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  • 251.
    Anes, Sljivic
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Morgondagens Kassaapparater: Utveckling av ett gränssnitt för kassaapparater med fokus på struktur2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur jag gått tillväga för att designa ett användargränssnitt för kassaapparater till företaget STAMFORD. Rapporten består av bland annat forskning på struktur vilket är det betydelsefulla i detta arbete. Arbetet består också av användartester och olika designbeslut som har gjorts tillsammans men en annan student, Eli Joseph. Det finns också en första och en andra design med användartest och resultat från båda omgångarna. Avslutningsvis går jag igenom vad jag fått fram av detta arbete och vad som kan vara värt att titta på vid eventuell vidare forskning.

    Nyckelord: gränssnitt, kassaapparater, snabbt, effektivt, Task-time, Task-success

  • 252.
    Angarita Soto, Angie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design Philosophy for User Friendly Parameter Handler2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DCU2 (Drive Control Unit 2) is an important control system used in applications for train systems that are configured by a set of parameters. Traditionally, parameterization is conducted by using an excel workbook during the software development. The parameters are set up and further export the parameters to the compilation step. Such approach has a number of disadvantages, e.g., delays on the validation and verification steps, system configuration overhead, and suboptimal system reliability generated by the parameter configurations.

    To improve the parameterization process, this thesis implements a model-based software architecture approach and automotive industry standards via rapid prototyping by using scrum methodology. We do this by using Matlab/Simulink, TDL (Time Description Language) and UML (Unified Modeling Language) architectural description languages to enable different views of the software architecture. We then develop different prototypes that implement ASAM (Association for Standardization of Automation and Measuring Systems) standards like XCP protocol over Ethernet (code ASAM MCD-1 XCP V1.1.0) and ASAP2 (code ASAM MCD-2 MC) in every scrum sprint. An evaluation then shows that the thesis successfully implements previously defined standards that use commercial tools from e.g., Vector, proving that the parameter‟s unit control can be handled via online calibration and measurement, leading to a significant improvement in Bombardier‟s software development process in a distributed development environment.

  • 253.
    Ankarstrand, Christin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Egenor Lohman, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kompetensutveckling för ökad innovationsförmåga i småföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last couple of years an increased interest of learning in organizations and competence development has been noticed. Many researchers and decitionmakers are of the opinion that this is an important part of productivity, competitiveness and innovation. (Kock, Gill & Ellström, 2008) Innovations are usually the fruit of several individuals creative ability, their cooperation, experiences and their additional knowledge (Leonard & Swap, 1999). 96.3% of the companies in Sweden are small business.(www.scb.se) Small business and entrepreneurs are seen as especially importance of employment and the growth of the economy in spite of many initiatives there is a lack of solutions in the society that are well adjusted to the specific needs and prerequisites (http://www.regeringen.se). This essay is a qualitative study consisting of semi structured interviews with the purpose of exanimating a project of competence development with the aim of supporting small business development through enabling interaction and competence development. Hansson (2005) describes competence development as an objective for providing. Dalin (1997) and Hansson (2005) describe interaction as an aspect of competence. On order for small business to be able to thrive external relations with other businesses with the ability to support the company in its development should be developed. In order for small businesses to be more successful and profitable external resources are needed. (Street & Ann-Frances, 2007) During the interviews it was revealed that the respondents experiences of interaction during the course of the project and the experience of the possibilities for future interaction was parted. Some of the respondents expresses that the interaction to some extent has strengthened existing bonds of interaction by enlarged insight in the other companies business. According to half of the respondents the specific activities of competence development witch the respondent was in need of is experienced as the most important contribution to the business.

  • 254.
    Anmar, Shawi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Datorbord till Apples datorer2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Anna, Gustafsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementering av delat ledarskap inom en kommunorganisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses the management innovation and how shared leadership is a form of it. The report is a compilation of what shared leadership means and how two municipal organizations works with shared leadership. The two minicipal organizations are Strängnäs and Vällingby. One municipality (Strängnäs) is meanwhile this report produced during insertion of shared leadership. The other (Vällingby) has about two years experience of working with this form of leadership. The main question for this work is why does a local organization implements shared leadership? Other questions are how does shared leadership work? How does one avoid confusion and ambiguity for employees? What advantages and disadvantages are there with shared leadership? And what can be done better ? Through well- selected literature in the form of books, articles, reports, etc. a picture of how shared leadership is part of a management innovation has been created. To complement this, there have been interviews with unit managers who are working or will be working with shared leadership. The reason for writing this report is that in today's situation there is not much information about shared leadership, much less on shared leadership in the local organizations. The results of this work show that there are many different forms of shared leadership, that there are several different ways to implement shared leadership in a local organization. A form does not need to fit all businesses, but it is important to adapt the leadership mold after their own business. We have listed a number of pros and cons of shared leadership  the opportunities and risks there might be and how best to way implement shared leadership in a organization.

  • 256.
    Ansari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Freiberg, Emanuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Supporting Strategic Decisions for Operational Changes through the use of Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study in Production Scheduling at AstraZeneca2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, market competitiveness exerts more pressure on process industries to increase their number of products, reduce order sizes and shorten delivery lead time. This causes an expansion of order enquiries from customers, which leads to an insufficient use of scheduling and planning systems to meet these changes. This force process industries to adopt other tools, such as Discrete Event Simulation for supporting their strategic decisions to align with these operational changes.

     

    The objective of this thesis is to understand how Discrete Event Simulation supports strategic decisions prior to the implementation of operational changes in process industries. Therefore, a case study in the pharmaceutical industry was conducted at AstraZeneca, Södertälje. Discrete Event Simulation was used as a tool to support the strategic decision of implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. Simultaneously, a theoretical review was carried out to investigate types of strategic decisions which can be supported by Discrete Event Simulation use in process industries. Then, contributions and challenges of Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting strategic decisions for operational changes were clarified. 

     

    The empirical results indicate the importance of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting deliverability as a competitive priority to AstraZeneca, followed by flexibility and cost as second and third competitive priorities. The analysis also identified the contribution of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting long-term decisions in the company by providing analytical solutions in different scenarios, dynamic visualization and increased knowledge about the simulated operational change. Additionally, two main challenges in the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decision are identified. First, Discrete Event Simulation was not suitable for supporting all kinds of competitive priorities such as quality, environment and innovation. Second, the direction of the communication between the Discrete Event Simulation use and the strategic decisions differs.   

     

    A framework is developed to facilitate the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decisions prior to implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. This framework provides a guideline to identify the range of contributions from Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting different types of competitive priorities prior to the implementation of the Product Wheel method. Generally, Discrete Event Simulation could be a useful tool for supporting deliverability, cost and flexibility by implementing the Product Wheel technique, while it has a limited capability when dealing with other strategic decisions such as quality, innovation and environment.

  • 257.
    Antonsson, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tillgänglighet och användbarhet i förskola och skola: Hur tillgänglighet kan ligga till grund för design2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillgänglighet och användbarhet i förskola och skola är ett examensarbete inom Informationsdesign med inriktningen Rumslig gestaltning. Syftet med denna rapport är att presentera de studier, rumsliga komponenter, fältstudier och avstämningar som studerats under projektets gång. Allt detta har bidragit till en förståelse över hur skolor kan utformas och gestaltas för att de ska vara så tillgängliga som möjligt för alla.

    Gestaltningsarbetet utgår från en skola som tagits fram under projektets gång. Skolan finns inte i dagsläget då den är ritad för denna gestaltningsprocess. I skolan gestaltas ett klassrum och en RWC som har de anpassningar som krävs vid ny- eller ombyggnation av offentliga miljöer. Gestaltningarna som presenteras har som syfte att visa dessa krav och hur de kan samspela med gestaltning och strävar efter att visa så tillgängliga rum som möjligt. Målet är att alla, oavsett funktionsnedsättning ska kunna orientera sig i rummen och utnyttja alla funktioner.

    Empirin består av insamlad forskning och annan litteratur inom ämnet tillgänglighet, fältstudier och avstämningar med Fastighetskontoret på Västerås stad. Genom att göra detta är det tydligt att det krävs en mängd olika funktionskrav som måste följas för att en miljö ska vara tillgänglig och även få bygglov i dagsläget. Det framgick även att ett gestaltningsarbete blir något begränsat när samtliga krav följs, dock kan vissa krav uteslutas om det motiveras väl i bygglovshandlingarna.

    Utifrån empirin har gestaltningar tagits fram som främjar tillgängligheten för alla och skapar goda förutsättningar till orienterbarheten, rumsupplevelsen och användbarheten.

  • 258.
    Antonsson, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A different Africa: Spatial information design for a safer refugee settlement2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore the spatiality’s affect on refugee’s sense of safety in the Osire refugee settlement in Namibia. The gathered empirics together with previous research and theories should lead to a design for a spatial information system. The system should contribute to peoples’ understanding of their environments’ whole structure as well as showing the way to the health centre and the police station, thus increasing their sense of psychological and physical safety. A wish was also to breathe life into the point of intersection of spatial information design and human science.

    The methods used to enable this were first and foremost a field study in the settlement to experience and acquire first-hand information. In addition observation, introspection and several interviews were conducted.

    As a result I established safety to be an issue that could be solved with spatial design. Refugees expressed that not knowing your environment or finding your way leaves you scared, uncomfortable and confused. With the use of a spatial information system safety can literally be created, as demonstrated in the design proposal. The conclusion is that much could be done to spatially solve complex issues as long as it’s addressed from that perspective.

  • 259.
    Appelquist, Angelica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
     2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Applebaum, Álla León
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    NYA BILDER AV HUMANIORA I EN TID AV STÄNDIGT NYA INTRYCK: En studie om hur man utvecklar genrebilder att kommunicera vetenskaplighet och sammankopplas med forskning.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är en del av delprojektet ”Bild av hum/sam” som förvaltas av Milda Rönn (fil dr i nordiska språk) på Humsamverkan. Projektet skapar bl.a. redskap och aktiviteter för att påverka den allmänt rådande föreställningen om humaniora och samhällsvetenskap och finansieras av VINNOVA - Sveriges innovationsmyndighet

     

    Idag står till exempel provrör och matematiska formler som evigt återkommande symboler för forskning och vetenskap i framkant. Ett porträtt av Einstein representerar vanligtvis den vetenskapliga genialiteten, men det skapar samtidigt vanföreställningar om kvinnor och forskning. När forskning i allmänhet ska illustreras görs det mycket ofta med bilder från teknik- och naturvetenskapen. Det är alltså något som är inpräntat i vår kultur, att teknik- och naturvetenskapliga bilder uppfattas som normen för det vetenskapliga och får stå som sinnebilden för forskning generellt. 

     

    Problematiken är dock att de konventionella vita rockarna och provrören föga appellerar till en humanistisk forskare eftersom de inte överhuvudtaget representerar vad disciplinen står för. När humaniora och humanistisk forskning väl visualiseras görs det ofta i samband med en trave böcker, slumpmässiga grupper av människor eller enskilda individer. Det finns ingenting i bilderna, vare sig i komposition eller i element som tyder på att de föreställer vetenskaplighet och forskning. Dagens befintliga material kommunicerar med andra ord inte vetenskap och saknar verklighetsförankring.

     

    Hur kan man då påverka de konkreta bilder av humaniora och humanistisk forskning som finns, så att de visar på vetenskaplighet och innovativ kapacitet? Det övergripande målet är att utgå ifrån de befintliga bilder som idag finns att tillgå och utveckla dem till att bli vetenskapligt förankrade samt sammankopplade med forskning.

     

    Det hela har mynnat ut i ett förslag på en informationsdesign modell - Analysmodell. Det är en slags mall för bildarkitekturen som man kan följa i gestaltningen och tillblivelsen av bilder föreställande humanistisk forskning.

     

  • 261.
    Aranius, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Är det sant? Får jag äta sushi?: − en studie om att skapa informationsmaterial till blivande föräldrar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study discloses how to design an informative artefact for expecting parents. The main focus of the artefact concerns pregnancy and childbirth, and is published as a complementary material online. The report uses Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhusets patient encyclopedia as a starting point and is limited to pregnancy related topics. The thesis is based on the sender's and recipients' needs and wishes, as well as theories and research on design, readability and narrativity. The following methods are used in the study: an analysis, expert interviews, target group interviews and a focus group.

  • 262.
    Ararsa, Bete Birhanu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Green Maintenance: A literature survey on the role of maintenance for sustainable manufacturing.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing uncertainty in the global economy is forcing many manufacturers to reassess their corporate outlook towards the environment. Today there is a growing attention to sustainability in industry accompanied by a paradigm shift towards realizing a sustainable society. It is now very common to hear about Green Production and Green Systems, but few literature exist that deal with the relatively newer subject of Green Maintenance. The term green production is often used to describe production with a sustainable perspective. Also, lean production has been proposed as a means of achieving sustainability. Lean and Green production systems require efficient production and low use of resources such as energy, materials, etc. One major facilitator of this is effective maintenance. Sometimes regarded as the necessary evil, maintenance still has a negative image in the industry. But as the paradigm on manufacturing shift towards realizing a sustainable society, we should also begin to realize the changing role of maintenance. Still, the impact of maintenance on sustainability and Green production is not very well described in research.

     

    This Master Thesis within the School of Innovation Design and Engineering at Mälardalen University presents a literature review on green maintenance by trying to identify and assess the key factors of maintenance effects on green production, life cycle assessment and sustainability of maintenance activities. In addition, a brief introduction to the greening of remanufacturing activity, part of a green process by itself, is provided. The research is based upon extensive literature study, questionnaire survey and interviews with relevant industry as well as academic personnel. A discussion of the results of the interview followed by a conclusion on the key factors of maintenance on sustainability is provided. Future research areas have also been suggested.

     

     

     

    Keywords: Green maintenance, Production maintenance, Sustainable maintenance,     Total Productive Maintenance

  • 263.
    Aravind, Meera
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. The IoT platform for most vehicles typically consists of 1) an on-board system consisting of the communication unit, sensors and a set of ECU’s that are interconnected using a CAN network, 2) an off-board system consisting of the applications deployed on the servers (e.g., cloud) that processes the data send by the communication unit over the internet, and 3) mobile devices like a mobile phone or a computer that communicates with the on-board and off-board systems. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board system to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. There are two main architectural paradigms for sending data: 1) interval based architecture, in which data is send at regular intervals and 2) event based architecture, in which data is send whenever relevant events occur. Currently, (e.g., at Scania), the data is being send at regular intervals, i.e., using an interval based approach. In this case, data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. Sending data in an event-based manner, when the data is relevant for reporting, e.g., changes significantly, reduces the network usage when compared to the interval based approach.  In this thesis, we investigate the possibility of using an event based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system in order to reduce network usage and improve the accuracy of the data available off-board. We first propose an event based architecture for data transfer in the context of Internet of vehicles. We then implement a simulator to evaluate our proposed architecture for the specific case of position data. Finally, we perform extensive experiments varying different parameters and compare, for example, average message size per minute and average off-board error distance. The results show that our event based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. Future work will aim at implementing the event based architecture on a real platform as well as investigating the possibility of using the event based architecture for more accurate prediction by incorporating additional details such as the final destination of the vehicle and odometer values.

  • 264.
    Aravind, Meera
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiklander, G.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palmheden, J.
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 778, Springer Verlag , 2017, 37-46 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board vehicle to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. The data can be send at regular intervals or in an event-based manner whenever relevant events occur. In interval-based approach, the data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using an event-based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system. The results show that our event-based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. 

  • 265.
    Arayapan, Khanittha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Warunyuwong, Piyanut
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Logistics Optimization: Application of Optimization Modeling in Inbound Logistics2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be a market leader, low cost and responsiveness are the key success factors. Logistics activities create high cost reducing competitiveness of the company, especially for the remote production base. Thus, logistics activities which are delivery planning, freight forwarder and delivery mode selection must be optimized. The focusing area of this paper is inbound logistics due to its big proportion in the total cost and involvement with several stakeholders. The optimization theory and Microsoft Excel’s Solver is used to create the standard optimization tools since it is an efficient and user friendly program. The models are developed based on the supply chain management theory in order to achieve the lowest cost, responsiveness and shared objectives. 2 delivery planning optimization models, container loading for fixed slitting and loading pattern and container loading for pallet loaded material, are formulated. Also, delivery mode selection is constructed by using optimization concept to determine the best alternative. Furthermore, freight forwarder selection process is created by extending the use of the delivery mode selection model. The results express that safety stock, loading pattern, transport mode, and minimum order quantity (MOQ) significantly affect the total logistics cost. Including hidden costs, long transit time and delay penalties, leads freight forwarder selection process to become more realistic and reliable. Shorter processing time, ensured optimal solution, transparency increase and better communication are gained by using these optimization models. However, the proper boundaries must be defined carefully to gain the feasible solution.

  • 266. Argunsah, Ali Özgur
    et al.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cetin, Mujdat
    Detection of Eye Blinks from EEG using Hidden Markov Models2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Arnbom, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Att lokalisera kompetenser på flexkontoret:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To find competencies on a workplace with flex office structure.

    Companies today, 2012 are facing new opportunities and challenges. Information technology develops, competition is bigger today than ever, increased environmental requirements will be added and new patterns of life and values are occurring. This means that people who work in offices feel strong pressure of conversion, which is something that people experience differently. Therefore it is essential how the working environment is designed in an office. Working in an office means a lot of information processing and we can see large changes taking place. The ability to work efficiently, flexible and to be able to lead and plan a company’s resources efficient is essential. The flex office was developed in the beginning of 1992 and was meant to be an office independent of space and time, and an office where all information and working material is gathered in a common database. At a flex office there are no given working places instead the employees chooses their working station for the day. A problem for the employees in flex office environment is to find the competencies they need. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a design proposal that solves the customer's information design problem in finding competencies at the workplace. Theoretical data has been gathered through studies of literature. Empirical data has been gathered through interviews, observation and a questionnaire. These data have then formed the basis for the design proposal which is created with help from Michanek and Breilers design model. To find the competencies, different working environments have been created and also a workplace location system. The design proposal divides the working environment in three different activity environments. These are made to help form the workplace location system; in order to include the needs from the target group as well as it gives the opportunities to find the working competencies through good information design. The workplace location system gives the employee the opportunity to find other competencies at the office by explicit showing the status and localization of the employee.

  • 268.
    Arnius, Isabella
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analys av fördelen med ett tvärfunktionellt digitalt prioriteringsverktyg för förbättringar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the benefits of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements, for support functions in a manufacturing industry, based on performance measurements and costumer needs. Additionally, to examine the benefits of using OEE as an overall measurement for such a tool, and the available benefits of connecting said tool with daily management if it were to be visualised digitally.

    Methodology: In order to elucidate and attempt to solve the formulated problems of the study, a case study has been carried out in parallel with a literature study. During the literature study, material within performance measurement, prioritisation of improvements, and visualisation of improvement information has been studied. The case study consists of observations and interviews, which have been carried out in order to gather data related to the case-company’s way of work with improvements, about OEE with related aspects in two selected cells, and about digitalisation of the case-company’s management and follow-up boards. An analysis has been performed where the empirical results are examined and compared with the studied literature.  

    Findings: The implementation of the study meant that advantages of the usage of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements, based on performance measurements and needs, could be presented. This could also be done for a usage of OEE as an overall measurement in such a tool, a digitalisation of boards for daily management and an interconnection between a digital daily management and a prioritisation tool for improvements. Overall advantages that could be identified for these three parts were that the prioritisation tool can increase the probability for a higher costumer value, OEE can generate both overall as well as detailed assistance with prioritising improvement work and a digital visualisation of daily management and an interconnection of that to a prioritisation tool can simplify prioritisation of improvements.  

    Recommendations: In order to achieve better results in a further study, it is suggested that: a model of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements is built and tested with support functions to more clearly see the benefits of the tool; that benchmarking of digital prioritisation tools are conducted in order to clarify the specific digital benefits of a prioritisation tool; and that a model of a digital management and follow-up board is constructed so that advantages and disadvantages with a physical versus a digital board may be analysed. 

  • 269.
    Arroyo Rubio, Fernando
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT FOR AUTOMATIC NIGHT DRIVING AND VISUAL CONTROL2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project consists on developing an automatic night driving system in a simulation environment. The simulator I have used is TORCS. TORCS is an Open Source car racing simulator written in C++. It is used as an ordinary car racing game, as a IA racing game and as a research platform. The goal of this thesis is to implement an automatic driving system to control the car under night conditions using computer vision. A camera is implemented inside the vehicle and it will detect the reflective light-markers placed along the roadside. The car is oriented only with the lights the camera can see.

  • 270.
    Arvedal, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzing network monitoring systems and objects for a telecommunications company2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this thesis work has been to identify what a telecommunications company should monitor and to find a network monitoring system that can monitor these identified objects on two different platforms: Windows and Linux. The network monitoring system has been implemented in a telecommunications company’s environment and this thesis presents how the system monitors their environment. The subject for this thesis work is within network monitoring. The problem formulation has been answered by conducting a literature study and by testing network monitoring systems’ features in a lab environment. The sources used in the literature study consists of scientific articles and other articles found on the web. The lab environment consisted of virtual machines that runs Linux or Windows as an operating system.

     

    The purpose of the work was to enlighten Cellip in what objects they should monitor and to help the company to monitor them by implementing a network monitoring system. Cellip is a telecommunications company that provides IP-telephony services through Session Initiation Protocol. The limits of this thesis work are based on what their environment supports in terms of monitoring. Cellip’s environment consists of Linux and Windows servers, Cisco switches and firewalls, and Sonus Session Border Controllers.

     

    In summary, the result of this thesis gives the reader information about what a telecommunications company with a similar environment to Cellip should monitor, what three systems that can monitor these objects, which of the three systems that has most automatized features and finally how the chosen system Datadog monitors and presents the objects. Some of the objects that are important to monitor is: memory, disk storage, latency, packet loss. In conclusion, this thesis presents a monitoring baseline for telecommunication companies with a similar environment to Cellip.

  • 271.
    Arvidsson, Karl
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wide area motion capture using an array of consumer grade structured light sensors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we propose a solution to how a system can find and track people, as well as recognizing their gestures, in a $360^\circ$ field of view using consumer grade products. We describe a system connecting multiple depth cameras in an array and have them operate as a single camera controlled by a single computer. Using a single camera providing features such as detection, tracking and recognizing gestures of people, we specifically focus on the difficulties of preserving these features in moving forward to an array of cameras. We propose a solution based on Microsoft Kinect and Kinect SDK, using linear transformation to account for a fixed camera model to combine skeleton data from an array of Kinect sensors. Furthermore, we use positional based identification to determine whether people are being tracked by another camera in the system. The contributions of this work include insight into the challenges of building this kind of system based on Kinect hardware and software intended for use on a single computer, such as performance bottlenecks, along with possible alternative solutions. In particular, we present performance measurements for a single computer running up to four sensors and show a system that can run satisfactorily with up to at least 5 sensors on today's computers. We show what requirements on hardware can be expected for such a system, as well as where there are potential limits as the number of sensors increase. 

  • 272.
    Arvidsson, Mathilda
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Förändringsledning: Att utveckla människor för att förbättra systemet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    That an organization lacks a good company culture can have different causes. Many researchers have investigated whether the individual's sense of adding value affects the organization's atmosphere and more modern approaches demonstrate that future competitiveness is affected by the individual’s evolvement rather than the system's technical development. In the small company Ztift AB the management stood at a crossroad where the company's future could hang on company culture. The purpose of this work is to investigate how the small organization reacts and change through an interactive study of the impact by the introduction of a kaizen tool. The employees were observed and their reactions were noted, especially when they got involved in, started taking initiatives and became a driving force of the process.

    The study was done with questions off issue about the difficulties companies need to tackle in an organizational change and if there is a theoretical foundation that supports the development that occurs in the company. In addition, the work reflects on whether the change in a small business can be different from a large company, both on an organizational level, but also at the individual level, where the result of staff involvement and commitment are analysed.

    The result shows that the theoretical basis available for organizational change also corresponds to the small organization, but some distinctive characteristics is that change in the small organization becomes more directly tangible and easily integrated into the business. The result means that it is beneficial to implement change in the small organization considering the future and the vision to increase in size and profit. Ergo, having a beneficial company culture from scratch provides all the conditions to succeed in keeping it, as the company evolves. 

  • 273.
    Asadi, Narges
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Supporting flexibility in an assembly system through product design2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing customer demands for product variety in conjunction with the short lifecycle of products has caused manufacturing companies to introduce a wide range of products by accommodating flexibility. An assembly system is an essential part of the manufacturing system from both cost and time perspectives. Hence, the shift towards flexibility in manufacturing companies highlights the significance of establishing flexible assembly systems and designing products that are closely aligned with them. Despite its significance, however, the flexible assembly system concept and its requirements for product design have not been clearly defined in research and from a practical point of view. Most research on flexible assembly systems has mainly approached either the design or the balancing and scheduling issues of these systems, whereas only a few studies have briefly defined the flexible assembly system they focused on, without further specifying the characteristics of a flexible assembly system and its requirements for product design.

    Taking that into account, the objective of this work is to provide a framework to contribute to the understanding of the concept of flexibility in an assembly system and its requirements for product design. In order to fulfil the objective, four empirical studies combined with literature reviews have been conducted. The empirical studies, a multiple case study and three single case studies, investigate the definition of flexibility in an assembly system as well as the requirements that a flexible assembly system imposes on product design.

    Through its findings, this research provides a definition of flexibility in assembly systems that mainly revolves around volume, mix and new product flexibility. In addition, six constituents of a flexible assembly system have been identified: adaptable material supply, versatile workforce, increased commonality, standardised work content, integrated product properties and strategic planning. Furthermore, three requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design are defined, which, if fulfilled, reduce the complexity created by product variety and consequently support flexibility in the assembly system. Accordingly, to increase the understanding of the concept of flexibility in an assembly system and its requirements for product design, a four-staged framework is suggested. The proposed framework deals with the activities related to the concept and the development of a flexible assembly system and is expected to be received by assembly practitioners as a link between assembly and product design teams in the product realisation process. Future research can further validate the framework in practice.

  • 274.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring optimal flexible assembly systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a prominent part of manufacturing system, assembly system provides a platform for increasing efficiency while delivering various market demands. However, due to the lack of a unified and clear definition of flexibility in assembly systems, the recognition of optimal flexibility in assembly system without clashing with efficiency still remains elusive. In order to establish a sound basis to discuss the characteristics of flexible assembly and to address the question of reaching optimal flexibility, this paper makes use of a case study performed in five manufacturing plants. The study proposes a clear definition for flexible assembly and identifies six enablers for flexibility in assembly systems. Further in this research the applicability of few different types of manufacturing flexibility in assembly system is investigated. The paper concludes with discussions and suggestions for future research.

  • 275.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The Essential Constituents of Flexible Assembly Systems: A Case Study in the Heavy Vehicle Manufacturing Industry2015In: Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, ISSN 0972-2696, Vol. 16, no 3, 235-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major challenge of today’s manufacturing industry in tackling demands for a wider range of products with short life-cycle times and meeting customisation requirements has drawn considerable attention towards flexibility in manufacturing systems. As a prominent part of a manufacturing system, an assembly system provides a platform for increasing efficiency while delivering various market demands. However, owing to the dearth of a unified and clear definition of the constituents of flexible assembly systems, in both theory and practice, the recognition of flexibility in assembly systems still remains elusive. In order to establish a sound base for discussing the constituents of flexible assembly systems, this research paper explores the literature concerning flexibility in manufacturing and assembly as well as in flexible systems management domains. To reflect an industrial perspective, a multiple case study of five manufacturing plants in the heavy vehicle industry is performed. By identifying six essential constituents of flexibility in assembly systems, the study proposes a clear definition of flexibility in assembly systems which mainly revolves around mix and volume flexibility. To further enhance the findings, the compatibility of a few previously identified types of manufacturing flexibility in the assembly systems of the case plants is investigated and additional dimensions of flexibility in assembly systems are revealed. Finally, the implications for theory and practice as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  • 276.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Guaragni, F.
    Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany.
    Johannknecht, F.
    Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.
    Saidani, M.
    CentraleSupélec, Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Scholle, P.
    Paderborn University, Germany.
    Borg, J.
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Panasiuk, D.
    University of Technology of Troyes, France.
    Success factors of an ipd based approach in a remote multidisciplinary team environment - Reflections on a case study2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Design Society , 2017, no DS87-9, 31-40 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated Product Development (IPD) is comprehensively discussed in literature. The human-centered approach offers a parallelized set of work activities in interdisciplinary teams. Due to the rapid globalization of IPD activities in the companies, project members are often obliged to work remotely in teams and through virtual means of communication. However, with the recent shift towards working remotely in IPD teams new challenges have emerged that might adversely affect the success of IPD projects. The objective of the paper is to outline the key factors strengthening and weakening the IPD process in a remote multidisciplinary team environment. To fulfill the objective, a case study on an international multidisciplinary team of postgraduate students working on a design project with an IPD approach, was conducted. The results highlight key success factors and their contributions to the project success in a remote multidisciplinary team environment. Additionally, key weaknesses of such approach and their negative impacts are also indicated.

  • 277.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Augustsson, P.
    FlexQube, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    An assembly-oriented product design methodology to develop similar assembly operations in a mixed-product assembly line2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Design Society , 2017, no DS87-5, 131-140 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing demands for product variety, Mixed-Product Assembly Lines (MPALs) as an effective means of creating product variety are recently increasing in manufacturing companies. However, handling different products from distinct product families creates high complexity in performing assembly operations in an MPAL. The elevated complexity, calls for increased similarity between assembly operations in an MPAL which requires product design changes accordingly. Hence, the objective of this paper is to suggest an assembly-oriented product design methodology to increase similar assembly operations for various products cross-product families. The proposed methodology uses Interface Diagram, a product architecture modelling tool, for comparing assembly operations crossproduct families, suggesting an assembly-oriented design, and communicating it to designers. The methodology has been developed by conducting a case study in heavy vehicle manufacturing industry. The results highlight a visual approach towards establishing a common language between assembly and design teams to consider the requirements of an MAPL in product design.

  • 278.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Drivers of complexity in a flexible assembly system- A case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various ever-changing market demands have propelled manufacturing companies to offer product variety in an efficient and timely manner. Assembly as a key stage of manufacturing process is used to realise product variety through establishing mixed-product assembly systems. Although establishing a flexible mixed-product assembly system which both offers product variety and absorbs market demands fluctuation is pivotal for maintaining competitive edge in certain industries such as vehicle manufacturing, it is also considered an elaborate task which calls for further investigation. In this paper, complexity in a flexible mixed-product assembly line is investigated and the key drivers of complexity are identified. To fulfil the research objective, a case study during the pilot implementation of a flexible mixed-product assembly concept in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company has been conducted. The results indicate the key factors concerning assembly process, product design, and information and communication technology (ICT) which contribute to complexity in the flexible assembly system. The paper concludes with an outlook for possible future research.

  • 279.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Handling product variety in a mixed-product assembly line: A case study2015In: DS 80-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 15) VOL 4: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X, 2015, Vol. 4, 41-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s fast-changing global market, using mixed-product assembly lines (MPALs) and mixed-model assembly lines (MMALs) allows manufacturing companies to be flexible and to maintain their competitive edge through product variety. Balancing and sequencing issues have been recognized as the main challenges of MPALs and MMALs, but other practical needs of MPALs remain unclear. Recognizing the practical needs of MPALs helps in identifying related requirements for product design, leading to products that closely align with the MPAL concept. The objective of this paper is to offer an industrial perspective on the needs of MPALs and to identify its requirements vis-à-vis product design. To achieve this objective, a single real-time case study in a heavy-vehicle-manufacturing company has been performed. The results from this industrial case study suggest that in order to handle product variety in MPALs and to reduce the related complexity, certain dimensions of flexibility need to be created in the assembly system, and requirements related to product design should be considered simultaneously in order to support assembly processes.

  • 280.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Identification of the causes of complexity in mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for product variety have directed manufacturing companies towards accommodating flexibility by establishing mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines. However, since greater variety leads to increased complexity, establishing these assembly lines becomes complicated. By conducting a case study, this paper investigates the causes of complexity and the applicability of assembly instructions in one mixed-product and four mixed-model assembly lines in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company. The results indicate a set of causes for complexity and highlight the significance of assembly instructions, as the practical implications for development of flexible assembly systems and design of products closely aligned with them.

  • 281.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Linking product design to flexibility in an assembly system: A case study2017In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 28, no 5, 610-630 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The recent shift towards accommodating flexibility in manufacturing companies and the complexity resulting from product variety highlight the significance of flexible assembly systems and designing products for them. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design from the assembly system's standpoint. Design/methodology/approach - To fulfil the purpose of the paper, a literature review and a case study were performed. The case study was conducted with an interactive research approach in a global market leader company within the heavy vehicle manufacturing industry. Findings - The findings indicate that common assembly sequence, similar assembly interfaces, and common parts are the main requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design which reduce complexity and facilitate various flexibility dimensions. Accordingly, a model is proposed to broaden the understanding of these requirements from the assembly system's standpoint. Research limitations/implications - This study contributes to the overlapping research area of flexible assembly systems and product design. Practical implications - The proposed model is largely based on practical data and clarifies the role of product design in facilitating flexibility in an assembly system. It can be used by assembly managers, assembly engineers, and product designers. Originality/value - The key originality of this paper compared to the previous studies lies in presenting a novel assembly-oriented design model. The model enhances understanding of a flexible assembly system's requirements for product design with regard to reducing complexity and managing variation in a flexible assembly system. These requirements can be applied to product design across various product families within a company's product portfolio.

  • 282.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats R.
    Fundin, Anders P.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Towards Establishing Similar Assembly Interfaces for a Mixed-product Assembly System2016In: Procedia CIRP, 2016, 635-640 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a mixed-product assembly line (MPAL) is an elaborate task due to the complexity raised by product variety. This paper proposes that securing similar assembly interfaces across distinct product families is an essential requirement of MPALs which facilitates flexibility and reduces complexity. The concept of similar assembly interfaces has been developed and analysed in a case study at a heavy vehicle manufacturing company. The results suggest that assembly interfaces can be defined according to generic assembly operation steps: pick, place and attach. The paper highlights the need for development of a cross-functional methodology to analyse and establish similar assembly interfaces.

  • 283.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Schedin, Joel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Considering assembly requirement specifications in product development: identification and approach2014In: FAIM 2014 - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation, 2014, 969-976 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the major advantages such as reduced time to market and improved quality at lowered cost, the principles of design for assembly capabilities and concurrent engineering are of great significance when developing new products. However, identifying assembly requirement specifications and considering them in New Product Development (NPD) in a timely manner, while securing efficiency and robustness of assembly processes, still remains a challenging task. In presenting a case study of an NPD project in a manufacturing company, this article focuses on the process of capturing and incorporating the requirements related to the assembly system during the early phases of NPD. Further, the results of the research study indicate the different assembly requirements in the case company and pinpoint the challenges in practices involved in handling them. The assembly requirements identified in this research reflect some of the challenges encountered in handling the requirements, through the investigated requirement practice. Based on the results, the issues of when and how to consider the assembly requirements are highlighted in the conclusions and suggestions for future research are made.

  • 284.
    Asadi, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Enhancing the Monitoring of Real-Time Performance in Linux2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing trend in applying Linux operating system in the domain of embeddedsystems. This is due to the important features that Linux benets from, such as beingopen source, its light weight compared to other major operating systems, its adaptabilityto dierent platforms, and its more stable performance speed. However, there are up-grades that still need to be done in order to use Linux for real-time purposes. A numberof dierent approaches have been suggested in order to improve Linux's performance inreal-time environment. Nevertheless, proposing a correct-by-construction system is verydicult in real-time environment, mainly due to the complexity and unpredictability ofthem. Thus, run-time monitoring can be a helpful approach in order to provide the userwith data regarding to the actual timing behavior of the system which can be used foranalysis and modication of it. In this thesis work, a design for run-time monitoringis suggested and implemented on a real-time scheduler module that assists Linux withreal-time tasks. Besides providing crucial data regarding the timing performance of thesystem, this monitor predicts violations of timing requirements based on the currenttrace of the system performance.

  • 285. Asadi, Nima
    et al.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Run-Time Monitoring of Timing Constraints: A Survey of Methods and Tools2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the availability of static analysis methods to achieve a correct-by-construction design for different systems in terms of timing behavior, violations of timing constraints can still occur at run-time due to different reasons. The aim of monitoring of system performance with respect to the timing constraints is to detect the violations of timing specifications, or to predict them based on the current system performance data. Considerable work has been dedicated to suggesting efficient performance monitoring approaches during the past years. This paper presents a survey and classification of those approaches in order to help researchers gain a better view over different methods and developments in monitoring of timing behavior of systems. Classifications of the mentioned approaches are given based on different items that are seen as important in developing a monitoring system, i.e. the use of additional hardware, the data collection approach, etc. Moreover, a description of how these different methods work is presented in this paper along with the advantages and downsides of each of them.

  • 286.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Extending the FTT-SE Protocol for Multi-Master/Multi-Slave Networks2012Student thesis
  • 287.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Multi-Hop Real-Time Communication over Switched Ethernet Technology2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Switched Ethernet technology has been introduced to be exploited in real-time communication systems due to its features such as its high throughput and wide availability, hence being a cost-effective solution. Many real-time switched Ethernet protocols have been developed, preserving the profits of traditional Ethernet technology, to overcome the limitations imposed by using commercially available (COTS) switches. These limitations mainly originate from the non-deterministic behavior of the Ethernet switches inherent in the use of FIFO queues and a limited number of priority levels.

     

    In our research we focus on two particular real-time communication technologies, one based on COTS Ethernet switches named the FTT-SE architecture and the other using a modified Ethernet switch called the HaRTES architecture. Both architectures are based on a master-slave technique supporting different and temporally isolated traffic types including real-time periodic, real-time sporadic and non-real-time traffic. Also, they provide mechanisms implementing adaptivity as a response to the requirements imposed by dynamic real-time applications. Nevertheless, the two mentioned architectures were originally developed for a simple network consisting of a single switch, and they were lacking support for multi-hop communication. In industrial applications, multi-hop communication is essential as the networks comprise a high number of nodes, that is far beyond the capability of a single switch.

     

    In this thesis, we study the challenges of building multi-hop communication using the FTT-SE and the HaRTES architectures. We propose different architectures to provide multi-hop communication while preserving the key characteristics of the single-switch architecture such as timeliness guarantee, resource efficiency, adaptivity and dynamicity. We develop a response time analysis for each proposed architecture and we compare them to assess their corresponding benefits and limitations. Further, we develop a simulation tool to evaluate the solutions.

  • 288.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Real-Time Communication over Switched Ethernet with Resource Reservation2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the need for advanced computer-controlled functionality in distributed embedded systems the requirements on network communication are becoming overly intricate. This dissertation targets the requirements that are concerned with real-time guarantees, run-time adaptation, resource utilization and flexibility during the development. The Flexible Time-Triggered Switched Ethernet (FTT-SE) and Hard Real-Time Ethernet Switching (HaRTES) network architectures have emerged as two promising solutions that can cater for these requirements. However, these architectures do not support multi-hop communication as they are originally developed for single-switch networks. This dissertation presents a fundamental contribution in multi-hop real-time communication over the FTT-SE and HaRTES architectures targeting the above mentioned requirements. It proposes and evaluates various solutions for scheduling and forwarding the traffic through multiple switches in these architectures. These solutions preserve the ability of dynamic adaptation without jeopardizing real-time properties of the architectures. Moreover, the dissertation presents schedulability analyses for the timeliness verification and evaluation of the proposed solutions as well as several protocols to support run-time adaptation in the multi-hop communication. Finally, the work led to an end-to-end resource reservation framework, based on the proposed multi-hop architectures, to support flexibility during the development of the systems. The efficiency of the proposed solutions is evaluated on various case studies that are inspired from industrial systems.

  • 289.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MTU Assignment in a Master-Slave Switched Ethernet Network2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of selecting the Maximal Transmission Unit (MTU) size that maximizes the schedulability of real-time messages. We focus on a bandwidth-efficient master-slave switched Ethernet protocol, namely the FTT-SE protocol. We propose an algorithm to find the MTU for each message in order to maximize the schedulability of the messages. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed algorithm and we show that setting the MTU for messages using the algorithm increases the schedulability of messages compared with assigning the MTU to the maximum value that the protocol can support.

  • 290.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    MTU Configuration for Real-Time Switched Ethernet Networks2016In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 70, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show that in real-time switched Ethernet networks reducing the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size may cause an increase or decrease in the response time of messages. This contradicting behavior arises an optimization problem for configuring the MTU size. We formulate the optimization problem in the context of the multi-hop HaRTES architecture, which is a hard real-time Ethernet protocol. As part of the solution, we propose a search-based algorithm to achieve optimum solutions. We modify the algorithm by presenting two techniques to reduce the search space. Then, we propose a heuristic algorithm with a pseudo-polynomial time complexity based on the search-based algorithm. We perform several experiments, and we show that the proposed heuristic results in an improvement regarding messages response times, compared with configuring the MTU to the maximum or minimum values. Moreover, we show in small network configurations that the heuristic performs as good as the search-based algorithm in many cases.

  • 291.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Analysis of Master-Slave Multi-Hop Switched Ethernet Networks2013In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2013, 2013, 280-289 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing trend towards using switched Ethernet in real-time distributed systems due to features like absence of collisions and high throughput. Nevertheless, a few problems persist, in particular related to priority inversion and limited length in queues. In this paper we focus on a protocol which uses a master-slave technique over standard switched Ethernet in order to overcome such problems, namely FTT-SE protocol. We present an improved response time analysis for such a network and we compare, analytically and with simulations, the results achieved with Network Calculus on a worst-case scenario. We show that our proposed response time analysis gives tighter bounds compared to Network Calculus. Moreover, we compare the performance of different solutions to scale the FTT-SE protocol with respect to the bandwidth utilization. Finally, we propose a new architecture to improve the average performance of master-slave switched Ethernet networks.

  • 292.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    SEtSim: A Modular Simulation Tool for Switched Ethernet Networks2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using high bandwidth network technologies in real-time applications, for example in automotive systems, is rapidly increasing. In this context, switched Ethernet-based protocols are becoming more popular due to their features such as providing a collision-free domain for transmission of messages. Moreover, switched Ethernet is a mature technology. Several protocols based on switched Ethernet have been proposed over the years, tuned for time critical applications. However, research for improving the features and performance of these protocols is still on-going. In order to evaluate the performance of early stage proposed protocols, the mathematical analysis and/or experiments are required. However, performing an experiment for complex network topologies with a large set of messages is not effortless. Therefore, using a simulation based approach for evaluating a protocol's performance and/or properties is highly useful. As a response to this we have, based on Simulink, developed a simulator, called SEtSim, for switched Ethernet networks. SEtSim currently supports different network topologies of the FTT-SE protocol, a master-slave protocol designed for standard Ethernet switches, as well as Ethernet AVB protocol. However, the kernel of SEtSim is designed such that it is possible to add and integrate other switched Ethernet-based protocols. In this paper, we describe the design of SEtSim and we show its scalability.

  • 293.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Malardalen Univ, Malardalen Real Time Res Ctr MRTC, POB 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    SEtSim: A modular simulation tool for switched Ethernet networks2016In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 65, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using high bandwidth network technologies in real-time applications, for example in automotive systems, is rapidly increasing. In this context, switched Ethernet-based protocols are becoming more popular due to their features such as providing a collision-free domain for transmission of messages. Moreover, switched Ethernet is a mature technology. Several protocols based on switched Ethernet have been proposed over the years, tuned for time critical applications. However, research for improving the features and performance of these protocols is still on-going. In order to evaluate the performance of early stage proposed protocols, the mathematical analysis and/or experiments are required. However, performing an experiment for complex network topologies with a large set of messages is not effortless. Therefore, using a simulation based approach for evaluating a protocol's performance and/or properties is highly useful. As a response to this we have developed a simulator, called SEtSim, for switched Ethernet networks. SEtSim is developed based on Simulink, and it currently supports different network topologies of the FIT-SE protocol as well as Ethernet AVB protocol. However, the kernel of SEtSim is designed such that it is possible to add and integrate other switched Ethernet-based protocols. In this paper, we describe the design of SEtSim and we show its scalability.

  • 294.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Design and Implementation of a Simulator for Switched Ethernet Networks2012In: 3rd International Workshop on Analysis Tools andMethodologies for Embeddedand Real-time Systems / [ed] Tommaso Cucinotta and Giuseppe Lipari, 2012, 57-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Switched Ethernet, the Flexible Time-Triggered Switched Ethernet protocol (FTT-SE) was proposed to overcome the limitations and related problems of using COTS switches in real-time networks, such as overflow of switch queues due to uncontrolled arrival of packets. Although the FTT-SE protocol has been validated by several experiments on real applications, evaluation of different architectures as well as evaluation of large scale networks is not straightforward. Therefore, a simulator to evaluate different network architectures based on the FTT-SE protocol is useful. In this paper we present such a simulator. We address the extended FTT-SE protocol using multiple switches and we present a modular simulator based on Simulink/Matlab to visualize message transmissions and to evaluate end-to-end delay bounds of messages.

  • 295.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto.
    Marau, Ricardo
    University of Porto.
    A Compact Approach to Clustered Master-Slave Ethernet Networks2012In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2012, 157-160 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet switches are increasingly used in real-time distributed systems as a technical solution to guarantee the timeliness in communications. However, there are still limitations related to real-time behavior caused by the limited number of priority levels and the possibility of memory overruns with consequent message losses. These limitations can be eliminated using a master/slave technique such as proposed by the FTT paradigm. This led to the FTT-SE protocol that schedules transmissions centrally in a master node. While this protocol has already been well studied and investigated for small networks with a single switch, its extension to larger networks is still an open issue. In this paper we propose a compact clustered solution to scale the FTT-SE protocol to networks of multiple switches by organizing the network in sub-networks composed of one master and one switch each and which can be connected directly, without bridges. This paper also shows how the timeliness of the traffic can still be enforced. The validation is currently on-going.

  • 296.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Reduced Buffering Solution for Multi-Hop HaRTES Switched Ethernet Networks2014In: The 20th IEEE International Conference on embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'14, 2014, Article number 6910504- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of switched Ethernet networks, multi-hop communication is essential as the networks in industrial applications comprise a high amount of nodes, that is far beyond the capability of a single switch. In this paper, we focus on multi-hop communication using HaRTES switches. The HaRTES switch is a modified Ethernet switch that provides real-time traffic scheduling, dynamic Quality-of-Service and temporal isolation between real-time and non-real-time traffic. Herein, we propose a method, called Reduced Buffering Scheme, to conduct the traffic through multiple HaRTES switches in a multi-hop HaRTES architecture. In order to enable the new scheduling method we propose to modify the HaRTES switch structure. Moreover, we develop a response time analysis for the new method. We also compare the proposed method with a method previously proposed, called Distributed Global Scheduling, based on their traffic response times. We show that, the new method forwards all types of traffic including the highest, the medium and the lowest priority, faster than the previous method in most of the cases. Furthermore, we show that the new method performs even better for larger networks compared with the previous one.

  • 297.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Implementing a Clock Synchronization Protocol on a Multi-Master Switched Ethernet Network2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest to use Switched Ethernet technologies in real-time communication is increasing due to its absence of collisions when transmitting messages. Nevertheless, using COTS switches affect the timeliness guarantee inherent in potentially overflowing internal FIFO queues. In this paper we focus on a solution, called the FTT-SE protocol, which is developed based on a master-slave technique. Recently, an extension of the FTT-SE protocol has been proposed where the transmission of messages are controlled using multiple master nodes. In order to guarantee the correctness of the protocol, the masters should be timely synchronized. Therefore, in this paper we investigate using a clock synchronization protocol, based on the IEEE 1588 standard, among master nodes and we study the effects of this protocol on the network performance. In addition, we present a formal verification of this solution by means of model checking to prove the correctness of the FTT-SE protocol when the clock synchronization protocol is applied.

  • 298.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Du, Yong
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dynamic reconfiguration in HaRTES switched ethernet networks2016In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, Article number 7496510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of reconfiguring a system during runtime is essential for dynamic real-time applications in which resource usage is traded online for quality of service. The HaRTES switch, which is a modified Ethernet switch, holds this ability for the network resource, and at the same time it provides hard real-time support for both periodic and sporadic traffic. Although the HaRTES switch technologically caters this ability, a protocol to actually perform the dynamic reconfiguration is missing in multi-hop HaRTES networks. In this paper we introduce such a protocol that is compatible with the traffic scheduling method used in the architecture. We prove the correctness of the protocol using a model checking technique. Moreover, we conduct a set of simulation experiments to show the performance of the protocol and we also show that the reconfiguration process is terminated within a bounded time. 

  • 299.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Designing End-to-end Resource Reservations in Predictable Distributed Embedded SystemsIn: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 300.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Liu, Meng
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mifdaoui, A.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Worst-case delay analysis of master-slave switched ethernet networks2012In: Proceeings of the 2nd International Workshop on Worst-Case Traversal Time: Proceeding, 2012, 15-21 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Switched Ethernet is increasingly used in real-time communication due to its intrinsic features such as micro segmentation and high throughput. However, COTS switches may impose long blocking times due to their FIFO queues and can also experience buffer overflow in outgoing queues due to uncontrolled packets arrival. The FTT-SE protocol uses a Master-Slave technique to overcome the COTS switch limitations in real-time applications. Recently, we extended the protocol for large scale networks and in this paper we present the worst-case delay analysis using the Network Calculus formalism for such a network. Moreover, we assess the end-to-end delay of traffic with simulation concluding that the obtained analytical results present a good match with the observed delays, providing uppers bounds that vary between 0% and 50% above the maximum measured values. © 2012 ACM.

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