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  • 251.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 651-662Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 252. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakeholders from outsourcing relationships. Method: A model of software product quality was developed and used for this study based on ISO 9126 standard. Questionnaires were collected from 38 representatives of the two key stakeholder groups, in which each person rates the relative importance of aspects of software product quality using the hierarchical cumulative voting (HCV) technique. The results of these two groups were then analysed and compared. Results: The results show the stakeholders priorities to be a merging of the priorities from both the software development organsiation, and the firm providing the outsourced services. Further, stakeholders from outsourced relationships had greater difficulty define an ideal future balance of software product qualities. Conclusions: One of the keys to success when outsourcing is to ensure both the internal and external groups understand the needs of each other — and ensure they can work towards a sufficiently compatible goal. It may be necessary to change the way work is outsourced to align the goals of both firms to be compatible.

  • 253. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Quality: Ensuring a Common Goal2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software qualities are in many cases tacit and hard to measure. Thus, there is a potential risk that they get lower priority than deadlines, cost and functionality. Yet software qualities impact customers, profits and even developer efficiency. This paper presents a method to evaluate the priority of software qualities in an industrial context. The method is applied in an exploratory case study, where the ISO 9126 model for software quality is combined with Theory-W to create a process for evaluating the alignment between success- critical stakeholder groups in the area of software product quality. The results of the case study using this tool is then presented and discussed. It is shown that the method provides valuable information about software qualities.

  • 254. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Balancing Software Product Investments2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term sustainability of a software product depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software product quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing these aspects. This paper presents a method to help determine the balance between key priorities in the software development process. The method is applied to a new case study, that also combines with results from previous studies. The results show it is possible to compare features, quality, time, cost and IC in a comprehensive way, with the case study showing that participants perceive a change from a shorter-term product perspective to a longer-term organisation beneficial to the business.

  • 255. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Offshore insourcing: A case study on software quality alignment2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality issues are commonly reported when off shoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Aim: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholders on aspects of software quality for two products developed as part of an offshore in sourcing arrangement. The study further aims to explain the levels of alignment identified. Method: Representatives of key stakeholder groups for both products ranked aspects of software quality. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding. Results: Low levels of alignment were found between the groups studied. This is associated with insufficiently defined quality requirements, a culture that does not question management and conflicting temporal reflections on the product's quality. Conclusion: The work emphasizes the need for greater support to align success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when off shoring software development

  • 256.
    Barot, Camille
    et al.
    N Carolina State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA..
    Buro, Michael
    Univ Alberta, Dept Comp Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Cook, Michael
    Univ London, Goldsmiths, London WC1E 7HU, England..
    Eladhari, Mirjam
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Comp & Syst Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Malta, Inst Digital Games, Msida, Malta..
    Johansson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Li, Boyang
    Disney Res, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Liapis, Antonios
    Univ Malta, Inst Digital Games, Msida, Malta..
    McCoy, Josh
    Amer Univ, Dept Comp, Washington, DC 20016 USA..
    Ontanon, Santiago
    Drexel Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Rowe, Jonathan
    N Carolina State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA..
    Tomai, Emmett
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Dept Comp Sci, Brownsville, TX USA..
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Comp & Syst Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zook, Alexander
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Interact Comp, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    The AIIDE 2015 Workshop Program2016In: The AI Magazine, ISSN 0738-4602, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 91-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workshop program at the 11th Annual AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment was held November 14-15, 2015, at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. The program included four workshops (one of which was a joint workshop): Artificial Intelligence in Adversarial Real-Time Games, Experimental AI in Games, Intelligent Narrative Technologies and Social Believability in Games, and Player Modeling. This article contains the reports of three of the four workshops.

  • 257.
    Barot, Camille
    et al.
    N Carolina State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA..
    Buro, Michael
    Univ Alberta, Dept Comp Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Cook, Michael
    Univ London, Goldsmiths, London WC1E 7HU, England..
    Eladhari, Mirjam
    Stockholm Univiversity / University of Malta, Msida, Malta.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Li, Boyang
    Disney Res, Pittsburgh, PA USA..
    Liapis, Antonios
    Univ Malta, Inst Digital Games, Msida, Malta..
    McCoy, Josh
    Amer Univ, Dept Comp, Washington, DC 20016 USA..
    Ontanon, Santiago
    Drexel Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Rowe, Jonathan
    N Carolina State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA..
    Tomai, Emmett
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Dept Comp Sci, Brownsville, TX USA..
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholm University.
    Zook, Alexander
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Interact Comp, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    The AIIDE 2015 Workshop Program2016In: The AI Magazine, ISSN 0738-4602, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 91-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workshop program at the 11th Annual AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment was held November 14-15, 2015, at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. The program included four workshops (one of which was a joint workshop): Artificial Intelligence in Adversarial Real-Time Games, Experimental AI in Games, Intelligent Narrative Technologies and Social Believability in Games, and Player Modeling. This article contains the reports of three of the four workshops.

  • 258.
    Barrdahl, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Berg, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Fridberg, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Gunnarsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lidberg, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lindblom, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Melin Wenström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Olsson, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Ström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementering av en användbar e-butik för tygmärken: En praktisk fallstudie av webbapplikationen Festing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the development of the web application Festing and the results and experiences which have been reached and learned during the process. The purpose of the study was to examine how the selling of patches could be both simplified and improved by using an advanced web application designed with focus on usability. Currently the patches are sold in a large but geographically and temporally limited market at Linköping University. The project was comprised of a case study and development of an application following the agile project framework Scrum. According to this the projects has been split up into four sprints after each of which a working product was delivered. This resulted in a usable web application with an intuitive design and multiple functions linked to the selling and buying of patches. Based on interviews, surveys and usability tests this web application is considered to have the long-term potential to take over the current physical market of textile patches.

  • 259.
    BARRY, Raphael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Sustainable Building Design with Autodesk Ecotect2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260. Bartelt, Christian
    et al.
    Herold, Sebastian
    TU Kaiserslautern.
    Modellorientiertes Variantenmanagement2006In: Lecture Notes in Informatics: Modellierung 2006, 22.-24. März 2006, Innsbruck, Tirol, Austria / [ed] Heinrich C. Mayr, Ruth Breu, Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2006, Vol. P-82, p. 173-182Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Barysau, Mikalai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Developers' performance analysis based on code review data: How to perform comparisons of different groups of developers2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays more and more IT companies switch to the distributed development model. This trend has a number of advantages and disadvantages, which are studied by researchers through different aspects of the modern code development. One of such aspects is code review, which is used by many companies and produces a big amount of data. A number of studies describe different data mining and data analysis approaches, which are based on a link between code review data and performance. According to these studies analysis of the code review data can give a good insight to the development performance and help software companies to detect a number of performance issues and improve the quality of their code.

    The main goal of this Thesis was to collect reported knowledge about the code review data analysis and implement a solution, which will help to perform such analysis in a real industrial setting.

    During the performance of the research the author used multiple research techniques, such as Snowballing literature review, Case study and Semi-structured interviews.

    The results of the research contain a list of code review data metrics, extracted from the literature and a software tool for collecting and visualizing data.

    The performed literature review showed that among the literature sources, related to the code review, relatively small amount of sources are related to the topic of the Thesis, which exposes a field for a future research. Application of the found metrics showed that most of the found metrics are possible to use in the context of the studied environment. Presentation of the results and interviews with company's representatives showed that the graphic plots are useful for observing trends and correlations in development of company's development sites and help the company to improve its performance and decision making process.

  • 262. Basit, K. A.
    et al.
    Matskin, Mihhail
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    GUMO inspired ontology to support user experience based Citywide Mobile Learning2011In: Proc. - Int. Conf. User Sci. Eng., i-USEr, 2011, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User experience has been extensively discussed in literature, yet the idea of applying it to explain and comprehend the conceptualization of Mobile Learning (ML) is relatively new. Consequently much of the existing works are mainly theoretical and they concentrate to establish and explain the relationship between ML and experience. Little has been done to apply or adopt it into practice. In contrast to the currently existing approaches, this paper presents an ontology to support Citywide Mobile Learning (CML). The ontology presented in this paper addresses three fundamental aspects of CML, namely User Model, User Experience and Places/Spaces which exist in the city. The ontology presented here not only attempts to model and translate the theoretical concepts such as user experience and Place/Spaces for citywide context for Mobile Learning, but also apply them into practice. The discussed ontology is used in our system to support Place/Space based CML.

  • 263. Bayer, J.
    et al.
    Eisenbarth, M.
    Lehner, T.
    Petersen, Kai
    Service Engineering Methodology2008In: Semantic Service Provisioning / [ed] Kuropka, D.; Tröger, P.; Weske, S. Staab and M., Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 185-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Bayer, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Widenfors, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Information Hiding: Steganografic Content in Streaming Media2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, information hiding has focused on carriers like images and audio files. A problem with these carriers is that they do not support hiding in new types of network-based services. Nowadays, these services often arise as a consequence of the increasingly demand for higher connection speed to the Internet. By introducing streaming media as a carrier of hidden information, hiding in new network-based services is supported. The main purposes with this thesis are to investigate how information can be hidden in streaming media and how it measures up compared to images and audio files. In order to evaluate the approach, we have developed a prototype and used it as a proof of concept. This prototype hides information in some of the TCP/IP header fields and is used to collect experimental data as well. As reference, measurements have been collected from other available carriers of hidden information. In some cases, the results of these experiments show that the TCP/IP header is a good carrier of information. Its performance is outstanding and well suited for hiding information quickly. The tests showed that the capacity is slightly worse though.

  • 265.
    Baykal, Emre
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ad-hoc Data Transfer for Android Devices2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 266. Becker, Simon M.
    et al.
    Herold, Sebastian
    RWTH Aachen University of Technology.
    Lohmann, Sebastian
    Westfechtel, Bernhard
    A graph-based algorithm for consistency maintenance in incremental and interactive integration tools2007In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 287-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Bednarz, Andrzej
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Transformation of Rational Unified Process analysis model to design model according to architectural patterns2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applying Rational Unified Process (RUP) in a project means to develop a set of models before the system could be implemented. The models depict the essentials of the system from requirements to detailed design. They facilitate getting a system that has appropriate and rich documentation (therefore highly maintainable) and addresses user needs. However, creation of the models may cause overheads since a lot of work has to be put to elaborate the artefacts. In this paper a method that makes RUP more efficient is proposed. The method makes use of the fact that every subsequent model is developed basing on the previous model. In other words, models are successively transformed from requirements up to executable code. In particular, design model bases on an analysis model. The proposed method applies automatic model transformation from an analysis model to a design model. Firstly, an approach for performing automatic transformation is chosen. Secondly, a tool applying this approach is implemented. Finally, the transformation tool is tested and evaluated in an empirical study. The results show that automation of model transformation may be beneficial, and therefore can help in getting better systems in shorten time.

  • 268.
    Beecham, Sarah
    et al.
    Lero, Limerick, Ireland..
    Clear, Tony
    Auckland Univ Technol, Sch Engn Comp & Math Sci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barr, John
    Ithaca Coll, Dept Comp Sci, Ithaca, NY USA..
    Daniels, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Oudshoorn, Michael
    Northwest Missouri State Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Informat Syst, Maryville, MO USA..
    Noll, John
    Univ East London, London, England..
    Preparing tomorrow's software engineers for work in a global environment2017In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 9-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269. Behnam, Moris
    et al.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Nolte, Thomas
    Grahn, Håkan
    Towards an efficient approach for resource sharing in real-time multiprocessor systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting resource sharing in multiprocessor architectures is one of the major problems that limit the potential performance benefits of using such architectures for real-time systems. Many approaches and algorithms have been proposed to support resource sharing, however, most of them impose either high blocking times on tasks or require a large memory allocation. In this paper we investigate the possibility of combining the lock-based approaches and wait-free approaches (using multiple buffers) in order to decrease both the blocking times that may affect the schedulability of tasks and the required memory. To achieve this, we propose a solution based on evaluating the maximum allowed blocking time on each task according to the schedulability analysis, and then find the minimum memory allocation for each resource that limits the blocking times on tasks to be less than the maximum allowed blocking times.

  • 270. Behrmann, Gerd
    et al.
    David, Alexandre
    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
    Pettersson, Paul
    Yi, Wang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Developing UPPAAL over 15 years2011In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Bekele, Israel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Mobile Apps for Ethiopian Commodity Exchange2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the African continent the mobile phones are already contributing theirshare in the development of the continent. Specially in Ethiopia, in onedirection, the users of mobile phones are increasing each year and mostimportantly the small scale farmers who contribute 85% of the country’spopulation are using these devices to trade their surplus products in anefficient manner and better deal thus earn good profit. In anotherdirection, Ethiopia has set up its own Commodity Exchange in 2008 sothat farmers and traders could buy and sell commodities in an efficientand transparent manner. Taking into consideration both of thesedevelopments carried out to encourage smooth trade and modernmarking strategies, this project has a target to come up with mobileapplications for the Android mobile platform and iPhone users in the firstphase of implementation. Accordingly, the app developed will help to getreal time Ethiopia commodity Exchange (ECX) market prices, commodityrelated headlines, weather forecasts and other relevant news. It willcontribute to standardize the way ECX is performing to link up differentparties specially farmers who make up majority of the country’spopulation and support the economy of the country in a great deal withthe traders. Although the mobile app developed does not have an aim tobring in significant change into the existing system at the currentpenetration of Smartphone in the country, it helps to disseminateinformation in standardized manner as in big commodity exchanges andbesides, we believe in the future it will be the convenient and widely usedmeans to reach the traders with necessary information.

  • 272.
    Bendiuga, Volodymyr
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Multi-Core Pattern2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 273.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Androidutveckling med slutanvändarens idéer som fokus2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under slutet av 2010 och våren 2011 har ett utvecklingsprojekt pågått hos AlexIT AB. Målet var att skapa en mobilapplikatioin för individer som vill bokföra sin alkoholkonsumtion. Som en del utav arbetet önskade projektgruppen bjuda in slutanvändare till processe, för att ta del utav deras idéer och feedback.

    Genom att låta en grupp slutanvändare själva skissa och beskriva sina lösningar och en annan grupp jobba fram en pappersprototyp tillsammans i en workshop gavs utvecklaren ett brett stöd för val i designprocessen.

    Det visar sig att de som individuellt skissa har inte låtit sig begränsas av antingen kravspeciifikationen eller mediet (mobiltelefon), utan har istället beskrivit funktionalitet framför design. Tvärtom har de som jobbat i workshop hållit sig inom ramarna för kravspecifikationen och mediet och skapat en komplett och implementerbar pappersprototyp.

  • 274.
    Bengtsson, Dan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Test Process Evaluation by Combining ODC and Test Technique Effectiveness2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the importance of test process evaluation in order to improve a test model and to provide developer- and management feedback. The report results in a test evaluation framework, developed in cooperation with a department at Ericsson Software Technology in Karlsrona. The framework is a result of discussions with the developers regarding performed testing, studying defect types from past projects and by analyzing the result from a small survey answered by some of the developers at Ericsson. The overall project aim was to evaluate performed testing in order to improve the test model. This requires a good insight of the test process, which is provided by the developed test evaluation framework. The test process is visualized by extracting test process data, making it possible to achieve the project aim. The project aim can be divided into the three following areas: Firstly to evaluate if the current test model is followed as expected, for example are all test techniques used according to the test model? Secondly to evaluate how well the test model fulfills predefined expectations, i.e. is a defect detected with the expected test technique and in the expected test phase? Finally to evaluate if there are any problematic defects that should receive extra attention during a project such as if one or several defect types occurs more frequently than others? The framework is based on another framework, Orthogonal Defect Classification [Chillarege92], combined with the research area Test Technique Effectiveness. The aim of this combination was to support the developed framework. Further a specific part of the framework is focusing on developer- and management feedback.

  • 275.
    Bengtsson, Jonas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Thriving at the Edge of Chaos2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis two different worldviews are compared: a mechanistic, and an organic worldview. The way we think the world and the nature work reflects on how we think organizations work, or how they ought to work. The mechanistic worldview has dominated our way of thinking since the seventeenth century, and it compares the world with a machine. The organic worldview could use a number of different metaphors, but the one addressed in this thesis is complexity theory. Complexity theory is related to chaos theory and is concerned with complex adaptive systems (cas). Complex adaptive systems exist everywhere and are systems such as the human immune system, economies, and ecosystems. What complexity theory tries to do is to understand these systems—how they arise, how they function and how order emerge in them. When looking at complex adaptive systems you can’t just look at the different parts. You must take a more holistic view and look at the whole and the interaction of the parts. If you just look at the parts you will miss the emergent properties that have emerged as the system has self-organized. One prominent aspect of these systems is that they don’t have any central authority, but somehow order do arise. In relation to organizations, complexity theory has something to say about almost all aspects of organizations: from what kind of leadership is needed, and how teams should be organized to the physical structure of the organization. To understand what complexity theory is and how to relate that to (software developing) organizations is the main focus of this thesis. Scrum is an agile and lightweight process which can be applied on development projects in general, but have been used in such diverse examples as software development projects, marketing programs, and business process reengineering (BPR) initiatives. In this thesis Scrum is used as an example of how to apply complexity theory to organizations. The result of the thesis showed that Scrum is highly influenced and compatible with complexity theory, which implies that complexity theory is of some use in software development. However, there are more work to be done to determine how effective it is, how to introduce it into organizations, and to explore more specific implementations. This master thesis should give the reader a good understanding of what complexity theory is, some specific issues to consider when applying complexity theory on organizations, and some specific examples of how to apply complexity theory on organizations.

  • 276. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Architecture-Level Modifiability Analysis2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost, quality and lead-time are three main concerns in software engineering projects. The quality of developed software has traditionally been evaluated on completed systems. Evaluating the product quality at completion introduces a great risk of wasting effort on software products with inadequate system qualities. It is the objective of this thesis to define and study methods for assessment, evaluation and prediction of software systems’ modifiability characteristics based on their architecture designs. Since software architecture design is made early in the development, architecture evaluation helps detect inadequate designs and thus reduces the risk of implementing systems of insufficient quality. We present a method for architecture-level analysis of modifiability (ALMA) that analyses the modifiability potential of a software system based on its software architecture design. The method is scenario-based and either compares architecture candidates, assesses the risk associated with modifications of the architecture, or predicts the effort needed to implement anticipated modifications. The modification prediction results in three values; a prediction of the modification effort and the predicted best- and worst-case effort for the same system and change scenario profile. In this way the prediction method provides a frame-of-reference that supports the architect in the decision whether the modifiability is acceptable or not. The method is based on the experiences and results from one controlled experiment and seven case-studies, where five case studies are part of this thesis. The experiment investigates different ways to organize the scenario elicitation and finds that a group of individually prepared persons produce better profiles than individuals or unprepared groups.

  • 277. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architecture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architecture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 278. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Design and Evaluation of Software Architecture1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in software development is to develop software with the right quality levels. The main problem is not to know if a project is technically feasible concerning functionality, but if a solution exists that meet the software quality requirements. It is therefore desired to get an early indication of the qualities of the resulting software. Software architecture is concerned with what modules are used to compose a system and how these modules are related to each other, i.e. the structure of system. The software architecture of a system sets the boundaries for these qualities. Hence, to design the software architec-ture to meet the quality requirements is to reduce the risks of not achieving the required quality levels. In this thesis we present the experiences from a software architecture design project with two industry partners. Based on these we propose a method for reengineering architectures and exemplify by an applying the method on a real world example. The method is based on architec-ture transformations and software quality evaluation of the architecture. Further, we present a method for predicting software maintenance effort from the software architecture, for use in the design and reengineering method. The method uses change scenario profiles to describe future changes to the system and architecture impact analysis provide knowl-edge of the modification volume required for the realization of each sce-nario. The results from a quasi experiment supports that groups consisting of prepared members create better scenario profiles. Also, the results suggest that there is a large room for variation between scenario profiles created by individual persons.

  • 279. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is considered as a leading nation in modern IT business. The growth of software development business provides an opportunity to strengthen the software engineering research in Sweden even further. This conference is intended as a starting point for a national network on software engineering and provides opportunity to discuss the current situation in software engineering research. Besides that the conference present a forum for Ph. D. students to meet and exchange ideas.

  • 280. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    First Swedish Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practise: Proceedings2001Report (Other academic)
  • 281. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    SERP'012001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings comprise of eight peer-reviewed articles ranging from software engineering fields such as process improvement to component based development and software architecture.

  • 282.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Bosch, Jan
    An experiment on creating scenario profiles for software change2000In: Annals of Software Engineering, ISSN 1022-7091, E-ISSN 1573-7489, Vol. 9, no 1-4, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

  • 283. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    An Experiment on Creating Scenario Profiles for Software Change1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenario profiles are used increasingly often for the assessment of quality attributes during the architectural design of software systems. However, the definition of scenario profiles is subjective and no data is available on the effects of individuals on scenario profiles. In this paper we present the design, analysis and results of a controlled experiment on the effect of individuals on scenario profiles, so that others can replicate the experiments on other projects and people. Both scenario profiles created by individuals and by groups are studied. The findings from the experiment showed that groups with prepared members proved to be the best method for creating scenario profiles. Unprepared groups did not perform better than individuals when creating scenario profiles.

  • 284. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Architecture level prediction of software maintenance1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the prediction of software maintainability during software architecture design is presented. The method rakes (1) the requirement specification (2) the design of the architecture (3) expertise from software engineers and, possibly, (4) historical data as input and generates a prediction of the average effort for a maintenance task. Scenarios are used by the method to concretize the maintainability requirements and to analyze the architecture for the prediction of the maintainability. The method is formulated based on extensive experience in software architecture design and detailed design and exemplified using the design of software architecture for a haemo dialysis machine. Experiments for evaluation and validation of the method are ongoing and future work.

  • 285. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Bosch, Jan
    Scenario-based software architecture reengineering1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for reengineering software architectures. The method explicitly addresses the quality attributes of the software architecture. Assessment of quality attributes is performed primarily using scenarios. Design transformations are done to improve quality attributes that do not satisfy the requirements. Assessment and design transformation can be performed for several iterations until all requirements are met. To illustrate the method we use the reengineering of a prototypical measurement system into a domain-specific software architecture as an example.

  • 286. Bengtsson, PerOlof
    et al.
    Lassing, Nico
    Bosch, Jan
    Vliet, Hans van
    Analyzing Software Architectures for Modifiability2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The software architecture plays an important role in achieving a modifiable system, but few methods for modifiability analysis exist. In this paper, we propose an analysis method for software architecture modifiability that has successfully been applied in several cases. The method consists of five main steps, i.e. goal selection, software architecture description, scenario elicitation, scenario evaluation and interpretation.

  • 287.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Input-output conformance testing based on featured transition systems2014In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 1272-1278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the theory of input-output conformance testing to the setting of software product lines. In particular, we allow for input-output featured transition systems to be used as the basis for generating test suites and test cases. We introduce refinement operators both at the level of models and at the level of test suites that allow for projecting them into a specific product configuration (or a product sub-line). We show that the two sorts of refinement are consistent and lead to the same set of test-cases. © Copyright 2014 ACM

  • 288.
    Beohar, Harsh
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Input–output conformance testing for software product lines2016In: The Journal of logical and algebraic methods in programming, ISSN 2352-2208, E-ISSN 2352-2216, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 1131-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the theory of input-output conformance (IOCO) testing to accommodate behavioral models of software product lines (SPLs). We present the notions of residual and spinal testing. These notions allow for structuring the test process for SPLs by taking variability into account and extracting separate test suites for common and specific features of an SPL. The introduced notions of residual and spinal test suites allow for focusing on the newly introduced behavior and avoiding unnecessary re-test of the old one. Residual test suites are very conservative in that they require retesting the old behavior that can reach to new behavior. However, spinal test suites more aggressively prune the old tests and only focus on those test sequences that are necessary in reaching the new behavior. We show that residual testing is complete but does not usually lead to much reduction in the test-suite. In contrast, spinal testing is not necessarily complete but does reduce the test-suite. We give sufficient conditions on the implementation to guarantee completeness of spinal testing. Finally, we specify and analyze an example regarding the Ceiling Speed Monitoring Function from the European Train Control System. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 289. Berander, Patrik
    Evolving Prioritization for Software Product Management2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a product is commonly defined by its ability to satisfy stakeholder needs and expectations. Therefore, it is important to find, select, and plan the content of a software product to maximize the value for internal and external stakeholders. This process is traditionally referred to as requirements engineering in the software industry, while it is often referred to as product management in industries with a larger market focus. As an increasing number of software products are delivered to a market instead of single customers, the need for product management in software companies is increasing. As a side effect, the need for mechanisms supporting decisions regarding the content of software products also increases. While decision-support within requirements engineering and product management is a broad area, requirements prioritization together with release planning and negotiation are considered as some of the most important decision activities. This is particularly true because these activities support decisions regarding the content of products, and are hence drivers for quality. At the same time, requirements prioritization is seen as an integral and important component in both requirements negotiation (with single customers) and release planning (with markets) in incremental software development. This makes requirements prioritization a key component in software engineering decision support, in particular as input to more sophisticated approaches for release planning and negotiation, where decisions about what and when to develop are made. This thesis primarily focuses on evolving the current body of knowledge in relation to release planning in general and requirements prioritization in particular. The research is carried out by performing qualitative and quantitative studies in industrial and academic environments with an empirical focus. Each of the presented studies has its own focus and scope while together contributing to the research area. Together they answer questions about why and how requirements prioritization should be conducted, as well as what aspects should be taken into account when making decisions about the content of products. The primary objective of the thesis is to give guidelines on how to evolve requirements prioritization to better facilitate decisions regarding the content of software products. This is accomplished by giving suggestions on how to perform research to evolve the area, by evaluating current approaches and suggest ways on how these can be improved, and by giving directions on how to align and focus future research to be more successful in development of decision-support approaches. This means that the thesis solves problems with requirements prioritization today, and gives directions and support on how to evolve the area in a successful way.

  • 290. Berander, Patrik
    Prioritization of Stakeholder Needs in Software Engineering: Understanding and Evaluation2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, humans confront situations where different decisions have to be made. Such decisions can be non-trivial even though they often are relatively simple, such as which bus to take or which flavor of a soft drink to buy. When facing decisions of more complex nature, and when more is at stake, they tend to get much harder. It is often possible to deal with such decisions by prioritizing different alternatives to find the most suitable one. In software engineering, decision-makers are often confronted with situations where complex decisions have to be made, and where the concept of prioritization can be utilized. Traditionally in software engineering, discussions about prioritization have focused on the software product. However, when defining or improving software processes, complex decisions also have to be made. In fact, software products and software processes have many characteristics in common which invite thoughts about using prioritization when developing and evolving software processes as well. The results presented in this thesis indicate that it is possible to share results and knowledge regarding prioritization between the two areas. In this thesis, the area of prioritization of software products is investigated in detail and a number of studies where prioritizations are performed in both process and product settings are presented. It is shown that it is possible to use prioritization techniques commonly used in product development also when prioritizing improvement issues in a software company. It is also shown that priorities between stakeholders of a software process sometimes differ, just as they do when developing software products. The thesis also presents an experiment where different prioritization techniques are evaluated with regard to ease of use, time consumption, and accuracy. Finally, an investigation of the suitability of students as subjects when evaluating prioritization techniques is presented.

  • 291.
    Berander, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Understanding and Evaluation of Software Process Deviations2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement is often mentioned in today?s software marketplace. To be able to do process improvement, the organisation must have a process to improve from. These processes are commonly deviated from, and the PDU/PAY organisation at Ericsson AB has experienced that this happens too often within their organisation. The aim of this master thesis was to investigate why such deviations occur and how they could be prevented at PDU/PAY. A survey including a qualitative and a quantitative part was conducted at PDU/PAY to investigate this issue. The result was that processes were often deviated from due to lack of: management commitment, user involvement, synchronisation between processes, change management, anchoring of processes, and communication of processes. In addition to the conducted studies, an improvement proposal is given to the PDU/PAY organisation. This includes one organisational part and one part that is directly related to the actual work with processes. The proposal is intended to give PDU/PAY an essence of how to improve their work with their organisational processes.

  • 292. Berander, Patrik
    Using students as subjects in requirements prioritization2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Andrews, Anneliese Amschler
    Requirements Prioritization2005In: Engineering and Managing Software Requirements / [ed] Aurum, Aybüke; Wohlin, Claes, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2005, p. 69-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of techniques for prioritization of requirements for software products. Prioritization is a crucial step towards making good decisions regarding product planning for single and multiple releases. Various aspects of functionality are considered, such as importance, risk, cost, etc. Prioritization decisions are made by stakeholders, including users, managers, developers, or their representatives. Methods are given how to combine individual prioritizations based on overall objectives and constraints. A range of different techniques and aspects are applied to an example to illustrate their use. Finally, limitations and shortcomings of current methods are pointed out, and open research questions in the area of requirements prioritization are discussed.

  • 294. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    A Goal Question Metric Based Approach for Efficient Measurement Framework Definition2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönsson, Per
    Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV) Prioritization of Requirements in Hierarchies2006In: International Journal of Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 16, no 6, p. 819-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support in requirements engineering is an activity that plays an important role in enabling the delivery of value to stakeholders. Requirements prioritization has been identified as an integral (and important) part of requirements negotiation and release planning in incremental software development, which makes prioritization a key issue in requirements engineering decision support. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has for long been considered as the technique to use when prioritizing requirements on a ratio scale. Several studies have reported positively about AHP, but lately a number of studies have also reported about weaknesses, without identifying any better ratio-scale alternatives. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of AHP and another ratioscale prioritization technique, Cumulative Voting (CV), are compared. Based on this comparison, a new technique for prioritizing hierarchically structured requirements on a ratio scale is presented, called Hierarchical Cumulative Voting (HCV). HCV addresses the weaknesses of AHP while inheriting the strengths of CV. The suitability of HCV is discussed theoretically as well as in the light of empirical results from using HCV and CV in industrial settings. It is concluded that HCV seems very promising, but additional empirical studies are needed to address some of the open questions about the technique.

  • 296. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Khan, K.A.
    Lehtola, L.
    Towards a Research Framework on Requirements Prioritization2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Evaluating two Ways of Calculating Priorities in Requirements Hierarchies: an Experiment on Hierarchical Cumulative Voting2009In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212 , Vol. 82, no 5, p. 836-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing large-scale software systems, there is often a large amount of requirements present, and they often reside on several hierarchical levels. In most cases, not all stated requirements can be implemented into the product due to different constraints, and the requirements must hence be prioritized. As requirements on different abstraction levels shall not be compared, prioritization techniques that are able to handle multi-level prioritization are needed. Different such techniques exist, but they seem to result in unfair comparisons when a hierarchy is unbalanced. In this paper, an empirical experiment is presented where an approach that compensate for this challenge is evaluated. The results indicate that some form of compensation is preferred, and that the subjects’ preference is not influenced by the amount of information given.

  • 298. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Differences in Views between Development Roles in Software Process Improvement: A Quantitative Comparison2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative study that evaluates how different roles in a software development organization view different issues in software process improvement. The study is conducted in a large Swedish telecommunication organization with the traditional roles of software development. The respondents of the study got five different questions related to process improvement. The result was that the different roles disagreed in three of the questions while they agreed in two of the questions. The disagreement was related to issues about importance of improvement, urgency of problems, and threat against successful process management, while the questions where the roles agreed focused on communication of the processes (documentation and teaching). It is concluded that it is important to be aware and take into account the different needs of different roles and that looking into other areas (e.g. marketing) could be beneficial when conducting process improvements.

  • 299. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Identification of Key Factors in Software Process Management: A Case Study2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When conducting process related work within an organization, it is important to be aware of which factors that are most important to consider. This paper presents an empirical study that was performed in order to find the key success factors in process management. One factor, namely synchronization of processes, was considered as much more important within the studied organization than within the studied literature. This shows that more research might be needed in this area. The study further shows that it is important to relate process improvement work to the properties of the affected organization and that the key factors identified are highly interrelated.

  • 300.
    Berg, Isabel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    George JR, Home automation system interface2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI), which displays the current statuses of my personal home automation system based on relevance. Relevance is determined by event, such as motion detection, triggered by connected subsystems. The interface updates the order the

    subsystems are displayed to give the user faster access to relevant status overviews and controls. Event logs and controllers are accessible through HomeSeer via a JSON API.

    The application is built with HTML, CSS, JavaScript (jQuery) only. Its test program uses PHP features. All graphic elements are vectors for responsiveness.

    The application is launched on a local IIS server, achieved by converting the application to an ASP.NET website.

    I have carried out this project and written all code for it alone.

     

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