core Practices2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) is the primary task (process) that is done when agreed upon to develop a software product. The success of the software product is gauged on its ability to meet the intended needs of the stakeholders. There is abundant literature emphasizing the significance of RE and its influence on the entire software project, apart from its importance as the first step for a successful development endeavor. There are several established methodologies that are acknowledged to support the RE process and assist in creating a reliable structure of creating software. Despite the availability of such techniques and solutions, it was observed that umpteen number of software product failures are attributed to unsatisfactory RE practices. In this thesis, we have conducted a study with six organizations to emphasize the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice, and consequently identify the factors that hinder the industrial community to implement state of the art RE. As a result of this empirical research we have found that to a great extent, state of the art practices are unpopular, more specifically in small organizations. Interestingly the majority of the problems associated with RE are associated to non technical issues.

  • 302.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early Automated Verification of Tool Chain Design2012In: Computational Science And Its Applications - ICCSA 2012, PT IV / [ed] Murgante, B; Gervasi, O; Misra, S; Nedjah, N; Rocha, AMAC; Taniar, D; Apduhan, BO, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 40-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are expected to increase the productivity of product development by providing automation and integration. If, however, the tool chain does not have the features required to support the product development process, it falls short of this expectation. Tool chains could reach their full potential if it could be ensured that the features of a tool chain are aligned with the product development process. As part of a systematic development approach for tool chains, we propose a verification method that measures the extent to which a tool chain design conforms to the product development process and identifies misalignments. The verification method can be used early in tool chain development, when it is relatively easy and cheap to perform the necessary corrections. Our verification method is automated, which allows for quick feedback and enables iterative design. We apply the proposed method on an industrial tool chain, where it is able to identify improvements to the design of the tool chain.

  • 303.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    High-Level Specification and Code Generation for Service-Oriented Tool Adapters2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science (ICCSA2012), 2012, 35-42 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex systems requires tool support for the different phases of the system life cycle. To allow for an efficient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated, e.g. by exchanging tool data or providing trace ability between the data. Despite the availability of tool integration platforms and frameworks, it is labor-intensive and costly to build tool integration solutions. Industrial tool integration initiatives such as OSLC (Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration) demand complex configurations and the adherence to integration standards. This further complicates building an integration solution. We propose an approach that uses formalized specifications to systematize tool integration and specialized code generators to automate the process of building tool adapters. We evaluate our approach with the implementation of a code generator that creates service-oriented tool adapters conforming to the OSLC industry initiative.

  • 304.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sosa, J. D.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Diaz, O.
    Efficient construction of presentation integration for web-based and desktop development tools2013In: 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), New York: IEEE , 2013, 697-702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering of software-intensive systems is supported by a variety of development tools. While development tools are traditionally desktop tools, they are more and more complemented and replaced by web-based development tools. The resulting blend of desktop and web-based tools is difficult to integrate into a seamless tool chain, which supports product development by data, control and presentation integration. Moreover, the construction of such tool chains is a significant engineering challenge. We propose an approach for the efficient, automated construction of tool chains, which integrate both web-based and desktop development tools; and provide a proof of concept of the approach in a case study. Our approach suggests that companies can selectively take advantage of hosted web-based development tools, while maintaining a seamless flow of integration with legacy desktop tools.

  • 305. Biere, Armin
    et al.
    Seidl, Martina
    Artho, Cyrille
    Model-Based Testing for Verification Backends2013In: Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Tests & Proofs (TAP 2013), 2013, Vol. 7942, 39-55 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Servin, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Composer: A prototype multilingual model composition tool2013In: MODPROD2013: 7th MODPROD Workshop on Model-Based Product Development / [ed] Peter Fritzson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Composer - A prototype multilingual model composition tool

    Erik Billing and Martin Servin

    November 10, 2012

    Facing the task to design, simulate or optimize a complex system itis common to find models and data for the system expressed in differentformats, implemented in different simulation software tools. When a newmodel is developed, a target platform is chosen and existing componentsimplemented with different tools have to be converted. This results inunnecessary work duplication and lead times. The Modelica languageinitiative [2] partially solves this by allowing developers to move modelsbetween different tools following the Modelica standard. Another possi-bility is to exchange models using the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI)standard that allows computer models to be used as components in othersimulations, possibly implemented using other programming languages[1]. With the Modelica and FMI standards entering development, there isneed for an easy-to-use tool that supports design, editing and simulationof such multilingual systems, as well as for retracting system informationfor formulating and solving optimization problems.A prototype solution for a graphical block diagram tool for design, edit-ing, simulation and optimization of multilingual systems has been createdand evaluated for a specific system. The tool is named Composer [3].The block diagram representation should be generic, independent ofmodel implementations, have a standardized format and yet support effi-cient handling of complex data. It is natural to look for solutions amongmodern web technologies, specifically HTML5. The format for represent-ing two dimensional vector graphics in HTML5 is Scalable Vector Graphics(SVG). We combine the SVG format with the FMI standard. In a firststage, we take the XML-based model description of FMI as a form for de-scribing the interface for each component, in a language independent way.Simulation parameters can also be expressed on this form, and integratedas metadata into the SVG image. 

    The prototype, using SVG in conjunction with FMI, is implementedin JavaScript and allow creation and modification of block diagrams directly in the web browser. Generated SVG images are sent to the serverwhere they are translated to program code, allowing the simulation ofthe dynamical system to be executed using selected implementations. Analternative mode is to generate optimization problem from the systemdefinition and model parameters. The simulation/optimization result is 

    returned to the web browser where it is plotted or processed using otherstandard libraries.The fiber production process at SCA Packaging Obbola [4] is used asan example system and modeled using Composer. The system consists oftwo fiber production lines that produce fiber going to a storage tank [5].The paper machine is taking fiber from the tank as needed for production.A lot of power is required during fiber production and the purpose of themodel was to investigate weather electricity costs could be reduced byrescheduling fiber production over the day, in accordance with the electricity spot price. Components are implemented for dynamical simulationusing OpenModelica and for discrete event using Python. The Python implementation supports constraint propagation between components andoptimization over specified variables. Each component is interfaced as aFunctional Mock-up Unit (FMU), allowing components to be connectedand properties specified in language independent way. From the SVGcontaining the high-level system information, both Modelica and Pythoncode is generated and executed on the web server, potentially hosted ina high performance data center. More implementations could be addedwithout modifying the SVG system description.We have shown that it is possible to separate system descriptions onthe block diagram level from implementations and interface between thetwo levels using FMI. In a continuation of this project, we aim to integratethe FMI standard also for co-simulation, such that components implemented in different languages could be used together. One open questionis to what extent FMUs of the same component, but implemented withdifferent tools, will have the same model description. For the SVG-basedsystem description to be useful, the FMI model description must remainthe same, or at least contain a large overlap, for a single component implemented in different languages. This will be further investigated in futurework.

    References

    [1] Modelica Association. Functional mock-up interface, http://www.fmi-standard.org, November 2012.

    [2] Modelica Association. Modelica and the modelica association, http://www.modelica.org, November 2012.

    [3] Erik Billing and Martin Servin. Composer, http://imuit.cs.umu.se/composer, November 2012. [4] SCA Packaging. Sca packaging obbola, http://www.scapackaging.com, November 2012.

    [5] Patrik Törmänen and Hussein Jaffal. Reducing electricity cost - case study. Technical report, UMIT Research Lab, Umeå University, 2011.2

  • 307.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Servin, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för fysik.
    Composer: A prototype multilingual model composition tool2013In: MODPROD2013: 7th MODPROD Workshop on Model-Based Product Development / [ed] Peter Fritzson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing the task to design, simulate or optimize a complex system itis common to find models and data for the system expressed in differentformats, implemented in different simulation software tools. When a newmodel is developed, a target platform is chosen and existing componentsimplemented with different tools have to be converted. This results inunnecessary work duplication and lead times. The Modelica languageinitiative [2] partially solves this by allowing developers to move modelsbetween different tools following the Modelica standard. Another possi-bility is to exchange models using the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI)standard that allows computer models to be used as components in othersimulations, possibly implemented using other programming languages[1]. With the Modelica and FMI standards entering development, there isneed for an easy-to-use tool that supports design, editing and simulationof such multilingual systems, as well as for retracting system informationfor formulating and solving optimization problems.A prototype solution for a graphical block diagram tool for design, edit-ing, simulation and optimization of multilingual systems has been createdand evaluated for a specific system. The tool is named Composer [3].The block diagram representation should be generic, independent ofmodel implementations, have a standardized format and yet support effi-cient handling of complex data. It is natural to look for solutions amongmodern web technologies, specifically HTML5. The format for represent-ing two dimensional vector graphics in HTML5 is Scalable Vector Graphics(SVG). We combine the SVG format with the FMI standard. In a firststage, we take the XML-based model description of FMI as a form for de-scribing the interface for each component, in a language independent way.Simulation parameters can also be expressed on this form, and integratedas metadata into the SVG image. 

    The prototype, using SVG in conjunction with FMI, is implementedin JavaScript and allow creation and modification of block diagrams directly in the web browser. Generated SVG images are sent to the serverwhere they are translated to program code, allowing the simulation ofthe dynamical system to be executed using selected implementations. Analternative mode is to generate optimization problem from the systemdefinition and model parameters. The simulation/optimization result is 

    returned to the web browser where it is plotted or processed using otherstandard libraries.The fiber production process at SCA Packaging Obbola [4] is used asan example system and modeled using Composer. The system consists oftwo fiber production lines that produce fiber going to a storage tank [5].The paper machine is taking fiber from the tank as needed for production.A lot of power is required during fiber production and the purpose of themodel was to investigate weather electricity costs could be reduced byrescheduling fiber production over the day, in accordance with the electricity spot price. Components are implemented for dynamical simulationusing OpenModelica and for discrete event using Python. The Python implementation supports constraint propagation between components andoptimization over specified variables. Each component is interfaced as aFunctional Mock-up Unit (FMU), allowing components to be connectedand properties specified in language independent way. From the SVGcontaining the high-level system information, both Modelica and Pythoncode is generated and executed on the web server, potentially hosted ina high performance data center. More implementations could be addedwithout modifying the SVG system description.We have shown that it is possible to separate system descriptions onthe block diagram level from implementations and interface between thetwo levels using FMI. In a continuation of this project, we aim to integratethe FMI standard also for co-simulation, such that components implemented in different languages could be used together. One open questionis to what extent FMUs of the same component, but implemented withdifferent tools, will have the same model description. For the SVG-basedsystem description to be useful, the FMI model description must remainthe same, or at least contain a large overlap, for a single component implemented in different languages. This will be further investigated in futurework.

  • 308.
    Bilski, Mateusz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of performance and scalability of web applications is challenged by most of the software companies. It is difficult to maintain the performance of a web application while the number of users is continuously increasing. The common solution for this problem is scalability. A web application can handle incoming and outgoing requests using blocking or non-blocking Input/Output operation. The way that a single server handles requests affects its ability to scale and depends on a web framework that was used to build the web application. It is especially important for Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA) based applications which consist of distributed Representational State Transfer (REST) web services. This research was inspired by a real problem stated by a software company that was considering the migration to the non-blocking web framework but did not know the possible profits. The objective of the research was to evaluate the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications and to provide guidelines for assessing profits of migration from blocking to non-blocking JVM web frameworks. First, internet ranking was used to obtain the list of the most popular web frameworks. Then, the web frameworks were used to conduct two experiments that investigated the influence of web framework's type on the performance of ROA based applications. Next, the consultations with software architects were arranged in order to find a method for approximating the performance of overall application. Finally, the guidelines were prepared based on the consultations and the results of the experiments. Three blocking and non-blocking highly ranked and JVM based web frameworks were selected. The first experiment showed that the non-blocking web frameworks can provide performance up to 2.5 times higher than blocking web frameworks in ROA based applications. The experiment performed on existing application showed average 27\% performance improvement after the migration. The elaborated guidelines successfully convinced the company that provided the application for testing to conduct the migration on the production environment. The experiment results proved that the migration from blocking to non-blocking web frameworks increases the performance of web application. The prepared guidelines can help software architects to decide if it is worth to migrate. However the guidelines are context depended and further investigation is needed to make it more general.

  • 309.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Towards Guidelines for Conducting Software Process Simulation in Industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the 1950s explicit software process models have been used for planning, executing and controlling software development activities. To overcome the limitation of static models at capturing the inherent dynamism in software development, Software Process Simulation Modelling (SPSM) was introduced in the late 1970s. SPSM has been used to address various challenges, e.g. estimation, planning and process assessment. The simulation models developed over the years have varied in their scope, purpose, approach and the application domain. However, there is a need to aggregate the evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM for achieving its intended purposes. Objective: This thesis aims to facilitate adoption of SPSM in industrial practice by exploring two directions. Firstly it aims to establish the usefulness of SPSM for its intended purposes, e.g. for planning, training and as an alternative to study the real world software (industrial and open source) development. Secondly to define and evaluate a process for conducting SPSM studies in industry. Method: Two systematic literature reviews (SLR), a literature review, a case study and an action research study were conducted. A literature review of existing SLRs was done to identify the strategies for selecting studies. The resulting process for study selection was utilized in an SLR to capture and aggregate evidence regarding the usefulness of SPSM. Another SLR was used to identify existing process descriptions of how to conduct an SPSM study. The consolidated process and associated guidelines identified in this review were used in an action research study to develop a simulation model of the testing process in a large telecommunication vendor. The action research was preceded by a case study to understand the testing process at the company. Results: A study selection process based on the strategies identified from literature was proposed. It was found to systemize selection and to support inclusiveness with reasonable additional effort in an SLR of the SPSM literature. The SPSM studies identified in literature scored poorly on the rigor and relevance criteria and lacked evaluation of SPSM for the intended purposes. Lastly, based on literature, a six-step process to conduct an SPSM study was used to develop a System Dynamics model of the testing process for training purposes in the company. Conclusion: The findings identify two potential directions for facilitating SPSM adoption. First, by learning from other disciplines having done simulation for a longer time. It was evident how similar the consolidated process for conducting an SPSM study was to the process used in simulation in general. Second the existing work on SPSM can at best be classified as strong ``proof-of-concept’’ that SPSM can be useful in the real world software development. Thus, there is a need to evaluate and report the usefulness of SPSM for the intended purposes with scientific rigor.

  • 310.
    Bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Nicolau de Franca, Breno Bernard
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, ESE Grp, PESC COPPE, BR-68511 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Evaluation of simulation-assisted value stream mapping for software product development: Two industrial cases2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 68, 45-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Value stream mapping (VSM) as a tool for lean development has led to significant improvements in different industries. In a few studies, it has been successfully applied in a software engineering context. However, some shortcomings have been observed in particular failing to capture the dynamic nature of the software process to evaluate improvements i.e. such improvements and target values are based on idealistic situations. Objective: To overcome the shortcomings of VSM by combining it with software process simulation modeling, and to provide reflections on the process of conducting VSM with simulation. Method: Using case study research, VSM was used for two products at Ericsson AB, Sweden. Ten workshops were conducted in this regard. Simulation in this study was used as a tool to support discussions instead of as a prediction tool. The results have been evaluated from the perspective of the participating practitioners, an external observer, and reflections of the researchers conducting the simulation that was elicited by the external observer. Results: Significant constraints hindering the product development from reaching the stated improvement goals for shorter lead time were identified. The use of simulation was particularly helpful in having more insightful discussions and to challenge assumptions about the likely impact of improvements. However, simulation results alone were found insufficient to emphasize the importance of reducing waiting times and variations in the process. Conclusion: The framework to assist VSM with simulation presented in this study was successfully applied in two cases. The involvement of various stakeholders, consensus building steps, emphasis on flow (through waiting time and variance analysis) and the use of simulation proposed in the framework led to realistic improvements with a high likelihood of implementation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 311.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A systematic literature review on the industrial use of software process simulation2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software process simulation modelling (SPSM) captures the dynamic behaviour and uncertainty in the software process. Existing literature has conflicting claims about its practical usefulness: SPSM is useful and has an industrial impact; SPSM is useful and has no industrial impact yet; SPSM is not useful and has little potential for industry. Objective To assess the conflicting standpoints on the usefulness of SPSM. Method A systematic literature review was performed to identify, assess and aggregate empirical evidence on the usefulness of SPSM. Results In the primary studies, to date, the persistent trend is that of proof-of-concept applications of software process simulation for various purposes (e.g. estimation, training, process improvement, etc.). They score poorly on the stated quality criteria. Also only a few studies report some initial evaluation of the simulation models for the intended purposes. Conclusion There is a lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the claimed usefulness of SPSM for any of the intended purposes. A few studies that report the cost of applying simulation do not support the claim that it is an inexpensive method. Furthermore, there is a paramount need for improvement in conducting and reporting simulation studies with an emphasis on evaluation against the intended purpose.

  • 312.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Use and evaluation of simulation for software process education: a case study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Engineering is an applied discipline and concepts are difficult to grasp only at a theoretical level alone. In the context of a project management course, we introduced and evaluated the use of software process simulation (SPS) based games for improving students’ understanding of software development processes. The effects of the intervention were measured by evaluating the students’ arguments for choosing a particular development process. The arguments were assessed with the Evidence-Based Reasoning framework, which was extended to assess the strength of an argument. The results indicate that students generally have difficulty providing strong arguments for their choice of process models. Nevertheless, the assessment indicates that the intervention of the SPS game had a positive impact on the students’ arguments. Even though the illustrated argument assessment approach can be used to provide formative feedback to students, its use is rather costly and cannot be considered a replacement for traditional assessments.

  • 313.
    Birkestedt, Sara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Hansson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Can web-based statistic services be trusted?2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of statistic services exist today, which shows that there is a great interest in knowing more about the visitors on a web site. But how reliable is the result the services are giving? The hypothesis examined in the thesis is: Web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result The purpose of the thesis is to find out how accurate the web-based statistic services are regarding unique visitors and number of pages viewed. Our hope is that this thesis will bring more knowledge about the different statistic services that exists today and the problems surrounding them. We will also draw attention to the importance of knowing how your statistic software works to be able to interpret the results correctly. To investigate this, we chose to do practical tests on a selection of web-based statistic services. The services registered the traffic from the same web site during a test period. During the same period a control program registered the same things and stored the result in a database. In addition to the test, we have done an interview with a person working with web statistics. The investigation showed that there are big differences between the results from the web-based statistic services in the test and that none of them showed an accurate result, neither for the total number of page views nor unique visitors. This led us to the conclusion that web-based statistic services do not show an accurate result, which verifies our hypothesis. Also the interview confirmed that there is a problem with measuring web statistics.

  • 314.
    Birksjö, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Häggmyr, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nowén, Viktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petré, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sanner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundblad, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Torrusio, Cristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Applikationsutveckling: med parprogrammering och kundinteraktion i blickfånget2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This candidate report describes how a group of students can develop a smartphone applicationwithout any prior knowledge in the field. To make the project more realistic there is also a clientwho has requests and wishes regarding the finished product.The document describes the methods used to produce the application and also includesexperiences that the group gained. How the interaction with the client has been performed togain a good understanding of what they wished the product to become is also accounted for.The research questions focus on how the development has proceeded and how one can learnsomething new in a relatively short timespan as a group.

  • 315.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Morandini, Mirko
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, ITA.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund Univ, SWE.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Univ Innsbruck, AUT.
    Staats, Matthew
    Google Inc, CHE.
    2nd International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing (RET 2015)2015In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 37TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL 2, IEEE , 2015, 997-998 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RET (Requirements Engineering and Testing) workshop provides a meeting point for researchers and practitioners from the two separate fields of Requirements Engineering (RE) and Testing. The goal is to improve the connection and alignment of these two areas through an exchange of ideas, challenges, practices, experiences and results. The long term aim is to build a community and a body of knowledge within the intersection of RE and Testing. One of the main outputs of the 1st workshop was a collaboratively constructed map of the area of RET showing the topics relevant to RET for these. The 2nd workshop will continue in the same interactive vein and include a keynote, paper presentations with ample time for discussions, and a group exercise. For true impact and relevance this cross-cutting area requires contribution from both RE and Testing, and from both researchers and practitioners. For that reason we welcome a range of paper contributions from short experience papers to full research papers that both clearly cover connections between the two fields.

  • 316. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Borg, Markus
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Challenges and Practices in Aligning Requirements with Verification and Validation: A Case Study of Six Companies2014In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, no 6, 1809-1855 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak alignment of requirements engineering (RE) with verification and validation (VV) may lead to problems in delivering the required products in time with the right quality. For example, weak communication of requirements changes to testers may result in lack of verification of new requirements and incorrect verification of old invalid requirements, leading to software quality problems, wasted effort and delays. However, despite the serious implications of weak alignment research and practice both tend to focus on one or the other of RE or VV rather than on the alignment of the two. We have performed a multi-unit case study to gain insight into issues around aligning RE and VV by interviewing 30 practitioners from 6 software developing companies, involving 10 researchers in a flexible research process for case studies. The results describe current industry challenges and practices in aligning RE with VV, ranging from quality of the individual RE and VV activities, through tracing and tools, to change control and sharing a common understanding at strategy, goal and design level. The study identified that human aspects are central, i.e. cooperation and communication, and that requirements engineering practices are a critical basis for alignment. Further, the size of an organisation and its motivation for applying alignment practices, e.g. external enforcement of traceability, are variation factors that play a key role in achieving alignment. Our results provide a strategic roadmap for practitioners improvement work to address alignment challenges. Furthermore, the study provides a foundation for continued research to improve the alignment of RE with VV.

  • 317. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    Engström, Emelie
    A Multi-Case Study of Agile Requirements Engineering and the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 77, 61-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context] It is an enigma that agile projects can succeed ‘without requirements’ when weak requirementsengineering is a known cause for project failures. While agile development projects often manage well withoutextensive requirements test cases are commonly viewed as requirements and detailed requirements are documented astest cases.[Objective] We have investigated this agile practice of using test cases as requirements to understand how test casescan support the main requirements activities, and how this practice varies.[Method] We performed an iterative case study at three companies and collected data through 14 interviews and 2focus groups.[Results] The use of test cases as requirements poses both benefits and challenges when eliciting, validating,verifying, and managing requirements, and when used as a documented agreement. We have identified five variants ofthe test-cases-as-requirements practice, namely de facto, behaviour-driven, story-test driven, stand-alone strict andstand-alone manual for which the application of the practice varies concerning the time frame of requirementsdocumentation, the requirements format, the extent to which the test cases are a machine executable specification andthe use of tools which provide specific support for the practice of using test cases as requirements.[Conclusions] The findings provide empirical insight into how agile development projects manage andcommunicate requirements. The identified variants of the practice of using test cases as requirements can be used toperform in-depth investigations into agile requirements engineering. Practitioners can use the providedrecommendations as a guide in designing and improving their agile requirements practices based on projectcharacteristics such as number of stakeholders and rate of change.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-04-28 08:02
  • 318.
    Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Engström, Emelie
    Lund University.
    Borg, Markus
    Lund University.
    An Industrial Case Study on the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2015In: Lecture Notes in Business Information, Springer, 2015, 27-39 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a conundrum that agile projects can succeed 'without requirements' when weak requirements engineering is a known cause for project failures. While Agile development projects often manage well without extensive requirements documentation, test cases are commonly used as requirements. We have investigated this agile practice at three companies in order to understandhow test cases can fill the role of requirements. We performed a case study based on twelve interviews performed in a previous study.The findings include a range of benefits and challenges in using test cases for eliciting, validating, verifying, tracing and managing requirements. In addition, we identified three scenarios for applying the practice, namely as a mature practice, as a de facto practice and as part of an agile transition. The findings provide insights into how the role of requirements may be met in agile development including challenges to consider.

  • 319. Bjuhr, O.
    et al.
    Segeljakt, K.
    Addibpour, M.
    Heiser, F.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Software architecture decoupling at ericsson2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, 259-262 p., 7958500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate and increase modularity this paper combines a method for visualizing and measuring software architectures and two algorithms for decoupling. The combination is tested on a software system at Ericsson. Our analysis show that the system has one large cluster of components (18% of the system, a Core), all interacting with each other. By employing cluster and dominator analysis we suggest 19 dependencies to be removed in order to decouple the Core. Validating the analysis output with experts at Ericsson six of the suggested dependencies where deemed impossible to remove. By removing the remaining 13 dependencies Ericsson would improve the architecture of their system considerably, e.g. core size would go down to 5%.

  • 320.
    Bjärneryd, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Carvajal, Jhonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Prototype Maker: Ett prototypverktyg för mjukvaruindustrin2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om framställningen av ett prototypverktyg för konsultfirman Logica. Marknaden har idag ett stort behov av ett prototypverktyg och det är en lösning på det problemet som vi utvecklat. Utvecklingsarbetet är utfört i Java och har resulterat i ett program som kan rita upp prototyper och ett som kan visa och köra prototypprojekt. Projektets syfte har varit att effektivisera Logicas arbetssätt och tillgodose ett behov av en mjukvara som är avsett för att skapa och hantera prototyper av mjukvarusystem. Därutöver har projektet syftat till att erbjuda Logicas kunder mervärde då de får en körbar prototyp av det system de överväger att köpa.

  • 321.
    Björk, Carl
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Salomonsson, Per
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Creating Interface-Controllers using Model Driven Architecture2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we will examine a telecom industry case, where combining synchronous and asynchronous interfaces causes problems. A solution to the problem is being presented in form of an interface controller framework that is based on patterns of common functionality of interface controllers. The solution is implemented using four different implementation methods (Java, Erlang, XDE, Executable UML), and compared in lines of code, performance and throughput.

  • 322.
    Björk, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Åkerberg, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Data Acquisition Architecture for HVDC Grids2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis has caused many countries around the world to invest in large amounts of renewable energy. To be able to handle the intrinsic unreliability and geographic de- pendency of many renewable energy sources, HVDC technology is considered due to its low cost when transferring electricity across great distances. Traditional AC grids are controlled with 15-minute intervals at control centers, but HVDC grids require a faster control due to more power fluctuations within the grid. The aim of this project was to propose an architecture for a gateway in a control center for an HVDC grid. The gateway was programmed in C and C++ and the data was sent using UDP packets. Testing of the gateway was done using a real-time simulation of an HVDC grid. The data was sent with intervals smaller than a second which satisfied the speed requirements for this project. A gateway like the one developed in this project can be implemented at control centers to display and process data and to improve the overall reliability of an HVDC grid. 

  • 323.
    Björkholdt, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    jFunda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB, ett konsultföretag inom bygg- och VVS-sektorn med ca 50 anställda, använder ett egenskrivet BASIC program i DOS för beräkning av grundfundament i betong med grundsula och plintskaft avseende stabilitet och erforderlig armering. I dagsläget finns det ungefär 10 användare av programmet.

    Några kända problem med programmet är att varje dator måste konfigureras manuellt med kommandopromptens NET USE kommando. Detta för att en anslutning av nätverksskrivaren till den lokala porten LPT1 måste finnas för att utskriften ska fungera. Dessutom kan varken indata eller resultat från ett fundament sparas.

    Detta examensarbete behandlar arbetet för att konvertera det äldre DOS programmet till ett modernare fönsterbaserat programspråk med möjlighet att kunna spara fundamenten för respektive projekt.

  • 324.
    Björklund, Marcus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Hjelmar, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Adopting Software Product Lines: Guidelines based on the Maturity of Organizations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Lines (SPL) is a relatively new way of working in software development. A SPL is an enforced architecture and a collection of components common for more than one product within a domain. Development using SPL utilizes tools and techniques for creating software systems from a common set of core assets in order to satisfy a certain market. In this study we investigate how to proceed when transitioning to a SPL development approach by evaluating proposed and used adoption approaches, methods and frameworks. We performed a systematic literature review using three main sources; Compendex/Inspec, CiteSeerX and Google Scholar. The results are analyzed using a qualitative analysis technique called Recursive Abstraction where the results are iteratively summarized to extract the essence of the data. A manageable collection of frameworks, methods and approaches are summarized as a starting point for a reader who wants to dig deeper into the subject. A set of guidelines is suggested for companies who are considering a transition to SPL development. We also investigate the link between SPL and organization maturity, with a focus on the benefits of combining a SPL initiative with a CMMI initiative. We conclude that the transition process should not be taken lightly; in most cases it should be made in incremental steps. There is a fairly standard approach to adopt SPL and there are a few frameworks that are commonly accepted. However, we also conclude that most research areas of SPL development lacks in validation. Concerning the link between SPL and CMMI we identify some PA's that are more important when considering SPL development and a few others that may be harder to execute. We conclude that SPL benefits from process maturity and discipline as SPL development is process controlled and a lack in process discipline may cause corrosion of the SPL. A CMMI maturity level of Defined processes should be considered a prerequisite for a complete SPL practice. We could not find any indication that the organization maturity would benefit from SPL practices alone. Neither could we identify any drawbacks of having both an CMMI initiative and SPL transition initiative within the same organization.

  • 325.
    Björling, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Hoff, Anna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    An Evaluation of a Maintenance Model: A comparison with theory and results from case studies2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis was performed in cooperation with SchlumbergerSema. During the project we identified several maintenance methodologies and studied the characteristics of both the ISO and IEEE standard. The base for our evaluation of the CURE maintenance model (developed by SchlumbergerSema) were both the result of our case study that comprised interviews from five maintenance projects as well as maintenance literature available. Both the interviews and the literature studies resulted in lists of requirements that each area make on a maintenance model. We compare the CURE model to the requirements found within these two areas. Based on the result of the comparison we give our recommendations for maintenance in general, maintenance within SchlumbergerSema as well as specific recommendations for the CURE development team. Our conclusions drawn from our work were mostly positive about CURE. However we have suggested several issues for further development such as e.g. certification to a standard. Other conclusions are that no matter what model you choose as a maintenance model, make sure that you implement the model fully. A major pitfall is to allow it to become "just a fancy book on the shelf".

  • 326.
    Black-Schaffer, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Dally, William J.
    Stanford University, Department of Computer Science.
    Block-Parallel Programming for Real-time Embedded Applications2010In: Proc. 39th International Conference on Parallel Processing, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE , 2010, 297-306 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded media applications have traditionally used custom ASICs to meet their real-time performance requirements. However, the combination of increasing chip design cost and availability of commodity many-core processors is making programmable devices increasingly attractive alternatives. Yet for these processors to be successful in this role, programming systems are needed that can automate the task of mapping the applications to the tens-to-hundreds of cores on current and future many-core processors, while simultaneously guaranteeing the real-time throughput constraints. This paper presents a block-parallel program description for embedded real-time media applications and automatic transformations including buffering and parallelization to ensure the program meets the throughput requirements. These transformations are enabled by starting with a high-level, yet intuitive, application description. The description builds on traditional stream programming structures by adding simple control and serialization constructs to enable a greater variety of applications. The result is an application description that provides a balance of flexibility and power to the programmer, while exposing the application structure to the compiler at a high enough level to enable useful transformations without heroic analysis.

  • 327.
    Bladin, Kalle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of an Out-of-Core Globe Rendering System Using Multiple Map Services2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of a software system enabling out-of-core rendering of multiple map datasets mapped on virtual globes around our solar system. Challenges such as precision, accuracy, curvature and massive datasets were considered. The result is a globe visualization software using a chunked level of detail approach for rendering. The software can render texture layers of various sorts to aid in scientific visualization on top of height mapped geometry, yielding accurate visualizations rendered at interactive frame rates. The project was conducted at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York and serves the goal of implementing a planetary visualization software to aid in public presentations and bringing space science to the public. The work is part of the development of the software OpenSpace, which is the result of a collaboration between Linköping University, AMNH and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) among others.

  • 328.
    Blom, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
    Jonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
    Automated test generation for industrial Erlang applications2003In: Erlang Workshop 2003: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Erlang, Uppsala, Sweden, August 29, 2003., 2003, 8-14 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Blom, Oskar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kovan, Novan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Implementering av ett bokningssystem med Google Calendar2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the implementation of a booking system with the integration of Google Calendar API. The objective was primarily to evaluate the potential of a booking system where Google Calendar was used as schedules for staff. The project could also be used as a base system for customizing booking systems for different business models.

    The final system consisted of a website for making appointments, a Web API for communicating with the website, integration of Google Calendar API to retrieve and add appointments to the schedules of the staff and storing data in a database.

  • 330.
    Blomberg, Tommy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Build Server Dashboard2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large software projects often involves several developers that works on different parts of the code. Developers at Sigma Örebro follow a software engineering practice known as continuous integration. The main purpose with the continuous integration practice is to always keep the developing software in a working state.Thisreport covers my graduation work that I performed for Sigma Örebro.The assignment was to create a web based dashboard application that would displayinformation about the on-going projects at Sigma. For each project the dashboard should show the build time and test status for the latest checkedin builds. It would also calculate and display the overall success rate for each project and theamount of tests each project was subjected to. At last it would also display a graph that shows the amount of tests performed over time. The dashboard application should be fully automatedwithout the need of user interaction. All this information was to be presented as a single viewon a flat screen TV or monitor.

  • 331.
    Bodireddigari, Sai Srinivas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Framework To Measure the Trustworthiness of the User Feedback in Mobile Application Stores2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Mobile application stores like Google Play, Apple store, Windows store have over 3 million apps. Users download the applications from their respective stores and they generally prefer the apps with the highest ratings. In response to the present situation, application stores provided the categories like editor’s choice or top charts, providing better visibility for the applications. Customer reviews play such critical role in the development of the application and the organization, in such case there might be flawed reviews or biased opinions about the application due to many factors. The biased opinions and flawed reviews are likely to cause user review untrustworthiness. The reviews or ratings in the mobile application stores are used by the organizations to make the applications more efficient and more adaptable to the user. The context leads to importance of the user’s review trustworthiness and managing the trustworthiness in the user feedback by knowing the causes of mistrust. Hence, there is a need for a framework to understand the trustworthiness in the user given feedback.

    Objectives: In the following study the author aims for the accomplishment of the following objectives, firstly, exploring the causes of untrustworthiness in user feedback for an application in the mobile application stores such as google play store. Secondly, Exploring the effects of trustworthiness on the users and developers. Finally, the aim is to propose a framework for managing the trustworthiness in the feedback.

    Methods: To accomplish the objectives, author used qualitative research method. The data collection method is an interview-based survey that was conducted with 13 participants, to find out the causes of untrustworthiness in the user feedback from user’s perspective and developer’s perspective. Author follows thematic coding for qualitative data analysis.

    Results:Author identifies 11 codes from the description of the transcripts and explores the relationship among the trustworthiness with the causes. 11 codes were put into 4 themes, and a thematic network is created between the themes. The relations were then analyzed with cost-effect analysis.

    Conclusions: We conclude that 11 causes effect the trustworthiness according to user’s perspective and 9 causes effect the trustworthiness according to the developer’s perspective, from the analysis. Segregating the trustworthy feedback from the untrustworthy feedback is important for the developers, as the next releases should be planned based on that. Finally, an inclusion and exclusion criteria to help developers manage trustworthy user feedback is defined. 

  • 332.
    Bodén, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rakovic, Nandin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    ChessCraft nätverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is describing the process for the development of the networking part of the game called ChessCraft. This game is submitted to the largest game developing contest in Scandinavia that goes under the name of Swedish Game Awards.

  • 333.
    Bogale, Helen Yeshiwas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Ahmed, Zohaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Framework for Security Requirements: Security Requirements Categorization and Misuse Cases2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Security Requirements engineering is necessary to achieve secure software systems. Many techniques and approaches have been proposed to elicit security requirements in the initial phases of development. With the growing importance of security and immense increase in security breaches over the past few years, researchers and practitioners have been striving to achieve a mature process of coping with security requirements. Much of the activities in this regard are seen in academia but industry still seems to be lacking in giving the required importance to security requirements engineering. That is why, security requirements engineering is still not always considered as a central part of requirements engineering. This study is targeted to bridge this gap between academia and industry in terms of security requirements engineering and to provide a concrete approach to efficiently elicit and specify security requirements. The Misuse case technique is proposed for this purpose. However it lacks in providing guidelines for enabling scalable use. This limitation has been addressed to achieve a mature process of security requirements elicitation. Objectives: In this study, we propose a framework to elicit security requirements early in the software development using misuse case technique. Objective is to make misuse case technique scalable and applicable to the real-world projects. The proposed framework was presented to two representatives from the Swedish Armed Forces (SWAF). The feedback received from the representatives was utilized to refine, update and finalize the framework. Methods: The study involved a systematic review to gain an insight of the academic perspective in the area of study. Document extraction was adopted to observe the industrial trends in the said subject. These were the software requirements specification documents of the real-world systems. Document extraction was supported with informed brainstorming because the study revolved around misuse case technique and informed brainstorming is considered to be the most suitable technique for this purpose. A workshop was conducted with two representatives of Swedish Armed Forces followed by two subsequent asynchronous communication rounds and a facilitated session to get feedback about the proposed solution. This feedback was utilized to refine, update and finalize the proposed solution. Results: The results of the systematic review were organized in tabular forms for a clear understanding and easy analysis. A security requirements categorization was obtained as a result which was finalized after an initial validation with the help of real-world projects. Furthermore, a framework was proposed utilizing this categorization to address the limitations of misuse case technique. The framework was created and refined through workshop and different communication rounds with representatives of SWAF. Their feedback was used as input to further improve the usefulness and usability aspects of the framework. Conclusions: The significance of security requirements engineering is undisputedly accepted both in academia and industry. However, the area is not a subject of practice in industrial projects. The reasons include lack of mature processes as well as expensive and time consuming solutions. Lack of empirical evidences adds to the problems. The conducted study and proposed process of dealing with this issue is considered as a one step forward towards addressing the challenges.

  • 334.
    Bohdanowicz, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Toward Tool Support for Usage of Object-Oriented Design Patterns Expressed in Unified Modeling Language2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns describe solutions that can be used in a particular context for commonly recurring problems at the detailed design level of a software system. Patterns have become an important concept in object-oriented development and their usage is a widely accepted practice. This thesis investigates issue of tool support for design patterns usage that can be offered by UML modelling tools, and proposes UML based method and notation for specification of the patterns, and documentation of their instances in a design model, facilitating such support. Different ways of such support are presented and classified, and comparison of tools offering assistance for patterns usage is depicted. UML profile supporting specification of structural aspects of solutions proposed by design patterns, and documentation of their instances is specified in the thesis.

  • 335.
    Bohlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Visualisering av elektroniska kopplingsscheman2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AnSyn AB är ett företag i Linköping som utvecklar programvara för att optimera analog elektronik. I deras program Analog Dimensions finns en visualiseringsmodul som ritar upp de kopplingsscheman som elektronikkonstruktören arbetar med. Ansyn var inte nöjda med den lösningen de hade. Den gamla visualiseringsmodulen hade flera begränsningar och i denna rapport kan du följa arbetet med att ta fram en ny visualiseringsmodul. Arbetet resulterade i en helt ny visualiseringsmodul som saknar de begränsningar som den gamla visualiseringsmodulen hade. Visualiseringsmodulen är helt skriven i Java och använder sig av ett grafikbibliotek vid namn Netbeans Visual Library. Det är ett bibliotek med öppen källkod som bland annat kan användas för visualisering av vektorgrafik. Rapporten innehåller även en undersökning av programbibliotek för Java som hanterar vektorgrafik. I undersökningen studerades totalt 15 olika bibliotek.

  • 336.
    Boivie, Magnus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Nordquist, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Prototyp för skolapp2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consultancy firm Knowit sought a smartphone application for communication between schools and pupils. Together with the students, it was decided to create the app both for Android and for iPhone. The project would produce a prototype app with limited functionality usable as a proof-of-concept in communication with potential customers.The questions that have characterized the work are; what features would be demanded in a school app, how to program user-friendly functionality and how to use object-orientation to design such an app. A question has also mentioned the differences between development for iOS and Android. The work was done in an iterative process in which the students worked together with planning, programming and testing. In addition, a small study was made, in which pupils were asked for their desired functionality in a school app.The project has resulted in a working prototype with a few pages implemented. During the work it was established that the pages and the functionality that pupils ask for includes: schedule, exam schedule, chat and custom push notifications. Factors besides functionality that contribute to a user friendly app are transparency and smoothness. This work has also led to a suggestion of how these features can be joined in a project and a class diagram has been used to illustrate the common solution for Android and iOS. Based on the diagram it can be seen that the apps have a menu as a base for all the pages that are presented and a class is the link between the applications and the data retrieved from the database.The work also explains differences between the platforms. One difference is that iOS programmer normally only need to program for the last two iOS releases while the Android developer must adapt its product for many different screen sizes and versions of the operating system. Another difference is that it is perceived that Objective-C is a more difficult programming language to adapt to than java.

  • 337. Boix, E. G.
    et al.
    Haller, Philipp
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Ricci, A.
    Varela, C.
    Workshop preview of the 2015 workshop on programming based on actors, agents, and decentralized control (AGERE! 2015)2015In: SPLASH Companion 2015 - Companion Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Systems, Programming, Languages and Applications: Software for Humanity, 2015, 99-100 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The AGERE! workshop focuses on programming systems, languages and applications based on actors, active/concurrent objects, agents and - more generally - high-level programming paradigms promoting a mindset of decentralized control in solving problems and developing software. The workshop is designed to cover both the theory and the practice of design and programming, bringing together researchers working on models, languages and technologies, and practitioners developing real-world systems and applications.

  • 338. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Borg, Anton
    Carlsson, Bengt
    On the Simulation of a Software Reputation System2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are difficulties finding all malicious programs due to juridical restrictions and deficits concerning the anti-malicious programs. Also, a "grey-zone" of questionable programs exists, hard for different protection programs to handle and almost impossible for a single user to judge. A software reputation system consisting of expert, average and novice users are proposed as a complement to let anti-malware programs or dedicated human experts decide about questionable programs. A simulation of the factors involved is accomplished by varying the user groups involved, modifying each user's individual trust factor, specifying an upper trust factor limit and accounting for previous rating influence. As a proposed result, a balanced, well-informed rating of judged programs appears, i.e. a balance between quickly reaching a well-informed decision and not giving a single voter too much power.

  • 339.
    Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    jacobsson, andreas
    Malmö University, SWE.
    Baca, Dejan
    Fidesmo AB, SWE.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Introducing a novel security-enhanced agile software development process2017In: International Journal of Secure Software Engineering, ISSN 1947-3036, E-ISSN 1947-3044, ISSN 1947-3036, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel security-enhanced agile software development process, SEAP, is introduced. It has been designed, tested, and implemented at Ericsson AB, specifically in the development of a mobile money transfer system. Two important features of SEAP are 1) that it includes additional security competences, and 2) that it includes the continuous conduction of an integrated risk analysis for identifying potential threats. As a general finding of implementing SEAP in software development, the developers solve a large proportion of the risks in a timely, yet cost-efficient manner. The default agile software development process at Ericsson AB, i.e. where SEAP was not included, required significantly more employee hours spent for every risk identified compared to when integrating SEAP. The default development process left 50.0% of the risks unattended in the software version that was released, while the application of SEAP reduced that figure to 22.5%. Furthermore, SEAP increased the proportion of risks that were corrected from 12.5% to 67.9%, a more than five times increment.

  • 340.
    Bollineni, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Neupane, Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Implications for adopting cloud computing in e-Health2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Cloud computing is an emerging and growing field in an IT industry. Cost minimization, fast processing, easy accessibility and scalability are found to be the main attracting features of cloud computing. Cloud computing is known to be as robust authentication and enhanced security provider technology and it is increasing its scope in many sensitive areas like health sectors where data privacy and security hold the key position. Some of the issues when applying cloud solution is; trust of the new system, data confidentiality, security, storage and most importantly data sharing between different data centers locating in different geographical locations. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to explore the limitations and find the opportunities and barriers between cloud computing and e-Health and finally suggest guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in an e-Health based sectors based on associates concerns. In the context of this research work, the authors have studied issues involved in the deployment of cloud computing, associates concerns and factors regarding adoption of cloud computing in e-Health and finally suggestion of future of cloud computing in e-Health. Methods: In order to identify and to get a deeper understanding of those issues, the author performed literature review, conducted interview with health care personnel and cloud computing associates and finally backed up with a web-based survey from the associates of cloud computing and e-Health. Results: Finally after the completion of entire analysis authors purposed suitable deployment model and guidelines for adoption of cloud computing in e-Health. Conclusions: Authors concluded that most people’s concerns can be due to lack of knowledge about cloud computing and the trust of vendor. However, authors also observed that people are facing problems with data security, data integrity and too much dependency to the technology and vendors.

  • 341. Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    Velde, Walter Van deHägg, Staffan
    MAAMAW´97 Poster Proceedings1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World

  • 342.
    Bondesson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Software Engineering Education Improvement: An Assessment of a Software Engineering Programme2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An assessment of a software engineering program has been carried out by reviewing state-of-the-art literature pertaining to software engineering education. Six surveys have been adopted and the result implies that the balance of the curriculum should be revised, and that software engineering education ought to expand the technical oriented knowledge areas somewhat. Relevant curriculum data have been derived hereby, which also confirms other studies in the area. This data, along with a benchmark of the software engineering program to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK), is very constructive to universities as it assists educators, trainers, and software engineering practitioners in evaluating, designing, and recommending existing and proposed curricula.

  • 343.
    Borg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patel, Mikael
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Extending the OpenUP/Basic Requirements Discipline to Specify Capacity Requirements2007In: Requirements Engineering Conference, 2007. RE '07, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, 328-333 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software processes, such as RUP and agile methods, focus their requirements engineering part on use cases and thus functional requirements. Complex products, such as radio network control software, need special handling of non-functional requirements as well. We describe how we used the eclipse process framework to augment the open and minimal OpenUP/basic process with improvements found in management of capacity requirements in a case-study at Ericsson. The result is compared with another project improving RUP to handle performance requirements. The major differences between the improvements are that 1) they suggest a special, dedicated performance manager role and we suggest that present roles are augmented, 2) they suggest a bottom-up approach to performance verification while we focus on system performance first, i.e. top-down. Further, we suggest augmenting UMLl-2 models with capacity attributes to improve information flow from requirements to implementation.

  • 344.
    Borg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patel, Mikael
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Good Practice and Improvement Model of Handling Capacity Requirements of Large Telecommunication Systems2006In: 14th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE'06), Minneapolis/S:t Paul, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society , 2006, 245-250 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence to suggest that the software industry has not yet matured as regards management of nonfunctional requirements (NFRs). Consequently the cost of achieving required quality is unnecessarily high. To try and avoid this, the telecommunication systems provider Ericsson defined a research task to try and improve the management of requirements for capacity, which is one of the most critical NFRs. Linkoping University joined in the effort and conducted an interview series to investigate good practice within different parts of the company. Inspired by the interviews and an ongoing process improvement project a model for improvement was created and activities were synthesized. This paper contributes the results from the interview series, and details the subprocesses of specification that should be improved. Such improvements are about understanding the relationship between numerical entities at all system levels, augmenting UML specifications to make NFRs visible, working with time budgets, and testing the sub system level components on the same level as they are specified.

  • 345.
    Borg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patel, Mikael
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating an Improvement Model of Handling Capacity Requirements with OpenUP/Basic Process2007In: 13th International working conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundations for Software Quality (REFSQ'07), Trondheim, Norway, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer , 2007, 341-354 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary software processes and modeling languages have a strong focus on Functional Requirements (FRs), whereas information of Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) are managed with text-based documentation and individual skills of the personnel. In order to get a better understanding of how capacity requirements are handled, we carried out an interview series with various branches of Ericsson. The analysis of this material revealed 18 Capacity Sub-Processes (CSPs) that need to be attended to create a capacity-oriented development. In this paper we describe all these sub-processes and their mapping into an extension of the OpenUP/Basic software process. Such an extension will support a process engineer in realizing the sub-processes, and has at the same time shown that there are no internal inconsistencies of the CSPs. The extension provides a context for continued research in using UML to support negotiation between requirements and existing design.

  • 346.
    Borg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Patel, Mikael
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Method for Improving the Treatment of Capacity Requirements in Large Telecommunication SystemsManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-functional requirements crosscut functional models and are more difficult to enforce in system models. This paper describes a long-term research collaboration regarding capacity requirements between Linköping University and Ericsson AB. We describe an industrial case study on non-functional requirements as a background. Succeeding efforts dedicated to capacity include a detailed description of the term, a best practice inventory within Ericsson, and a pragmatic approach for how to annotate UML models with capacity information. The results are also represented as a method plug-in to the OpenUP software process and an anatomy facilitating the possibility to assess and improve an organization’s abilities to develop for capacity. The results combine into a method for how to improve the treatment of capacity requirements in large-scale software systems. Both product and process views are included, with emphasis on the latter.

  • 347.
    Borg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yong, Angela
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlshamre, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDA - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Bad Conscience of Requirements Engineering: An Investigation in Real-World Treatment of Non-Functional Requirements2003In: Third Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden (SERPS'03), Lund, 2003, 1-8 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though non-functional requirements (NFRs) are critical in order to provide software of good quality, the literature of NFRs is relatively sparse. We describe how NFRs are treated in two development organizations, an Ericsson application center and the IT department of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. We have interviewed professionals about problems they face and their ideas on how to improve the situation. Both organizations are aware of NFRs and related problems but their main focus is on functional requirements,primarily because existing methods focus on these. The most tangible problems experienced are that many NFRs remain undiscovered and that NFRs are stated in non-measurable terms. It became clear that the size andstructure of the organization require proper distribution of employees’ interest, authority and competence of NFRs. We argue that a feasible solution might be to strengthen the position of architectural requirements, which are more likely to emphasize NFRs.

  • 348.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Decision Support for Estimation of the Utility of Software and E-mail2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer users often need to distinguish between good and bad instances of software and e-mail messages without the aid of experts. This decision process is further complicated as the perception of spam and spyware varies between individuals. As a consequence, users can benefit from using a decision support system to make informed decisions concerning whether an instance is good or bad. Objective: This thesis investigates approaches for estimating the utility of e-mail and software. These approaches can be used in a personalized decision support system. The research investigates the performance and accuracy of the approaches. Method: The scope of the research is limited to the legal grey- zone of software and e-mail messages. Experimental data have been collected from academia and industry. The research methods used in this thesis are simulation and experimentation. The processing of user input, along with malicious user input, in a reputation system for software were investigated using simulations. The preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification was investigated using experimentation. The impact of social interaction data in regards to personalized e-mail classification was also investigated using experimentation. Results: Three approaches were investigated that could be adapted for a decision support system. The results of the investigated reputation system suggested that the system is capable, on average, of producing a rating ±1 from an objects correct rating. The results of the preprocessing optimization of end user license agreement classification suggested negligible impact. The results of using social interaction information in e-mail classification suggested that accurate spam detectors can be generated from the low-dimensional social data model alone, however, spam detectors generated from combinations of the traditional and social models were more accurate. Conclusions: The results of the presented approaches suggestthat it is possible to provide decision support for detecting software that might be of low utility to users. The labeling of instances of software and e-mail messages that are in a legal grey-zone can assist users in avoiding an instance of low utility, e.g. spam and spyware. A limitation in the approaches is that isolated implementations will yield unsatisfactory results in a real world setting. A combination of the approaches, e.g. to determine the utility of software, could yield improved results.

  • 349. Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Boldt, Martin
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Simulating malicious users in a software reputation system2011In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer , 2011, Vol. 186, 147-156 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, computer users have trouble in separating malicious and legitimate software. Traditional countermeasures such as anti-virus tools mainly protect against truly malicious programs, but the situation is complicated due to a "grey-zone" of questionable programs that are difficult to classify. We therefore suggest a software reputation system (SRS) to help computer users in separating legitimate software from its counterparts. In this paper we simulate the usage of a SRS to investigate the effects that malicious users have on the system. Our results show that malicious users will have little impact on the overall system, if kept within 10% of the population. However, a coordinated attack against a selected subset of the applications may distort the reputation of these applications. The results also show that there are ways to detect attack attempts in an early stage. Our conclusion is that a SRS could be used as a decision support system to protect against questionable software.

  • 350.
    Borg, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Comparison of clustering approaches for gene expression data2013In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, IOS Press , 2013, Vol. 257, 55-64 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustering algorithms have been used to divide genes into groups according to the degree of their expression similarity. Such a grouping may suggest that the respective genes are correlated and/or co-regulated, and subsequently indicates that the genes could possibly share a common biological role. In this paper, four clustering algorithms are investigated: k-means, cut-clustering, spectral and expectation-maximization. The algorithms are benchmarked against each other. The performance of the four clustering algorithms is studied on time series expression data using Dynamic TimeWarping distance in order to measure similarity between gene expression profiles. Four different cluster validation measures are used to evaluate the clustering algorithms: Connectivity and Silhouette Index for estimating the quality of clusters, Jaccard Index for evaluating the stability of a cluster method and Rand Index for assessing the accuracy. The obtained results are analyzed by Friedman's test and the Nemenyi post-hoc test. K-means is demonstrated to be significantly better than the spectral clustering algorithm under the Silhouette and Rand validation indices.

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