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  • 2701.
    Ålind, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A Skeleton library for Cell Broadband Engine2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Cell Broadband Engine processor is a powerful processor capable of over 220 GFLOPS. It is highly specialized and can be controlled in detail by the programmer. The Cell is significantly more complicated to program than a standard homogeneous multi core processor such as the Intel Core2 Duo and Quad. This thesis explores the possibility to abstract some of the complexities of Cell programming while maintaining high performance. The abstraction is achieved through a library of parallel skeletons implemented in the bulk synchronous parallel programming environment NestStep. The library includes constructs for user defined SIMD optimized data parallel skeletons such as map, reduce and more. The evaluation of the library includes porting of a vector based scientific computation program from sequential C code to the Cell using the library and the NestStep environment. The ported program shows good performance when compared to the sequential original code run on a high-end x86 processor. The evaluation also shows that a dot product implemented with the skeleton library is faster than the dot product in the IBM BLAS library for the Cell processor with more than two slave processors.

     

  • 2702.
    Åsfält, Pär
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Stüeken, Jan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Controlling Changes in Large-Scale Software Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to a software system are the result of changing requirements or defects during the development. Each change consumes resources for the analysis, decision making, implementation, and verification. Hence, having control over changes is crucial for software development projects to meet schedules, keep quality standards and budgets. Reuse of functionality helps to create new products based on already existing building blocks. Integrating mature components enables to create reliable systems. Software product lines provide means to develop several similar systems based on reuse. Often new products also need to be released frequently to fulfil the customer needs. Shortened lead time for the development then strengthens the importance of reuse. At the same time, limited budgets and competition on the market requires projects to utilize resources efficiently. Developing several releases in parallel enables an even distribution of tasks among different roles in a development organization. Both developing software based on a product line approach and parallel releases put requirements on how changes need to be controlled. In this thesis, software engineering literature is reviewed regarding the knowledge areas of software release management, software product lines and software configuration management. Beyond the most considerable research results also related case studies are presented to show how industry practices counter existing problems. The major part of the thesis is a case study conducted at Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB. The outcome of the thesis is an identification of challenges of controlling changes regarding parallel development and using software product lines based on available research results and industry case studies. It further provides a case of a software development organization which faces a high market-pace, uses a software product line approach, and develops several software releases in parallel on different sites around the world.

  • 2703.
    Åström, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kognitiva tjänster på en myndighet: Förstudie om hur Lantmäteriet kan tillämpa IBM Watson2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many milestones have been passed in computer science and currently we are on our way to pass yet another: artificial intelligence. One of the characteristics of AI is to be able to interpret so-called unstructured data, i.e., data that lacks structure. Unstructured data can be useful and with the new tools within AI is it possible to interpret it and use it to solve problems. This has the potential to be useful in practical applications such as processing and decision support. The work has been done at Apendo AB, which has the Swedish National Land Survey as a customer. The work is to investigate how AI-driven cognitive services through IBM Watson can be applied to the Swedish National Land Survey. The goal is to answer the following questions: Is it possible to apply cognitive services through Watson's services to give decision support to the Swedish National Land Survey already? In what ways can you use Watson's services to create a decision support? How effective can the solution for the Swedish National Land Survey be, i.e. how much time and costs can they save by using Watson's services on the chosen concept? As a practical part of the AI study, a perceptron was developed and evaluated. Through an agile approach, tests and studies about IBM Watson have taken place in parallel with interviews with employees at the Swedish National Land Survey. The tests were performed in the PaaS service IBM Bluemix with both Node-RED and an own built web application. Though the interviews, the Watson service Retrieve and Rank became interesting and examined more closely. With Retrieve and Rank you can get questions answered by ranking selected corpus pieces that are then trained for better answers. Uploading the corpus with related questions resulted in that 75% of the questions was answered correctly. Applications for the Swedish National Land Survey can then be a cognitive search function that helps administrators to search information in manuals and the law book.

  • 2704.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Wikblad, Ludwig
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    En testprocess för webbutvecklingsprojekt med små team2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a suitable approach for testing in small development teams is a challenge. Many small companies view traditional test processes and test process improvement models as too resource intensive for their needs. Minimal Test Practice Framework (MTPF) is a framework for testing which purpose is to provide a minimalistic approach to test improvement. The goal of this study was to examine how MTPF can be adapted to a small development team without incurring a time cost that the team would experience as too high. The study was performed in the department Web \& Mobile of the company Exsitec. At the department teams of 2-6 people develop web applications to business customers. During the study a testprocess was developed in close cooperation with the developers of the department with the aim of adapting it as well as possible to the needs of the department. The study was performed as action research in three phases, according to the method Cooperative Method Development, in a project with two developers. During the first phase all developers in the department were interviewed to establish an understanding of the environment for the study. During the second phase a set of possible improvements was developed together with the developers. During the third phase some of these improvements were implemented and evaluated. By focusing on unit testing central business logic in the application the developed test process improved the developers confidence in the code quality without being perceived as too resource intensive.

  • 2705.
    Öhgren, Jonny Karlsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Karlshamn, Blekinge Län,: Från utredning till verklighet, om processen att införskaffa ett system2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This Batchelor?s Thesis concerns 20 points at the MDA-program (People, Computers and Work) at Blekinge Institute of Technology in Ronneby, Sweden. 10 points concerns Computer Science and 10 points Human Work Science. The thesis is about the process of starting a new department of Blekingesjukhuset [Blekinge Hospital] in Karlshamn, Blekinge called Sjukvårdsrådgivningen [Health Care Advice Bureau]. The thesis starts with a description of the ethnographical methods used, followed by the process of establishing the department. In this new department, the nurses are using a computer based system called Teleråd, developed by TietoEnator. The thesis takes up the issues of how the department uses this system today and concerns what ?user-friendliness? is. The end of the thesis contains an evaluation of the visions of the founders of the new service and how/if the visions have become reality.

  • 2706.
    Öjebo, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Objekt-relationsmappning i datacentrerad applikation2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a study of six different object-relational mapping frameworks, namely Entity Framework, LINQ to SQL, NHibernate, Castle ActiveRecord, MyGeneration Doodads and Subsonic. The study describes the strengths and weaknesses of the various frameworks and discusses when each framework is appropriate to use.

    The frameworks that were judged to be the most interesting were NHibernate and Entity Framework, since they provide flexible mapping between the domain model and the underlying database schema as well as good availability of documentation and literature.

    The study was used as a basis for deciding which of the frameworks that should be used in a rewrite of an existing application for the IT consulting company Sogeti. The framework that was considered the most appropriate for the application was NHibernate.

  • 2707.
    Örnfjärd, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Schemaläggning på webben: Ett planeringsverktyg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through modern technology, scheduling and displaying these schedules has moved from its static paper form, to computerized form through development of dynamic scheduling tools. These tools can cover a variety of different uses but generally share one purpose; To plan future events. Since scheduling on a digital platform often allows the user to plan more events in less time, this has become a common form of scheduling. Although tools are available, it does not mean this kind of scheduling is flawless. You may experience problems when employees work irregular shifts and/or hours, need work related courses and go on vacations. In this scenario the scheduling tool need to show if the resources allotted a given time period is sufficient to reach maximum efficiency that day. This thesis aims to help IF Sundsvall with scheduling and the visualization of the qualifications of those currently working. This was done using a prototype that acts as a planning tool. This planning tool is meant to give IF Sundsvall the information they need in order to plan properly and thereby improve the contact with customers. The tool has undergone a usability test which results were ana- lyzed on a qualitative and quantitative level. A comparison has also been carried out comparing the previous scheduling tool and the prototype. The results of the usability test show that scheduling and the visualization of this scheduling with the prototype is possible without previous knowledge. The prototype developed in this project did however not reach the projects set goal.

  • 2708.
    Östberg, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Norgren, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Intelligent Gripper2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human hand is a great generic gripper as it can grasp objects of unknown shapes, weights and surfaces. Most robotic grippers in today's industry have to be custom made and tuned for each application by engineers, thus many man hours are required to get the desired behavior and repeatability. To be able to adapt some of the capabilities of the human hand into robust industrial robotic grippers would enhance their usability and ease the tuning by engineers once installed.

    This thesis discusses the development of a robust intelligent gripper for industrial use, based on piezo sensors which have the ability to both sense slippage and detect objects. First, an experimental sensor prototype was developed successfully using an amplification circuit and algorithms implemented in LabView. Secondly, a final prototype containing a signal board, an FPGA board, a simple gripper with linear units and more robust sensor modules where developed.

    The thesis further discusses which parts of the intelligent gripper that have been successfully implemented within the project time frame and which parts that needs to be further implemented, tested and improved.

  • 2709. Östberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Hellander, Andreas
    Drawert, Brian
    Elmroth, Erik
    Holmgren, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Petzold, Linda
    Abstractions for scaling eScience applications to distributed computing environments: A StratUm integration case study in molecular systems biology2012In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics Models, Methods and Algorithms, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress , 2012, 290-294 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2710. Östberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Hellander, Andreas
    Drawert, Brian
    Elmroth, Erik
    Holmgren, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Petzold, Linda
    Reducing complexity in management of eScience computations2012In: Proc. 12th International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2012, 845-852 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2711.
    Östberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lockner, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Reducing Complexity in Service Development and Integration2015In: Cloud computing and services sciences, CLOSER 2014, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, 63-80 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous growth and increasing complexity of distributed systems software has produced a need for software development tools and techniques that reduce the learning requirements and complexity of building distributed systems. In this work we address reduction of complexity in service-oriented software development and present an approach and a toolkit for multi-language service development based on three building blocks: a simplified service description language, an intuitive message serialization and transport protocol, and a set of code generation techniques that provide boilerplate environments for service implementations. The toolkit is intended for use in the eScience domain and is presented along with a performance evaluation that quantifies toolkit performance against that of selected alternative toolkits and technologies for service development. Toolkit performance is found to be comparable to or improve upon the performance of evaluated technologies.

  • 2712.
    Özcan, Mehmet Batuhan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Iro, Gabriel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    PARAVIRTUALIZATION IMPLEMENTATION IN UBUNTU WITH XEN HYPERVISOR2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing need for efficiency, cost reduction, reduced disposition of outdated electronics components as well as scalable electronics components, and also reduced health effects of our daily usage of electronics components. Recent trend in technology has seen companies manufacturing these products thinking in the mentioned needs when manufacturing and virtualizations is one important aspect of it. The need to share resources, the need to use lesser workspace, the need to reduce cost of purchase and manufacturing are all part of achievements of virtualization techniques. For some people, setting up a computer to run different virtual machines at the same time can be difficult especially if they have no prior basic knowledge of working in terminal environment and hiring a skilled personnel to do the job can be expensive. The motivation for this thesis is to help people with little or no basic knowledge on how to set up virtual machine with Ubuntu operating system on XEN hypervisor.

  • 2713.
    Özgür, Turhan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse Modeling Frameworks for Domain-Specific Modeling in the context of Model-Driven Development2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today it is realized by industry that automation of software development leads to increased productivity, maintainability and higher quality. Model-Driven Development (MDD) aims to replace manual software development methods by automated methods using Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to express domain concepts effectively. Main actors in software industry, Microsoft and IBM have recognized the need to provide technologies and tools to allow building DSLs to support MDD. On the one hand, Microsoft is building DSL Tools integrated in Visual Studio 2005; on the other hand IBM is contributing to the development of Eclipse Modeling Frameworks (EMF/GEF/GMF), both tools aim to make development and deployment of DSLs easier. Software practitioners seek for guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools. In this thesis, the author presents the current state-of-the-art in MDD standards and Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM). Furthermore, the author presents current state-of-the-tools for DSM and performs a comparison of Microsoft DSL Tools and Eclipse EMF/GEF/GMF Frameworks based on a set of evaluation criteria. For the purpose of comparison the author developed two DSL designers (one by using each DSM tool). Based on the experiences gained in development of these DSL designers, the author prepared guidelines regarding how to adopt these tools to existing development environments as well as their advantages and drawbacks.

  • 2714.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Testing in Agile Development: Technological and Organisational Challenges2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging industrial trend towards agile software development processes brings forth new concerns, challenges as well as opportunities. One of the main concerns is with respect to the achievable quality levels of the final product, for which testing is the well-known assurance mechanism. However, it is not well defined for the community on how to perform testing using existing expertise in an agile environment. This uncertainty may create confusion and contra productivity that can lead to testing teams and their practices considered as an obstacle for full implementation of agile processes within an organisation.

     

    This thesis outlines our current research activities towards identifying and addressing important organisational and technical challenges in the agile environment.  In this context, we propose a new role for traditional testers which will enable them to integrate into the agile team as well as to fully exploit their knowledge in the new context. We have conducted an elaborate industrial survey on the preferences and practices with respect to the contemporary aspects of software testing and identified test-driven development as an important technical area for improvement.  A systematic review on empirical evidences related to test-driven development was performed subsequently, which revealed a list of factors limiting its widespread industrial acceptance. Knowledge of testing was identified as one of those factors and was further investigated in a controlled experiment performed with undergraduate students.

     

    Our future works aim to confirm these research findings in wider as well as industrial settings and investigate other limiting factors in detail, with the aim of providing guidelines for achieving better utilisation of testers and testing practices.

     

  • 2715.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Distributed Project Management2014In: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, 301-320 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2716. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 2717. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009In: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

  • 2718.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, 96-105 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 2719.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, no 4, 26-32 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2720.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Expectations and Achievements: A Longitudinal Study on an Offshoring Strategy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore software development has gained momentum and most of software companies today have implemented offshore strategies of some sort. Many of these strategies are enforced by corporate top management and driven by assumptions that lower development wages guarantee cheaper and better software development. In practice, offshore software development is associated with many risks, and achievement of the expected benefits is not as straightforward as the rumor has it. In this paper we explore an implementation of an offshore strategy in a Swedish software company that opened its offshore branch in Russia. Based on extensive documentation analysis we create an overview of the initially expected benefits and obstacles that prevailed among onshore product and development unit managers. Years after implementation of the offshore insourcing strategy we asked these managers about the achievement of their expectations. We observed that the company documented various expected benefits when implementing an offshoring strategy and also concerns that some of these benefits might not be achieved. Seven years after its implementation, the offshoring strategy was overall considered working, however the expected benefits were not fully achieved. More importantly, several gaps were identified, that suggest that the enforced strategy has resulted in a stable but not beneficial collaboration from the onshore perspective.

  • 2721.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    Fostering Cross-site Coordination through Awareness: An investigation of state-of-the-practice through a focus group study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness and shared knowledge are important ingredients of successful coordination in software engineering projects, and especially when team members are distributed. Although various coordination mechanisms and knowledge sharing recommendations for cross-site collaboration have been proposed, spreading awareness among distributed team members in a global software project has proven to be challenging in practice. In this paper we discuss our findings from conducting three focus groups on knowledge management in global software collaborations in two international organizations. We discuss various awareness needs in globally distributed collaborations that were not addressed by the organizations, and conclude that best practices and tools proposed in related research are not widely used. On the basis of our empirical findings we suggest future research directions and share recommendations for practical improvements.

  • 2722.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Socio-technical congruence sabotaged by a hidden onshore outsourcing relationship: Lessons learned from an empirical study2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7343, 190-202 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the popularity of outsourcing arrangements, distributed software development is still regarded as a complex endeavor. Complexity primarily comes from the challenges in communication and coordination among participating organizations. In this paper we discuss lessons learned from participatory research carried out in a highly distributed onshore outsourcing project. Previous research established that socio-technical congruence principles alleviate distributed work. In practice we have found that alignment between the systems structure and organizational structure can be studied from different abstraction levels and also during different phases of project lifecycle. We have found that official organizational structure differed from the applied one, which meant that the planned alignment in task allocation strategies was broken. Our findings indicate that the lack of socio-technical congruence caused several implications, including unclear responsibilities, delays in problem turnaround, conflicting changes, and non-delivered parts.

  • 2723. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Why a CMMI Level 5 Company Fails to Meet the Deadlines?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable effort and cost estimation remains to be a challenging issue even for mature software organizations. Although, these organizations collect historical data to base their future estimates, changes in circumstances (such as application type, development platform, etc.) prevent their successful utilization. As a result, companies often suffer from underestimated and unrealistic schedules. Managing software projects that involve a large number of globally distributed stakeholders makes estimation and planning even more challenging. Related studies show that even knowledgeable project managers often underestimate hidden costs and sources of delay associated with distributed development. Therefore, management activities such as estimation of development effort, planning and control require special attention. In this paper we discuss experiences gained from a highly distributed software project, which aimed at development of a product based on a new platform and architectural solution. The project was conducted in a CMMI Level 5 company and still failed to meet initial plan constraints. We thus provide an overview of management decisions in the light of their consequences, and discuss potential areas of improvement.

  • 2724.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kuhrmann, Marco
    Keil, Patrick
    Virtual Teams: Guest Editor’s Introduction2014In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 31, no 6, 41-46 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2725.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nills Brede
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šablis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, 71-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

  • 2726. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Torkar, Richard
    Pitfalls in Remote Team Coordination: Lessons Learned From a Case Study2008In: LNCS 5089 / [ed] Salo, A. Jedlitschka and O., Springer Verlag , 2008, 345-359 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2727. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Moe, Nils BredeÅgerfalk, Pär J.
    Agility Across Time and Space: Making Agile Distributed Development a Success2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rather than deciding whether or not to get involved in global sourcing, many companies are facing decisions about whether or not to apply agile methods in their distributed projects. These companies are often motivated by the opportunities to solve the coordination and communication difficulties associated with global software development. Yet while agile principles prescribe close interaction and co-location, the very nature of distributed software development does not support these prerequisites. Šmite, Moe, and Ågerfalk structured the book into five parts. In “Motivation” the editors introduce the fundamentals of agile distributed software development and explain the rationale behind the application of agile practices in globally distributed software projects. “ Transition” describes implementation strategies, adoption of particular agile practices for distributed projects, and general concepts of agility. “Management” details practical implications for project planning, time management, and customer and subcontractor interaction. “Teams” discusses agile distributed team configuration, effective communication and knowledge transfer, and allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, in the “Epilogue” the editors summarize all contributions and present future trends for research and practice in agile distributed development. This book is primarily targeted at researchers, lecturers, and students in empirical software engineering, and at practitioners involved in globally distributed software projects. The contributions are based on sound empirical research and identify gaps and commonalities in both the existing state of the art and state of the practice. In addition, they also offer practical advice through many hints, checklists, and experience reports. Questions answered in this book include: What should companies expect from merging agile and distributed strategies? What are the stumbling blocks that prevent companies from realizing the benefits of the agile approach in distributed environments, and how can we recognize infeasible strategies and unfavorable circumstances? What helps managers cope with the challenges of implementing agile approaches in distributed software development projects? How can distributed teams survive the decisions taken by management and become efficient through the application of agile approaches?

  • 2728. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Numminen, Emil
    Transaction Cost Economics in Offshoring: From Naïve To Realistic View on Associated Costs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2729.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    van Solingen, Rini
    What's the True Hourly Cost of Offshoring?2016In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, no 5, 60-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An offshore team's hourly costs took three years to become comparable with the in-house team's costs. Getting close to breaking even took five years. Learning costs due to offshore employee turnover were the primary cost factor to get under control.

  • 2730. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Whisper of Evidence in Global Software Engineering2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 28, no 4, 15-18 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2731.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lessons learned from transferring software products to India2012In: Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, ISSN 1532-060X, E-ISSN 1532-0618, Vol. 24, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has influenced the way software is developed today, and many software organizations have started to actively utilize resources from around the world. However, these endeavors are recognized as very challenging, and they have attracted a lot of attention in software research in the past decade. Unlike many other research initiatives, which explore the complexities of distributed software development activities, the focus of this paper is on software transfers. Software transfers refer to activities that are moved from one location to another. The authors draw attention to the lessons learned from an empirical investigation of two transfer projects conducted at Ericsson. Both transfers were performed between a site in Sweden and a site in India. The observations outline a set of generic practices that have been found useful for transferring software development within a company. It also highlights a number of challenges to be addressed and a set of corresponding recommendations. Finally, the paper emphasizes the need to identify software products that are suitable for transfers and the need to monitor the long-term effects of transfer.

  • 2732. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Risk Identification in Software Product Transfers2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software companies today often face the necessity to decide where to develop their products. Inability to employ people or continue ongoing development with the same capacity in a given site of a company often leads to relocation of software work from one site to another. Software product transfers, however, are associated with numerous challenges that require investments, and may also have a secondary harder to capture effect on development productivity, quality and scope. In this paper, we share the results from previous empirical studies of software product transfers and offer a checklist for risk identification. The checklist shall be useful for software companies that consider, plan or execute software transfers. Although many risk factors included in the checklist may seem obvious, our empirical observations indicate that prior to obtaining the necessary experience these factors have been initially overlooked. Thus we believe that the checklist will be especially useful for managers with no or little experiences in relocating software work between the two sites of the same company.

  • 2733. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Transfers: Lessons Learned from a Case Study2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although global software work nowadays is not a phenomenon, research and practice is still addressing the complexities associated with the new forms of work enabled through globalization. ‘Go global’ strategies usually prescribe two alternative approaches: distribution of software development activities across several locations, or re-location of work to another site. This research paper focuses on the latter approach that is called software product transfers and discusses findings from an empirical case study conducted in Ericsson. The observations indicate that transferring software work from one site to another site of the same company is a challenging endeavor. Furthermore, practices used in co-located projects do not necessarily lead to a desired outcome. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and highlights practical advice for handling software product transfers.

  • 2734. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Strategies Facilitating Software Product Transfers2011In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 8, no 5, 60-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization of software work has become common in today's market. As part of cost-reduction strategies, many product-focused software companies started shipping their product development to insourcing and outsourcing offshore locations. Unfortunately, moving software products from one site to another isn't always a good business strategy for either the organization or the product. In this article, the authors discuss findings from studying software insourcing transfers at Ericsson, a large software product development company headquartered in Sweden. Their findings suggest that certain product, personnel, and process characteristics can facilitate the execution of an offshore insourcing transfer. On the basis of research conducted together with the company, they share a list of critical factors alleviating transfer difficulties and seven strategies facilitating transition of software work across sites.

  • 2735. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybuke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Numminen, Emil
    Towards an Understanding of Sourcing Decisions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2736.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Numminen, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Offshore Insourcing in Software Development: Structuring the Decision-Making Process2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 4, 1054-1067 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of new forms of business are enabled through globalization and practiced by software organizations today. While companies go global to reduce their development costs, access a larger pool of resources and explore new markets, it is often assumed that the level of delivered services shall remain the same after implementing the sourcing decisions. In contrast, critical studies identified that global software development is associated with unique challenges, and a lot of global projects fail to mitigate the implications of a particular global setting. In this paper we explore offshore insourcing decisions on the basis of empirical research literature and an empirical field study conducted at Ericsson. By analyzing decisions in two different cases we found that each offshore insourcing decision consisted of deciding what, where, when, how and why to insource. Related empirical research and field observations suggest that not all combinations are successful and alignment between different decision points has thus a prominent role. To address these concerns we built an empirically-based insourcing decision structure, which outlines a logical path through the decision options and helps selecting an offshore insourcing strategy that targets creation of the necessary alignment. The key element of the proposed approach is a structured and well-defined decision-making process, which is intended to support managers in their decision-making. The usefulness of the proposed approach is evaluated in an additional empirical case of a new offshore insourcing decision.

  • 2737. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Reporting Empirical Research in Global Software Engineering: A Classification Scheme2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased popularity of global software engineering (GSE) has resulted in quite a number of research and industrial studies. As the area matures, an increased focus on empirically supported results leads to a greater potential impact on future research and industrial practice. However, since GSE scenarios are diverse, what works in one context might not directly apply in another. Thus it is necessary to understand, how GSE-related empirical findings should be reported to be useful for practitioners and researchers. Furthermore, it‘s important to summarize progress and get the big picture of published research to identify gaps and commonalities. In this paper we analyze differentiating factors of GSE scenarios and offer a classification scheme for describing the context of a GSE study. In addition, we report initial results of a systematic review on GSE-related empirical literature using papers from ICGSE 2006 and 2007, at the same time illustrating and evaluating the proposed scheme.

  • 2738.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Galviņa, Zane
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering2014In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 191, no 1, 105-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations nowadays strive for utilization of benefits offered by global software engineering (GSE) and sourcing strategies are thus discussed more often. Since there are so many variations of the attributes associated with global software projects a large amount of new terms has been introduced. The diversity in sourcing jargon however has caused difficulties in determining which term to use in which situation, and thus causing further obstacles to searching and finding relevant research during e.g. systematic literature reviews. The inability of judging the applicability of the research in an industrial context is another important implication on the transferability of research into practice. Thus the need for accurate terminology and definitions for different global sourcing situations emerges as a way for the community to build upon each other's work and hence making progress more quickly. In this paper we first investigate the state of the use of the GSE jargon concluding that terminology is very diverse (many synonyms used to describe the same phenomena), often confusing (same terms used to describe different phenomena) and occasionally ambiguous (few terms used to describe several phenomena). In order to address the identified problems, we conducted a Delphi-inspired study with ten well-established researchers in GSE and developed an empirically based glossary for the key concepts in global software engineering. We then propose a taxonomy for GSE by categorizing the selected terms based on generalization-specialization relationships and illustrate how the taxonomy can be used to categorize and map existing knowledge. The contribution targets future researchers, who will publish or synthesize further empirical work and practitioners, who are interested in published empirical cases. Therefore this work is expected to make a contribution to the future development of research in the GSE field, and alleviate understandability and transferability of existing and future knowledge into practice.

  • 2739. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Empirical evidence in global software engineering: a systematic review2010In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, Vol. 15, no 1, 91-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognized as one of the trends of the 21st century, globalization of the world economies brought significant changes to nearly all industries, and in particular it includes software development. Many companies started global software engineering (GSE) to benefit from cheaper, faster and better development of software systems, products and services. However, empirical studies indicate that achieving these benefits is not an easy task. Here, we report our findings from investigating empirical evidence in GSE-related research literature. By conducting a systematic review we observe that the GSE field is still immature. The amount of empirical studies is relatively small. The majority of the studies represent problem-oriented reports focusing on different aspects of GSE management rather than in-depth analysis of solutions for example in terms of useful practices or techniques. Companies are still driven by cost reduction strategies, and at the same time, the most frequently discussed recommendations indicate a necessity of investments in travelling and socialization. Thus, at the same time as development goes global there is an ambition to minimize geographical, temporal and cultural separation. These are normally integral parts of cross-border collaboration. In summary, the systematic review results in several descriptive classifications of the papers on empirical studies in GSE and also reports on some best practices identified from literature.

  • 2740. Šteinberga, Liva
    et al.
    Smite, Darja
    Towards understanding of software engineer motivation in globally distributed projects2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in software engineering is reported to be a source for performance improvement, which leads to project overall success. Since it is a soft factor and difficult to quantify it is usually neglected. Research in this field is rather scarce and outdated. On the basis of a recent systematic review of software engineers' motivation we set an agenda for further investigation of the role of motivation in contemporary projects. As software organizations nowadays seek opportunities inherited in both - global software development (GSD) and agile projects, it is important to understand how different project environments influence motivation.

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