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  • 201.
    AZIZ, YASSAR
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    ASLAM, MUHAMMAD NAEEM
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Traffic Engineering with Multi-Protocol Label Switching, Performance Comparison with IP networks2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic Engineering (TE) is the stage which deals with geometric design planning and traffic operation of networks, network devices and relationship of routers for the transportation of data. TE is that feature of network engineering which concentrate on problems of performance optimization of operational networks. It involves techniques and application of knowledge to gain performance objectives, which includes movement of data through network, reliability, planning of network capacity and efficient use of network resources. This thesis addresses the problems of traffic engineering and suggests a solution by using the concept of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). We have done simulation in Matlab environment to compare the performance of MPLS against the IP network in a simulated environment. MPLS is a modern technique for forwarding network data. It broadens routing according to path controlling and packet forwarding. In this thesis MPLS is computed on the basis of its performance, efficiency for sending data from source to destination. A MATLAB based simulation tool is developed to compare MPLS with IP network in a simulated environment. The results show the performance of MPLS network in comparison of IP network.

  • 202. Azizyan, G.
    et al.
    Magarian, M. K.
    Kajko-Mattson, Mira
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Survey of agile tool usage and needs2011In: Proceedings - 2011 Agile Conference, 2011, p. 29-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today little is known about what tools software companies are using to support their Agile methods and whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with them. This is due to lack of objective surveys on the subject. The surveys that have been conducted so far are of a subjective nature and have mostly been performed by tool vendors. They are very limited in number and focus mainly on company structure and adherence to a specific Agile method rather than on tool usage and needs. For this reason many companies have difficulties to choose appropriate tools to support their Agile process. One such company is the Swedish telecommunications giant Ericsson. To account for this lack of data Ericsson commissioned us to conduct an independent survey focusing on the tool usage and needs as experienced by the Agile software community today. In this paper we report on the results of our survey. The survey covers 121 responses from 120 different companies coming from 35 different countries. Our results show that the most satisfactory tool aspect is ease of use whereas the least satisfactory one is lack of integration with other systems. Finally our results provide a list of features that are most desired by the software companies today.

  • 203. Baca, Dejan
    Automated static code analysis: A tool for early vulnerability detection2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software vulnerabilities are added into programs during its development. Architectural flaws are introduced during planning and design, while implementation faults are created during coding. Penetration testing is often used to detect these vulnerabilities. This approach is expensive because it is performed late in development and any correction would increase lead-time. An alternative would be to detect and correct vulnerabilities in the phase of development where they are the least expensive to correct and detect. Source code audits have often been suggested and used to detect implementations vulnerabilities. However, manual audits are time consuming and require extended expertise to be efficient. A static code analysis tool could achieve the same results as a manual audit but at fraction of the time. Through a set of cases studies and experiments at Ericsson AB, this thesis investigates the technical capabilities and limitations of using a static analysis tool as an early vulnerability detector. The investigation is extended to studying the human factor by examining how the developers interact and use the static analysis tool. The contributions of this thesis include the identification of the tools capabilities so that further security improvements can focus on other types of vulnerabilities. By using static analysis early in development possible cost saving measures are identified. Additionally, the thesis presents the limitations of static code analysis. The most important limitation being the incorrect warnings that are reported by static analysis tools. In addition, a development process overhead was deemed necessary to successfully use static analysis in an industry setting.

  • 204.
    Baca, Dejan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Developing Secure Software: in an Agile Process2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software developers are facing increased pressure to lower development time, release new software versions more frequent to customers and to adapt to a faster market. This new environment forces developers and companies to move from a plan based waterfall development process to a flexible agile process. By minimizing the pre development planning and instead increasing the communication between customers and developers, the agile process tries to create a new, more flexible way of working. This new way of working allows developers to focus their efforts on the features that customers want. With increased connectability and the faster feature release, the security of the software product is stressed. To develop secure software, many companies use security engineering processes that are plan heavy and inflexible. These two approaches are each others opposites and they directly contradict each other. Objective: The objective of the thesis is to evaluate how to develop secure software in an agile process. In particular, what existing best practices can be incorporated into an agile project and still provide the same benefit if the project was using a waterfall process. How the best practices can be incorporated and adapted to fit the process while still measuring the improvement. Some security engineering concepts are useful but the best practice is not agile compatible and would require extensive adaptation to integrate with an agile project. Method: The primary research method used throughout the thesis is case studies conducted in a real industry setting. As secondary methods for data collection a variety of approaches have been used, such as semi-structured interviews, workshops, study of literature, and use of historical data from the industry. Results: The security engineering best practices were investigated though a series of case studies. The base agile and security engineering compatibility was assessed in literature, by developers and in practical studies. The security engineering best practices were group based on their purpose and their compatibility with the agile process. One well known and popular best practice, automated static code analysis, was toughly investigated for its usefulness, deployment and risks of using as part of the process. For the risk analysis practices, a novel approach was introduced and improved. As such, a way of adapting existing practices to agile is proposed. Conclusion: With regard of agile and security engineering we did not find that any of the investigated processes was agile compatible. Agile is reaction driven that adapts to change, while the security engineering processes are proactive and try to prevent threats before they happen. To develop secure software in an agile process the developers should adopt and adapt key concepts from security engineering. These changes will affect the flexibility of the agile process but it is a necessity if developers want the same software security state as security engineering processes can provide.

  • 205. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Agile development with security engineering activities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile software development has been used by industry to create a more flexible and lean software development process, i.e making it possible to develop software at a faster rate and with more agility during development. There are however concerns that the higher development pace and lack of documentation are creating less secure software. We have therefore looked at three known Security Engineering processes, Microsoft SDL, Cigatel touchpoints and Common Criteria and identified what specific security activities they performed. We then compared these activities with an Agile development process that is used in industry. Developers, from a large telecommunication manufacturer, were interviewed to learn their impressions on using these security activities in an agile development process. We produced a security enhanced Agile development process that we present in this paper. This new Agile process use activities from already established security engineering processes that provide the benefit the developers wanted but did not hinder or obstruct the Agile process in a significant way.

  • 206. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Lundberg, Lars
    Evaluating the Cost Reduction of Static Code Analysis for Software Security2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated static code analysis is an efficient technique to increase the quality of software during early development. This paper presents a case study in which mature software with known vul-nerabilities is subjected to a static analysis tool. The value of the tool is estimated based on reported failures from customers. An average of 17% cost savings would have been possible if the static analysis tool was used. The tool also had a 30% success rate in detecting known vulnerabilities and at the same time found 59 new vulnerabilities in the three examined products.

  • 207.
    Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Improving software security with static automated code analysis in an industry setting2013In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 259-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security can be improved by identifying and correcting vulnerabilities. In order to reduce the cost of rework, vulnerabilities should be detected as early and efficiently as possible. Static automated code analysis is an approach for early detection. So far, only few empirical studies have been conducted in an industrial context to evaluate static automated code analysis. A case study was conducted to evaluate static code analysis in industry focusing on defect detection capability, deployment, and usage of static automated code analysis with a focus on software security. We identified that the tool was capable of detecting memory related vulnerabilities, but few vulnerabilities of other types. The deployment of the tool played an important role in its success as an early vulnerability detector, but also the developers perception of the tools merit. Classifying the warnings from the tool was harder for the developers than to correct them. The correction of false positives in some cases created new vulnerabilities in previously safe code. With regard to defect detection ability, we conclude that static code analysis is able to identify vulnerabilities in different categories. In terms of deployment, we conclude that the tool should be integrated with bug reporting systems, and developers need to share the responsibility for classifying and reporting warnings. With regard to tool usage by developers, we propose to use multiple persons (at least two) in classifying a warning. The same goes for making the decision of how to act based on the warning.

  • 208.
    Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Countermeasure graphs for software security risk assessment: An action research2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 2411-2428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security risk analysis is an important part of improving software quality. In previous research we proposed countermeasure graphs (CGs), an approach to conduct risk analysis, combining the ideas of different risk analysis approaches. The approach was designed for reuse and easy evolvability to support agile software development. CGs have not been evaluated in industry practice in agile software development. In this research we evaluate the ability of CGs to support practitioners in identifying the most critical threats and countermeasures. The research method used is participatory action research where CGs were evaluated in a series of risk analyses on four different telecom products. With Peltier (used prior to the use of CGs at the company) the practitioners identified attacks with low to medium risk level. CGs allowed practitioners to identify more serious risks (in the first iteration 1 serious threat, 5 high risk threats, and 11 medium threats). The need for tool support was identified very early, tool support allowed the practitioners to play through scenarios of which countermeasures to implement, and supported reuse. The results indicate that CGs support practitioners in identifying high risk security threats, work well in an agile software development context, and are cost-effective.

  • 209. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Prioritizing Countermeasures through the Countermeasure Method for Software Security (CM-Sec)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software security is an important quality aspect of a software system. Therefore, it is important to integrate software security touch points throughout the development life-cycle. So far, the focus of touch points in the early phases has been on the identification of threats and attacks. In this paper we propose a novel method focusing on the end product by prioritizing countermeasures. The method provides an extension to attack trees and a process for identification and prioritization of countermeasures. The approach has been applied on an open-source application and showed that countermeasures could be identified. Furthermore, an analysis of the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the countermeasures could be provided.

  • 210. Baca, Dejan
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Lundberg, Lars
    Static Code Analysis to Detect Software Security Vulnerabilities: Does Experience Matter?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Code reviews with static analysis tools are today recommended by several security development processes. Developers are expected to use the tools' output to detect the security threats they themselves have introduced in the source code. This approach assumes that all developers can correctly identify a warning from a static analysis tool (SAT) as a security threat that needs to be corrected. We have conducted an industry experiment with a state of the art static analysis tool and real vulnerabilities. We have found that average developers do not correctly identify the security warnings and only developers with specific experiences are better than chance in detecting the security vulnerabilities. Specific SAT experience more than doubled the number of correct answers and a combination of security experience and SAT experience almost tripled the number of correct security answers.

  • 211. Backman, Anders
    et al.
    Bodin, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).
    Lacoursière, Claude
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).
    Servin, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Democratizing CAE with Interactive Multiphysics Simulation and Simulators2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Badampudi, D.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Wnuk, K.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Wohlin, C.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Franke, U.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Smite, D.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. 

  • 213. Badampudi, Deepika
    Decision-making support for choosing among different component origins.2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Factors Affecting Efficiency of Agile Planning: A Case Study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Planning in software projects is a difficult problem due to the uncertainty associated with it. There are many factors that cause difficulty in formulating a plan. Not many factors that influence the efficiency of planning are identified in the previous studies. The literature focuses only on technical aspects such as requirements selection and estimation in order to plan a release or iteration. Objectives. The objective of this study is to identify factors that affect planning efficiency. The context in which the objective is achieved is large scale complex projects that are distributed across multiple teams, in multiple global sites. The motivation for selecting large scale context is because most of the existing releases planning approaches discussed in the literature were investigated in small scale projects. Hence this context will allow studying the planning process in large scale industry. Methods. A case study was conducted at Siemens’ Development Centre in Bangalore, India. A total of 15 interviews were conducted to investigate the planning process adopted by Siemens. To achieve triangulation, process documents such as release planning documents are studied and direct observation of the planning meeting is performed. Therefore multiple sources are used to collect evidences. Results. The identified challenges are grouped into technical and non-technical category. In total 9 technical factors and 11 non-technical factors are identified. The identified factors are also classified based on the context in which they affect the planning. In addition 6 effects of the factors are identified and improvements perceived by the participants are discussed in this study.

  • 215.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reporting Ethics Considerations in Software Engineering Publications2017In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical guidelines of software engineering journals require authors to provide statements related to the conflict of interest and the process of obtaining consent (if human subjects are involved). The objective of this study is to review the reporting of the ethical considerations in Empirical Software Engineering - An International Journal. The results indicate that two out of seven studies reported some ethical information however, not explicitly. The ethical discussions were focussed on anonymity and confidentiality. Ethical aspects such as competence, comprehensibility and vulnerability of the subjects were not discussed in any of the papers reviewed in this study. It is important to not only state that consent was obtained however, the procedure of obtaining consent should be reported to improve the accountability and trust.

  • 216.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.  

    Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutions. The objective is to select the origin of the components (in-house, outsource, components off-the-shelf (COTS) or open source software (OSS)) that facilitates the improvement. The system can be built of components from one origin or a combination of two or more (or even all) origins. Selecting a proper origin for a component is important to get the most out of a component and to optimize the development. 

    Method: It is necessary to investigate the component origins to make decisions to select among different origins. We conducted a case study to explore the existing challenges in software development.  The next step was to identify factors that influence the choice to select among different component origins through a systematic literature review using a snowballing (SB) strategy and a database (DB) search. Furthermore, a Bayesian synthesis process is proposed to integrate the evidence from literature into practice.  

    Results: The results of this thesis indicate that the context of software-intensive systems such as domain regulations hinder the software development improvement. In addition to in-house development, alternative component origins (outsourcing, COTS, and OSS) are being used for software development. Several factors such as time, cost and license implications influence the selection of component origins. Solutions have been proposed to support the decision-making. However, these solutions consider only a subset of factors identified in the literature.   

    Conclusions: Each component origin has some advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scenario, one component origin is more suitable than the others. It is important to investigate the different scenarios and suitability of the component origins, which is recognized as future work of this thesis. In addition, the future work is aimed at providing models to support the decision-making process.

  • 217.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Claes, Wohlin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kai, Petersen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 121, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software systems require decisions on component origins for acquiring components. A component origin is an alternative of where to get a component from. Objective: To identify factors that could influence the decision to choose among different component origins and solutions for decision-making (For example, optimization) in the literature. Method: A systematic review study of peer-reviewed literature has been conducted. Results: In total we included 24 primary studies. The component origins compared were mainly focused on in-house vs. COTS and COTS vs. OSS. We identified 11 factors affecting or influencing the decision to select a component origin. When component origins were compared, there was little evidence on the relative (either positive or negative) effect of a component origin on the factor. Most of the solutions were proposed for in-house vs. COTS selection and time, cost and reliability were the most considered factors in the solutions. Optimization models were the most commonly proposed technique used in the solutions. Conclusion: The topic of choosing component origins is a green field for research, and in great need of empirical comparisons between the component origins, as well of how to decide between different combinations of them.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-01 12:16
  • 218.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moreno, Ana
    Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large and distributed companies run agile projects in development environments that are inconsistent with the original agile ideas. Problems that result from these inconsistencies can affect the productivity of development projects and the timeliness of releases. To be effective in such contexts, the agile ideas need to be adapted. We take an inductive approach for reaching this aim by basing the design of the development process on observations of how context, practices, challenges, and impacts interact. This paper reports the results of an interview study of five agile development projects in an environment that was unfavorable for agile principles. Grounded theory was used to identify the challenges of these projects and how these challenges affected productivity and delays according to the involved project roles. Productivity and delay-influencing factors were discovered that related to requirements creation and use, collaboration, knowledge management, and the application domain. The practitioners’ explanations about the factors' impacts are, on one hand, a rich empirical source for avoiding and mitigating productivity and delay problems and, on the other hand, a good starting point for further research on flexible large-scale development.

  • 219.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 12:19
  • 220.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bayesian Synthesis for Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering: Method and Illustration2016In: 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering are necessary to synthesize evidence from multiple studies to provide knowledge and decision support. However, synthesis methods are underutilized in software engineering research. Moreover, translation of synthesized data (outcomes of a systematic review) to provide recommendations for practitioners is seldom practiced. The objective of this paper is to introduce the use of Bayesian synthesis in software engineering research, in particular to translate research evidence into practice by providing the possibility to combine contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the Bayesian synthesis method from health research and customized it to be used in software engineering research. The proposed method is described and illustrated using an example from the literature. Bayesian synthesis provides a systematic approach to incorporate subjective opinions in the synthesis process thereby making the synthesis results more suitable to the context in which they will be applied. Thereby, facilitating the interpretation and translation of knowledge to action/application. None of the synthesis methods used in software engineering allows for the integration of subjective opinions, hence using Bayesian synthesis can add a new dimension to the synthesis process in software engineering research.

  • 221.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Guidelines for Knowledge Translation in Software EngineeringIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Experiences from Using Snowballing and Database Searches in Systematic Literature Studies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies are commonly used in software engineering. There are two main ways of conducting the searches for these type of studies; they are snowballing and database searches. In snowballing, the reference list (backward snowballing - BSB) and citations (forward snowballing - FSB) of relevant papers are reviewed to identify new papers whereas in a database search, different databases are searched using predefined search strings to identify new papers. Objective: Snowballing has not been in use as extensively as database search. Hence it is important to evaluate its efficiency and reliability when being used as a search strategy in literature studies. Moreover, it is important to compare it to database searches. Method: In this paper, we applied snowballing in a literature study, and reflected on the outcome. We also compared database search with backward and forward snowballing. Database search and snowballing were conducted independently by different researchers. The searches of our literature study were compared with respect to the efficiency and reliability of the findings. Results: Out of the total number of papers found, snowballing identified 83% of the papers in comparison to 46% of the papers for the database search. Snowballing failed to identify a few relevant papers, which potentially could have been addressed by identifying a more comprehensive start set. Conclusion: The efficiency of snowballing is comparable to database search. It can potentially be more reliable than a database search however, the reliability is highly dependent on the creation of a suitable start set.

  • 223.
    Bagheri, Maryam
    et al.
    Sharif University Of Technology, Iran.
    Akkaya, Ilge
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Khamespanah, Ehsan
    University of Tehran, Iran ; Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Khakpour, Narges
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Sirjani, Marjan
    Reykjavik University, Iceland ; Mälardalen University.
    Movaghar, Ali
    Sharif University Of Technology, Iran.
    Lee, Edward A.
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Coordinated actors for reliable self-adaptive systems2017In: FACS 2016 : Formal Aspects of Component Software: International Workshop on Formal Aspects of Component Software, Springer, 2017, p. 241-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptive systems are systems that automatically adapt in response to environmental and internal changes, such as possible failures and variations in resource availability. Such systems are often realized by a MAPE-K feedback loop, where Monitor, Analyze, Plan and Execute components have access to a runtime model of the system and environment which is kept in the Knowledge component. In order to provide guarantees on the correctness of a self-adaptive system at runtime, the MAPE-K feedback loop needs to be extended with assurance techniques. To address this issue, we propose a coordinated actor-based approach to build a reusable and scalable model@runtime for self-adaptive systems in the domain of track-based traffic control systems. We demonstrate the approach by implementing an automated Air Traffic Control system (ATC) using Ptolemy tool.We compare different adaptation policies on the ATC model based on performance metrics and analyze combination of policies in different configurations of the model. We enriched our framework with runtime performance analysis such that for any unexpected change, subsequent behavior of the model is predicted and results are used for adaptation at the change-point. Moreover, the developed framework enables checking safety properties at runtime. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 224.
    Bahrieh, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Sensor Central / Automotive Systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How to display objects which were detected from different devices in one coordinate system? Nowadays most vehicles are equipped with front and back sensors to help the driver in driving process. Companies who provide this technology need to have an application which enables them for easy data fusion from these sensors and recording the process. Besides sensor’s design, programming of them is an important aspect. BASELABS Connect has the solution in a user friendly way. Creating Sensor Central component for BASELABS Connect is the main goal of this thesis. Sensor Central from BASELABS Connect requires six variables of sensor’s position for each sensor to demonstrate the objects from all sensors to one unique coordinate system. In this thesis, it was intended to create such a component which was mounted between all the sensors and the charting component to convert the objects location from different sensor’s position to one coordinate system and to be usable from other vehicles too.

  • 225.
    Bahtiyar, Muhammed Yasin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    JClone: Syntax tree based clone detection for Java2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An unavoidable amount of money is spent on maintaining existing software systems today. Software maintenance cost generally higher than development cost of the system therefore lowering maintenance cost is highly appreciated in software industry.

    A significant part of maintenance activities is related to repeating the investigation of problems and applying repeated solutions several times. A software system may contain a common bug in several different places and it might take extra effort and time to fix all existences of this bug. This operation commonly increases the cost of Software Maintenance Activities.

    Detecting duplicate code fragments can significantly decrease the time and effort therefore the maintenance cost. Clone code detection can be achieved via analyzing the source code of given software system. An abstract syntax tree based clone detector for java systems is designed and implemented through this study.

    This master thesis examines a software engineering process to create an abstract syntax tree based clone detector for the projects implemented in Java programming language.

  • 226.
    Bahtiyar, Muhammed Yasin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Software Architecture Checker2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By the increasing needs of software industry, software systems became more complex constructions than ever before. As a result of increasing complexity in software systems, functional decomposition of these systems gains the status of the most important aspect in the software development process. Dividing problems to sub-problems and producing specific solutions for divided parts makes it easier to solve the main problem.

    Component Based Software Engineering is a way of developing software systems that consists of logically or functionally decomposed components which integrated to each other by the help of well-defined interfaces. CBSE relies on architectural design of a software system.

    Planning phase and implementation of a software project may differ time to time. Because of the complexity of software systems, solving specific problems may affect the architecture of the whole system.

    In spite of sophisticated software engineering processes and CASE tools there is still a large gap between the planned and implemented architecture of software systems. Finding deviations from architecture in source code is a non-trivial task requiring tool support.

    Since, matching operation of designed software architecture and implemented software architecture needs to check design documents against implementation code. This manual checking operation is nearly impossible for major software systems. Software Architecture Checker provides a great approach to check the architecture of any software system.

    This bachelor thesis examines the approach behind the Software Architecture Checker.

  • 227.
    Baig, Imran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Measuring Cohesion and Coupling of Object-Oriented Systems Derivation and Mutual Study of Cohesion and Coupling2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cohesion and coupling are considered amongst the most important properties to evaluate the quality of a design. In the context of OO software development, cohesion means relatedness of the public functionality of a class whereas coupling stands for the degree of dependence of a class on other classes in OO system. In this thesis, a new metric has been proposed that measures the class cohesion on the basis of relative relatedness of the public methods to the overall public functionality of a class. The proposed metric for class cohesion uses a new concept of subset tree to determine relative relatedness of the public methods to the overall public functionality of a class. A set of metrics has been proposed for measuring class coupling based on three types of UML relationships, namely association, inheritance and dependency. The reasonable metrics to measure cohesion and coupling are supposed to share the same set of input data. Sharing of input data by the metrics encourages the idea for the existence of mutual relationships between them. Based on potential relationships research questions have been formed. An attempt is made to find answers of these questions with the help of an experiment on OO system FileZilla. Mutual relationships between class cohesion and class coupling have been analyzed statistically while considering OO metrics for size and reuse. Relationships among the pairs of metrics have been discussed and results are drawn in accordance with observed correlation coefficients. A study on Software evolution with the help of class cohesion and class coupling metrics has also been performed and observed trends have been analyzed.

  • 228. Bajwa, Sohaib Shahid
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    What are the Significant Cost Factors for COSMIC Functional Size Based Effort Estimation?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between software product size measured in Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points and the development effort. We investigated both numerical and categorical cost factors which have a significant effect on this relationship based on the empirical studies we conducted using the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) Dataset Release 10. For the statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) and Linear Regression Analysis techniques. In this paper, we discuss the results we obtained and the significance of the results for the software organizations who would like to improve their effort estimation processes.

  • 229.
    Bajwa, Sohaib-Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Interaction and System Design.
    Investigating the Nature of Relationship between Software Size and Development Effort2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software effort estimation still remains a challenging and debatable research area. Most of the software effort estimation models take software size as the base input. Among the others, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO II) is a widely known effort estimation model. It uses Source Lines of Code (SLOC) as the software size to estimate effort. However, many problems arise while using SLOC as a size measure due to its late availability in the software life cycle. Therefore, a lot of research has been going on to identify the nature of relationship between software functional size and effort since functional size can be measured very early when the functional user requirements are available. There are many other project related factors that were found to be affecting the effort estimation based on software size. Application Type, Programming Language, Development Type are some of them. This thesis aims to investigate the nature of relationship between software size and development effort. It explains known effort estimation models and gives an understanding about the Function Point and Functional Size Measurement (FSM) method. Factors, affecting relationship between software size and development effort, are also identified. In the end, an effort estimation model is developed after statistical analyses. We present the results of an empirical study which we conducted to investigate the significance of different project related factors on the relationship between functional size and effort. We used the projects data in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) dataset. We selected the projects which were measured by utilizing the Common Software Measurement International Consortium (COSMIC) Function Points. For statistical analyses, we performed step wise Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) techniques to build the multi variable models. We also performed Multiple Regression Analysis to formalize the relation.

  • 230.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 231.
    Bakht, Syed Sikandar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Ahmad, Qazi Sohail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    A Multi Agent Web Based Simulation Model for Evaluating Container Terminal Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides a software prototype of Container Terminal Management system with the help of a Multi Agent systems technology. The goal that has been tried to achieve during this research work was to solve the management issues residing in a CT. The software prototype can be implemented as simulation software that will help the Terminal Managers to take necessary decisions for the better productivity of CT. The CTs are struggling with taking proper management decisions. There are many policies implemented but the use of a certain policy at a proper time is the main issue. It is possible with simulation software to visualize the affects of decisions taken by the implementation of a policy and see the expected output. This can really improve the performance of a CT. The management decision problem is solved by modeling the whole CT in a computer modeling language. The prototype shows all the actors appearing in a CT in the form of Agents and these agents are responsible for carrying out certain tasks. The prototype is the final contribution along with partial implementation. The model is proposed to be a web based system which removes the platform dependability problem and provide availability online.

  • 232.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On the Synergies Between an Electronic Waybill and Intelligent Transport Systems Services2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential synergies between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and other Intelligent Transport System (ITS) services. An e-Waybill service, as presented in this thesis, should be able to perform the functions of a paper waybill (which is an important transport document and contains essential information about a consignment) and it should contain at least the information specified in a paper waybill. To investigate synergies between the e-Waybill solutions and ITS services, we present 5 conceptual e-Waybill solutions that differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. These solutions are further investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system that should implement the e-Waybill service. A set of 20 ITS services are considered for synergy analysis in this thesis. These services are mainly for road transport, however most of them are relevant to be considered for utilization in other modes of transport as well. For information synergy analysis, the e-Waybill solutions are assessed based on their synergies with ITS services. For different ITS services, the required input information entities are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. The result from our synergy analysis may support the choice of practical e-Waybill systems, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies with already existing ITS services. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where, and by whom a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the consignment was damaged.

  • 233.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afridi, Qaisar Zaman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance Evaluation of Two Different Usability Evaluation Methods in the Context of Collaborative Writing Systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world of rapid technological development one cannot deny the importance of collaborative writing systems. Besides many advantages of a collaborative writing system the major one is to allow its end users to work in collaboration with each other without having to physically meet. In the past various researches has been carried out for the usability evaluation of collaborative writing systems using the think aloud protocol method however there is no study conducted on the comparison of different usability evaluation methods in the context of collaborative writing systems. In this thesis work the authors have tried to find the limitations and capabilities of think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods in the context of a collaborative writing system called ZOHO, as well as the usability evaluation of ZOHO using think aloud protocol and co-discovery learning methods. The authors found various usability errors in ZOHO. Apart from this the authors also observed the two usability evaluation methods when they were used for usability evaluation of ZOHO. The authors found that both the methods have its’ own benefits and drawbacks. While the co-discovery learning method was fast enough, it was expensive in terms of human resource. On the other hand think aloud protocol method was slow to perform but there was less human resource used. Both the usability methods found almost the same usability errors.

  • 234.
    Bakhtyar, Shoaib
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Persson, Jan
    Analysis of information synergy between e-Waybill solutions and intelligent transport system services2013In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on information synergy between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. A waybill is an important transport document, and it contains essential information about a consignment. We consider five e-Waybill solutions, which differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. We analyse 20 ITS services, and for each of them, the required input entities that can be provided by an e-Waybill are identified, and the synergy with each of the e-Waybill solutions is determined based on the location of the e-Waybill information. The analysis shows that e-Waybill solutions with storage at the freight-level enable the highest information synergy with ITS services. Our result may support the implementation of practical e-Waybill systems that provide high synergy with ITS services, which may lead to higher utilisation of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions

  • 235.
    Balakrishnan, Radhakrishnan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Kesavan, Shijith Kunneth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    CAD TOOLS FOR HYBRID INTEGRATION2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we present a graphical computer-aided design (CAD) environment for the design, analysis and layout of printed electronic batteries in the first phase and the parasitic extraction of the connecting wires in the second phase. The primary motivation of our work is that this prototyping software tool so far does not exist. Our tool has been integrated within the existing CAD tool which allows quick prototyping and simplifies the interface between the system designer and the device manufacturer. This tools supports the schematic and layout entry, rule checking and netlist generation. The first phase of the device synthesis modelling is based on Enfucell printed batteries, by which using the CAD tool, the shape of the battery is optimized and designed to fit the product and is able to simulate the performance during the optimization, whereas the second phase is the parasitic extraction using an extracting tool named fasthenry, which is integrated to our CAD tool to extract unwanted resistance and inductance within the shared wires between the battery and other devices. We believe that the availability of this tool is useful to the CAD community for novel ideas in the circuit design for flexible hybrid electronics.

  • 236.
    Baloch, Adeel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Graphical Web Interface for OpenModelica Platform2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “OPENMODELICA is an open-source Modelica-based modeling and simulation environment intended for industrial and academic usage. Its long-term development is supported by a non-profit organization – the Open Source Modelica Consortium (OSMC).”

    OpenModelica aims to provide an enhanced, Open Source Modelica modeling and simulation environment and this thesis is an addition in this direction. 

    The purpose of this thesis is to create a web based graphical connection editor. There are other open-source connection editors available, but these editors were desktop applications. There is one web based editor but it is a textual editor. Desktop applications need installation and space on the local system. OMWeb connection editor is the first web based graphical connection editor that runs on a web browser. It’s a web platform for OpenModelica and provides the environment for modeling and simulation in the Modelica Modeling Language.

    The OMWeb connection editor can run on any system without the need for an OpenModelica installation. If a system is connected to the internet, and contains a web browser, it can run the OMWeb connection editor. The OMWeb connection editor uses Java Runtime Environment to run an applet in the browser. The user can create models graphically; but they can also be viewed in the textual format. The user can simulate and plot his models. The plot file generated for the model can be downloaded from the server. 

    The OMWeb Connection Editor uses Servlet to handle requests from the client. The servlet is responsible for the communication with OpenModelica Compiler. It also gets the results from OMC and sends them back to the client. In our case the browser is the client.

  • 237.
    Banelis, Justas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Proscevicius, Arunas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Streaming Video Based on an Intelligent Frame Skipping Technique2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming is an important field of global communications and data processing. It is divided into server and client sides connected via network. Video streaming is concerned with delivering video data from server to client over the network as fast and with as little loss as possible. In this study the possibilities to minimize the amount of data transferred over the network in video streaming are investigated and a video streaming technique comprised of server and client sides is proposed. To expand the flexibility and adaptability of the proposed video streaming technique an operational parameter system was constructed and the parameter value ranges were defined. The proposed video streaming technique was then applied to three sample videos. Before streaming the server side of the proposed technique reduced the frame count of input videos based on operational parameter values while the client side reconstructed the skipped frames. Then the quality of the resulting videos was measured and evaluated. To evaluate the reconstructed frames and videos the PSNR measurement method was used. The study concludes that by using the proposed video streaming technique it is possible to reduce the amount of transfer data by dropping frames on the server side and reconstructing them on the client side.

  • 238. Bangerth, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Burstedde, Carsten
    Heister, Timo
    Kronbichler, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Algorithms and data structures for massively parallel generic adaptive finite element codes2011In: ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, ISSN 0098-3500, E-ISSN 1557-7295, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 14:1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Bao, Leiming
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Sun, Chunyan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Human-Computer Interaction in a Smart House2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The quality attribute concerning usability is generally of significant importance to systems. The area of Human Computer Interaction, HCI, especially handles several usability aspects. This degree project emphasizes HCI in a context of, so called, Smart House. The report is divided into three main sections: theory, application, and measurement results. In the theory section we will present about the context of HCI and the content of HCI, such as HCI model and goals of HCI design. In the application section we discuss the use of mobile phones as a device to remotely control devices of smart houses, and present a system developed to support such services. In order to make the system more attractive, we decided to design it for two categories of operations, menu operation and direct-touch operation mode. Finally, we have used questionnaires for reasons of measuring user satisfaction. Through investigation and analysis of the result of this, we come to the conclusion that system usability is good.

  • 240. Barbosa, Manuel
    et al.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Page, Dan
    Rodrigues, Nuno
    Silva, Paulo
    Type checking cryptography implementations2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer , 2012, Vol. 7141, p. 316-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptographic software development is a challenging field: high performance must be achieved, while ensuring correctness and compliance with low-level security policies. CAO is a domain specific language designed to assist development of cryptographic software. An important feature of this language is the design of a novel type system introducing native types such as predefined sized vectors, matrices and bit strings, residue classes modulo an integer, finite fields and finite field extensions, allowing for extensive static validation of source code. We present the formalisation, validation and implementation of this type system.

  • 241.
    Bardici, Nick
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Skarin, Björn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Signal Processing.
    Röstigenkänning genom Hidden Markov Model: En implementering av teorin på DSP2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master degree project is how to implement a speech recognition system on a DSK – ADSP-BF533 EZ-KIT LITE REV 1.5 based on the theory of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The implementation is based on the theory in the master degree project Speech Recognition using Hidden Markov Model by Mikael Nilsson and Marcus Ejnarsson, MEE-01-27. The work accomplished in the project is by reference to the theory, implementing a MFCC, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient function, a training function, which creates Hidden Markov Models of specific utterances and a testing function, testing utterances on the models created by the training-function. These functions where first created in MatLab. Then the test-function where implemented on the DSK. An evaluation of the implementation is performed.

  • 242.
    Barke, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Systems and Software Engineering.
    Are we ready for Agile Development?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the rapidly changing market of today, companies need to be responsive and react quickly to changes in both their competitors’ behaviour but also to changes in their own technical environment. In this thesis I have examined the agile characteristics of a number of companies in Stockholm, with focus on three agile concepts; Scrum, eXtreme Programming and Test Driven Development. The work started off by a prestudy, in which I have identified the criteria that a company needs to fulfil in order to be considered agile. This resulted in four main categories of characteristics; Quality, Flexibility, Communication and Competence. After doing the prestudy, these characteristics were investigated through a combination of a quantitative study and a case study. While the results mostly lean towards agile behaviour rather than non agile, it was shown that a lot of work still remains, for instance regarding improvements in the communications area, and also in the way these companies apply the agile methodologies examined.

  • 243. Barney, Sebastian
    Perspectives on Software and their Priorities: Balancing Conflicting Stakeholder Views2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development of a software product depends on a number of groups working together to achieve a common goal. However, each of the groups interacts with the product in different ways, and can have conflicting aims and objectives. For example, developers trying to correct issues in the software architecture, which will impact future releases of the product, can be stopped by a project manager who is charged with delivering a release on time and within budget. While the functional requirements of a software product are usually documented, there are a number of other investments in software development that are not always as explicitly agreed upon but are still essential to a product's long-term success. The major investment types include software product quality -- a main control variable in software development, and intellectual capital (IC) -- being the key input and tool used in software development. As management requires measurement, it is necessary understand the priorities placed on investment options by the various groups involved in the development of a software product. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method capable of both determining the priorities of different groups, and the level of alignment between these groups in terms of their priorities. Evolving the method from a study into the values used to select requirements for a release of software, Ericsson supported the development of a methodology to determine and compare the priorities of different groups for software product quality, and IC. The method elicited the required information from a series of case studies to build up a picture of the priorities placed on major investment options and constraints -- features, quality, IC, time and cost. The results highlight strengths, and areas for improvement -- through the identification of differing priorities and ambiguities in management of different aspects studied. In conducting this research, systematic biases in the selection of requirements appear to be occurring, adding an objective to understand how bias impacts decision making in a requirements engineering context. This thesis provides a method that determines the priorities on the level of investment on different options in the development of software products. It is concluded that people involved in the development of software need to be aligned on issues of software product quality as these priorities set expectations. The same was not found true for issues of IC, where groups can complete tasks without negatively impacting others, as long as the organisation works effectively as a single entity. On the issue of biases in the prioritisation of these aspects, prospect theory is found to apply to requirements selection in an academic experiment -- suggesting people will prefer functionality over software product quality, and to meet the known requirements of customers over predicting general market requirements.

  • 244. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Hu, Ganglan
    Wohlin, Claes
    Creating Software Product Value in China2009In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 26, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become a formidable player and continues to grow strongly in what has become a dynamic global market for software development. In this highly competitive environment it has never been more difficult or important to maximize the creation of software product value. But each key stakeholder group – purchasers, users, software managers and developers – has a different notion of value when looking at a software product. As the value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils, we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. The value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils. To help understand how value is created we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. We studied three groups of software development companies operating in China – Chinese companies with a domestic market, Chinese companies with an international market, and western companies operating in China. The results were similar for all three groups, except After-sales Support was a significantly greater concern for Chinese companies with an international market.

  • 245. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Product Management Challenge: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2008In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 576-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release.

  • 246. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A product management challenge: Creating software product value through requirements selection2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 247. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Quest for a Silver Bullet: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 248. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Relative Importance of Aspects of Intellectual Capital for Software Companies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual capital (IC) is both the key input and tool used in the development of software today. It covers the value provided to an organisation by the employees, the processes and products that support the organisation, and the knowledge held in the relationships between the organisation and external parties – covering human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital respectively. This paper presents a method that seeks to understand the level of alignment between the different success-critical stakeholders in the importance of different aspects of intellectual capital. The method is applied in a case study and provides a number of interesting insights, with the authors concluding that the groups do not necessarily need to be aligned as each groups has a different informational role within the organisation to fulfil.

  • 249.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Improving Students With Rubric-Based Self-Assessment and Oral Feedback2012In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rubrics and oral feedback are approaches to help students improve performance and meet learning outcomes. However, their effect on the actual improvement achieved is inconclusive. This paper evaluates the effect of rubrics and oral feedback on student learning outcomes. An experiment was conducted in a software engineering course on requirements engineering, using the two approaches in course assignments. Both approaches led to statistically significant improvements, though no material improvement (i.e., a change by more than one grade) was achieved. The rubrics led to a significant decrease in the number of complaints and questions regarding grades.

  • 250.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 20-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

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