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  • 2701. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Shull, Forrest
    Ciolkowski, Marcus
    Software Inspection Benchmarking: A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparative Opportunity.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections are commonly used throughout the software industry, but there are still open questions about the relationship between inspection processes and inspection effectiveness. For example, which techniques work best in various environments? Are requirements specifications inspections and code inspections different in terms of effectiveness? What is the effectiveness in inspections for different group sizes? Benchmarking provides an opportunity to address such issues. This paper discusses how benchmarking may be applied for software inspections. The discussion is illustrated with an empirical study. It is shown how the data can be used to plan and manage software inspections. It is concluded that software inspections are well suited for benchmarking and that software practitioners as well as researchers can learn valuable lessons.

  • 2702. Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Höst, Martin
    Runeson, Per
    Defect content estimation for two reviewers2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of the defect content is important to enable quality control throughout the software development process. Capture-recapture methods and curve fitting methods have been suggested as tools to estimate the defect content after a review. The methods are highly reliant on the quality of the data. If the number of reviewers is fairly small, it becomes difficult or even impossible to get reliable estimates. This paper presents a comprehensive study of estimates based on two reviewers, using real data from reviews. Three experience-based defect content estimation methods are evaluated vs. methods that use data only from the current review. Some models are possible to distinguish from each other in terms of statistical significance. In order to gain an even better understanding, the best models are compared subjectively. It is concluded that the experience-based methods provide some good opportunities to estimate the defect content after a review.

  • 2703.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Prikladniki, Rafael
    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 919-920Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2704.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Runeson, Per
    Da Mota Silveira Neto, Paulo Anselmo
    Engström, Emelie
    Do Carmo Machado, Ivan
    De Almeida, Eduardo Santana
    On the reliability of mapping studies in software engineering2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 86, no 10, p. 2594-2610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature reviews and systematic mapping studies are becoming increasingly common in software engineering, and hence it becomes even more important to better understand the reliability of such studies. Objective: This paper presents a study of two systematic mapping studies to evaluate the reliability of mapping studies and point out some challenges related to this type of study in software engineering. Method: The research is based on an in-depth case study of two published mapping studies on software product line testing. Results: We found that despite the fact that the two studies are addressing the same topic, there are quite a number of differences when it comes to papers included and in terms of classification of the papers included in the two mapping studies. Conclusions: From this we conclude that although mapping studies are important, their reliability cannot simply be taken for granted. Based on the findings we also provide four conjectures that further research has to address to make secondary studies (systematic mapping studies and systematic literature reviews) even more valuable to both researchers and practitioners.

  • 2705.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University.
    Ohlsson, Magnus C.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University.
    Wesslén, Anders
    Experimentation in Software Engineering2015Book (Other academic)
  • 2706.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Runeson, Per
    Höst, Martin
    Ohlsson, Magnus C.
    Regnell, Björn
    Wesslén, Anders
    Experimentation in Software Engineering2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other sciences and engineering disciplines, software engineering requires a cycle of model building, experimentation, and learning. Experiments are valuable tools for all software engineers who are involved in evaluating and choosing between different methods, techniques, languages and tools. The purpose of Experimentation in Software Engineering is to introduce students, teachers, researchers, and practitioners to empirical studies in software engineering, using controlled experiments. The introduction to experimentation is provided through a process perspective, and the focus is on the steps that we have to go through to perform an experiment. The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a background of theories and methods used in experimentation. Part II then devotes one chapter to each of the five experiment steps: scoping, planning, execution, analysis, and result presentation. Part III completes the presentation with two examples. Assignments and statistical material are provided in appendixes. Overall the book provides indispensable information regarding empirical studies in particular for experiments, but also for case studies, systematic literature reviews, and surveys. It is a revision of the authors’ book, which was published in 2000. In addition, substantial new material, e.g. concerning systematic literature reviews and case study research, is introduced. The book is self-contained and it is suitable as a course book in undergraduate or graduate studies where the need for empirical studies in software engineering is stressed. Exercises and assignments are included to combine the more theoretical material with practical aspects. Researchers will also benefit from the book, learning more about how to conduct empirical studies, and likewise practitioners may use it as a “cookbook” when evaluating new methods or techniques before implementing them in their organization.

  • 2707.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Supporting strategic decision-making for selection of software assets2016In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 2708.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Classifications of Software Transfers2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies have development sites around the globe. This inevitably means that development work may be transferred between the sites. This paper defines a classification of software transfer types; it divides transfers into three main types: full, partial and gradual transfers to describe the context of a transfer. The differences between transfer types, and hence the need for a classification, are illustrated with staffing curves for two different transfer types. The staffing curves are obtained through a combination of interviews with both high-level management and a group of experts, and an industrial case study. From the empirical work, it is concluded that the distribution of personnel differs for different types of transfer, which means that it is crucial to be clear about different classes of software transfers. If not, it is easy to underestimate the effort needed to transfer software work as well as additional costs related to the transfer as such.

  • 2709.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nilsbrede
    A general theory of software engineering: Balancing human, social and organizational capitals2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists no generally accepted theory in software engineering, and at the same time a scientific discipline needs theories. Some laws, hypotheses and conjectures exist, but yet no generally accepted theory. Several researchers and initiatives emphasize the need for theory in the discipline. The objective of this paper is to formulate a theory of software engineering. The theory is generated from empirical observations of industry practice, including several case studies and many years of experience in working closely between academia and industry. The theory captures the balancing of three different intellectual capitals: human, social and organizational capitals, respectively. The theory is formulated using a method for building theories in software engineering. It results in a theory where the relationships between the three different intellectual capitals are explored and explained. The theory is illustrated based on an industrial case study, where it is shown how decisions made in industry practice are explainable with the formulated theory, and the consequences of the decisions are made explicit. Based on the positive results, it is concluded that the theory may have a good explanatory power, although more evaluations are needed. ©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierInc.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense.

  • 2710. Wolff, D.
    et al.
    Bellec, Guillaume
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    MacFarlane, A.
    Weyde, T.
    Creating audio based experiments as social Web games with the CASimIR framework2014In: Proceedings of the AES International Conference, 2014, p. 288-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the CASimIR framework for online experiments, its use for creating a music audio game, and initial results and analyses of the collected data. Gathering user data is essential to understand the semantics of music audio and CASimIR is a new open framework for creating games with a purpose and surveys to collect user data in the Web and social networks. Its design facilitates collaborative data annotation in dynamic environments by providing modules for managing media and annotation data, as well as functionality for creating and running online real-time multi-player games. Technical benefits of the extensible framework as well as its cost effectiveness are discussed. As a case-study, we present its use in Spot The Odd Song Out, a multi-player game for collecting annotations on musical similarity and rhythm and we analyse the quantity and quality of data obtained to date with this game. The results and lessons for future data collection projects in the context of shared and linked data are discussed.

  • 2711.
    Wong, Kwok-Leung
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Intelligent resource handling scheduling of automated test execution2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The unit RTH, Radio Access Network Transmission and Home at Ericsson site in Linkoping uses today different test tool which are divided between different projects. Today they do not have any optimal solution for in an easy way execute the test cases from different projects concurrently, and share the test tools between the these projects.

    All the execution of test cases which a test tool is needed needs to be configured and started manually which cost both time and money. Since the test tools are very expensive to use, it is desirable to increase the utilization. The purpose of this thesis is to provide RTH a working prototype which can in an intelligent way schedule and then automatically execute the test cases. The prototype shall consist of a web user interface and a scheduler part. The web user interface is going to be that part which the user works in, and the scheduler handles the prioritization and make sure that the test cases are executed.

    To reach the goal with a working prototype, PHP and Java were picked as framework for the prototype. The theory behind these programming languages and more can be read in the theory chapter, and all the different methods which were used. The result of the working process can be read in the Result chapter.

    The end prototype fulfills the customer’s requirement. Improvement and new functionalities are given as suggestion at the end of this thesis, where we also discuss the working process.

  • 2712.
    Wu, Hong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    An Experiment on the Suitability of RAM for Test Case Design2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To perform software testing at the early stages of software development process can save the cost and effort on finding and fixing defects. As the first stage of software development process, requirements engineering has been moved away from project-initiated requirements engineering towards requirements-initiated development in the last decade. This leads new challenges that it demands support for handling the requirements continually come in from multiple stakeholders on multiple abstraction levels instead of some specific customers. Requirements Abstraction Model was developed as a hierarchical abstraction method for requirements management, which is enable product management to leverage their resources and select requirements for implementation without overloading the organization. RAM was validated in industry on the usability for requirements management, but there is no evaluation for RAM on software testing. This thesis presents an empirical study with a goal of evaluating the suitability of RAM for test case design in respective of efficiency and effectiveness by the comparison with IEEE Std. 830 which is a standard of the traditional requirements specification. For achieving the goal of this study, a controlled experiment is conducted based on the refinement on an initial experiment planning, and is operated with twenty developers in industry in China. Analysis of the collected data from the experiment indicates that RAM has a similar effectiveness as using the requirements in IEEE Std. 830 format, while RAM is more efficient for test case design. Therefore, RAM is suitable for test case design, and has better performance than IEEE Std. 830 comprehensively in view of both efficiency and effectiveness.

  • 2713.
    Wällstedt, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Tchou, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Shosholli, Adrian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lundberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    R. Dani, Janos
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Agbrink, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Järvelä, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Webbutveckling med Flask och WordPress2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om ett projekt åtta studenter på Linköpings universitet genomförde våren 2017, inom ramarna för kursen TDDD96: Kandidatprojekt i programvaruutveckling. Fokuset i projektet var att bygga upp en ny webbplats åt en kund, Musikaliska konstföreningen, som ska ersätta deras gamla webbplats. Projektgruppen valde att göra detta med hjälp av verktyget WordPress. Gruppen valde också att göra en alternativ webbplats med programmeringsspråket Python och ramverket Flask, för att sedan jämföra resultatet mot WordPress-resultatet. Det gruppen valde att jämföra är vilket stöd WordPress respektive Flask ger åt utvecklarna, och vilket av dem som ger lämpligast resultat för kunden. Resultatet blev en färdig hemsida uppbyggd med WordPress, och en prototypsida uppbyggd med Python och Flask. Resultatet visar att det är enklare att få en färdig sida med hjälp av WordPress, men att man genom att skriva kod från grunden i Flask kan få ett betydligt mer användaranpassat system. När det kommer till faktorer som driftkostnader och stöd så visade det sig att WordPress har en klar fördel i jämförelse med Flask.

  • 2714. Xiao, Junchao
    et al.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Search-based resource scheduling for bug fixing tasks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software testing phase usually results in a large number of bugs to be fixed. The fixing of these bugs require executing certain activities (potentially concurrent) that demand resources having different competencies and work-loads. Appropriate resource allocation to these bug-fixing activities can help a project manager to schedule capable resources to these activities, taking into account their availability and skill requirements for fixing different bugs. This paper presents a multi-objective search-based resource scheduling method for bug-fixing tasks. The inputs to our proposed method include i) a bug model, ii) a human resource model, iii) a capability matching method between bug-fixing activities and human resources and iv) objectives of bug-fixing. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a search algorithm and the output is a bug-fixing schedule, satisfying different constraints and value objectives. We have evaluated our proposed scheduling method on an industrial data set and have discussed three different scenarios. The results indicate that GA is able to effectively schedule resources by balancing different objectives. We have also compared the effectiveness of using GA with a simple hill-climbing algorithm. The comparison shows that GA is able to achieve statistically better fitness values than hill-climbing.

  • 2715.
    Xiaojun, Chen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bhattrai, Premlal
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Method for Membership Card Generation Based on Clustering and Optimization Models in A Hypermarket2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Data mining as a technique is used to find interesting and valuable knowledge from huge amount of stored data within databases or data warehouses. It encompasses classification, clustering, association rule learning, etc., whose goals are to improve commercial decisions and behaviors in organizations. Amongst these, hierarchical clustering method is commonly used in data selection preprocessing step for customer segmentation in business enterprises. However, this method could not treat with the overlapped or diverse clusters very well. Thus, we attempt to combine clustering and optimization into an integrated and sequential approach that can substantially be employed for segmenting customers and subsequent membership cards generation. Clustering methods is used to segment customers into groups while optimization aids in generating the required membership cards. Objectives: Our master thesis project aims to develop a methodological approach for customer segmentation based on their characteristics in order to define membership cards based on mathematical optimization model in a hypermarket. Methods: In this thesis, literature review of articles was conducted using five reputed databases: IEEE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Springer and Engineering Village. This was done to have a background study and to gain knowledge about the current research in the field of clustering and optimization based method for membership card generating in a hypermarket. Further, we also employed video interviews as research methodologies and a proof-of-concept implementation for our solution. Interviews allowed us to collect raw data from the hypermarket while testing the data produces preliminary results. This was important because the data could be regarded as a guideline to evaluate the performance of customer segmentation and generating membership cards. Results: We built clustering and optimization models as a two-step sequential method. In the first step, the clustering model was used to segment customers into different clusters. In the second step, our optimization model was utilized to produce different types of membership cards. Besides, we tested a dataset consisting of 100 customer records consequently obtaining five clusters and five types of membership cards respectively. Conclusions: This research provides a basis for customer segmentation and generating membership cards in a hypermarket by way of data mining techniques and optimization. Thus, through our research, an integrated and sequential approach to clustering and optimization can suitably be used for customer segmentation and membership card generation respectively.

  • 2716. Xie, M
    et al.
    Hong, G Y
    Wohlin, Claes
    Modeling and Analysis of Software System Reliability.2003In: Case Studies on Reliability and Maintenance / [ed] Blischke, W; Murphy, P, Germany: Wiley VHC Verlag , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2717.
    Xu, Ting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Integration and Evaluation of IoT Hardware and Software platforms2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly these years and the influence of IoT on everyday life and behavior are also increasing. It is a network that connects physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items and embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity so that these objects can collect and exchange data. It has been utilized in lots of domains, such as transportation and logistics domain, healthcare domain, smart environment domain, personal and social domain. It is estimated that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. IoT Gateway is really important in IoT, which can bridge traditional communication networks with sensor networks to make the network communication easier. IoT communication is of vital importance in today’s life. This study has the aim of integrating and evaluating of IoT gateways and IoT communication systems. It proposes a scenario where the IoT gateway connects to an actuator in order to control the actuator and transmit the data via the IoT communication system, creates a demonstrator by setting up the communication between the IoT gateway platform and the IoT communication system, measures and evaluates the performance in terms of latency and throughput using the implemented scenario, and at last draws the conclusion.

  • 2718.
    Xu, Xiaoji
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Zhi, Huanyu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Study Of Game Elements Impacting On SE Course Completion Rate In MOOCs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. SE is a growing field in both academia and industry, online SE education becomes more and more prevalent recent years. Massive Open Online Courses, as an emerging type of open educational resource, provide SE courses a much wider development space. But on the other hand, MOOCs limit SE courses because its low completion rate. Game elements are used to address this issue, but the impact of game elements on completion rate of specific MOOCs and SE courses in MOOCs are not clear. It is necessary to find whether and how game elements could help students finish SE courses. Explore the method and idea of improving SE courses in MOOCs through game elements.

    Objectives. In this study authors investigate what game elements are applied in SE courses in MOOCs platforms, evaluate the impact of MOOCs game elements on SE courses completion situation. Based on the analysis and summary of the data and result, propose suggestion to improve SE courses.

    Methods. Authors conduct a systematic literature to find the game elements used in SE courses in MOOCs. Conducting the survey to get the data of the MOOCs game elements on completion situation in general and data of survey is analyzed by mathematical statistics. The interview is used to find how the game elements of MOOC and SE education simulation impact on learning SE courses on MOOCs by inductive content analysis.

    Results. In systematic literature review, 23 studies are selected from 358 papers of six databases. Forty-one responses of questionnaires are received and twenty interviewees take part in this study. Authors find that game elements have been applied in MOOCs in various ways and research results about effort of game elements are positive. In this study, the results of analyzing the received data in survey show that there is no significant impact of game elements on course completion rate. The interview shows that specific game element is necessary for students finishing their courses and some game elements are not well designed in students’ perspective. Two specific suggestions to improve SE courses are proposed according to survey and interview result.

    Conclusions. This research collects data through SLR, survey and interview, and evaluates the impact of game elements on SE course completion situation through analysis, comparison and summary. The result is helpful to people who design and develop the game elements in MOOCs platform. Focusing on the character of SE education and SE courses, some suggestion of designing and modifying the game elements are provided. This enables the game elements designer to target designing and arranging game elements better.

  • 2719.
    Yadav, Pavan Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Kalyan, Kosuri Naga Krishna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Support for Information Management in Virtual Organizations2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and innovation are revolutionizing the higher education forcing to create new market trends. Different nations have their own pattern and framework of education in delivering the educational services. Educational institutions are also seeking different organizational and behavioural changes for their better future as they hunt for new financial resources, face new competition and seek greater prestige domestically and internationally. The coming future will decide which universities would survive the market trends, competition and expectations of the students (Clients). The survival-of-the-fittest paradigm framework plays a prominent role in ideas of how the higher education would be delivered to the students in future with the Instruction Technology and distance education. According to us the education trend has changed its phase of delivery of services form the management point of view to student’s point of view. Leading to delivery of educational service’s which would have more impact on student’s education, knowledge and experience within the institution. In our thesis we try to provide some information about how to support and manage the information in Virtual Organizations. We also explore the frameworks of the university and discussed a case study about the different ways of providing better support for information management resulting in delivery of best students driven services and unique facilities. We would be looking at the different aspects of the university work flows and procedures and gain an insight on the student’s expectation from the organization. This investigation would be helpful for the students to know what are the services they should expect from the universities and also helpful for management to know better the needs of the students and their needs and to develop a framework for proper execution of these services.

  • 2720. Yamba Yamba, André
    et al.
    Åhlander, Krister
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Ljungberg, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Designing for geometrical symmetry exploitation2006In: Scientific Programming, ISSN 1058-9244, E-ISSN 1875-919X, Vol. 14, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2721. Yamba Yamba, André
    et al.
    Åhlander, Krister
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Ljungberg, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Designing for geometrical symmetry exploitation2006Report (Other academic)
  • 2722.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    A Software Framework for Prioritized Spectrum Access in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the radio spectrum is rarely fully utilized. This problem is valid in more domains, e.g., time, frequency and geographical location. To provide an efficient utilization of the radio spectrum, the Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) have been advanced. The key idea is to open up the licensed spectrum to unlicensed users, thus allowing them to use the so-called spectrum opportunities as long as they do not harmfully interfere with licensed users. An important focus is laid on the limitation of previously reported research efforts, which is due to the limited consideration of the problem of competition among unlicensed users for spectrum access in heterogeneous CRNs. A software framework is introduced, which is called PRioritized Opportunistic spectrum Access System (PROAS). In PROAS, the heterogeneity aspects of CRNs are specifically expressed in terms of cross-layer design and various wireless technologies. By considering factors like ease of implementation and efficiency of control, PROAS provides priority scheduling based solutions to alleviate the competition problem of unlicensed users in heterogenous CRNs. The advanced solutions include theoretical models, numerical analysis and experimental simulations for performance evaluation. By using PROAS, three particular CRN models are studied, which are based on ad-hoc, mesh-network and cellular-network technologies. The reported results show that PROAS has the ability to bridge the gap between research results and the practical implementation of CRNs.

  • 2723.
    Yao, Yong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Spectrum Decision Support System for Cognitive Radio Networks2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) offer a promising capability of alleviating the problem of spectrum insufficiency. In CRNs, the licensed spectrum channels are either exclusively reserved for licensed users or temporarily used by unlicensed users. The requirement for unlicensed users is to not harmfully impair the licensed users transmissions. Because of this, the unlicensed users must solve the task to decide which available channels should be selected. The selection process is often referred to as spectrum decision, with the aim to optimize the transmission performance of unlicensed users. A support system for CRNs is introduced, which is called Spectrum Decision Support System (SDSS). SDSS provides an intelligent spectrum decision strategy that integrates different decision making algorithms and takes into account various channel characterization parameters. The objective is to develop a scientific framework for decision making in CRNs, which involve theoretical analysis, simulation evaluation and practical implementation. Three important components of SDSS are discussed: 1) setting up an overlay decision maker, 2) prediction based spectrum decision strategy and 3) queuing modeling of CRNs. The reported results indicate the feasibility of the suggested algorithms.

  • 2724.
    Yasin, Affan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Hasnain, Muhammad Ijlal
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On the Quality of Grey Literature and its use in Information Synthesis during Systematic Literature Reviews2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The Internet has become a vital channel for disseminating and accessing scientific literature for both the academic and industrial research needs. Nowadays, everyone has wide access to scientific literature repositories, which comprise of both “white” and “Grey” literature. The “Grey” literature, as opposed to “white” literature, is non-peer reviewed scientific information that is not available using commercial information sources such as IEEE or ACM. A large number of software engineering researchers are undertaking systematic literature reviews (SLRs) to investigate empirical evidence in software engineering. The key reason to include grey literature during information synthesis is to minimize the risk of any bias in the publication. Using the state of the art non-commercial databases that index information, the researchers can make the rigorous process of searching empirical studies in SLRs easier. This study explains the evidence of Grey literature while performing synthesis in Systematic Literature Reviews. Objectives: The goals of this thesis work are, 1. To identify the extent of usage of Grey Literature in synthesis during systematic literature reviews. 2. To investigate if non-commercial information sources primarily Google Scholar are sufficient for retrieving primary studies for SLRs. Methods: The work consists of a systematic literature review of SLRs and is a tertiary study and meta-analysis. The systematic literature review was conducted on 138 SLRs’ published through 2003 until 2012 (June). The article sources used are IEEEXplore, ACM Digital Library, Springer-Link and Science Direct. Results: For each of the selected article sources such as ACM, IEEEXplore, Springer-link and Science Direct, we have presented results, which describe the extent of the usage of Grey literature. The qualitative results discuss various strategies for systematic evaluation of the Grey literature during systematic literature review. The quantitative results comprise of charts and tables, showing the extent of Grey literature usage. The results from analysis of Google Scholar database describe the total number of primary studies that we are able to find using only Google Scholar database. Conclusion: From the analysis of 138 Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs’), we conclude that the evidence of Grey literature in SLRs is around 9%. The percentage of Grey literature sources used in information synthesis sections of SLRs is around 93.2%. We were able to retrieve around 96 % of primary studies using Google Scholar database. We conclude that Google Scholar can be a choice for retrieving published studies however; it lacks detailed search options to target wider pool of articles. We also conclude that Grey literature is widely available in this age of information. We have provided guidelines in the form of strategies for systematic evaluation of Grey literature.

  • 2725.
    Yelleswarapu, Mahesh Chandra
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Assessment of the Usability Quality Attribute in Open Source Software2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is one of the important quality attributes. Open source software products are well known for their efficiency and effectiveness. Lack of usability in OSS (Open Source Software) products will result in poor usage of the product. In OSS development there is no usability team, and one could therefore expect that the usability would be low for these products. In order to find out if this was really the case we made a usability evaluation using a questionnaire for four OSS products. The questionnaire was based on a review of existing literature. This questionnaire was presented to 17 people who are working with open source products. This evaluation showed that the overall usability was above average for all the four products. It seems, however, that the lack of a usability team has made the OSS products less easy to use for inexperienced users. Based on the responses to questionnaire and a literature review, a set of guidelines and hints for increasing the usability of OSS products was defined.

  • 2726. Ygge, Fredrik
    et al.
    Astor, Eric
    Interacting Intelligent Software Agents in Distribution management1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though distributed computing and two-way communication with the customer is becoming a reality for many energy distribution companies, there still is a need to develop methodologies for more efficient energy management. In this paper we discuss current approaches to demand management, and then present ideas from other areas applied to energy management. We introduce concepts such as computational markets and software agents in this context. In addition, methods entirely based on distributed problem solving to address the computationally hard problems of resource allocation with vast number of clients are described. We also discuss how these methods can be used to perform cost/benefit analysis of demand management.

  • 2727. Ygge, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Rune
    Akkermans, Hans
    HOMEBOTS: Intelligent Agents for Decentralized Load Management1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2728.
    Yi, Lirong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Evaluation and Implementation of a Secure Zero Configuration IoT System2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) comprises a large number of heterogeneous devices. It is forecasted that up to 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020. All of them have to be configured. Due to the heterogeneity of devices and the enormous increasing number of devices, manual configuration becomes more and more complex and inefficient. Zero configuration is put forward to solve this problem, which makes device configured automatically without additional manual involvement. Besides that, there are many security threats we want to avoid in the future. These security problems include unauthenticated nodes accessing to IoT data, denial of service, lack of confidentiality, malicious attack from hackers and so on. This paper studies the characteristics of IoT firstly and then highlights the implementation of zero configuration and security to IoT. This paper describes the underlying features of zero configuration and primary requirements of security, as well as finds some related mature technologies, based on that proposes a concise solution – combining the Bonjour and many security approaches for implementation of a secure zero IoT system. In addition, this solution is implemented in a small environment scenario of IoT, a smart home. All the programs are in Java language. Evaluation and conclusion are done in final phase.

  • 2729.
    Yin, Hang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Introducing Mode Switch in Component-Based Software Development2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptivity, characterized by the ability to dynamically adjust behavior at runtime, is a growing trend in the evolution of modern embedded systems. While self-adaptive systems tend to be flexible and autonomous, self-adaptivity may inevitably complicate software design, test and analysis. A strategy for taming the growing software complexity of self-adaptive systems is to partition system behaviors into different operational modes specified at design time. Such a multi-mode system can change behavior by switching between modes at runtime under certain circumstances. Multi-mode systems can benefit from a complementary approach to the software development of complex systems: Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), which fosters reuse of independently developed software components. However, the state-of-the-art component-based development of multi-mode systems does not take full advantage of CBSE, as reuse of modes at component level is barely addressed. Modes are often treated as system properties, while mode switches are handled by a global mode manager. This centralized mode management entails global information of all components, whereas the global information may be inaccessible in component-based systems. Another potential problem is that a single mode manager does not scale well, particularly at design time,  for a large number of components and modes.

     

    In this thesis we propose a distributed solution to the component-based development of multi-mode systems, aiming for a more efficient and scalable mode management. Our goal is to fully incorporate modes in software component reuse, supporting reuse of multi-mode components, i.e., components able to run in multiple modes. We have developed a generic framework, the Mode-Switch Logic (MSL), which not only supports reuse of multi-mode components but also provides runtime mechanisms for handling mode switch. MSL includes three fundamental elements: (1) a mode-aware component model with the formal specification of reusable multi-mode software components; (2) a mode mapping mechanism for the seamless composition of multi-mode components; and (3) a mode-switch runtime mechanism which is executed by each component in isolation from its functional execution and coordinates the mode switches of different components without the need of global mode information. The mode-switch runtime mechanism has been verified by model checking in conjunction with mathematical proofs. We also provide a mode-switch timing analysis for the runtime mechanism to respect real-time requirements.

     

    MSL is dedicated to the mode aspect of a system irrespective of component execution semantics, thus independent of the choice of component models. We have integrated MSL in the ProCom component model with the extension of support for reuse of multi-mode components and distributed mode-switch handling. Although the distributed mode-switch handling of MSL is more flexible and scalable than the conventional centralized approach, when components are deployed on a single hardware platform and global mode information is available, centralized mode-switch handling is more efficient in terms of runtime overhead and mode-switch time. Hence, MSL is supplemented with a mode transformation technique to enhance runtime mode-switch efficiency by converting the distributed mechanism to a centralized mechanism. MSL together with the mode transformation technique has been implemented in a prototype tool where one can build multi-mode systems by reusing multi-mode components. The applicability of MSL is demonstrated in two proof-of-concept case studies.

  • 2730.
    Yin, Hang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mode switch for component-based multi-mode systems2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering is becoming a prominent solution to the development of complex embedded systems. Since it allows a system to be built by reusable and independently developed components, component-based development substantially facilitates the development of a complex embedded system and allows its complexity to be better managed. Meanwhile, partitioning system behavior into multiple operational modes is also an effective approach to reducing system complexity. Combining the component-based approach with the multi-mode approach, we get a component-based multi-mode system, for which a key issue is its mode switch handling. The mode switch of such a system corresponds to the joint mode switches of many hierarchically organized components. Such a mode switch is not trivial as it amounts to coordinate the mode switches of different components that are independently developed.

    Since most existing approaches to mode switch handling assume that mode switch is a global event of the entire system, they cannot be easily applied to component-based multi-mode systems where both the mode switch of the system and each individual component must be considered, and where components cannot be assumed to have global knowledge of the system. In this thesis, we present a mechanism---the Mode Switch Logic (MSL)---which provides an effective solution to mode switch in component-based multi-mode systems. MSL enables a multi-mode system to be developed in a component-based manner, including (1) a mode-aware component model proposed to suit the multi-mode context; (2) a mode mapping mechanism for the seamless composition of multi-mode components and their mode switch guidance; (3) a mode switch runtime mechanism which coordinates the mode switches of all related components so that the mode switch can be correctly and efficiently performed at the system level; and (4) a timing analysis for mode switches realized by MSL. All the essential elements of MSL are additionally demonstrated by a case study.

  • 2731.
    Ying, PuLe
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fan, LingZhi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Methods For Test Case Prioritization Based On Test Case Execution History2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Test case prioritization can prioritize test cases, optimize the test execution, save time and cost. There are many different methods for test case prioritization, test case prioritization method based on test case execution history is one kind of them. Based on the test case execution history, it’s easier to increase the rate of fault detection, hence we want to do a study about test case prioritization methods based on the test case execution history. Meanwhile, executing the feasible methods to compare the effectiveness of them. For the motivation of the thesis may be regarded as an example for experiencing approach for comparing test case prioritizations based on test case execution history, or as a study case for identifying the suitable methods to use and help improve the effectiveness of the testing process.

    Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to look for a suitable test case prioritization method that can support risk based testing, in which test case execution history is employed as the key criterion of evaluation. For this research, there are three main objectives. First, explore and summarize methods of test case prioritization based on test case history. Next, identify what are differences among the test case prioritization methods. Finally, execute the methods which we selected, and compare the effectiveness of methods.

    Methods: To achieve the first and the second study objectives, a systematic literature review has been conducted using Kitchenham guidelines. To achieve the third study objective, an experiment was conducted following Wohlin guidelines.

    Results: In our thesis: 1) We conducted a systematic literature review and selected 15 relevant literatures. We extracted data of the literatures and then we synthesized the data. We found that the methods have different kinds of inputs, test levels, maturity levels, validation and "automated testing or manual testing". 2) We selected two feasible methods from those 15 literatures, Method 1 is Adaptive test-case prioritization and Method 2 is Similarity-based test quality metric. We executed the methods within 17 test suites. Comparing the result of two methods and non-prioritization, the mean Average Percentage of Defects Found (APFD) of Adaptive test-case prioritization execution result (86.9%) is significantly higher than non-prioritization (51.5%) and Similarity-based test quality metric (47.5%), it means that the Adaptive test-case prioritization has higher effectiveness.

    Conclusion: In our thesis, existing test case prioritization methods based on test case execution history are extracted and listed out through systematic literature review. The summary of them and the description of differences can be available in the thesis. The 15 relevant literatures and the synthesized data may be as a guideline for relevant software researchers or testers. We did the statistical test for the experimental result, we can see two different test case prioritization methods have different effectiveness.

  • 2732.
    Yiran, Zhou
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Yilei, Liu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Challenges and Mitigation Strategies of Using DevOps during Software Development2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2733.
    Ytterström, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    SCA Logistics Informationsapplikation2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ha r examensarbetet a r en uppdatering utav SCA logistics befintliga mobil applikation. Arbetet a r gjort hos IT- fo retaget Easit ab som fo rvaltar SCA' logistics system. Applikationen anva nds fo r att spa ra fo retagets ba tar pa en karta och inneha ller kontaktuppgifter till ansta llda. Arbetet fo r det ha r projektet kommer att beskrivas fra n grunden om hur det a r att med fria ha nder kunna va lja det ramverk som passar ba st. Med dom krav som fo retaget har sta llt pa att applikationen ska inneha lla sa kommer flera ramverk att underso kas. Fo r att komma fram till vilket ramverk som ska anva ndas sa har tva prototyper gjorts som anva ndare provko rt och da refter svarat pa en underso kning. Utvecklingen av applikationen kommer att go ras med det ba st la mpade ramverket. Designen kommer att vara genuin sa att anva ndarna ma rker skillnad mellan dom olika plattformarna. Applikationen kommer kunna byggas pa med mer funktioner och uppdateras utan att man beho ver ladda upp till app store och google play.

  • 2734.
    Yu, Yun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Quantitative Comparison of SensibleThings and ThingsWorx2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things is a technology innovation which connects thousands of mil- lions of sensors and actuators. Platform is which provides both hardware and software service. There are so many platforms existed in the market. The objective of this study has been to answer the question which IoT platform fits bests for different scenarios by performing a quantitative comparison between SensibleThings and ThingWorx. The study has been conducted with the aid of my su- pervisor Stefan Forsström and professor TingTing Zhang. The study has shown that SensibleThings and ThingWorx both has its innovation features thus it fits to the different cases according to cases’ need. If the sensor need to update data quicker than 25 times/sec, it is better to choose ThingWorx. If the sensor doesn’t have good hardware it is better to use SensibleThings cause it is light- weight enough. For the case that more than one sensors’ data rush into one point simultaneously, ThingWorx has better performance. In this paper I use a health care system as an example. I think ThingWorx is more suitable for this case regard of its mature service on security and graphical visualization. Finally I presented my future work for platform evaluation.

  • 2735.
    Zafar, Atique
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Ali, Sajad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Investigation of Failure and Success Factors of Integration Process in Global Software Development: Literature Review and Delphi Survey2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software development work undertaken by virtual teams dispersed across time, space, and organizational boundaries is referred as Global Software Development (GSD) with emphasis on “globalization”. In GSD, teams within same organization (off-shore) or different organizations (outsource) from multiple geographic locations are involved. GSD is becoming a norm and more software projects are undertaken in GSD setting due to the benefits associated with it. However, there remain many challenges that can adversely affect the ability to realize those benefits. One of the challenges is to overcome the problems faced during integration of the functional components developed by different teams at different geographic locations. Incompatibilities and hidden issues surface during functional components integration which is very costly to fix at this stage and can lead to delay, lower product quality or even failure of a GSD project. In this regard, this study investigates integration problems that occurred due to different reasons during different phases/stages of GSD, along with successful integration practices with their relative importance. The study produces lists of failure and success factors, and then further prioritized that failure and success factors lists through Delphi experts. Failure and success factors present an extensive knowledge of integration problems and practical solutions. In addition, their relative importance highlights the severity and importance of each failure and success factor. The results of this study not only help to understand integration issues and solution, but provide a platform to develop a solid strategy at early stage of GSD.

  • 2736.
    Zafari, Afshin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    TaskUniVerse: A Task-Based Unified Interface for Versatile Parallel Execution2018In: Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, Springer, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2737.
    Zafari, Afshin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Larsson, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Tillenius, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    DuctTeip: A task-based parallel programming framework for distributed memory architectures2016Report (Other academic)
  • 2738.
    Zafari, Afshin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Larsson, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Tillenius, Martin
    DuctTeip: An efficient programming model for distributed task based parallel computingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2739.
    Zafari, Afshin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Tillenius, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Larsson, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
    Programming models based on data versioning for dependency-aware task-based parallelisation2012In: Proc. 15th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 275-280Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2740.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Obsolete Software Requirements2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Requirements changes are unavoidable in any software project. Requirements change over time as software projects progress, and involved stakeholders (mainly customers) and developers gain better understanding of the final product. Additionally, time and budget constraints prevent implementing all candidate requirements and force project management to select a subset of requirements that are prioritized more important than the others so as to be implemented. As a result, some requirements become cancelled and deleted during the elicitation and specification phase while other requirements are considered not important during the prioritization phase. A common scenario in this situation is to leave the excluded requirements for being considered in the next release. The constant leaving of the excluded requirements for the next release may simply render them obsolete.

  • 2741.
    Zaremba, Anja
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Petersson, Jem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Alarm på bryggan: trygghet och irritation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work on a navigational bridge consists to a great extent of control tasks. Control and alarm systems are available to facilitate this work. The interaction between humans and systems depends partly on the  user's knowledge and experience and partly on bridge design and technologies’ usability. The topic of this thesis is the handling of alarms and alarm systems on  navigational  bridges.  The aim was to  study  whether there are strategies for this and if so, to illustrate how these strategies work. For this reason seven officers’  experiences were examined with  qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews and content analysis.

    The investigation led among other things to the following conclusions:  

    Alarm handling is often done according to unwritten rules and agreements. It is seen as part of the profession and is done on the side.

    Officers follow a scheme when an alarm calls for their attention.

    Officers construct their own tools and methods to deal with ergonomic problems and malfunctions.

  • 2742.
    Zbick, Janosch
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Nake, Isabella
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Jansen, Marc
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    A web-based framework to design and deploy mobile learning activities: Evaluating its usability, learnability and acceptance2015In: 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), IEEE Press, 2015, p. 88-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the efforts carried out related to the design and development of a web-based framework that allows designing, deploying and executing mobile data collecting applications. Furthermore, it also allows analyzing and presenting the data that is generated during the mentioned process. The fact that the framework is completely web-based provides a platform independent execution of the mobile application on any mobile device with a web-browser. As a result that the whole life-cycle of creating, executing and discussing a mobile learning activity is implemented in pure web-based manner separates this work from similar efforts. In the course of this work, the current state of development of two of the components, the authoring tool and the mobile application is presented. This framework was introduced to teachers in an activity to follow up an initial study. On the basis of a workshop with teachers, we performed an explorative study regarding the technology acceptance and usability of two components of the proposed framework. The results are discussed and analyzed in this paper.

  • 2743.
    Zeadally, Sherali
    et al.
    Univ Dist Columbia, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Network Syst Lab, Washington, DC 20008 USA..
    Hunt, Ray
    Univ Canterbury, Coll Engn, Dept Comp Sci & Software Engn, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Chen, Yuh-Shyan
    Natl Taipei Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Engn, San Shia, Taipei County, Taiwan..
    Irwin, Angela
    Univ S Australia, Sch Comp & Informat Sci, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia..
    Hassan, Aamir
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS): status, results, and challenges2012In: Telecommunications Systems, ISSN 1018-4864, E-ISSN 1572-9451, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in hardware, software, and communication technologies are enabling the design and implementation of a whole range of different types of networks that are being deployed in various environments. One such network that has received a lot of interest in the last couple of years is the Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET). VANET has become an active area of research, standardization, and development because it has tremendous potential to improve vehicle and road safety, traffic efficiency, and convenience as well as comfort to both drivers and passengers. Recent research efforts have placed a strong emphasis on novel VANET design architectures and implementations. A lot of VANET research work have focused on specific areas including routing, broadcasting, Quality of Service (QoS), and security. We survey some of the recent research results in these areas. We present a review of wireless access standards for VANETs, and describe some of the recent VANET trials and deployments in the US, Japan, and the European Union. In addition, we also briefly present some of the simulators currently available to VANET researchers for VANET simulations and we assess their benefits and limitations. Finally, we outline some of the VANET research challenges that still need to be addressed to enable the ubiquitous deployment and widespead adoption of scalable, reliable, robust, and secure VANET architectures, protocols, technologies, and services.

  • 2744.
    Zeeshan, Ahmed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Integration of Variants Handling in M-System-NT2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis proposes a solution to manage variabilities of software product line applications. The objective of the research is to support software decision makers in handling additional software complexity introduced by product line architectures. In order to fulfill this objective an approach to analyze, visualize, and measure product line specific characteristics of the C/C++ source code are proposed. The approach is validated in an empirical experiment using an open source software system. For that purpose the approach is first implemented into ®1 M-System-NT, an existing software measurement tool developed at Fraunhofer. The target hypothesis of the Institute for Experimental Software engineering research master thesis to perform static analysis of C/C++ source code, measure traditional and product line measures to identify the correlation between measures and indicate the fault proneness.

  • 2745.
    Zeeshan Iqbal, Syed Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Re-scheduling Strategies for Train Dispatching during Disturbances2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway traffic disturbances occur and train dispatchers make re-scheduling decisions in order to reduce the delays. In order to support the dispatchers, good rescheduling strategies are required that could reduce the delays. We propose and evaluate re-scheduling strategies based on: (i) earliest start time, (ii) earliest track release time, (iii) smallest buffer time, and (iv) shortest section runtime. A comparative evaluation is done for a busy part of the Swedish railway network. Our results indicate that strategies based on earliest start time and earliest track release time have the best average performance.

  • 2746.
    Zhang, Guangyu
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Product Manager view on Practical Assumption Management Lifecycle about System Use2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In practice, software projects frequently fail in many fields, which causes the huge loss for the human being. Assumption faults are recognized as a main reason for the software project failures. As the world is changing fast, environment assumptions of software can be easily wrong. The daily assumption-related activities show not enough effectiveness and efficiency to deal with assumption faults. For example, no documenting of key assumptions, inappropriate assumption validation, lack of knowledge. In research, there is no empirical research about assumption management practice. Two assumption management frameworks were outlined. They both support the assumption formulation and assumption management. The formal assumption management framework provides an assumption-component mapping function to analyze assumption failures.

    Objectives. Our goal is figuring out how development team members handle environment assumptions today in practice and how they might handle them better tomorrow. To be specific, I test the applicability of the so far theoretical assumption management frameworks and investigate the assumption type, assumption formulation and assumption management in practical software development

    Methods. An interview-based survey was implemented with 6 product managers from Chinese software companies. They have rich experiences on assumption management and software development. I used directed content analysis to analyze the qualitative data. The result of the research is intended to be a static validation of the assumption management frameworks.

    Results. Interviewees consider that the assumption-component mapping function of the formal assumption management framework is useful in making decisions and analyzing the problems. However, using these frameworks takes too much effort. The functions of frameworks are covered by the development team members and the existing tools. Assumptions tend to be discovered when they frequently change and are important to the requirements. The main assumption types are user habit assumptions and quality attribute assumptions, which are both requirement assumptions. The user habit assumptions consist of name, description and value, while the quality attribute assumption formulation is name and value. The major assumption treatment activities are figuring out the value of assumptions, assumption monitoring, assumption validation and handling assumption failures. Assumption failures result in the loss of users and benefits. Assumption failures are always caused by the poor ability and experience of development team members.

    Conclusion. I create an assumption management model based on my result, and find out the advantages and disadvantages of the formal assumption management framework and semi-formal assumption management framework. The research could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assumption management practice. Also. The research can be treated as the starting point to study assumption management practice deeper.

  • 2747.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Jiangsu Univ, Dept Math, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Georgescu, Paul
    The global properties of an age-dependent SI model involving pathogenic virus release and defence mechanisms for pests2010In: Mathematical and computer modelling, ISSN 0895-7177, E-ISSN 1872-9479, Vol. 52, no 1-2, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insect pests are common but undesirable elements in ecosystems and represent thorny problems for most developing countries. To prevent pest outbreaks, growers often resort to insect-pathogenic viruses rather than to pesticides which affect human health and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new age-structured pest management model which describes the interaction between susceptible insect pests, infected insect pests, pathogenic viruses and defence immunity mechanisms. A feature of this model is that it accounts for the dependence of the amount of pathogenic viruses released and of the efficiency of the defence mechanisms upon the so-called age of infection. First, the asymptotic behavior of the system is established via a monotonicity argument which makes use of several integral inequalities, being shown that the infection ultimately dies out, while under certain circumstances the susceptible pests also become extinct. By means of the Michailov criterion, one then analyzes the linearized stability of the trivial equilibrium and of the semi-trivial infected pest-free equilibrium. In this regard, it is observed that the defence mechanisms and maximal length of the infective period play important roles in the dynamics of the system. Several pest controls strategies are further investigated by means of numerical simulations, which show that when the dose of pathogenic viruses released initially is larger than a certain amount the profile of the response of defence mechanisms can be modified by changing this dose. Finally, the paper is concluded with a discussion on the biological significance of the mathematical results and framework.

  • 2748.
    Zhang, Jianhao
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chen, Xuxiao
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Evolvability Measurement Framework during an Open Source Software Evolution2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software evolution comes with the increasing growth of software applications both in size and complexity. Unlike the software maintenance, software evolution addresses more on the adaption of the new fast-changing requirements. Then the term of “software evolvability” comes with its importance for evaluating the evolution status of the software. However, it is not clearly identified especially in the context of open source software (OSS). Besides the most studies are about the description of software evolvability as a quality attribute, and very few research have done on the measurement of software evolvability during the software evolution process.

    Objectives In this study we perform an in-depth investigation on identification of the OSS evolvability, and figure out the appropriate metrics used for measuring the OSS evolvability. Based on that we finally proposed the open source software evolvability measurement framework (OSEM) which could be used for measuring the software evolvability generally in an OSS context.

    Methods: At first, we conducted a literature review by combining backward snowballing search with systematic database search. Two research questions which are RQ1 and RQ2 are proposed for helping us to retrieve the key information for building the needed framework. Then we performed a case study on VLC media player (an OSS project) to validate the processes of the proposed framework.

    Results: Based on literature we could explicitly identify the OSS evolvability, and figure out the differences of software evolvability addressed in OSS context and non OSS context (e.g, the traceability refers to documentation in non OSS context, however in OSS context it refers to the release version of OSS project). Besides we also fulfill the evolvability measuring method by addressing the process of prioritization of evolvability sub-characteristics. In the end we implement the OSEM framework on VLC media player and get the well documented results which are clearly presented and easy to understand. Such results could be taken by the VLC developers as an input for the design and development of the VLC.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the open source software measurement framework (OSEM) is applicable, based on the time we spent on the case of VLC media player it is quite fast and efficient to use such framework. The results from the conduction of this framework are documented well and very clear for OSS users/developers to follow.

  • 2749.
    Zhang, Linfan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Zheng, Shuang
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Enhancing QR Code Security2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come after. We also give an objective evaluation on the outcome in comparison to existing QR products. They are based on the purpose of enhancing QR code security and aim to interpret how we have tackle the specified problems meanwhile to suggest possible further work for bringing security of QR code to a higher level. 

  • 2750.
    Zhang, Long
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Khan, Adnan Rafiq
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Applying Six Sigma in Software Companies for Process Improvement2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Modern society has a higher demand for quality than it had before. There is a Plethora of quality improvement techniques available which makes it harder for companies to decide which one to apply. They need support in this decision and in knowing how to apply the chosen techniques, if they want to improve their business and stay competitive. Six Sigma approach is a very successful manufacturing quality improvement tool. In the last two decades, it has helped many companies to success. Recently, the Six Sigma approach was introduced in the software development industry. Some software companies have been trying to adapt Six Sigma for their business and development processes. But there are misconceptions about the applicability of Six Sigma in software‟s. Furthermore there is no generic software quality improvement solution based on Six Sigma. So there is a demand to debunk the misconceptions related to the applicability of Six Sigma. And to develop a generic software company quality improvement solution based on Six Sigma approach. In this thesis we take a first step towards such a solution. The thesis starts from Six Sigma concept identification and manufacturing investigation. After conducting interviews, a case study and several case studies reviews, we detail our method. We expect thesis result to be useful for software companies when applying Six Sigma in their company for process improvement. Keywords: Software Quality, Quality Improvement Tool, Six Sigma and Process Improvement

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