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  • 2701.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Steegmans, E.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Towards commitments for situated agents2004In: 2004  International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, VOLS 1-7, 2004, Vol. 6, p. 5479-5485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional architectures for situated, behavior-based agents take the viewpoint of the individual agent to select the most appropriate action. Action selection is typically based on internal stimuli and stimuli from the agent Is neighboring environment. As such collaborations between agents have to emerge from the individually selected actions of the agents. In this paper we study the research problem of how to enable explicit collaborations between situated agents. Explicit collaborations are reflected in mutual commitments. Contrary to the traditional approaches of commitment that are based on the mutually dependent mental states of the involved agents and a goal-oriented plan, we introduce the notion of a situated commitment that is based on the roles of the involved agents and the local context they are placed in. Activating mutual situated commitments in a collaboration results in more consistent behavior of the agents towards their commitments. The proposed approach fits the general principles of situatedness and robustness of situated multiagent systems.

  • 2702.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Steegmans, E.
    Holvoet, Tom
    AgentWise, D. N.
    Leuven, K U
    Protocol-based Communication for Situated Agents2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protocol based Communication for Situated Agents Danny Weyns Elke Steegmans Tom Holvoet AgentWise DistriNet Leuven Celestijnenlaan Leuven Belgium The full version this paper appeared Proceedings The International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems Eds Jennings Sierra Sonenberg Tambe ACM Press Introduction Collaborations situated behavior based agent systems typically have emerge from the individual selected actions the agents Usually communication happens indirectly depositing pheromone trails the environment this paper outline approach for situated agents set explicit collaborations Roles and situated commitments Explicit collaborations are reflected mutual commitments use the notion situated commitment basis for collaboration Contrary the traditional approaches commitment that take psychological viewpoint commitments are based the agents mutually dependent mental states and goal oriented plan situated commitment social attitude situated commitments are based the roles the involved agents and the local context they are placed use model for action selection that based hierarchical free flow architecture The hierarchy composed nodes which receive information from internal and external stimuli the form activity The nodes feed their activity down through the hierarchy until the activity arrives the action nodes where winner takes all process decides which action selected Existing free flow architectures are designed from the viewpoint individual agents Th

  • 2703.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Truyen, Eddy
    Verbaeten, P.
    Serialization of Distributed Threads in Java2005In: Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, ISSN 1895-1767, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a mechanism for serializing the execution-state of a distributed Java application that is implemented on a conventional Object Request Broker (ORB) architecture such as Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI). To support serialization of distributed execution-state, we developed a byte code transformer and associated management subsystem that adds this functionality to a Java application by extracting execution-state from the application code. An important benefit of our mechanism is its portability. It can transparently be integrated into any legacy Java application. Furthermore, it does require no modifications to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) or to the underlying ORB. Our serialization mechanism can serve many purposes such as migrating execution-state over the network or storing it on disk. In particular, we describe the implementation of a prototype for repartitioning distributed Java applications at run-time. Proper partitioning of distributed objects over the different machines is critical to the global performance of the distributed application. Methods for partitioning exist, and employ a graph-based model of the application being partitioned. Our mechanism enables then applying these methods at any point in an ongoing distributed computation. In the implementation of the management subsystem, we experienced the problem of losing logical thread identity when the distributed control flow crosses address space boundaries. We solved this well known problem by introducing the generic notion of distributed thread identity in Java programming. Propagation of a globally unique, distributed thread identity provides a uniform mechanism by which all the program's constituent objects involved in a distributed control flow can uniquely refer to that distributed thread as one and the same computational entity

  • 2704.
    White, Christopher J.
    et al.
    School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia / Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Robertson, Andrew W.
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA.
    Klein, Richard J T
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Bonn, Germany.
    Lazo, Jeffrey K.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Research Applications Laboratory (RAL), Boulder, CO, USA.
    Kumar, Arun
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC), College Park, MD, USA.
    Vitart, Frederic
    European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), Reading, UK.
    Coughlan de Perez, Erin
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA / Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre, International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA .
    Ray, Andrea J.
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Boulder, CO, USA.
    Murray, Virginia
    Public Health England (PHE), London, UK.
    Bharwani, Sukaina
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford, UK.
    MacLeod, Dave
    Department of Physics, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, UK.
    James, Rachel
    Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
    Fleming, Lora
    European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, UK.
    Morse, Andrew P.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK.
    Eggen, Bernd
    Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (PHE), Chilton, UK.
    Graham, Richard
    UK Met Office, Exeter, UK.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Becker, Emily
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC), College Park, MD, USA.
    Pegion, Kathleen V.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences and Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    McEvoy, Darryn
    Global Cities Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Depledge, Michael
    European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, UK.
    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Brown, Timothy J.
    Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA.
    Street, Roger
    UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP), University of Oxford, UK.
    Jones, Lindsey
    London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), UK.
    Remenyi, Tomas A.
    Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Hodgson-Johnston, Indi
    Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Hobart, Australia.
    Buontempo, Carlo
    UK Met Office, Exeter, UK.
    Lamb, Rob
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK / JBA Trust, Skipton, UK.
    Meinke, Holger
    Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Zebiak, Stephen E.
    International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA / Climate Information Services Ltd, Tappan, NY, USA.
    Potential applications of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictions2017In: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While seasonal outlooks have been operational for many years, until recently the extended-range timescale referred to as subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) has received little attention. S2S prediction fills the gap between short-range weather prediction and long-range seasonal outlooks. Decisions in a range of sectors are made in this extended-range lead time; therefore, there is a strong demand for this new generation of forecasts. International efforts are under way to identify key sources of predictability, improve forecast skill and operationalize aspects of S2S forecasts; however, challenges remain in advancing this new frontier. If S2S predictions are to be used effectively, it is important that, along with science advances, an effort is made to develop, communicate and apply these forecasts appropriately. In this study, the emerging operational S2S forecasts are presented to the wider weather and climate applications community by undertaking the first comprehensive review of sectoral applications of S2S predictions, including public health, disaster preparedness, water management, energy and agriculture. The value of applications-relevant S2S predictions is explored, and the opportunities and challenges facing their uptake are highlighted. It is shown how social sciences can be integrated with S2S development, from communication to decision-making and valuation of forecasts, to enhance the benefits of ‘climate services’ approaches for extended-range forecasting. While S2S forecasting is at a relatively early stage of development, it is concluded that it presents a significant new window of opportunity that can be explored for application-ready capabilities that could allow many sectors the opportunity to systematically plan on a new time horizon.

  • 2705.
    Widell, Sanna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Levin, Linnéa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar i molnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag väljer många företag och kommuner att placera data i molnet istället för på en lokal server, detta medför nya problem som tidigare inte varit aktuella. Datainspektionen har påpekat brister i hur två kommuner använder molntjänster för att lagra personlig data då de ställer sig tveksamma till molnleverantörernas hantering av data samt insynen till molnleverantörerena. I detta arbete kommer det undersökas hur den svenska personuppgiftslagen fungerar när data läggs ut i en molntjänst. Resultatet av uppsatsen kommer även visa på de olika säkerhetshoten som finns i molnet och se vad säkerhetsexperter säger för att ta reda på om kommuner och företag är medvetna om och uppmärksammar samma hot. För att ta reda på detta har intervjuer genomförts med en svensk molnleverantör, företag som utvecklar tjänster mot molnet, privatpersoner som nyttjar molnet och experter inom säkerhet från Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, BTH. Resultatet av studien visar att det är svårt att se om en amerikansk leverantör uppfyller de svenska lagarna för personuppgifter, det visar också att det är teoretiskt möjligt att anlita en svensk leverantör och uppfylla lagen. Det har även visat sig att den största oron gällande molnet är bristen på kontroll av data.

  • 2706.
    Wikhög, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Comparing frontend frameworks and cloud services by using House of Quality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study has been to investigate and compare frontend javascript frameworks and cloud services in order to find which ones are most suitable to implement a web based product development application. The application will be based on the "House of Quality" methodology, which is commonly used in product development. It is basically a way to organize customer requirements, identify relevant quantifiable technical parameters and rank them in order to find out which ones are most important for the finished product. By using this

    very methodology on the application itself, the most important parameters were found to be data update delays and the need for additional services. The selected cloud services were benchmarked according to these parameters. For framework comparison, the methodology was based on existing research regarding what developers actually base their selection of frontend javascript frameworks on, which resulted in the metrics maturity, community size and documentation. SQL queries and benchmarking scripts were constructed in order to gather statistics from online services and run performance benchmarks. The results reveal substantial differences between frameworks as well as in performance among cloud services. A combination of the frontend framework Angular, the backend service Firebase and the authentication service Auth0 were found to be well suited for fulfilling the requirements of the product development application. Finally, potential problems, ethical considerations and areas where more research is required are discussed.

  • 2707.
    Wiklund, Krister
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Arrangement and method for performing movement analysis2013Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2708.
    Wikman, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Utveckling av plattformsoberoende fristående applikationer med webbteknologi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med det här projektet är att undersöka möjligheten att utveckla plattformsoberoende fristående applikationer med webbutvecklingsverktyg i ramverket Electron samt hitta skillnader i andra utvecklingsmetoder som Java och Swing eller C++ och Qt genom att vidareutveckla en existerande applikation kallad Electra. Electra är ett verktyg utvecklat för företaget Bitsmith AB som underlättar hanteringen, läsningen och uppladdningen av färdskrivardata till deras webbtjänst. Bitsmith ville undersöka möjligheten att utveckla plattformsoberoende applikationer med Electron. En lösning på det problemet leder till att företaget kan ge ut en applikation som når kunder som inte nödvändigtvis använder Windows i deras IT-miljö som endast har en kodbas. Electron drivs av Node.js för programlogik och Chromium för rendering av webbsidor som gränssnitt. Applikationen utvecklas därför med språken JavaScript, HTML och CSS. Andra moderna hjälpbibliotek skrivna i JavaScript som React för komponentbaserade gränssnitt och Redux för tillståndshantering används för att snabba upp utvecklingen och göra applikationen mer robust. Testdriven utveckling används för att visa att applikationen fungerar likvärdigt på moderna versioner av Windows, Mac och Linux. Enhetstesterna testar applikationens förmåga att hantera tillstånd, kontrollera att komponenter ritas ut och fungerar korrekt och att kontrollera så att övriga system fungerar enligt förväntan så långt det är möjligt.

    Resultatet av enhetstesterna visar att det är möjligt att utveckla en applikation som fungerar likvärdigt på moderna versioner av Windows, Mac och Linux. Jämfört med andra utvecklingsmetoder är det enkelt att komma igång med att utveckla i Electron då det använder sig av språk och metoder som är enklare än exempelvis utveckling i C++ då utvecklingen sker på en högre nivå med JavaScript, HTML och CSS. Dessa språk används redan av många och det är möjligt att föra över kunskapen man redan har till applikationsutveckling. De som redan har erfarenhet av webbutveckling kan enkelt skapa plattformsoberoende fristående applikationer. Metoden och verktygen som har använts i det här projektet kan även appliceras i andra applikationsprojekt.

  • 2709.
    Wikstrand, Greger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    An Analysis of Success Factors for a Team-Project Software Development Course2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team project courses are important elements in most Computer Science and Software Engineering programs. For many students, the team project course represents the only non-trivial software development experience before graduation. The team project should be used to introduce them to important project and process issues that otherwise are very difficult to teach. Sloppy documentation, poor project planning and tracking or ineective communication will eventually affect the teams and teach the students a important lessons for their future work.

    In this paper, we investigate how students select, carry out and complete their projects. The results show that students tend to select mainstream projects with good specifications and that certain project types are less suitable for the course. The results also show that process related deliverables are crucial to the final outcome of the projects. Among the hardest, but also most important, deliverables we find the project plan.

  • 2710. Wikstrand, Greger
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorantla, JK
    Zhe, Wang
    White, Conor
    Dynamic Regression Test Selection Based on a File Cache: An Industrial Evaluation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simple method that computes test case coverage information from information on what files were updated to fix a fault found by the test case. It uses a cache to monitor fault-prone files and recommends test cases to rerun to cover updated files. We present an evaluation of the method during two months of development of a large, industrial, embedded, real-time software system. Our results show that the method is effective, reaching weekly cache hit rates in the range 50-80%.

  • 2711.
    Wilcox, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Simulation av Xbox Live Indie Games gränssnittet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was developed as an assignment from Ludosity Interactive where the goal was to develop a copy of the Xbox Live Indie Games-marketplace from the Xbox 360. Ludosity Interactive had a necessity to easily test a game's attractiveness to potential customers using testing people from outside the company in a simulated Xbox Live Indie Games test environment; excluding this developed system there is no other way to do such an analysis without actually releasing the game on the Xbox Live Indie Games marketplace and then analyze the resulting sales from the product.

    The finished system had to be similar to the original system to the degree that a user could see past the interface itself and use the system just as he/she would have used the real marketplace. It also had to be easy to change and add games to the system so that Ludosity Interactive easily could show the games and the data that they deemed interesting for their tests. The final product was developed using C#, XNA and XML together with an Agileinspired development method in combination with Pivotal Tracker. This report describes how this product was developed.

  • 2712.
    Wilhelmsson, Kenneth
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Automatic Question Generation from Swedish Documents as a Tool for Information Extraction2011In: Proceedings of the 18th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics NODALIDA 2011 / [ed] Bolette Sandford Pedersen, Gunta Nešpore, Inguna Skadiņa, 2011, p. 323-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An implementation of automatic question generation (QG) from raw Swedish text is presented. QG is here chosen as an alternative to natural query systems where any query can be posed and no indication is given of whether the current text database includes the information sought for. The program builds on parsing with grammatical functions from which corresponding questions are generated and it incorporates the article database of Swedish Wikipedia. The pilot system is meant to work with a text shown in the GUI and auto-completes user input to help find available questions. The act of question generation is here described together with early test results regarding the current produced questions.

  • 2713.
    Wilhelmsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Programming with the Unreal Development Kit2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses the differences of programming with the Unreal Engine 3’s visual scripting tool Kismet versus traditional programming. A simple action adventure game was developed with the Unreal Development Kit (UDK) in order to gain experience with the tool. UDK is the free version of Epic Games’ game engine Unreal Engine 3. The resulting game has a mixture of a third person behind the character default camera and fixed camera angles. The gameplay is simple; the playable character can run, investigate the level, shoot and lift and push objects. The game focused on exploration and puzzle solving.

    The writer found programming with Kismet to be easy to get into and highly useful. It was preferred over traditional programming for beginners. The same principles of planning ahead before writing code applied even to visual programming. It was concluded that good structure to the code was very important for larger sequences in order to have readable code. For complex gameplay classes the Unreal Engine 3’s own programming language UnrealScript was preferred. The resulting opinions of programming with a visual language are of highly subjective nature and suggestions for further studies were given.

  • 2714.
    Williamsson, Ia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) A predictive and proactive maintenance concept for software2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes an investigation of the possibility to apply a maintenance concept originally developed for the industry, on software maintenance. Today a large amount of software development models exist but not many of them treat maintenance as a part of the software life cycle. In most cases maintenance is depicted as an activity towards the end of the software life cycle. The high cost ascribed to software maintenance motivates for improvements. The maintenance concept TQMain proposed in this thesis distinguishes from other maintenance concepts by its use of preventive, predictive and proactive maintenance strategies. TQMain uses a common database to store real-time data from various departments and uses it for analyse and assessment to track the development of deviations in the condition of the production process and product quality at an early stage. A continuous cyclic improvement of the maintenance strategy is reached by comparing the data from the real-time measurements with data from the database. The ISO/IEC Software engineering – Product qualities is used as a source of empiric data to conclude that the correct quality characteristics are used for identifying software product quality and its characteristics and compare them with the characteristics of industrial product quality. The results presented are that in the conceptual outline of TQMain measures are obviously not the same as in software maintenance, but the aspect of product quality is common for both. The continuous cyclic improvement of the product quality that TQMain features together with the aspect of detecting potential failures before they occur would, judging from the conceptual outline of TQMain be applicable on software maintenance.

  • 2715.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University.
    A Framework to Guide and Structure the Development Process of Mobile Learning Initiatives2010In: Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Mobile Learning, 2010, p. 184-191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile learning has yet to move on from small-scale trials to sustained deployment. One reason for this is the highly complex and multi-disciplinary setting that the initiatives operate within. They must deal with a wide range of issues such as software, hardware, people, learning, organizations and so on. At the same time, there is little support. Few frameworks to guide the development process exist. This article presents one such framework that was developed based on theories from software and systems development as well as practical experience from mobile learning. The framework divides the development into four Areas of Concern and introduces a life cycle of the mobile learning initiative. It further offers means to guide the development of the initiative and to find key issues that needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainability. The framework presents a holistic view of mobile learning and is designed as an aid to all practitioners in mobile learning, no matter their background.

     

  • 2716.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg / Chalmers.
    Asked and Answered: Communication Patterns of Experts on an Online Forum2013In: Proceedings IRIS36: August 11-14 2013 at Gran, Norway, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of network structure for social relations dates back half a century. Nowadays people form social networks offline as well as online. At an online community people are connected trough information exchange of sorts. Interest groups form often forums to aid each other and discuss things. Programmers are no exception and a question and answer site called Stack Overflow has been up and running since 2008. Our focus is to find patterns of how people interact on this online community and see if we can find expert users. We find 4 different ways to categorize experts, which result in different rankings. We also investigate how expertise is divided among topics, and find some overlap with the global ranking. 

  • 2717.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    The Beginner’s Guide to ICT Context: A Theoretical Contribution Aimed for the Atypical Developer and Team2011In: Proceedings of the 34rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent ICT development projects involve atypical de- veloper teams and practitioners that are domain experts, but not ex- perienced in information systems development. While domain experts usually participate in development projects, we find that many of them take a more active or even driving role in recent projects. This can pose a problem, since the common systems development methodologies are complicated and require training. They are also not designed for the level that these atypical teams and non-expert practitioners can benefit from. In this paper we formulate a framework based on personal experi- ence of several ICT development projects and a theoretical foundation in information systems development research. The framework is designed to be suitable and accessible by non-expert and to be able to serve as a platform for collaboration and communication. The framework divides the development process into four stages and four areas of concern. It also introduces a number of concepts, such as focus, scalability and equi- librium. A project scales from stage to stage, each focusing on a different area of concern. 

  • 2718.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Metrics-Based Approach to Technical Documentation Quality2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quality of Information and Communications Technology, IEEE Communications Society, 2010, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical documentation is now fully taking the step from stale printedbooklets (or electronic versions of these) to interactive and online versions.This provides opportunities to reconsider how we define and assess the qualityof technical documentation. This paper suggests an approach based on theGoal-Question-Metric paradigm: predefined quality goals are continuously assessedand visualized by the use of metrics. To test this approach, we performtwo experiments. We adopt well known software analysistechniques, e.g., clone detection and test coverage analysis, and assess thequality of two real world documentations, that of a mobile phone and of(parts of) a warship. The experiments show that quality issues can be identifiedand that the approach is promising.Technical documentation is now fully taking the step from stale printedbooklets (or electronic versions of these) to interactive and online versions.This provides opportunities to reconsider how we define and assess the qualityof technical documentation. This paper suggests an approach based on the Goal-Question-Metric paradigm: predefined quality goals are continuously assessedand visualized by the use of metrics. To test this approach, we performtwo experiments. We adopt well known software analysistechniques, e.g., clone detection and test coverage analysis, and assess thequality of two real world documentations, that of a mobile phone and of(parts of) a warship. The experiments show that quality issues can be identifiedand that the approach is promising.

  • 2719.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information Quality Management: a Model-Driven Approach2012In: Proceedings of IRIS 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of information are produced on a daily basis. We include any form of electronic data in the term information, for example e-books, web sites, software, databases, etc. Several studies have investigated the quality of this information, and often find it lacking. It is a complex process of producing said information but also to define and assess quality of the information, especially across the many different forms. We present a model-driven approach to information quality management, were models and indicators are used to define and assess qual- ity. We rely on abstraction of models, which are described using meta model. We show how this model-driven approach is implemented by a software tool that (i) reads information, (ii) performs analyses on this information, and (iii) visualizes the results, to help stakeholders understand quality issues. The software tool has been used to evaluate the quality of real world software and docu- mentations. 

  • 2720.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Making Sense of Technical Information Quality: A Software-based Approach2011In: Journal of Software Technology, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2721.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Department of IT, Uppsala University.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Incorporating Information Quality in Software Development2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness and value of an information system is directly related to its perceived quality. Quality is multidimensional concept, and includes an object of interest, the viewpoint on that object and the qualities attributed to the object. This suggests that there is no universal standard in systems development; quality is rather defined how well the information system meets the purpose and the goals of the organization it is used within. It is important that people involved in a particular systems development project have an agreed understanding of what the strive for quality means. This agreed understanding should include how to assign appropriate quality characteristics to both the technical and social aspects of a system as well as how to assess and interpret them. The purpose of this paper is twofold; first, we emphasize that any definition of quality should be specific to a system, and include both the social and technical aspects of a system. Second, we extend methods used to define and assess quality to include social and technical aspects that extends beyond software. Our work is particularly focused on information quality.

  • 2722.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Information Quality Testing2010In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Perspectives in Business Informatics Research, Springer, 2010, p. 14-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new system, such as a knowledge management system or a contentmanagement system is put into production, both the software andhardware are systematically and thoroughly tested while the mainpurpose of the system --- the information --- often lacks systemictesting. In this paper we study how to extend testing approaches fromsoftware and hardware development to information engineering. Wedefine an information quality testing procedure based on test cases,and provide tools to support testing as well as the analysis andvisualization of data collected during the testing. Further, wepresent a feasibility study where we applied information qualitytesting to assess information in a documentation system. The resultsshow promise and have been well received by the companies thatparticipated in the feasibility study. When a new system, such as a knowledge management system or a contentmanagement system is put into production, both the software andhardware are systematically and thoroughly tested while the mainpurpose of the system --- the information --- often lacks systemictesting. In this paper we study how to extend testing approaches fromsoftware and hardware development to information engineering. Wedefine an information quality testing procedure based on test cases,and provide tools to support testing as well as the analysis andvisualization of data collected during the testing. Further, wepresent a feasibility study where we applied information qualitytesting to assess information in a documentation system. The resultsshow promise and have been well received by the companies thatparticipated in the feasibility study.

  • 2723.
    Wingkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Department of IT.
    Lincke, Rüdiger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Analysis and Visualization of Information Quality of Technical Documentation2010In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Castro Neto, M, Academic Publishing International, 2010, p. 388-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical documentation has moved from printed booklets to online versions that need to be updated continuously to match product development and user demands. There is an imminent need to ensure the quality of technical documentation, i.e. information that follows a product.

    Moving from printed material to online versions also allows for documentation to become active, to integrate interactive content, which blurs the boundaries between information and software. In order to assess quality of technical documentation, we adopt analyses and visualizations known from quality assessment of software. The analyses assess text copies, usage, structural properties, and the conformance of information to meta-information. The analysis results are visualized using a range of abstractions to aid in identifying and communicating quality issues to different stakeholders.

    In a case study, we assessed the quality of real world technical documentations from a Swedish mobile phone vendor, a Japanese camera vendor, and a Swedish warship producer. The study showed that our analyses and visualization are applicable and can identify quality issues. For example, we tested an unclassified subset of the warship’s technical documentation and found that 49% of it was redundant information.

    The case study was conducted at a Swedish company that is in charge of creating and maintaining technical documentation. While our approach is limited to analysis that can be performed automatically, the company acknowledges that it has great potential and that our results proved helpful.

  • 2724. Winter, Jeff
    Measuring usability - balancing agility and formality: for stakeholders’ needs in software development2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of the research presented in this thesis is a usability evaluation framework for mass market mobile devices, allowing measurement, comparison and presentation of the usability of hand held devices. The research has been a cooperation between an academic and an industrial partner, based on an action research approach, following the processes of Cooperative Method Development (CMD). It has used a case study approach, where the data has been analysed using techniques taken from grounded theory. Ethnography and participatory design have been central to both the research and the cooperation. With its basis in the evaluation framework, and its use of quantitative measurements and qualitative judgments framed by a focus on usability testing, this thesis contributes to aspects related to capturing real world usage in a continuously changing society, and supporting information needs in the process of building software. The evaluation framework can be used as a quality assurance tool in a wide perspective. It measures usability and the user experience, quickly and flexibly, and in so doing measures aspects of quality in use. It has been tested in a complex industrial development project and is a valuable and flexible tool that is easy for a usability expert to learn and use, to measure and help build quality on the customer’s terms. The results we have arrived at are of practical and theoretical interest within software engineering and the industrial telecom sphere. Several features and aspects of the evaluation framework are new and challenging. These are: its mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, allowing it to target many different stakeholders; experience in applying these methods in the technology-focused and rapidly changing mobile phone area; the challenge of addressing end users in a mass market; the challenge of finding presentation models for the many different stakeholders; the challenge of making sure the framework can be used in different stages in the industrial software development process. The framework is related to three areas of software engineering, Market Driven Requirements Engineering, Statistical Usage Testing, and Organisation and Product Together. Our work includes a discussion of the need for agility, which has not so far been focused upon and discussed within the area of software engineering and usability. The combination of factors included in the framework means that is unique in solving a number of the problems that are found in these different areas within software engineering, especially in a rapidly changing marketplace. We also contribute to the field, through the qualitative element of the evaluation framework, which is inspired by ethnography and participatory design. It thereby makes a contribution that can improve practice in the field of software engineering, and that contributes to the theoretical work that is being performed within these different research areas.

  • 2725.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    The Rocky Road: Why Usability Work is so Difficult2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving product and process quality are among the central themes of software engineering, and quality is an important factor in the marketplace. Usability and user experience (UX) are two important aspects of quality, particularly for interactive products. To achieve usability means producing products that let users do things in a satisfactory, efficient and effective way. To develop products with good UX, means going beyond usability, in ways that are still not clear to us. Achieving good usability and UX is hard. This thesis is concerned with organizations which work towards these goals. This research is concerned with understanding and improving the processes by which technology is designed and developed, and understanding the demands and expectations users have. It is about how companies can and actually develop products with good usability and UX, and what stops them from working towards this as efficiently as they could. We have viewed the usability and UX challenge from the viewpoints of Quality, Organizations, and Institutions, with a focus on participatory design, user-centred design and wicked problems. The research can be characterised as empirical research performed over a period of seven years, in close cooperation with industrial partners. The research was performed using multiple data collection methods to create constructs and shape theory. The field methods have ranged from being a participant observer, to performing interviews and holding workshops with members of the participating organisations. A case study approach was initially used, but focus soon moved from case study methodology to a closer focus on grounded theory, and finally the focus shifted to constructivist grounded theory. The thesis contributes to the field of software engineering in several ways. Usability has a long history within software engineering, human computer interaction, and design science, but the different discourses within the fields have meant that communication between the fields was problematic. The research in this thesis has moved between the different fields, contributing to bridging the gap between the areas. It gives an illustration of how usability work actually takes place in different types of companies, from a developer of operating systems for smartphones, to a global engineering company, which knows that it must find ways of working with, and measuring, usability and user experience. It gives concrete knowledge about the way in which companies can work with usability testing, and how they can provide information to satisfy the information needs of different stakeholders. It provides a discussion of the state of UX today, taking up the problems that stop industry making use of the definitions and theories of UX that exist. Thus, it gives an illustration of the different factors in product design, development and sales, from dealing with organizational factors to satisfying user needs, that all make usability work such a rocky road to navigate.

  • 2726.
    Winter, Jeff
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    The Rocky Road: Why Usability Work is so Difficult2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving product and process quality are among the central themes of software engineering, and quality is an important factor in the marketplace. Usability and user experience (UX) are two important aspects of quality, particularly for interactive products. To achieve usability means producing products that let users do things in a satisfactory, efficient and effective way. To develop products with good UX, means going beyond usability, in ways that are still not clear to us. Achieving good usability and UX is hard. This thesis is concerned with organizations which work towards these goals. This research is concerned with understanding and improving the processes by which technology is designed and developed, and understanding the demands and expectations users have. It is about how companies can and actually develop products with good usability and UX, and what stops them from working towards this as efficiently as they could. We have viewed the usability and UX challenge from the viewpoints of Quality, Organizations, and Institutions, with a focus on participatory design, user-centred design and wicked problems. The research can be characterised as empirical research performed over a period of seven years, in close cooperation with industrial partners. The research was performed using multiple data collection methods to create constructs and shape theory. The field methods have ranged from being a participant observer, to performing interviews and holding workshops with members of the participating organisations. A case study approach was initially used, but focus soon moved from case study methodology to a closer focus on grounded theory, and finally the focus shifted to constructivist grounded theory. The thesis contributes to the field of software engineering in several ways. Usability has a long history within software engineering, human computer interaction, and design science, but the different discourses within the fields have meant that communication between the fields was problematic. The research in this thesis has moved between the different fields, contributing to bridging the gap between the areas. It gives an illustration of how usability work actually takes place in different types of companies, from a developer of operating systems for smartphones, to a global engineering company, which knows that it must find ways of working with, and measuring, usability and user experience. It gives concrete knowledge about the way in which companies can work with usability testing, and how they can provide information to satisfy the information needs of different stakeholders. It provides a discussion of the state of UX today, taking up the problems that stop industry making use of the definitions and theories of UX that exist. Thus, it gives an illustration of the different factors in product design, development and sales, from dealing with organizational factors to satisfying user needs, that all make usability work such a rocky road to navigate.

  • 2727.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Insitute of Technology.
    Hinely, Mark
    UIQ Technology AB.
    Examining Correlations in Usability Data to Effectivize Usability Testing2011In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a case study performed in industry, this work deals with a statistical analysis of data collected during usability testing. The data is from tests performed by usability testers from two companies in two different countries. One problem in the industrial situation is the scarcity of testing resources, and a need to use these resources in the most efficient way. Therefore, the data from the testing is analysed to see whether it is possible to measure usability on the basis of one single metric, and whether it is possible to judge usability problems on the basis of the distribution of use case completion times. This would allow test leaders to concentrate on situations where there are obvious problems. We find that it is not possible to measure usability through the use of one metric, but that it may be possible to gain indications of usability problems on the basis of an analysis of time taken to perform use cases. This knowledge would allow the collection of usability data from distributed user groups, and a more efficient use of scarce testing resources.

  • 2728. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Meeting Organisational Needs and Quality Assurance through Balancing Agile & Formal Usability Testing Results2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2729.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process; whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts.

  • 2730. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    SPI success factors within product usability evaluation2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 83, no 11 Sp. Iss, p. 2059-2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an experience report where we compare 8 years of experience of product related usability testing and evaluation with principles for software process improvement (SPI). In theory the product and the process views are often seen to be complementary, but studies of industry have demonstrated the opposite. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to understand and improve the present situation. We find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. It has been identified that successful SPI is dependent upon being successfully combined with a business orientation. Usability and business orientation also have strong connections although this has not been extensively addressed in SPI publications. Reasons for this could be that usability focuses on product metrics whilst today's SPI mainly focuses on process metrics. Also because today's SPI is dominated by striving towards a standardized, controllable, and predictable software engineering process: whilst successful usability efforts in organisations are more about creating a creative organisational culture advocating a useful product throughout the development and product life cycle. We provide a study and discussion that supports future development when combining usability and product focus with SPI, in particular if these efforts are related to usability process improvement efforts.

  • 2731. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Ahlberg, Mårten
    Hinely, Mark
    Hellman, Mats
    Developing Quality through Measuring Usability--The UTUM Test Package2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a tool for building quality of use into software and the software process, in the form of a test package for mass market devices. It is developed for measuring user experience, which is seen as a more encompassing term than usability. The test package, which is under constant development, is the result of a long term cooperation between industry and academia, and is in use in indutrial development projects. It shows usability through the use of metrics, for efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction, supported by qualitative judgements made by a test leader/usability expert. It gives a clear demonstration of quality, from the customer and end-user point of view. The case presented here, where the test has been performed concurrently in two countries, has been a quality assurance of the test package, which has been found to work efficiently and flexibly in a complex industrial environment, with complicated relationships between customers, partners and end-users.

  • 2732. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Ahlberg, Mårten
    Hotchkiss, Jo
    Meeting organisational needs and quality assurance through balancing agile and formal usability testing results2011In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2011, Vol. 4980, p. 275-289Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a case study of testing with a usability testing package (UTUM), which is also a tool for quality assurance, developed in cooperation between industry and research. It shows that within the studied company, there is a need to balance agility and formalism when producing and presenting results of usability testing to groups who we have called Designers and Product Owners. We have found that these groups have different needs, which can be placed on opposite sides of a scale, based on the agile manifesto. This becomes a Designer and a Product Owner Manifesto. The test package is seen as a successful hybrid method combining agility with formalism, satisfying organisational needs, and fulfilling the desire to create a closer relation between industry and research.

  • 2733. Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Hellman, Mats
    Reporting Usability Metrics Experiences2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that software development is negatively affected by infrequent, incomplete and inconsistent measurements; improving with the help of metrics is an obvious solution. Software testing provides opportunities for measurement that give organizations insight in to processes. Usability testing is part of the testing area, although it is not a commonly addressed area within software engineering, perhaps because of a split between qualitative and quantitative paradigms. We compare a usability testing framework called UTUM with principles for Software Process Improvement, and find areas of close agreement as well as areas where our work illuminates new characteristics. UTUM is found to be a useful vehicle for improvement in software engineering, dealing as it does with both product and process. Our work emphasises the importance of the neglected area of usability testing. Our experience also illustrates how the metrics have been tailored to act as a boundary object between different disciplines.

  • 2734.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Identifying organizational barriers: A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 88, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a “wicked problem” that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.

  • 2735.
    Winter, Jeff
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Rissanen, Mikko
    Identifying organizational barriers-A case study of usability work when developing software in the automation industry2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 88, no February, p. 54-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates connections between usability efforts and organizational factors. This is an important field of research which so far appears to be insufficiently studied and discussed. It illustrates problems when working with software engineering tasks and usability requirements. It deals with a large company that manufactures industrial robots with an advanced user interface, which wanted to introduce usability KPIs, to improve product quality. The situation in the company makes this difficult, due to a combination of organizational and behavioural factors that led to a "wicked problem" that caused conflicts, breakdowns and barriers. Addressing these problems requires a holistic view that places context in the foreground and technological solutions in the background. Developing the right product requires communication and collaboration between multiple stakeholders. The inclusion of end users, who fully understand their own work context, is vital. Achieving this is dependent on organizational change, and management commitment. One step to beginning this change process may be through studying ways to introduce user-centred design processes.

  • 2736.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Involving relevant stakeholders into the decision process about software components2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ICSAW 2017: Side Track Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 129-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers surveys current stakeholder identification methods and techniques from the Requirements Engineering (RE) discipline. Upon critical analysis of available models and techniques, we identify the techniques that should be prioritized when identifying stakeholders that should be involved in the decision making processes about software components or assets. Next, we analyzed industrial decision scenarios and match the most prominent issues with stakeholder identification against the perceived benefits that the identified techniques offer. We conclude this paper with a research agenda in stakeholder identification for decision making about software components. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 2737.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Sulaman, Sardar Muhammad
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    An industrial case study on measuring the quality of the requirements scoping process2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Amasaki S.,Mikkonen T.,Felderer M.,Abrahamsson P.,Duc A.N.,Jedlitschka A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 10027, p. 487-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 2738.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Garrepalli, Thrinay
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Knowledge management in software testing: A systematic snowball literature review2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 51-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software testing benefits from the usage of Knowledge Management (KM) methods and principles. Thus, there is a need to adopt KM to the software testing core processes and attain the benefits that it provides in terms of cost, quality, etc. Aim: To investigate the usage and implementation of KM for software testing. The major objectives include 1. To identify various software testing aspects that receive more attention while applying KM. 2. To analyse multiple software testing techniques, i.e. test design, test execution and test result analysis and highlight KM involvement in these. 3. To gather challenges faced by industry due to the lack of KM initiatives in software testing. Method: A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted utilizing the guidelines for snowballing reviews by Wohlin. The identified studies were analysed in relation to their rigor and relevance to assess the quality of the results. Results: The initial resulting set provided 4832 studies. From these, 35 peer-reviewed papers were chosen among which 31 are primary, and 4 are secondary studies. The literature review results indicated nine testing aspects being in focus when applying KM within various adaptation contexts and some benefits from KM application. Several challenges were identified, e.g., improper selection and application of better-suited techniques, a low reuse rate of software testing knowledge, barriers in software testing knowledge transfer, no possibility to quickly achieve the most optimum distribution of human resources during testing, etc. Conclusions: The study brings supporting evidence that the application of KM in software testing is necessary, e.g., to increase test effectiveness, select and apply testing techniques. The study outlines the testing aspects and testing techniques that benefit their users.

  • 2739. Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Zahda, Showayb
    Obsolete Software Requirements2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 921-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coping with rapid requirements change is crucial for staying competitive in the software business. Frequently changing customer needs and fierce competition are typical drivers of rapid requirements evolution resulting in requirements obsolescence even before project completion. Objective: Although the obsolete requirements phenomenon and the implications of not addressing them are known, there is a lack of empirical research dedicated to understanding the nature of obsolete software requirements and their role in requirements management. Method: In this paper, we report results from an empirical investigation with 219 respondents aimed at investigating the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements. Results: Our results contain, but are not limited to, defining the phenomenon of obsolete software requirements, investigating how they are handled in industry today and their potential impact. Conclusion: We conclude that obsolete software requirements constitute a significant challenge for companies developing software intensive products, in particular in large projects, and that companies rarely have processes for handling obsolete software requirements. Further, our results call for future research in creating automated methods for obsolete software requirements identification and management, methods that could enable efficient obsolete software requirements management in large projects.

  • 2740.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kabbedijk, J.c
    Brinkkemper, S.c
    Regnell, B.b
    Callele, D.d
    Exploring factors affecting decision outcome and lead time in large-scale requirements engineering2015In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 647-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing decision lead time and outcome is important for successful product management. This work identifies decision lead time and outcome factors in large-scale requirements engineering. Our investigation brings supporting evidence that complex changes have longer lead time and that important customers more likely get what they request. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. Lead time, defined as the duration between the moment a request was filed and the moment the decision was made, is an important aspect of decision making in market-driven requirements engineering. Minimizing lead time allows software companies to focus their resources on the most profitable functionality and enables them to remain competitive within the quickly changing software market. Achieving and sustaining low decision lead time and the resulting high decision efficiency require a better understanding of factors that may affect both decision lead time and outcome. In order to identify possible factors, we conducted an exploratory two-stage case study that combines the statistical analysis of seven possible relationships among decision characteristics at a large company with a survey of industry participants. Our results show that the number of products affected by a decision increases the time needed to make a decision. Practitioners should take this aspect into consideration when planning for efficient decision making and possibly reducing the complexity of decisions. Our results also show that when a change request originates from an important customer, the request is more often accepted. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. The results provide valuable insights for researchers, who can use them to plan research of decision-making processes and methods, and for practitioners, who can use them to optimize their decision-making processes. In future work, we plan to investigate other decision characteristics, such as the number of stakeholders involved in the discussion about the potential change or the number of dependencies between software components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 2741.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kollu, R. K.
    A systematic mapping study on requirements scoping2016In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Requirements scoping is one of the key activities in requirements management but also a major risk for project management. Continuously changing scope may create a congestion state in handling the requirements inflow which causes negative consequences, e.g. delays or scope creep. Objectives: In this paper, we look at requirements scoping literature outside Software Product Line (SPL) by exploring the current literature on the phenomenon, summarizing publication trends, performing thematic analysis and analyzing the strength of the evidence in the light of rigor and relevance assessment. Method: We run a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) using snowballing procedure, supported by a database search for the start set identification, and identified 21 primary studies and 2 secondary studies. Results: The research interest in this area steadily increases and includes mainly case studies, validation or evaluation studies. The results were categorized into four themes: definitions, negative effects associated with scoping, challenges and identified methods/tools. The identified scope management techniques are also matched against the identified requirements scoping challenges.

  • 2742.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Maddila, K. Chakravarthy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Agile and lean metrics associated with requirements engineering2017In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, Vol. F131936, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the continuously increasing importance of Agile and Lean in software development, the number of studies that investigate Requirements Engineering (RE) related aspects remains low. In this paper, we report the results from a literature review about Agile and Lean requirements engineering. By performing a systematic mapping literature review, we identified 22 metrics in 18 publications. We analyzed the identified papers based on research methodology, rigor and relevance and other external attributes. We also map the identified metrics on the abstracted model for Agile and Lean development. We conclude that requirements-associated metrics are underrepresented in the literature and most of the metrics focuses on the time aspect rather than the quality aspect. © 2017 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 2743.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    The Project management perspective on Software Value: A Literature Review2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: To remain competitive, innovative and to grow, companies must change from cost-based decision-making to value-based decision-making where the decisions taken maximize software value and support company’s overall value creation. Objective: The objective of this paper is to complement and expand an existing classification of value aspects within the context of product management and development with additional aspects relating to value within the context of project management and development. Method: In this study, we present the results from a snowballing literature review that focuses on software value in software project management. In the research for relevance literature we focus on software value aspects different than cost. Results: We have identified nine primary studies in two snowball iterations. From these studies, we derived three categories of value aspects: financial, risk analysis and process improvement based on value identification.

  • 2744.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Murari, B.
    The impact of internet of things on software business models2016In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, p. 94-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Internet of Things (IoT) technology is significantly impacting software business. Several contributions were made in the literature regarding IoT. However, the importance of various business model elements for IoT and the impact of IoT on requirements engineering activities remains greatly unexplored. This paper focuses on the impact of IoT on software business models and requirements engineering. The objectives for this research include: (1) summarizing the current business models for IoT, (2) analyzing the impact of IoT on software business models (3) analyzing the impact of IoT on requirements engineering. We conducted a systematic snowballing literature review, followed by an industrial survey. We identified 21 peer reviewed papers which were analyzed in relation to their rigor and relevance and received 56 survey responses. The results of the literature review indicate 9 business model elements that IoT literature focus on. Morevoer, 4 business model aspects were described with respect to the business model structure, context and governance. The industrial survey results highlighted that value proposition, followed by customer segmentation and revenue streams were the most important business model elements for IoT. Moreover, the survey results suggest that requirement management, requirement prioritization and requirement modeling and analysis are highly impacted by IoT.

  • 2745.
    Wnukiewicz, Karol Kazimierz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    The role of quality requirements in software architecture design2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue during architectural design is that besides functional requirements, software architecture is influenced greatly by quality requirements [9][2][7], which often are neglected. The earlier quality requirements are considered, the less effort is needed later in the software lifecycle to ensure a sufficient software quality levels. Errors due to lack of their fulfilment are the most expensive and difficult to correct. Therefore, attention to quality requirements is crucial during an architectural design. The problem is not only to gather the system’s quality requirements, but to establish a methodology that helps to deal with them during the software development. Literature has paid some attention to software architecture in the context of quality requirements, but there is still lack of effective solutions in this area. To alleviate the problem, this paper lays out important concepts and notions of quality requirements in a way they can be used to drive design decisions and evaluate the architecture to estimate whether these requirements are fulfilled. Important concepts of software architecture area are presented to indicate how important quality requirements are during the design and what are the consequences of their lack in a software system. Moreover, a quality requirement-oriented design method is proposed as an outcome of the literature survey. This method is a model taking quality requirements into account at first, before the core functionality is placed. Besides the conceptual solution to the identified problems, this paper also suggests a practical method of handling quality requirements during a design. A recommendation framework for choosing the most suitable architectural pattern from a set of quality attributes is also proposed. Since the literature provides insufficient qualitative information about quality requirement issues in terms of software architectures, an empirical research is conducted as means for gathering the required data. Therefore, a systematic approach to support and analyze architectural designs in terms of quality requirements is prepared. Finally, quality requirement-oriented and pattern-based design method is further proposed as a result of investigating patterns as a tool for addressing quality requirements at different abstraction levels of a design. The research is concerned with the analysis of software architectures against one or more desired software qualities that ought to be achieved at the architectural level.

  • 2746.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], School of Computing.
    Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2012, held in Malmö, Sweden, in May 2011. In the last decade, we have seen agile and lean software development strongly influence the way software is developed. Agile and lean software development has moved from being a way of working for a number of pioneers to becoming, more or less, the expected way of developing software in industry. The topics covered by the selected full papers include general aspects of agility, agile teams, studies related to the release and maintenance of software, and research on specific practices in agile and lean software development. They are complemented by four short papers capturing additional aspects of agile and lean projects.

  • 2747. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 19992005In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 957-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 1999. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to actually show the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 1999 to contribute to a special issue of Information and Software Technology. Five invited authors have accepted the invitation and their articles are appearing in this special issue. Moreover, the research topics and methods of the most cited articles in 1999 are compared with those from the most cited articles in 1994 to provide a picture of similarities and differences between the years.

  • 2748. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20002007In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 2-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2749. Wohlin, Claes
    An Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Software Engineering Journals: 20012008In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2750. Wohlin, Claes
    An analysis of the most cited articles in software engineering journals-20022009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 2-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citations and related work are crucial in any research to position the work and to build on the work of others. A high citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is interesting to analyze which articles are cited the most. Such an analysis has been conducted using the ISI Web of Science to identify the most cited software engineering journal articles published in 2002. The objective of the analysis is to identify and list the articles that have influenced others the most as measured by citation count. An understanding of which research is viewed by the research community as most valuable to build upon may provide valuable insights into what research to focus on now and in the future. Based on the analysis, a list of the 20 most cited articles is presented here. The intention of the analysis is twofold. First, to identify the most cited articles, and second, to invite the authors of the most cited articles in 2002 to contribute to a special section of Information and Software Technology. Six authors have accepted the invitation and their articles appear in this special section. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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