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  • 251.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Spaces for innovation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Workspace design, as an enabling factor in innovation, is an emerging topic for innovation and design research. However, little research has been done on users’ experience on workspaces for innovation in a manufacturing industrial context. The aim of the dissertation is to develop knowledge and understanding of workspaces for innovation from a user perspective.

    The dissertation is based on studies done in four manufacturing industries and in one design and innovation consultancy, with a focus on the employees' experience of the physical space in relation to innovation. The research method used was the photo elicitation interview. The 31 participants made photographs that served as a basis for verbal interviews to communicate the relationship they experienced between their workspace and innovation. The analysis and the interpretation of the material, supported by information, cultural and phenomenological theoretical perspectives, intend to contribute to the current scientific discourse in innovation and design.

    A pattern was found in the results. In the manufacturing industrial companies, the majority of workspaces that users described as supporting or hindering innovation were motifs showing aculture promoting innovation in small steps. Their examples were found to be in close similarity to what previous research describe as characteristics of exploitative innovation. In the design company, the most photographed motifs were workspaces and objects that supported different variations of what previousresearch defines as characteristics for a culture supporting radical, explorative innovation.

    The dissertation presents results contributing to the research on ambidexterity, with focus on a possible coexistence between different innovation cultures. The results indicate that spatial differentiation creates possibilities for coexistence between the two innovation cultures. Six spatial characteristics were found in the descriptions of the workspaces related to the marginalised explorative culture in the manufacturing companies.

    The dissertation discusses the possibilities of creating spaces for explorative innovation (SEIs) and space as a tool for innovation. An initial version of a support for design is presented.

  • 252.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cadavid, Juan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spatial design for continuous improvement: The case study of three manufacturing companies2010In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 23, no 8-9, 791-805 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are places in industry intended for communication regarding continuous improvement. This paper presents an observation of the state of practice today in one large and two medium-sized companies. It explores spatial design in

    continuous improvement areas and how spatial design may hinder or support communication regarding

    improvements. Although implementation and development of lean manufacturing is a subject for research in an

    industrial context, the spatial design is not well developed as a supporting variable. Computers or digital

    visualisation tools are not used in the improvement areas of the studied companies, even though the companies have

    a highly automated production. The improvement areas serve as a complement to the integration of manufacturing

    through computers. The improvement areas enhance the possibility to develop shared knowledge of how the

    production works and to coordinate actions. The architectural and semiotic analysis of the spatial design for

    continuous improvement in industry implies a different perspective and includes aspects of cognition, information,

    communication and treats how and what the elements in the improvement areas communicate.

     

  • 253.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Spatial design and communication for Improved Production Performance2009In: Proceedings of The International 3rd Swedish Production Symposium: Göteborg, Sweden, 2-3 december 2009 / [ed] Rosén, B.G., Swedish Production Academy, 2009, 317-324 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper present research results on how a spatial design can communicate and support

    production performance in relation to lean production. The main concern of this paper is to

    discuss the role of interior design and its affect on humans in a production system and to

    contribute to a more profound understanding of lean production from a communicative aspect.

    This paper is focusing on three case studies: a project studio, a prototype workshop, and a

    development workshop in manufacturing companies. The study in the development workshop

    is conducted during a period of two years, with an ambitious survey as follow up. The

    two others are context cases to exemplify and investigate the role of interior design in an

    industrial environment, with project studios as the main subject.

    The research method chosen is case study methodology including a literature review related

    to examples from the industrial case studies.

    In industry, spatial design in interaction with visual artefacts can be used to reduce the 8th

    waste by supporting effective communication, cross-functional work, decision-making processes,

    reinforcing the project identity, facilitating project management, save time, shorten

    led time for development projects and inspire employees to a positive view of the company

    and the project.

     

  • 254.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bozic, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Backström, Tomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Creating an innovative culture using the physical space as an artifact. Findings in art and manufacturing industry2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Carlsson, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The method of photo-elicitation from a phenomenological perspective.2014In: Proceedings of 13th International design conference Design 2014, 2014, -58 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in the relation between workspace design and innovation. On the one hand, is the idea of designing an “innovation lab” that supports innovation. There are substantial financial investments involved when creating an innovation lab and there is evidence that such spaces can have short useful lifespan and some of them fail because they are not used as intended [Lewis and Moultrie 2005; Fayard and Weeks 2011]. On the other hand, workspaces can be altered by the users for short or long terms to support innovation activities. The users hence become spatial designers themselves. A gap exists in research on the underlying mechanisms, architecture, and dynamics by which organisations can create an environment supporting continuous improvements and radical innovation on both individual and organisational levels [Turner, Swart and Maylor 2013, Turner and Lee-Kelly 2013]. From design research we can contribute with a perspective on the underlying mechanisms and the dynamics in play in the area of workspace design and innovation. We can form the design research for the innovation labs, i.e. utopian specifically designed spaces for innovation, or the relationship between innovation, users and daily workspaces. We have chosen to acknowledge and study the complexity in relations between users, daily workspaces and innovation. Our hypothesis was that photo-elicitation could be a method to study that weave of complexity and research underlying dynamics.

    In this article we discuss the method of the photo-elicitated interview (PEI), as a tool in human-centred design research with respect to context and workspace. A phenomenological perspective focus on the human experience, examine and clarify situations, events and experiences as they occurs spontaneously in daily life (Seamon, 2000). This article intend to provide background theories from phenomenology and examples from an empirical study to discuss if and how PEI is instrumental in getting information from interviewees about their relation to their workspaces and innovation. Although the phenomenological theoretical perspective is relevant and therefore used here to describe human relation to workspaces and discuss the method, our use of specific notions from phenomenology aims firstly to support the analyse of the method to inform design research, and is not intended develop the phenomenological concepts themselves.

  • 256.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Spaces for Innovation: A Photo-elicitated Study in Three Companies from Manufacturing Industry and the Design Firm IDEO2014In: The International Journal of Design Education, ISSN 2325-128X, Vol. 7, no 3, 49-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility that physical space can support or disturb processes for innovation in production systems is overlooked in the manufacturing industry and in research. This article rests on three studies in manufacturing industries and one in a design firm, with a focus on the employees' subjective experience of the physical space in relation to innovation. The employees made photographs and used keywords (followed up with verbal interviews) to communicate the relationship they perceived between physical space and innovation. The study shows that there is a relationship between company culture and the individual’s choices of physical spaces understood to support or hinder innovation. From the results, it can be concluded, that manufacturing companies which were studied form cultures that produce few spaces that support divergent thinking, while such spaces are prioritized in the design firm. This article show clean and orderly spaces for innovation in the manufacturing industry; for the design company, informal, collaborative, and visually simulative environments.

  • 257.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Tool complexes of innovation:: Spaces for explorative innovation in four manufacturing industrial companies2014In: DRS 2014, Design´s big debates: Pushing the boundaries of design Research / [ed] Design Research Society, Umeå, 2014, 663-676 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing an environment in which both radical innovation and continuous improvement can exist, i.e. an ambidextrous environment, is one of the biggest challenges manage­ment faces. While having an ambidextrous organisation is of central importance to the competitive advantage of a firm, there is limited understanding of how to manage it.

    In this article, we are reporting on our research on the design of workspaces and the relations between design and ambidexterity in innovation. We studied the workspaces as artefacts in innovation cultures. We analysed relations between users and spaces that could enable an explorative innovation culture to emerge, and found spaces related to explorative innovation that coexisted with an exploitative innovation culture in production in the manufacturing industry.

    The results indicate that to develop ambidexterity on an individual level in a culture dominated by exploitative innovation, one strategy is spatial differentiation. The result shows that artefacts relating to a culture for explorative innovation in the studied manufacturing companies are artefacts in a marginalised culture. We present six spatial characteristics for artefacts in the marginalised culture: undercover spaces, grey zone spaces, satellite spaces, chameleon spaces, temporal spaces and accession spaces.

  • 258.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Tool-complexes of innovation.: Spaces for explorative innovation in four manufacturing companies2014In: Proceedings of DRS 2014: Design’s Big Debates, Umeå, Sweden, 2014, Vol. 1, no 1, 663-676 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing an environment in which both radical innovation and continuous improvement can exist, i.e. an ambidextrous environment, is one of the biggest challenges manage-ment faces. While having an ambidextrous organisation is of central importance to the competitive advantage of a firm, there is limited understanding of how to manage it. In this article, we are reporting on our research on the design of workspaces and the relations between design and ambidexterity in innovation. We studied the workspaces as artefacts in innovation cultures. We analysed relations between users and spaces that could enable an explorative innovation culture to emerge, and found spaces related to explorative innovation that coexisted with an exploitative innovation culture in production in the manufacturing industry. The results indicate that to develop ambidexterity on an individual level in a culture dominated by exploitative innovation, one strategy is spatial differentiation. The result shows that artefacts relating to a culture for explorative innovation in the studied manufacturing companies are artefacts in a marginalised culture. We present six spatial characteristics for artefacts in the marginalised culture: undercover spaces, grey zone spaces, satellite spaces, chameleon spaces, temporal spaces and accession spaces.

  • 259.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spatial design supporting the management of radical improvements within the manufacturing industry2013In: Proceedings of the 19th international conference on engineering Design, Seoul, Korea, Dem. Republic of: the Design Society , 2013, 129-138 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for the manufacturing industry to become more innovative. Doing what we always have done is not enough. External pressure and the required speed of change, requires industry to improve the management of incremental and radical improvement work. There is thus a need for new methods, tools, and processes to improve the innovative capabilities. In this paper we discuss the use of spatial design to support the management of radical improvement within the manufacturing industry. The designs of the physical spaces are in the paper presented as frames that are cultivating, facilitating and enabling radical improvement without imposing a regime of control and forced change. The spatial design enables the process and contributes to an ecosystem supporting radical improvement. To better manage radical improvement processes, one option suggested in this paper is to create five dedicated places - five enabling frames - for five phases in a radical improvement process, firstly to bring attention to the different phases of the process and secondly to support the actions in each part.

  • 260.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Design to engage?: Embodied information in control rooms2015In: Vision Plus 2015 Conference VisionPlus, Birmingham City , United Kingdom, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and the design of information effect the situation in control rooms for automated industrial processes. The design conveys to the operators the state and changes of state of the process. According to the common view among control room equipment developers, issues for design in highly automated control rooms, include the operators likely ignoring information, being bored and are not noticing variations until the variation triggers an alarm. Such problems can have economic and environmental consequences. In the highly automated control rooms of the future, these risks of can be dealt with from various point of view. The current thinking behind human-computer interaction (HCI) design is engineering the ‘human factor’ instead of understanding the human situation. Visionary areas in computing might convert HCI product development processes to design-driven processes that focus on user experience. The TAIPA research project presented in this paper focuses on the user experience in two control rooms. Based on the results and previous research, we examine how the information might be given a tangible and ambient design to engage operators. This paper presents illustrations of aspects of future design for the control room.

  • 261.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Lindell, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Emotions in design: Considering user experience for tangible and ambient interaction in control rooms2016In: Information Design Journal, ISSN 0142-5471, E-ISSN 1569-979X, Vol. 22, no 1, 19-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators in highly automated control rooms are said to be constantly bored, and boredom is an emotional state that can have economic and environmental consequences. This article presents insights into users’ emotions and their role in the design of control rooms. The study focused on the users’ experience in two control rooms, where operators explored their emotions in relation to a situation, object, place, or action. Based on the results of the study and previous research, this article examines control room’s information design and makes recommendations on how it might be given a tangible and ambient form.

  • 262.
    Andersson Schaeffer, Jennie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Palmgren, Marianne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. IPR (Innovation and Product Realisation).
    Prototyping in the in-between: A Method for Spatial Design education2016In: 2016 Design Research Society 50th Anniversary Conference DRS'16, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2016, no 50, 653-669 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in today's design education practice is to formulate and use methods that support competences in the in-between-space between basic form training and learning that is relevant for designers in the future society. The aim of the paper is to discuss and to evaluate prototyping exercises in design education placed in that in-between space. Four different approaches to prototyping exercises are described, examined and evaluated in the paper. The prototyping exercises are engaging the students in the learning cycle phases of learning by experimentation and learning by experiencing. The result shows that the prototyping exercises did support learning of diverse competences in that in-between space but were also counterproductive and met different kinds of resistance in the students. This paper invites to a dialogue on how different prototyping techniques in design education might be used when educating designers.

  • 263.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Verifieringsinformation: En kvalitativ studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with how an optimal degree of verification information in a contract shall be attained. While writing contracts there are a limited level of information at hand. Customer requirements are available but the system design is not established. Radar systems are very complex products that lead to many years from contract to final delivery. Meanwhile new technologies are developed and this might lead to redesign. Thus, acceptance tests will be affected and discussions might occur between manufacturer and costumer.

    Discussions might be due to a low level of information at contract level, which might lead to different visions between manufacturer and costumer. On the contrary, too much information causes problems if incorrect information has emerged and if there is a change in design discussions will arise. 

  • 264.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A closer look and comparison of cross-platform development environment for smartphones2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem with having a fast and wide production of different platforms for mobile devices is that you can’t code for one and deploy on all devices at the same time. This thesis is focused on cross-plat1form development environments for smartphones and mainly to see what options there are on the market. This report will investigate how well a cross-compiler solution compares to hybrid cross-platform development. To do this we took a closer look at their architecture and then compared this with the results from different tests made. All the tests were made on the same smartphone to ensure fairness between them. All the tests strive to be as equal as possible even though the languages might differ from each other. The tested frameworks were PhoneGap, Qt, Unity3D and GameMaker. The different tests were about performance, power consumption, difficulty in accessing web browsers to perform HTML parsing and lastly to see if the platforms can access different native APIs such as the camera and accelerometer. The previously mentioned topics were compared between all the frameworks. We also compared the documentation found on their webpage to figure out which is the easiest to get started on.

  • 265.
    Andersson, Victoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Touch gestures for process graphics2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis was to explore and find ways to implement touch gestures in the context of process automation, with the limitation to one specific use case found suitable for touch interaction for ABB’s distributed control system called System 800xA. The typical way to handle the data in System 800xA today is to show and control it through the so called process graphics. It is possible to do this on a touch device today, but the current graphical user interface focus on mouse and keyboard interaction. Because of this some of the common design elements and interaction cues that are in use right now are less suitable when running the system on a touch device. Important characteristics for the process graphics to have for an efficient and delightful user experience when interacting with the system on a touch device were therefore also investigated. To understand if, and if so when and how, an industrial process control system could benefit from touch interaction a PACT analysis was done as a first step. This PACT analysis was then used as a basis for how 15 use cases and their suitability for touch were evaluated. A combination of two out of these 15 use cases were found to be a suitable aim for a prototype that was created. These two use cases involved navigation and controlling of the system and were found suitable for several reasons, including the fact that they are common use cases for when touch interaction with the system is used today. Therefor these two use cases in combination was chosen as the target use case. To find which gestures that were suitable for this use case, an exploratory test was performed where the participants were allowed to show what gestures they perceived as suitable for different tasks that the use case could involve. The findings from these user tests were that the gestures should be kept simple, often only require one hand and one finger usage. Based on these findings, a high-fidelity prototype was implemented on a tablet called Surface Pro. As a way to evaluate the implementation of the high-fidelity prototype an assessment test was conducted. The results from the assessment test indicates that while it is important to adjust the system for touch interaction, by for example use elements in suitable sizes and provide functions adapted for touch interaction, it is also important to replicate the current system where it is possible.

  • 266.
    Anderstig, Sandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Development of Production Concept: Process development at ABB Control Products with focus on generating new production concept2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis is within the area of innovative production. The authors are Master students at Mälardalen University in the field of production and process development. The purpose of the thesis is to design a production development process and to apply it in the case study performed at ABB Control Products in Västerås, Sweden. The new production concept developed is needed due to several changes in production of large size contactors that will take place during 2012; a new product size will be introduced, a new design of current products will be implemented, and production capacity for future increasing demands must be investigated.

    The approach to generate the production concept has been based on theoretical methods and models with focus on the lean philosophy.

    Through the theoretical framework a process for production development has been designed with the stages;

    Planning and Preparation, Current State Analyze, Concept Generation, Concept Analyze and Selection, and Visualization of Concept. The outcome of the thesis project is a mapping and disturbance analyze of current production, and a new production concept with an automation solution and a new balancing of the production line included. Finally the new production concept has been visualized in a 3D-simulation model.

    The main differences of the new production concept compared to current production is that conveyors are used as transportation system through the entire production process and two parallel flows is used in the production line in aim to shorten the lead time.

  • 267.
    Andrade, Hugo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Software Product Line Architectures: Reviewing the Literature and Identifying Bad Smells2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Software Product Line (SPL) paradigm has proven to be an effective way to achieve large scale reuse in different domains. It takes advantage of common aspects between different products, while also considering product specific features. The architecture plays an important role in SPL engineering, by providing means to better understand and maintain the product-derivation environment. However, it is difficult to evolve such architecture because it is not always clear where and how to refactor. The contribution of this thesis is twofold. First, the current state of the art of software Product Line Architectures (PLAs) is investigated through a systematic mapping study. It provides an overview of the field through the analysis, and categorization of evidence. The study identifies gaps, trends and provides future directions for research. Furthermore, this thesis addresses the phenomenon of architectural bad smells in the context of SPLs. A case study provides an investigation on the implications of such structural properties in a variability-based environment. Prior to the search for smells, the architecture of a sample SPL in the text editor domain is recovered from the source code.

  • 268.
    Andreas, Granholm
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A migration method for legacy mobile applications2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developing cross-platform mobile applications as well as migrating existing native applications to other platforms are complex tasks where developers have to face numerous issues. In this thesis we analyze challenges and existing approaches related to cross-platform development and focus specifically on the migration of existing native mobile applications to other platforms. The purpose is to explore existing approaches to cross-platform mobile application development and define whether and how these approaches can be used for migration of legacy applications. As result, a generic method for migrating legacy applications to other platforms has been developed. In order to provide a proof-of-concept, the migration method has been applied to a case-study in industrial settings where the legacy applications were developed for windows 8.1 tablets. The chosen cross-platform development tool for migration in the case-study was Xamarin and a prototype for the platforms Android and iOS were implemented.

  • 269.
    Anes, Sljivic
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Morgondagens Kassaapparater: Utveckling av ett gränssnitt för kassaapparater med fokus på struktur2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur jag gått tillväga för att designa ett användargränssnitt för kassaapparater till företaget STAMFORD. Rapporten består av bland annat forskning på struktur vilket är det betydelsefulla i detta arbete. Arbetet består också av användartester och olika designbeslut som har gjorts tillsammans men en annan student, Eli Joseph. Det finns också en första och en andra design med användartest och resultat från båda omgångarna. Avslutningsvis går jag igenom vad jag fått fram av detta arbete och vad som kan vara värt att titta på vid eventuell vidare forskning.

    Nyckelord: gränssnitt, kassaapparater, snabbt, effektivt, Task-time, Task-success

  • 270.
    Angarita Soto, Angie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design Philosophy for User Friendly Parameter Handler2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    DCU2 (Drive Control Unit 2) is an important control system used in applications for train systems that are configured by a set of parameters. Traditionally, parameterization is conducted by using an excel workbook during the software development. The parameters are set up and further export the parameters to the compilation step. Such approach has a number of disadvantages, e.g., delays on the validation and verification steps, system configuration overhead, and suboptimal system reliability generated by the parameter configurations.

    To improve the parameterization process, this thesis implements a model-based software architecture approach and automotive industry standards via rapid prototyping by using scrum methodology. We do this by using Matlab/Simulink, TDL (Time Description Language) and UML (Unified Modeling Language) architectural description languages to enable different views of the software architecture. We then develop different prototypes that implement ASAM (Association for Standardization of Automation and Measuring Systems) standards like XCP protocol over Ethernet (code ASAM MCD-1 XCP V1.1.0) and ASAP2 (code ASAM MCD-2 MC) in every scrum sprint. An evaluation then shows that the thesis successfully implements previously defined standards that use commercial tools from e.g., Vector, proving that the parameter‟s unit control can be handled via online calibration and measurement, leading to a significant improvement in Bombardier‟s software development process in a distributed development environment.

  • 271.
    Ankarstrand, Christin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Egenor Lohman, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kompetensutveckling för ökad innovationsförmåga i småföretag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last couple of years an increased interest of learning in organizations and competence development has been noticed. Many researchers and decitionmakers are of the opinion that this is an important part of productivity, competitiveness and innovation. (Kock, Gill & Ellström, 2008) Innovations are usually the fruit of several individuals creative ability, their cooperation, experiences and their additional knowledge (Leonard & Swap, 1999). 96.3% of the companies in Sweden are small business.(www.scb.se) Small business and entrepreneurs are seen as especially importance of employment and the growth of the economy in spite of many initiatives there is a lack of solutions in the society that are well adjusted to the specific needs and prerequisites (http://www.regeringen.se). This essay is a qualitative study consisting of semi structured interviews with the purpose of exanimating a project of competence development with the aim of supporting small business development through enabling interaction and competence development. Hansson (2005) describes competence development as an objective for providing. Dalin (1997) and Hansson (2005) describe interaction as an aspect of competence. On order for small business to be able to thrive external relations with other businesses with the ability to support the company in its development should be developed. In order for small businesses to be more successful and profitable external resources are needed. (Street & Ann-Frances, 2007) During the interviews it was revealed that the respondents experiences of interaction during the course of the project and the experience of the possibilities for future interaction was parted. Some of the respondents expresses that the interaction to some extent has strengthened existing bonds of interaction by enlarged insight in the other companies business. According to half of the respondents the specific activities of competence development witch the respondent was in need of is experienced as the most important contribution to the business.

  • 272.
    Anmar, Shawi
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Datorbord till Apples datorer2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 273.
    Anna, Gustafsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementering av delat ledarskap inom en kommunorganisation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses the management innovation and how shared leadership is a form of it. The report is a compilation of what shared leadership means and how two municipal organizations works with shared leadership. The two minicipal organizations are Strängnäs and Vällingby. One municipality (Strängnäs) is meanwhile this report produced during insertion of shared leadership. The other (Vällingby) has about two years experience of working with this form of leadership. The main question for this work is why does a local organization implements shared leadership? Other questions are how does shared leadership work? How does one avoid confusion and ambiguity for employees? What advantages and disadvantages are there with shared leadership? And what can be done better ? Through well- selected literature in the form of books, articles, reports, etc. a picture of how shared leadership is part of a management innovation has been created. To complement this, there have been interviews with unit managers who are working or will be working with shared leadership. The reason for writing this report is that in today's situation there is not much information about shared leadership, much less on shared leadership in the local organizations. The results of this work show that there are many different forms of shared leadership, that there are several different ways to implement shared leadership in a local organization. A form does not need to fit all businesses, but it is important to adapt the leadership mold after their own business. We have listed a number of pros and cons of shared leadership  the opportunities and risks there might be and how best to way implement shared leadership in a organization.

  • 274.
    Ansari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Freiberg, Emanuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Supporting Strategic Decisions for Operational Changes through the use of Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study in Production Scheduling at AstraZeneca2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, market competitiveness exerts more pressure on process industries to increase their number of products, reduce order sizes and shorten delivery lead time. This causes an expansion of order enquiries from customers, which leads to an insufficient use of scheduling and planning systems to meet these changes. This force process industries to adopt other tools, such as Discrete Event Simulation for supporting their strategic decisions to align with these operational changes.

     

    The objective of this thesis is to understand how Discrete Event Simulation supports strategic decisions prior to the implementation of operational changes in process industries. Therefore, a case study in the pharmaceutical industry was conducted at AstraZeneca, Södertälje. Discrete Event Simulation was used as a tool to support the strategic decision of implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. Simultaneously, a theoretical review was carried out to investigate types of strategic decisions which can be supported by Discrete Event Simulation use in process industries. Then, contributions and challenges of Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting strategic decisions for operational changes were clarified. 

     

    The empirical results indicate the importance of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting deliverability as a competitive priority to AstraZeneca, followed by flexibility and cost as second and third competitive priorities. The analysis also identified the contribution of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting long-term decisions in the company by providing analytical solutions in different scenarios, dynamic visualization and increased knowledge about the simulated operational change. Additionally, two main challenges in the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decision are identified. First, Discrete Event Simulation was not suitable for supporting all kinds of competitive priorities such as quality, environment and innovation. Second, the direction of the communication between the Discrete Event Simulation use and the strategic decisions differs.   

     

    A framework is developed to facilitate the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decisions prior to implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. This framework provides a guideline to identify the range of contributions from Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting different types of competitive priorities prior to the implementation of the Product Wheel method. Generally, Discrete Event Simulation could be a useful tool for supporting deliverability, cost and flexibility by implementing the Product Wheel technique, while it has a limited capability when dealing with other strategic decisions such as quality, innovation and environment.

  • 275.
    Antonsson, Frida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Tillgänglighet och användbarhet i förskola och skola: Hur tillgänglighet kan ligga till grund för design2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillgänglighet och användbarhet i förskola och skola är ett examensarbete inom Informationsdesign med inriktningen Rumslig gestaltning. Syftet med denna rapport är att presentera de studier, rumsliga komponenter, fältstudier och avstämningar som studerats under projektets gång. Allt detta har bidragit till en förståelse över hur skolor kan utformas och gestaltas för att de ska vara så tillgängliga som möjligt för alla.

    Gestaltningsarbetet utgår från en skola som tagits fram under projektets gång. Skolan finns inte i dagsläget då den är ritad för denna gestaltningsprocess. I skolan gestaltas ett klassrum och en RWC som har de anpassningar som krävs vid ny- eller ombyggnation av offentliga miljöer. Gestaltningarna som presenteras har som syfte att visa dessa krav och hur de kan samspela med gestaltning och strävar efter att visa så tillgängliga rum som möjligt. Målet är att alla, oavsett funktionsnedsättning ska kunna orientera sig i rummen och utnyttja alla funktioner.

    Empirin består av insamlad forskning och annan litteratur inom ämnet tillgänglighet, fältstudier och avstämningar med Fastighetskontoret på Västerås stad. Genom att göra detta är det tydligt att det krävs en mängd olika funktionskrav som måste följas för att en miljö ska vara tillgänglig och även få bygglov i dagsläget. Det framgick även att ett gestaltningsarbete blir något begränsat när samtliga krav följs, dock kan vissa krav uteslutas om det motiveras väl i bygglovshandlingarna.

    Utifrån empirin har gestaltningar tagits fram som främjar tillgängligheten för alla och skapar goda förutsättningar till orienterbarheten, rumsupplevelsen och användbarheten.

  • 276.
    Antonsson, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A different Africa: Spatial information design for a safer refugee settlement2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to explore the spatiality’s affect on refugee’s sense of safety in the Osire refugee settlement in Namibia. The gathered empirics together with previous research and theories should lead to a design for a spatial information system. The system should contribute to peoples’ understanding of their environments’ whole structure as well as showing the way to the health centre and the police station, thus increasing their sense of psychological and physical safety. A wish was also to breathe life into the point of intersection of spatial information design and human science.

    The methods used to enable this were first and foremost a field study in the settlement to experience and acquire first-hand information. In addition observation, introspection and several interviews were conducted.

    As a result I established safety to be an issue that could be solved with spatial design. Refugees expressed that not knowing your environment or finding your way leaves you scared, uncomfortable and confused. With the use of a spatial information system safety can literally be created, as demonstrated in the design proposal. The conclusion is that much could be done to spatially solve complex issues as long as it’s addressed from that perspective.

  • 277.
    Appelquist, Angelica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
     2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 278.
    Applebaum, Álla León
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    NYA BILDER AV HUMANIORA I EN TID AV STÄNDIGT NYA INTRYCK: En studie om hur man utvecklar genrebilder att kommunicera vetenskaplighet och sammankopplas med forskning.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är en del av delprojektet ”Bild av hum/sam” som förvaltas av Milda Rönn (fil dr i nordiska språk) på Humsamverkan. Projektet skapar bl.a. redskap och aktiviteter för att påverka den allmänt rådande föreställningen om humaniora och samhällsvetenskap och finansieras av VINNOVA - Sveriges innovationsmyndighet

     

    Idag står till exempel provrör och matematiska formler som evigt återkommande symboler för forskning och vetenskap i framkant. Ett porträtt av Einstein representerar vanligtvis den vetenskapliga genialiteten, men det skapar samtidigt vanföreställningar om kvinnor och forskning. När forskning i allmänhet ska illustreras görs det mycket ofta med bilder från teknik- och naturvetenskapen. Det är alltså något som är inpräntat i vår kultur, att teknik- och naturvetenskapliga bilder uppfattas som normen för det vetenskapliga och får stå som sinnebilden för forskning generellt. 

     

    Problematiken är dock att de konventionella vita rockarna och provrören föga appellerar till en humanistisk forskare eftersom de inte överhuvudtaget representerar vad disciplinen står för. När humaniora och humanistisk forskning väl visualiseras görs det ofta i samband med en trave böcker, slumpmässiga grupper av människor eller enskilda individer. Det finns ingenting i bilderna, vare sig i komposition eller i element som tyder på att de föreställer vetenskaplighet och forskning. Dagens befintliga material kommunicerar med andra ord inte vetenskap och saknar verklighetsförankring.

     

    Hur kan man då påverka de konkreta bilder av humaniora och humanistisk forskning som finns, så att de visar på vetenskaplighet och innovativ kapacitet? Det övergripande målet är att utgå ifrån de befintliga bilder som idag finns att tillgå och utveckla dem till att bli vetenskapligt förankrade samt sammankopplade med forskning.

     

    Det hela har mynnat ut i ett förslag på en informationsdesign modell - Analysmodell. Det är en slags mall för bildarkitekturen som man kan följa i gestaltningen och tillblivelsen av bilder föreställande humanistisk forskning.

     

  • 279.
    Aranius, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Är det sant? Får jag äta sushi?: − en studie om att skapa informationsmaterial till blivande föräldrar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study discloses how to design an informative artefact for expecting parents. The main focus of the artefact concerns pregnancy and childbirth, and is published as a complementary material online. The report uses Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhusets patient encyclopedia as a starting point and is limited to pregnancy related topics. The thesis is based on the sender's and recipients' needs and wishes, as well as theories and research on design, readability and narrativity. The following methods are used in the study: an analysis, expert interviews, target group interviews and a focus group.

  • 280.
    Ararsa, Bete Birhanu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Green Maintenance: A literature survey on the role of maintenance for sustainable manufacturing.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing uncertainty in the global economy is forcing many manufacturers to reassess their corporate outlook towards the environment. Today there is a growing attention to sustainability in industry accompanied by a paradigm shift towards realizing a sustainable society. It is now very common to hear about Green Production and Green Systems, but few literature exist that deal with the relatively newer subject of Green Maintenance. The term green production is often used to describe production with a sustainable perspective. Also, lean production has been proposed as a means of achieving sustainability. Lean and Green production systems require efficient production and low use of resources such as energy, materials, etc. One major facilitator of this is effective maintenance. Sometimes regarded as the necessary evil, maintenance still has a negative image in the industry. But as the paradigm on manufacturing shift towards realizing a sustainable society, we should also begin to realize the changing role of maintenance. Still, the impact of maintenance on sustainability and Green production is not very well described in research.

     

    This Master Thesis within the School of Innovation Design and Engineering at Mälardalen University presents a literature review on green maintenance by trying to identify and assess the key factors of maintenance effects on green production, life cycle assessment and sustainability of maintenance activities. In addition, a brief introduction to the greening of remanufacturing activity, part of a green process by itself, is provided. The research is based upon extensive literature study, questionnaire survey and interviews with relevant industry as well as academic personnel. A discussion of the results of the interview followed by a conclusion on the key factors of maintenance on sustainability is provided. Future research areas have also been suggested.

     

     

     

    Keywords: Green maintenance, Production maintenance, Sustainable maintenance,     Total Productive Maintenance

  • 281.
    Aravind, Meera
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. The IoT platform for most vehicles typically consists of 1) an on-board system consisting of the communication unit, sensors and a set of ECU’s that are interconnected using a CAN network, 2) an off-board system consisting of the applications deployed on the servers (e.g., cloud) that processes the data send by the communication unit over the internet, and 3) mobile devices like a mobile phone or a computer that communicates with the on-board and off-board systems. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board system to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. There are two main architectural paradigms for sending data: 1) interval based architecture, in which data is send at regular intervals and 2) event based architecture, in which data is send whenever relevant events occur. Currently, (e.g., at Scania), the data is being send at regular intervals, i.e., using an interval based approach. In this case, data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. Sending data in an event-based manner, when the data is relevant for reporting, e.g., changes significantly, reduces the network usage when compared to the interval based approach.  In this thesis, we investigate the possibility of using an event based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system in order to reduce network usage and improve the accuracy of the data available off-board. We first propose an event based architecture for data transfer in the context of Internet of vehicles. We then implement a simulator to evaluate our proposed architecture for the specific case of position data. Finally, we perform extensive experiments varying different parameters and compare, for example, average message size per minute and average off-board error distance. The results show that our event based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. Future work will aim at implementing the event based architecture on a real platform as well as investigating the possibility of using the event based architecture for more accurate prediction by incorporating additional details such as the final destination of the vehicle and odometer values.

  • 282.
    Aravind, Meera
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiklander, G.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palmheden, J.
    Scania AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Event-Based Messaging Architecture for Vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms2017In: Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 778, Springer Verlag , 2017, 37-46 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized transportation systems by connecting vehicles consequently enabling their tracking, as well as monitoring of driver activities. Such an IoT platform requires a significant amount of data to be send from the on-board vehicle to the off-board servers, contributing to high network usage. The data can be send at regular intervals or in an event-based manner whenever relevant events occur. In interval-based approach, the data is send even if it is not relevant for reporting leading to a wastage of network resources, e.g., when the data does not change considerably compared to the previously sent value. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using an event-based architecture to send data from the on-board system to the off-board system. The results show that our event-based architecture improves the accuracy of data available at the off-board system, by a careful selection of events. Moreover, we found that our event based architecture significantly decreases the frequency of sending messages, particularly during highway driving, leading to reduced average data transfer rates. Our results enable a customer to perform trade-offs between accuracy and data transfer rates. 

  • 283.
    Arayapan, Khanittha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Warunyuwong, Piyanut
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Logistics Optimization: Application of Optimization Modeling in Inbound Logistics2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be a market leader, low cost and responsiveness are the key success factors. Logistics activities create high cost reducing competitiveness of the company, especially for the remote production base. Thus, logistics activities which are delivery planning, freight forwarder and delivery mode selection must be optimized. The focusing area of this paper is inbound logistics due to its big proportion in the total cost and involvement with several stakeholders. The optimization theory and Microsoft Excel’s Solver is used to create the standard optimization tools since it is an efficient and user friendly program. The models are developed based on the supply chain management theory in order to achieve the lowest cost, responsiveness and shared objectives. 2 delivery planning optimization models, container loading for fixed slitting and loading pattern and container loading for pallet loaded material, are formulated. Also, delivery mode selection is constructed by using optimization concept to determine the best alternative. Furthermore, freight forwarder selection process is created by extending the use of the delivery mode selection model. The results express that safety stock, loading pattern, transport mode, and minimum order quantity (MOQ) significantly affect the total logistics cost. Including hidden costs, long transit time and delay penalties, leads freight forwarder selection process to become more realistic and reliable. Shorter processing time, ensured optimal solution, transparency increase and better communication are gained by using these optimization models. However, the proper boundaries must be defined carefully to gain the feasible solution.

  • 284. Argunsah, Ali Özgur
    et al.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cetin, Mujdat
    Detection of Eye Blinks from EEG using Hidden Markov Models2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Arnbom, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Att lokalisera kompetenser på flexkontoret:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To find competencies on a workplace with flex office structure.

    Companies today, 2012 are facing new opportunities and challenges. Information technology develops, competition is bigger today than ever, increased environmental requirements will be added and new patterns of life and values are occurring. This means that people who work in offices feel strong pressure of conversion, which is something that people experience differently. Therefore it is essential how the working environment is designed in an office. Working in an office means a lot of information processing and we can see large changes taking place. The ability to work efficiently, flexible and to be able to lead and plan a company’s resources efficient is essential. The flex office was developed in the beginning of 1992 and was meant to be an office independent of space and time, and an office where all information and working material is gathered in a common database. At a flex office there are no given working places instead the employees chooses their working station for the day. A problem for the employees in flex office environment is to find the competencies they need. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a design proposal that solves the customer's information design problem in finding competencies at the workplace. Theoretical data has been gathered through studies of literature. Empirical data has been gathered through interviews, observation and a questionnaire. These data have then formed the basis for the design proposal which is created with help from Michanek and Breilers design model. To find the competencies, different working environments have been created and also a workplace location system. The design proposal divides the working environment in three different activity environments. These are made to help form the workplace location system; in order to include the needs from the target group as well as it gives the opportunities to find the working competencies through good information design. The workplace location system gives the employee the opportunity to find other competencies at the office by explicit showing the status and localization of the employee.

  • 286.
    Arnius, Isabella
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analys av fördelen med ett tvärfunktionellt digitalt prioriteringsverktyg för förbättringar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the benefits of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements, for support functions in a manufacturing industry, based on performance measurements and costumer needs. Additionally, to examine the benefits of using OEE as an overall measurement for such a tool, and the available benefits of connecting said tool with daily management if it were to be visualised digitally.

    Methodology: In order to elucidate and attempt to solve the formulated problems of the study, a case study has been carried out in parallel with a literature study. During the literature study, material within performance measurement, prioritisation of improvements, and visualisation of improvement information has been studied. The case study consists of observations and interviews, which have been carried out in order to gather data related to the case-company’s way of work with improvements, about OEE with related aspects in two selected cells, and about digitalisation of the case-company’s management and follow-up boards. An analysis has been performed where the empirical results are examined and compared with the studied literature.  

    Findings: The implementation of the study meant that advantages of the usage of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements, based on performance measurements and needs, could be presented. This could also be done for a usage of OEE as an overall measurement in such a tool, a digitalisation of boards for daily management and an interconnection between a digital daily management and a prioritisation tool for improvements. Overall advantages that could be identified for these three parts were that the prioritisation tool can increase the probability for a higher costumer value, OEE can generate both overall as well as detailed assistance with prioritising improvement work and a digital visualisation of daily management and an interconnection of that to a prioritisation tool can simplify prioritisation of improvements.  

    Recommendations: In order to achieve better results in a further study, it is suggested that: a model of a digital prioritisation tool for improvements is built and tested with support functions to more clearly see the benefits of the tool; that benchmarking of digital prioritisation tools are conducted in order to clarify the specific digital benefits of a prioritisation tool; and that a model of a digital management and follow-up board is constructed so that advantages and disadvantages with a physical versus a digital board may be analysed. 

  • 287.
    Arroyo Rubio, Fernando
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT FOR AUTOMATIC NIGHT DRIVING AND VISUAL CONTROL2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project consists on developing an automatic night driving system in a simulation environment. The simulator I have used is TORCS. TORCS is an Open Source car racing simulator written in C++. It is used as an ordinary car racing game, as a IA racing game and as a research platform. The goal of this thesis is to implement an automatic driving system to control the car under night conditions using computer vision. A camera is implemented inside the vehicle and it will detect the reflective light-markers placed along the roadside. The car is oriented only with the lights the camera can see.

  • 288.
    Arvedal, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analyzing network monitoring systems and objects for a telecommunications company2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this thesis work has been to identify what a telecommunications company should monitor and to find a network monitoring system that can monitor these identified objects on two different platforms: Windows and Linux. The network monitoring system has been implemented in a telecommunications company’s environment and this thesis presents how the system monitors their environment. The subject for this thesis work is within network monitoring. The problem formulation has been answered by conducting a literature study and by testing network monitoring systems’ features in a lab environment. The sources used in the literature study consists of scientific articles and other articles found on the web. The lab environment consisted of virtual machines that runs Linux or Windows as an operating system.

     

    The purpose of the work was to enlighten Cellip in what objects they should monitor and to help the company to monitor them by implementing a network monitoring system. Cellip is a telecommunications company that provides IP-telephony services through Session Initiation Protocol. The limits of this thesis work are based on what their environment supports in terms of monitoring. Cellip’s environment consists of Linux and Windows servers, Cisco switches and firewalls, and Sonus Session Border Controllers.

     

    In summary, the result of this thesis gives the reader information about what a telecommunications company with a similar environment to Cellip should monitor, what three systems that can monitor these objects, which of the three systems that has most automatized features and finally how the chosen system Datadog monitors and presents the objects. Some of the objects that are important to monitor is: memory, disk storage, latency, packet loss. In conclusion, this thesis presents a monitoring baseline for telecommunication companies with a similar environment to Cellip.

  • 289.
    Arvidsson, Karl
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Wide area motion capture using an array of consumer grade structured light sensors2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we propose a solution to how a system can find and track people, as well as recognizing their gestures, in a $360^\circ$ field of view using consumer grade products. We describe a system connecting multiple depth cameras in an array and have them operate as a single camera controlled by a single computer. Using a single camera providing features such as detection, tracking and recognizing gestures of people, we specifically focus on the difficulties of preserving these features in moving forward to an array of cameras. We propose a solution based on Microsoft Kinect and Kinect SDK, using linear transformation to account for a fixed camera model to combine skeleton data from an array of Kinect sensors. Furthermore, we use positional based identification to determine whether people are being tracked by another camera in the system. The contributions of this work include insight into the challenges of building this kind of system based on Kinect hardware and software intended for use on a single computer, such as performance bottlenecks, along with possible alternative solutions. In particular, we present performance measurements for a single computer running up to four sensors and show a system that can run satisfactorily with up to at least 5 sensors on today's computers. We show what requirements on hardware can be expected for such a system, as well as where there are potential limits as the number of sensors increase. 

  • 290.
    Arvidsson, Mathilda
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Förändringsledning: Att utveckla människor för att förbättra systemet2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    That an organization lacks a good company culture can have different causes. Many researchers have investigated whether the individual's sense of adding value affects the organization's atmosphere and more modern approaches demonstrate that future competitiveness is affected by the individual’s evolvement rather than the system's technical development. In the small company Ztift AB the management stood at a crossroad where the company's future could hang on company culture. The purpose of this work is to investigate how the small organization reacts and change through an interactive study of the impact by the introduction of a kaizen tool. The employees were observed and their reactions were noted, especially when they got involved in, started taking initiatives and became a driving force of the process.

    The study was done with questions off issue about the difficulties companies need to tackle in an organizational change and if there is a theoretical foundation that supports the development that occurs in the company. In addition, the work reflects on whether the change in a small business can be different from a large company, both on an organizational level, but also at the individual level, where the result of staff involvement and commitment are analysed.

    The result shows that the theoretical basis available for organizational change also corresponds to the small organization, but some distinctive characteristics is that change in the small organization becomes more directly tangible and easily integrated into the business. The result means that it is beneficial to implement change in the small organization considering the future and the vision to increase in size and profit. Ergo, having a beneficial company culture from scratch provides all the conditions to succeed in keeping it, as the company evolves. 

  • 291.
    Asadi, Narges
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Flexibility in assembly systems using product design2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing customer demands for product variety, new and rapid technological developments, and the short life cycle of products characterise the current volatile market. To maintain a competitive edge in the market, manufacturing companies need to accommodate flexibility in their assembly systems that are essential parts of the manufacturing systems with respect to cost, time, and creating product variety. Given the importance of establishing flexible assembly systems, the complexity raised by increasing product variety and the value of appropriate product designs to assembly systems highlight the pivotal role of product design in a flexible assembly system. Despite its significance to theory and practice, however, the characteristics of flexibility in an assembly system and its links to product design are still ambiguous and unexplored.

    The objective of this thesis is to expand the current knowledge of flexibility in assembly systems and using product design to support its achievement. To accomplish the objective and by adopting an interactive research approach, five case studies were conducted in the heavy machinery manufacturing industry. A literature review underpins all the case studies comprising one multiple and four single case studies.

    Through its findings, this research defines flexibility in an assembly system, identifies its dimensions, and pinpoints its enablers. Additionally, three requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design are identified: a common assembly sequence, similar assembly interfaces, and common parts. These requirements, if fulfilled in product design across distinct product families, reduce the perceived complexity and support various flexibility dimensions in the assembly system. Moreover, the development of a common assembly sequence and similar assembly interfaces, as the two key requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design, is described.

    Further, based upon developing understanding and knowledge about a flexible assembly system and its requirements for product design, a model and a framework are proposed. The model addresses the role of product design in achieving flexibility in an assembly system. To support the alignment of product design with the key requirements of a flexible assembly system during the product design process, the assembly-oriented framework details the development of these requirements. Through its outcomes, this thesis contributes to the research area of flexible assembly systems and sheds light on its interface with the engineering design field. Moreover, the proposed model and framework aim to assist assembly practitioners and product designers in establishing a flexible assembly system and aligning product design with its key requirements.

  • 292.
    Asadi, Narges
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Supporting flexibility in an assembly system through product design2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing customer demands for product variety in conjunction with the short lifecycle of products has caused manufacturing companies to introduce a wide range of products by accommodating flexibility. An assembly system is an essential part of the manufacturing system from both cost and time perspectives. Hence, the shift towards flexibility in manufacturing companies highlights the significance of establishing flexible assembly systems and designing products that are closely aligned with them. Despite its significance, however, the flexible assembly system concept and its requirements for product design have not been clearly defined in research and from a practical point of view. Most research on flexible assembly systems has mainly approached either the design or the balancing and scheduling issues of these systems, whereas only a few studies have briefly defined the flexible assembly system they focused on, without further specifying the characteristics of a flexible assembly system and its requirements for product design.

    Taking that into account, the objective of this work is to provide a framework to contribute to the understanding of the concept of flexibility in an assembly system and its requirements for product design. In order to fulfil the objective, four empirical studies combined with literature reviews have been conducted. The empirical studies, a multiple case study and three single case studies, investigate the definition of flexibility in an assembly system as well as the requirements that a flexible assembly system imposes on product design.

    Through its findings, this research provides a definition of flexibility in assembly systems that mainly revolves around volume, mix and new product flexibility. In addition, six constituents of a flexible assembly system have been identified: adaptable material supply, versatile workforce, increased commonality, standardised work content, integrated product properties and strategic planning. Furthermore, three requirements of a flexible assembly system for product design are defined, which, if fulfilled, reduce the complexity created by product variety and consequently support flexibility in the assembly system. Accordingly, to increase the understanding of the concept of flexibility in an assembly system and its requirements for product design, a four-staged framework is suggested. The proposed framework deals with the activities related to the concept and the development of a flexible assembly system and is expected to be received by assembly practitioners as a link between assembly and product design teams in the product realisation process. Future research can further validate the framework in practice.

  • 293.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring optimal flexible assembly systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a prominent part of manufacturing system, assembly system provides a platform for increasing efficiency while delivering various market demands. However, due to the lack of a unified and clear definition of flexibility in assembly systems, the recognition of optimal flexibility in assembly system without clashing with efficiency still remains elusive. In order to establish a sound basis to discuss the characteristics of flexible assembly and to address the question of reaching optimal flexibility, this paper makes use of a case study performed in five manufacturing plants. The study proposes a clear definition for flexible assembly and identifies six enablers for flexibility in assembly systems. Further in this research the applicability of few different types of manufacturing flexibility in assembly system is investigated. The paper concludes with discussions and suggestions for future research.

  • 294.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    The Essential Constituents of Flexible Assembly Systems: A Case Study in the Heavy Vehicle Manufacturing Industry2015In: Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, ISSN 0972-2696, Vol. 16, no 3, 235-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major challenge of today’s manufacturing industry in tackling demands for a wider range of products with short life-cycle times and meeting customisation requirements has drawn considerable attention towards flexibility in manufacturing systems. As a prominent part of a manufacturing system, an assembly system provides a platform for increasing efficiency while delivering various market demands. However, owing to the dearth of a unified and clear definition of the constituents of flexible assembly systems, in both theory and practice, the recognition of flexibility in assembly systems still remains elusive. In order to establish a sound base for discussing the constituents of flexible assembly systems, this research paper explores the literature concerning flexibility in manufacturing and assembly as well as in flexible systems management domains. To reflect an industrial perspective, a multiple case study of five manufacturing plants in the heavy vehicle industry is performed. By identifying six essential constituents of flexibility in assembly systems, the study proposes a clear definition of flexibility in assembly systems which mainly revolves around mix and volume flexibility. To further enhance the findings, the compatibility of a few previously identified types of manufacturing flexibility in the assembly systems of the case plants is investigated and additional dimensions of flexibility in assembly systems are revealed. Finally, the implications for theory and practice as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  • 295.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Guaragni, F.
    Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany.
    Johannknecht, F.
    Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.
    Saidani, M.
    CentraleSupélec, Université Paris-Saclay, France.
    Scholle, P.
    Paderborn University, Germany.
    Borg, J.
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Panasiuk, D.
    University of Technology of Troyes, France.
    Success factors of an ipd based approach in a remote multidisciplinary team environment - Reflections on a case study2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Design Society , 2017, no DS87-9, 31-40 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated Product Development (IPD) is comprehensively discussed in literature. The human-centered approach offers a parallelized set of work activities in interdisciplinary teams. Due to the rapid globalization of IPD activities in the companies, project members are often obliged to work remotely in teams and through virtual means of communication. However, with the recent shift towards working remotely in IPD teams new challenges have emerged that might adversely affect the success of IPD projects. The objective of the paper is to outline the key factors strengthening and weakening the IPD process in a remote multidisciplinary team environment. To fulfill the objective, a case study on an international multidisciplinary team of postgraduate students working on a design project with an IPD approach, was conducted. The results highlight key success factors and their contributions to the project success in a remote multidisciplinary team environment. Additionally, key weaknesses of such approach and their negative impacts are also indicated.

  • 296.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Augustsson, P.
    FlexQube, Sweden.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    An assembly-oriented product design methodology to develop similar assembly operations in a mixed-product assembly line2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, Design Society , 2017, no DS87-5, 131-140 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing demands for product variety, Mixed-Product Assembly Lines (MPALs) as an effective means of creating product variety are recently increasing in manufacturing companies. However, handling different products from distinct product families creates high complexity in performing assembly operations in an MPAL. The elevated complexity, calls for increased similarity between assembly operations in an MPAL which requires product design changes accordingly. Hence, the objective of this paper is to suggest an assembly-oriented product design methodology to increase similar assembly operations for various products cross-product families. The proposed methodology uses Interface Diagram, a product architecture modelling tool, for comparing assembly operations crossproduct families, suggesting an assembly-oriented design, and communicating it to designers. The methodology has been developed by conducting a case study in heavy vehicle manufacturing industry. The results highlight a visual approach towards establishing a common language between assembly and design teams to consider the requirements of an MAPL in product design.

  • 297.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Drivers of complexity in a flexible assembly system- A case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various ever-changing market demands have propelled manufacturing companies to offer product variety in an efficient and timely manner. Assembly as a key stage of manufacturing process is used to realise product variety through establishing mixed-product assembly systems. Although establishing a flexible mixed-product assembly system which both offers product variety and absorbs market demands fluctuation is pivotal for maintaining competitive edge in certain industries such as vehicle manufacturing, it is also considered an elaborate task which calls for further investigation. In this paper, complexity in a flexible mixed-product assembly line is investigated and the key drivers of complexity are identified. To fulfil the research objective, a case study during the pilot implementation of a flexible mixed-product assembly concept in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company has been conducted. The results indicate the key factors concerning assembly process, product design, and information and communication technology (ICT) which contribute to complexity in the flexible assembly system. The paper concludes with an outlook for possible future research.

  • 298.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Handling product variety in a mixed-product assembly line: A case study2015In: DS 80-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 15) VOL 4: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X, 2015, Vol. 4, 41-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s fast-changing global market, using mixed-product assembly lines (MPALs) and mixed-model assembly lines (MMALs) allows manufacturing companies to be flexible and to maintain their competitive edge through product variety. Balancing and sequencing issues have been recognized as the main challenges of MPALs and MMALs, but other practical needs of MPALs remain unclear. Recognizing the practical needs of MPALs helps in identifying related requirements for product design, leading to products that closely align with the MPAL concept. The objective of this paper is to offer an industrial perspective on the needs of MPALs and to identify its requirements vis-à-vis product design. To achieve this objective, a single real-time case study in a heavy-vehicle-manufacturing company has been performed. The results from this industrial case study suggest that in order to handle product variety in MPALs and to reduce the related complexity, certain dimensions of flexibility need to be created in the assembly system, and requirements related to product design should be considered simultaneously in order to support assembly processes.

  • 299.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Identification of the causes of complexity in mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for product variety have directed manufacturing companies towards accommodating flexibility by establishing mixed-product and mixed-model assembly lines. However, since greater variety leads to increased complexity, establishing these assembly lines becomes complicated. By conducting a case study, this paper investigates the causes of complexity and the applicability of assembly instructions in one mixed-product and four mixed-model assembly lines in a heavy vehicle manufacturing company. The results indicate a set of causes for complexity and highlight the significance of assembly instructions, as the practical implications for development of flexible assembly systems and design of products closely aligned with them.

  • 300.
    Asadi, Narges
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Jackson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Implications of realising mix flexibility in assembly systems for product modularity - a case studyIn: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642Article in journal (Refereed)
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