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  • 101.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Personalized Health-Monitoring System for Elderly by Combining Rules and Case-based Reasoning2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 21: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, 249-254 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health-monitoring system for elderly in home environment is a promising solution to provide efficient medical services that increasingly interest by the researchers within this area. It is often more challenging when the system is self-served and functioning as personalized provision. This paper proposed a personalized self-served health-monitoring system for elderly in home environment by combining general rules with a case-based reasoning approach. Here, the system generates feedback, recommendation and alarm in a personalized manner based on elderly’s medical information and health parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, activity, pulse, etc. A set of general rules has used to classify individual health parameters. The case-based reasoning approach is used to combine all different health parameters, which generates an overall classification of health condition. According to the evaluation result considering 323 cases and k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases, the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively. The preliminary result of the system is acceptable since the feedback; recommendation and alarm messages are personalized and differ from the general messages. Thus, this approach could be possibly adapted for other situations in personalized elderly monitoring.

  • 102.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Intelligent Healthcare Service to Monitor Vital Signs in Daily Life – A Case Study on Health-IoT2017In: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, no 3, 43-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital signs monitoring for elderly in daily life environment is a promising concept that efficiently can provide medical services to people at home. However, make the system self-served and functioning as personalized provision makes the challenge even larger. This paper presents a case study on a Health-IoT system where an intelligent healthcare service is developed to monitor vital signs in daily life. Here, a generic Health-IoT framework with a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) is presented. The generic framework is mainly focused on the supporting sensors, communication media, secure and safe data communication, cloud-based storage, and remote accesses of the data. The CDSS is used to provide a personalized report on persons’ health condition based on daily basis observation on vital signs. Six participants, from Spain (n=3) and Slovenia (n=3) have been using the proposed healthcare system for eight weeks (e.g. 300+ health measurements) in their home environments to monitor their health. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the DSS’s classification are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively while k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases are considered. The initial user evaluation result demonstrates the feasibility and performance of the implemented system through the proposed framework.

  • 103.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Banaee, Hadi
    Loutfi, Amy
    Rafael-Palou, Xavier
    Intelligent Healthcare Services to Support Health Monitoring of Elderly2014In: International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT, Rome, Italy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed an approach of intelligent healthcare services to support health monitoring of old people through the project named SAAPHO. Here, definition and architecture of the proposed healthcare services are presented considering six different health parameters such as: 1) physical activity, 2) blood pressure, 3) glucose, 4) medication compliance, 5) pulse monitoring and 6) weight monitoring. The outcome of the proposed services is evaluated in a case study where total 201 subjects from Spain and Slovenia are involved for user requirements analysis considering 1) end users, 2) clinicians, and 3) field study analysis perspectives. The result shows the potentiality and competence of the proposed healthcare services for the users.

  • 104.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Bibliometric Profiling of a Group: A Discussion on Different Indicators2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Now-a-days in some advanced countries bibliometric profiling plays a vital role when making decision on promotion, fund allocation and award prizes. Accurate identification of this is important since it is becoming important to assess scientific output for a researcher or a group of researcher. This paper presents and discusses several most common indicators of bibliometric profiling together with h- and g-indexes. A case study has been conducted on 101 scientific articles with three most well known search engines. The study results using several indicators are presented in this report.

  • 105.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Big Data Analytics in Health Monitoring at Home2017In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed a big data analytics approach applied in the projects ESS-H and E-care@home in the context of biomedical and health informatics with the advancement of information fusion, data abstraction, data mining, knowledge discovery, learning, and reasoning [1][2]. Data are collected through the projects, considering both the health parameters, e.g. temperature, bio-impedance, skin conductance, heart sound, blood pressure, pulse, respiration, weight, BMI, BFP, movement, activity, oxygen saturation, blood glucose, heart rate, medication compliance, ECG, EMG, and EEG, and the environmental parameters e.g. force/pressure, infrared (IR), light/luminosity, photoelectric, room-temperature, room-humidity, electrical usage, water usage, RFID localization and accelerometers. They are collected as semi-structured/unstructured, continuous/periodic, digital/paper record, single/multiple patients, once/several-times, etc. and stored in a central could server [5]. Thus, with the help of embedded system, digital technologies, wireless communication, Internet of Things (IoT) and smart sensors, massive quantities of data (so called ‘Big Data’) with value, volume, velocity, variety, veracity and variability are achieved [2]. The data analysis work in the following three steps. In Step1, pre-processing, future extraction and selection are performed based on a combination of statistical, machine learning and signal processing techniques. A novel strategy to fuse the data at feature level and as well as at data level considers a defined fusion mechanism [3]. In Step2, a combination of potential sequences in the learning and search procedure is investigated. Data mining and knowledge discovery, using the refined data from the above for rule extraction and knowledge mining, with support for anomaly detection, pattern recognition and regression are also explored here [4]. In Step3, adaptation of knowledge representation approaches is achieved by combining different artificial intelligence methods [3] [4]. To provide decision support a hybrid approach is applied utilizing different machine learning algorithms, e.g. case-based reasoning, and clustering [4]. The approach offers several data analytics tasks, e.g. information fusion, anomaly detection, rules and knowledge extraction, clustering, pattern identification, correlation analysis, linear regression, logic regression, decision trees, etc. Thus, the approach assist in decision support, early detection of symptoms, context awareness and patient’s health status in a personal environment.

  • 106.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Catalina, Carlos Alberto
    2ITCL Polígono Industrial Villalonquéjar c/López Bravo, 70. 09001 BURGOS, Spain.
    Limonad, Lior
    Smart Wearable and IoT Solutions, IBM Research, Haifa, Israil.
    Hök, Bertil
    Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Flumeri, Gianluca Di
    Cognitive States in Operative Environment, BrainSigns, Italy.
    Cloud-based Data Analytics on Human Factor Measurement to Improve Safer Transport2017In: 4th EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIOT'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving safer transport includes individual and collective behavioural aspects and their interaction. A system that can monitor and evaluate the human cognitive and physical capacities based on human factor measurement is often beneficial to improve safety in driving condition. However, analysis and evaluation of human factor measurement i.e. Demographics, Behavioural and Physiological in real-time is challenging. This paper presents a methodology for cloud-based data analysis, categorization and metrics correlation in real-time through a H2020 project called SimuSafe. Initial implementation of this methodology shows a step-by-step approach which can handle huge amount of data with variation and verity in the cloud.

  • 107.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Hybrid Case-Based System in Stress Diagnosis and Treatment2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-aided decision support systems play anincreasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and treatment.However, they are difficult to build for domains where thedomain theory is weak and where different experts differ indiagnosis. Stress diagnosis and treatment is an example of such adomain. This paper explores several artificial intelligencemethods and techniques and in particular case-based reasoning,textual information retrieval, rule-based reasoning, and fuzzylogic to enable a more reliable diagnosis and treatment of stress.The proposed hybrid case-based approach has been validated byimplementing a prototype in close collaboration with leadingexperts in stress diagnosis. The obtained sensitivity, specificityand overall accuracy compared to an expert are 92%, 86% and88% respectively.

  • 108.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Multi-Modal Case-Based System for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment in Stress Management2009In: / [ed] Delany, S.J., 2009, 215-224 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A difficult issue in stress management is to use biomedical sensor signal in the diagnosis and treatment of stress. Clinicians often base their diagnosis and decision on manual inspection of signals such as, ECG, heart rate, finger temperature etc. However, the complexity associated with the manual analysis and interpretation of the signals makes it difficult even for experienced clinicians. A computer system, classifying the sensor signals is one valuable property assisting a clinician. This paper presents a case-based system that assist a clinician in diagnosis and treatment of stress. The system uses a finger temperature sensor and the variation in the finger temperature is one of the key features in the system. Several artificial intelligence techniques such as textual information retrieval, rule-based reasoning, and fuzzy logic have been combined together with case-based reasoning to enable more reliable and efficient diagnosis and treatment of stress. The performance has been validated implementing a research prototype and close collaboration with the experts. The experimental results suggest that such a system is valuable both for the less experienced clinicians and for experts where the system may be seen as a second option.

  • 109.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    An Overview of three Medical Applications Using Hybrid Case-Based Reasoning2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today more and more patient journals are stored electronically but they are rarely used for more than statistical purpose. In this paper we present an approach where clinical patient journals are used for improved clinical decision making on an individual level. The underlying assumption is that medical staff benefit from comparing a specific patient with similar patient. By comparing symptoms, diagnosis, medication and outcome in an individual level they are able to make more informed decisions at the point of care. This paper presents some parts of our more than ten years research efforts in the area and some of the projects and their underlying hybrid approaches. As a foundation for all our projects we use case-based reasoning (CBR) research in combination with techniques from artificial intelligence, data mining, statistics and search techniques. Three systems are presented in two medical domains 1) decision support for stress diagnosis 2) decision support for stress treatment and 3) decision support for post-operative pain treatment and discuss results and lessons learned.

  • 110.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case studies on the clinical applications using case-based reasoning2012In: 2012 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, FedCSIS 2012, 2012, 3-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a promising Artificial Intelligence (AI) method that is applied for problem solving tasks. This approach is widely used in order to develop Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS). A CDSS for diagnosis and treatment often plays a vital role and brings essential benefits for clinicians. Such a CDSS could function as an expert for a less experienced clinician or as a second option/opinion of an experienced clinician to their decision making task. This paper presents the case studies on 3 clinical Decision Support Systems as an overview of CBR research and development. Two medical domains are used here for the case studies: case-study-1) CDSS for stress diagnosis case-study-2) CDSS for stress treatment and case-study-3) CDSS for postoperative pain treatment. The observation shows the current developments, future directions and pros and cons of the CBR approach. Moreover, the paper shares the experiences of developing 3CDSS in medical domain in terms of case study.

  • 111.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    System Overview on a Clinical Decision Support System for Stress Management2012In: Proceedings of the ICCBR 2012 Workshops, 2012, 111-116 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased need for Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) in the medical community as ICT technology is increasingly used in hospitals as more and more patient data is stored in computers. A CDSS has the potential to play a vital role and bring essential information and knowledge to the clinicians and function as a second opinion in their decision-making tasks. In this paper, a CDSS in stress management is presented where the CDSS can help the clinicians in order to diagnosis and treat stress related disorders. As a foundation for the CDSS, the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach has been used as a core method of the system. The systems also combine other techniques from artificial intelligence in a multimodal manner, such as fuzzy logic, rule-based reasoning and textual information retrieval. In this paper we review our experiences and research efforts while developing the CDSS. The performance of the CDSS shows that the system can be useful both for trainee clinicians as an expert and as well as for senior clinicians as a second option. Moreover, the observation shows the current developments, and pros and cons of the CBR approach.

  • 112.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The 3 CDSSs: An Overview and Application in Case-Based Reasoning2012In: The 27th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society (SAIS), Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, 25-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer-aided Clinical Decision SupportSystem (CDSS) for diagnosis and treatment often plays a vital role and brings essential benefits for clinicians. Such a CDSScould function as an expert for a less experienced clinician oras a second option/opinion of an experienced clinician to their decision making task. This paper presents 3 clinical DecisionSupport Systems as an overview of case-based reasoning (CBR) research and development. Two medical domains are used here for the case study 1) CDSS for stress diagnosis 2) CDSS for stress treatment and 3) CDSS for post-operative pain treatment.The observation shows the current developments, future direction and pros and cons of the CBR approach. Moreover,the paper shares the experiences of developing 3CDSS in medical domain.

  • 113.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    FUZZY RULE-BASED CLASSIFICATION TO BUILD INITIAL CASE LIBRARY FOR CASE-BASED STRESS DIAGNOSIS2009In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications, AIA 2009 / [ed] M.H. Hamza, 2009, 225-230 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is receiving increasedinterest for applications in medical decision support.Clinicians appreciate the fact that the system reasons withfull medical cases, symptoms, diagnosis, actions takenand outcomes. Also for experts it is often appreciated toget a second opinion. In the initial phase of a CBR systemthere are often a limited number of cases available whichreduces the performance of the system. If past cases aremissing or very sparse in some areas the accuracy isreduced. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-basedclassification scheme which is introduced into the CBRsystem to initiate the case library, providing improvedperformance in the stress diagnosis task. Theexperimental results showed that the CBR system usingthe enhanced case library can correctly classify 83% ofthe cases, whereas previously the correctness of theclassification was 61%. Consequently the proposedsystem has an improved performance with 22% in termsof accuracy. In terms of the discrepancy in classificationcompared to the expert, the goodness-of-fit value of thetest results is on average 87%. Thus by employing thefuzzy rule-based classification, the new hybrid system cangenerate artificial cases to enhance the case library.Furthermore, it can classify new problem cases previouslynot classified by the system.

  • 114.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Multi-Modal and Multi-Purpose Case-based Reasoning in the Health Sciences2009In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH WSEAS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING AND DATA BASES / [ed] Leon Trilling et al, Cambridge, UK: WSEAS press , 2009, 378-383 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case-based reasoning systems for medical application are increasingly multi-purpose systems and also multi-modal, using a variety of different methods and techniques to meet the challenges from the medical domain. It this paper, some of the recent medical case-based reasoning systems are classified according to their functionality and development properties. It shows how a particular multi-purpose and multi-modal case-based reasoning system solved these challenges. For this a medical case-based reasoning system in the domain of psychophysiology is used. 

  • 115.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Multi-Module Case Based Biofeedback System for Stress Treatment2011In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, ISSN 0933-3657, E-ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 51, no 2, 107-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofeedback is today a recognized treatment method for a number of physical and psychological problems. Experienced clinicians often achieve good results in these areas and their success largely builds on many years of experience and often thousands of treated patients. Unfortunately many of the areas where biofeedback is used are very complex, e.g. diagnosis and treatment of stress. Less experienced clinicians may even have difficulties to initially classify the patient correctly. Often there are only a few experts available to assist less experienced clinicians. To reduce this problem we propose a computer assisted biofeedback system helping in classification, parameter setting and biofeedback training. By adopting a case based approach in a computer-based biofeedback system, decision support can be offered to less experienced clinicians and provide a second opinion to experts. We explore how such a system may be designed and validate the approach in the area of stress where the system assists in the classification, parameter setting and finally in the training. In a case study we show that the case based biofeedback system outperforms novice clinicians based on a case library of cases authorized by an expert.

  • 116.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Three Phase Computer Assisted Biofeedback Training System Using Case-Based Reasoning2008In: Proc. 9th European Conference on Case-based Reasoning, 2008, 57-68 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofeedback is a method gaining increased interest and showing good results for a number of physical and psychological problems. Biofeedback training is mostly guided by an experienced clinician and the results largely rely on the clinician's competence. In this paper we propose a three phase computer assisted sensor-based biofeedback decision support system assisting less experienced clinicians, acting as second opinion for experienced clinicians. The three phase CBR framework is deployed to classify a patient, estimate initial parameters and to make recommendations for biofeedback training by retrieving and comparing with previous similar cases in terms of features extracted. The three phases work independently from each other. Moreover, fuzzy techniques are incorporated into our CBR system to better accommodate uncertainty in clinicians reasoning as well as decision analysis. All parts in the proposed framework have been implemented and primarily validated in a prototypical system. The initial result shows how the three phases functioned with CBR technique to assist biofeedback training. Eventually the system enables the clinicians to allow a patient to train himself/herself unsupervised.

  • 117.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity2008In: Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity, ISSN 1867-366X, Vol. 1, 3-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent analysis of heterogeneous data and information sources for efficient decision support presents an interesting yet challenging task in clinical envi-ronments. This is particularly the case in stress medicine where digital patient re-cords are becoming popular which contain not only lengthy time series measurements but also unstructured textual documents expressed in form of natural languages. This paper develops a hybrid case-based reasoning system for stress di-agnosis which is capable of coping with both numerical signals and textual data at the same time. The total case index consists of two sub-parts corresponding to signal and textual data respectively. For matching of cases on the signal aspect we present a fuzzy similarity matching metric to accommodate and tackle the imprecision and uncertainty in sensor measurements. Preliminary evaluations have revealed that this fuzzy matching algorithm leads to more accurate similarity estimates for improved case ranking and retrieval compared with traditional distance-based matching crite-ria. For evaluation of similarity on the textual dimension we propose an enhanced cosine matching function augmented with related domain knowledge. This is im-plemented by incorporating Wordnet and domain specific ontology into the textual case-based reasoning process for refining weights of terms according to available knowledge encoded therein. Such knowledge-based reasoning for matching of tex-tual cases has empirically shown its merit in improving both precision and recall of retrieved cases with our initial medical databases. Experts in the domain are very positive to our system and they deem that it will be a valuable tool to foster wide-spread experience reuse and transfer in the area of stress diagnosis and treatment.

  • 118.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity2008In: Transactions on Case-Based Reasoning on Multimedia Data, ISSN 1867-366X, Vol. 1, no 1, 3-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent analysis of heterogeneous data and information sources for efficient decision support presents an interesting yet challenging task in clinical environments. This is particularly the case in stress medicine where digital patient records are becoming popular which contain not only lengthy time series measurements but also unstructured textual documents expressed in form of natural languages. This paper develops a hybrid case-based reasoning system for stress diagnosis which is capable of coping with both numerical signals and textual data at the same time. The total case index consists of two sub-parts corresponding to signal and textual data respectively. For matching of cases on the signal aspect we present a fuzzy similarity matching metric to accommodate and tackle the imprecision and uncertainty in sensor measurements. Preliminary evaluations have revealed that this fuzzy matching algorithm leads to more accurate similarity estimates for improved case ranking and retrieval compared with traditional distance-based matching criteria. For evaluation of similarity on the textual dimension we propose an enhanced cosine matching function augmented with related domain knowledge. This is implemented by incorporating Wordnet and domain specific ontology into the textual case-based reasoning process for refining weights of terms according to available knowledge encoded therein. Such knowledge-based reasoning for matching of textual cases has empirically shown its merit in improving both precision and recall of retrieved cases with our initial medical databases. Experts in the domain are very positive to our system and they deem that it will be a valuable tool to foster widespread experience reuse and transfer in the area of stress diagnosis and treatment.

  • 119.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Intelligent Stress Management System2009In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, in our daily life we are subjected to a wide range of pressures. When the pressures exceed the extent that we are able to deal with then stress is trigged. High level of stress may cause serious health problems i.e. it reduces awareness of bodily symptoms. So, people may first notice it weeks or months later meanwhile the stress could cause more serious effect in the body and health. A difficult issue in stress management is to use biomedical sensor signals in the diagnosis and treatment of stress. This paper presents a case-based system that assists a clinician in diagnosis and treatment of stress. The system uses a finger temperature sensor and the variation in the finger temperature is one of the key features in the system. Several artificial intelligence techniques such as textual information retrieval, rule-based reasoning (RBR), and fuzzy logic have been combined together with case-based reasoning to enable more reliable and efficient diagnosis and treatment of stress. The performance has been validated implementing a research prototype and close collaboration with experts.

  • 120.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Islam, Mohd. Siblee
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Heart Rate and Inter-beat Interval Computation to Diagnose Stress2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem in diagnosing of stress is an important issue. The variations in beat-to-beat alteration in the heart rate (HR) can provide an identification of stress. HR can be determined from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. However, accurate detection of HR and inter-beat interval (IBI) values from the ECG waveform is important. This report presents a way of measuring the ECG signal together with the ECG component analysis such as QRS peak detection and HR calculation to use it in a computer-based stress diagnosis system.

  • 121.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Petrovic, Nikola
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Third Eye: An Intelligent Assisting Aid for Visual Impairment Elderly2016In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2016 MTF, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Visually impaired older persons need support in daily activities, e.g. moving around inside the house; making and eating food and taking medicine independently. A system that simulates the environment based on both dynamic and static objects, identify obstacles, navigates and translates sensory information in voice would be valuable to support their daily activities. Today several sensors and camera-based systems are popular as ambient-assisted living tools for older adults. However, intelligent assisting aid (IAA) to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment is limited. The proposed system ‘Third Eye’ focuses on the advanced research and development of an IAA to support older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. The main goal in this system is to provide a usable, feasible and cost-effective solution for older persons to support their daily activities using intelligent sensor based system. Method The system consists of the following five phases to meet several central challenges in developing IAA in such domain. • User-perspective, focuses on user-driven technical development, investigating needs of potential users. The study will have a participatory design with focus group interviews of lead users. • Sensor-based system, focuses on the identification obstacles based on ultrasounds and/or radio frequencies embedded in white-cane or weaker. • Camera-based system, focuses on image based information translation into voice embedded in white-cane or weaker or glasses. • System of systems, focuses on integration of above systems where knowledge is engineered and suitable representations are learned and reasoning for decisions are made [9]. • Experimental, focuses on usability and feasibility of the IAA, with idiographic and group studies Results The initial results have shown the necessity of the proposed AAI systems for older individuals with a recently acquired visual impairment. However, more extension work e.g., process and analyze the information and synthesize it with existing literature for developing the system is ongoing.

  • 122.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case-Based Reasoning for Medical and Industrial Decision Support Systems2010In: Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications, Springer, 2010, 7-52 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of medical and industrial experience and knowledge is rapidly growing and it is almost impossible to be up to date with everything. The demand of decision support system (DSS) is especially important in domains where experience and knowledge grow rapidly. However, traditional approaches to DSS are not always easy to adapt to a flow of new experience and knowledge and may also show a limitation in areas with a weak domain theory. This chapter explores the functionalities of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) to facilitate experience reuse both in clinical and in industrial decision making tasks. Examples from the field of stress medicine and condition monitoring in industrial robots are presented here to demonstrate that the same approach assists both for clinical applications as well as for decision support for engineers. In the both domains, DSS deals with sensor signal data and integrate other artificial intelligence techniques into the CBR system to enhance the performance in a number of different aspects. Textual information retrieval, Rule-based Reasoning (RBR), and fuzzy logic are combined together with CBR to offer decision support to clinicians for a more reliable and efficient management of stress. Agent technology and wavelet transformations are applied with CBR to diagnose audible faults on industrial robots and to package such a system. The performance of the CBR systems have been validated and have shown to be useful in solving such problems in both of these domains.

  • 123.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, ShahinaMälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.Raad, WasimKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Internet of Things Technologies for HealthCare: Third International Conference, HealthyIoT 2016, Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016, Revised Selected Papers2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for HealthCare, HealthyIoT 2016, held in Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016. The conference also included the First Workshop on Emerging eHealth through Internet of Things (EHIoT 2016). IoT as a set of existing and emerging technologies, notions and services provides many solutions to delivery of electronic healthcare, patient care, and medical data management. The 31 revised full papers presented along with 9 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions in total. The papers cover topics such as healthcare support for the elderly, real-time monitoring systems, security, safety and communication, smart homes and smart caring environments, intelligent data processing and predictive algorithms in e-Health, emerging eHealth IoT applications, signal processing and analysis, and smartphones as a healthy thing.

  • 124.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Overview on the Internet of Things for Health Monitoring Systems2015In: 2nd EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging population and the increasing healthcare cost in hospitals are spurring the advent of remote health monitoring systems. Advances in physiological sensing devices and the emergence of reliable low-power wireless network technologies have enabled the design of remote health monitoring systems. The next generation Internet, commonly referred to as Internet of Things (IoT), depicts a world populated by devices that are able to sense, process and react via the Internet. Thus, we envision health monitoring systems that support Internet connection and use this connectivity to enable better and more reliable services. This paper presents an overview on existing health monitoring systems, considering the IoT vision. We focus on recent trends and the development of health monitoring systems in terms of: (1) health parameters, (2) frameworks, (3) wireless communication, and (4) security issues. We also identify the main limitations, requirements and advantages within these systems.

  • 125.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Generic System-level Framework for Self-Serve Health Monitoring System through Internet of Things(IoT)2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, Vol. 211, 305-307 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor data are traveling from sensors to a remote server, data is analysed remotely in a distributed manner, and health status of a user is presented in real-time. This paper presents a generic system-level framework for a self-served health monitoring system through the Internet of Things (IoT) to facilities an efficient sensor data management.

  • 126.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2017In: 4th EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIOT'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home.

  • 127.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Case-Based Retrieval System for Post-Operative Pain Treatment2011In: / [ed] Petra Perner and Georg Rub, Germany: IBaI , 2011, 30-41 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a clinical decision support system based on case-basedretrieval approach to assist physicians in post-operative pain treatment. Here,the cases are formulated by combining regular features and features using anumerical visual analogue scale (NVAS) through a questionnaire. Featureabstraction is done both in problem and outcome description of a case in order toreduce the number of attributes. The system retrieves most similar cases with theiroutcomes. The outcome of each case brings benefits for physicians since it presentsboth severity and fast recovery by the applied treatment in post-operative patients.Therefore, we have introduced a two-layer case structure i.e., solution is the firstlayer and outcome is the second layer that better suits this medical application. Inthe system, the solution presents the treatment and the outcome contains recoveryinformation of a patient, something physicians are interested in, especially the riskof side effects and complications.

  • 128.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Computer Aided System for Post-operative Pain Treatment Combining Knowledge Discovery and Case-Based Reasoning2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7466, Springer, 2012, 3-16 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality improvement for individual postoperative-pain treatment is an important issue. This paper presents a computer aided system for physicians in their decision making tasks in post-operative pain treatment. Here, the system combines a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach with knowledge discovery. Knowledge discovery is applied in terms of clustering in order to identify the unusual cases. We applied a two layered case structure for case solutions i.e. the treatment is in the first layer and outcome after treatment (i.e. recovery of the patient) is in the second layer. Moreover, a 2nd order retrieval approach is applied in the CBR retrieval step in order to retrieve the most similar cases. The system enables physicians to make more informed decisions since they are able to explore similar both regular and rare cases of post-operative patients. The two layered case structure is moving the focus from diagnosis to outcome i.e. the recovery of the patient, something a physician is especially interested in, including the risk of complications and side effects.

  • 129.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mining Rare Cases in Post-Operative Pain by Means of Outlier Detection2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare cases are often interesting for healthprofessionals, physicians, researchers and clinicians in order toreuse and disseminate experiences in healthcare. However,mining, i.e. identification of rare cases in electronic patientrecords, is non-trivial for information technology. This paperinvestigates a number of well-known clustering algorithms andfinally applies a 2nd order clustering approach by combining theFuzzy C-means algorithm with the Hierarchical one. Theapproach is used in order to identify rare cases from 1572patient cases in the domain of post-operative pain management.The results show that the approach enables identification of rarecases in the domain of post-operative pain management and 18%of cases are identified as rare case.

  • 130.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mining Rare Cases in Post-Operative Pain by Means of Outlier Detection2011In: IEEE Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT) 2011, IEEE , 2011, 35-41 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare cases are often interesting for health professionals, physicians, researchers and clinicians in order to reuse and disseminate experiences in healthcare. However, mining, i.e. identification of rare cases in electronic patient records, is non-trivial for information technology. This paper investigates a number of well-known clustering algorithms and finally applies a 2 nd order clustering approach by combining the Fuzzy C-means algorithm with the Hierarchical one. The approach was used to identify rare cases from 1572 patient cases in the domain of post-operative pain treatment. The results show that the approach enables the identification of rare cases in the domain of post-operative pain treatment and 18% of cases were identified as rare

  • 131.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Healthcare Service at Home: An Intelligent Health Monitoring System for Elderly2015In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2015 MFT 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an intelligent healthcare service to support active ageing by assisting seniors to participate in regular monitoring of elderly’s health condition. The proposed system is applicable to use in home environment and offers a self-service approach to monitor elderly’s health condition. According to the evaluation, the proposed system shows its necessity, competence and usefulness.

  • 132.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Multi-parameter Sensing Platform in ESS-H and E-care@home2017In: Joint conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC) and the Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (NBC) EMBEC & NBC’17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the population of ageing, health monitoring of elderly at home have the possibility for a person to keep track on his/her health status, e.g. decreased mobility in a personal environment. This also shows the potential of real-time decision support, early detection of symptoms, following of health trends and context awareness [1]. The ongoing projects Embedded Sensor for Health (ESS-H)1 and E-care@home2 are focusing on health monitoring of elderly at home. This paper presents the implementation of multi-parameter sensing on an Android platform. The objectives are, both to follow health trends and to enabling real time monitoring.

  • 133.
    Ahvenlampi Svensson, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Exploring challenges in a verification process - when adapting production processes to new environmental requirements2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on the products and production processes within the manufacturing industry are continuously increasing according to environmental standards. The new requirements are coming from a growing awareness of what our planet can provide for example by the global challenge of climate change. The industry needs to reduce energy consumption and waste to meet the upcoming requirements.

    One of the processes with high environmental impact in a discrete manufacturing industry is the paint shop. Surface treatment is also of great importance to maintain a high quality product. In scientific literature, technological risk is one of the barriers in implementing environmental conscious manufacturing. Therefore the area of sustainable operations management needs building bridges with other functions and disciplines such as economics, strategies and behavioral sciences in order to manage the transitions. The supply of competence around paint shops today is usually provided by suppliers and other sources within the industry and to make the collaboration to work is essential. In this process of collaboration with external sources, substantial measurements are required to maintain the desirable quality. In order to ensure the competence of testing the quality eventuate when switching technology at a pre-treatment line, this report sets out to explore what the challenges to be taken into consideration are when to assure the product- and- process quality. To respond to this question, a multiple case study is conducted during spring 2016 where the phenomenon to study is the change process and the unit of analysis is the challenges that can be faced during the verification process. The case studied is automotive companies located in Sweden which are producing components for heavy duty vehicles. Data collection is performed by studying documents, participatory observations and semi-structured interviews. The results will give insights to academia on what challenges that are occurring during the verification process of implementing new and cleaner technologies. The conclusions are drawn upon the literature and the empirical results. The managerial implications are to increase the awareness of any potential barriers in the verification process in order to be prepared for managing the technological change process.

  • 134.
    Aisa, J.
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Villarroel, J. L.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Soft real-time traffic communication in loaded Wireless Mesh Networks2016In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, Article number 7496503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications have been shifting towards wireless multi-hop networks in recent years due to their lower cost of deployment and reconfiguration compared with their wired counterparts. These wireless networks usually must support real-time communication to meet the application requirements. For this reason, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are potential candidates for industrial applications as they support a fixed infrastructure of static nodes for relaying packets. To meet the application demands, we modify the wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro) to support soft real-time traffic in WMNs with chain topologies over IEEE 802.11. We employ tele-operation of mobile robots as our case study, and perform extensive simulation and laboratory experiments. We show that the data delivery ratio is increased up to 42% in a scenario with 7 nodes, when the maximum end-to-end delay tolerated by the application is doubled. This is particularly suited to soft real-time applications that can trade longer delays by higher reliability. Moreover, when compared with a distributed priority-based token-passing protocol (RT-WMP), the lower overhead of WICKPro allows, in an error-free scenario, obtaining a throughput improvement of 33.42% on average.

  • 135.
    Aisa, Jesus
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Villarroel, José Luis
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    DoTHa - A Double-threshold Hand-off Algorithm for Managing Mobility in Wireless Mesh Networks2016In: 21st IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'16, 2016, 7733511Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication will play an increasingly important role in future factory automation and process control, where the presence of mobile autonomous devices is expected to grow. However, wireless links are prone to errors due to shadowing and multi-path fading, which is even more severe in dynamic environments. These problems can be attenuated by using a mesh backbone to which mobile node connect to, using a hand-off algorithm. This solution is particularly important under real-time requirements typically found in factory automation. In this paper, we devise the Double-Threshold Hand-off (DoTHa) algorithm, a novel hand-off mechanism that triggers a hand-off in various environmental conditions. As a case study, we carry out the tele-operation of a mobile robot through a wireless mesh network in an indoor setting, using a wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro-SRT) that supports soft real-time traffic. We empirically compared DoTHa with two existing hand-off algorithms based on single and double hysteresis margin. The results revealed that DoTHa achieves Data Delivery Ratio (DDR) close to 100% whereas the single hysteresis-based hand-off suffers from frequent disconnections, dropping DDR to 88%. The double hysteresis-based hand-off shows higher ping-pong effect than DoTHa, doubling the number of hand-offs in some scenarios.

  • 136.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Human Robot Interaction Solutions for Intuitive Industrial Robot Programming2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased the efficiency as well as competitiveness of many companies. Despite this fact, in many cases, robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging. In addition, for most small and medium sized enterprises (SME) this process is associated with high costs. Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are likely to exceed installation costs by a large margin. Furthermore, traditional programming methods for industrial robots are too complex for an inexperienced robot programmer, thus assistance from a robot programming expert is often needed.  We hypothesize that in order to make industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by technicians or manufacturing engineers rather than robot programming experts. In this thesis we propose a high-level natural language framework for interacting with industrial robots through an instructional programming environment for the user.  The ultimate goal of this thesis is to bring robot programming to a stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague.In this thesis we mainly address two issues. The first issue is to make interaction with a robot easier and more natural through a multimodal framework. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high level commands. Interaction with simple voice commands and gestures enables the manufacturing engineer to focus on the task itself, rather than programming issues of the robot. This approach shifts the focus of industrial robot programming from the coordinate based programming paradigm, which currently dominates the field, to an object based programming scheme.The second issue addressed is a general framework for implementing multimodal interfaces. There have been numerous efforts to implement multimodal interfaces for computers and robots, but there is no general standard framework for developing them. The general framework proposed in this thesis is designed to perform natural language understanding, multimodal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline and includes a novel multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation.

  • 137.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Planning and Sequencing Through Multimodal Interaction for Robot Programming2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased the efficiency as well as the competitiveness of several sectors. Despite this fact, in many cases robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging. In addition, for most small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) this process is associated with high costs. Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are likely to exceed installation costs by a large margin. Furthermore, traditional programming methods of industrial robots are too complex for most technicians or manufacturing engineers, and thus assistance from a robot programming expert is often needed. The hypothesis is that in order to make the use of industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by technicians or manufacturing engineers rather than robot programming experts. In this thesis, a novel system for task-level programming is proposed. The user interacts with an industrial robot by giving instructions in a structured natural language and by selecting objects through an augmented reality interface. The proposed system consists of two parts: (i) a multimodal framework that provides a natural language interface for the user to interact in which the framework performs modality fusion and semantic analysis, (ii) a symbolic planner, POPStar, to create a time-efficient plan based on the user's instructions. The ultimate goal of this work in this thesis is to bring robot programming to a stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague.This thesis mainly addresses two issues. The first issue is a general framework for designing and developing multimodal interfaces. The general framework proposed in this thesis is designed to perform natural language understanding, multimodal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline. The framework also includes a novel multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation. Such a framework helps us to make interaction with a robot easier and more natural. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high-level commands. Interaction with simple voice commands and gestures enables the manufacturing engineer to focus on the task itself, rather than the programming issues of the robot. The second issue addressed is due to inherent characteristics of communication with the use of natural language; instructions given by a user are often vague and may require other actions to be taken before the conditions for applying the user's instructions are met. In order to solve this problem a symbolic planner, POPStar, based on a partial order planner (POP) is proposed. The system takes landmarks extracted from user instructions as input, and creates a sequence of actions to operate the robotic cell with minimal makespan. The proposed planner takes advantage of the partial order capabilities of POP to execute actions in parallel and employs a best-first search algorithm to seek the series of actions that lead to a minimal makespan. The proposed planner can also handle robots with multiple grippers, parallel machines as well as scheduling for multiple product types.

  • 138.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ameri E., Afsh
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Creation of Robot Programs Through User InteractionArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel system for task-level programming of industrial robots. The user interacts with an industrial robot by giving instructions in a structured natural language and by selecting objects through an augmented reality interface. The proposed system consists of two parts. First, a multimodal framework that provides a natural language interface to the user. This framework performs modality fusion, semantic analysis and helps the user to interact with the system easier and more naturally. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high-level commands. The second component is the POPStar planner, which is based on partial order planner (POP), that takes landmarks extracted from user instructions as input, and creates a sequence of actions to operate the robotic cell with minimal makespan. The proposed planner takes advantage of partial order capabilities of POP to plan execution of actions in parallel and employs a best-first search algorithm to seek a series of actions that lead to a minimal makespan. The proposed planner can as well handle robots with multiple grippers, and  parallel machines. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which are processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the proposed system can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production based on the user's instructions.

  • 139.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling for Multiple Type Objects Using POPStar Planner2014In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'14), Barcelona, Spain, September, 2014, 2014, Article number 7005148- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, scheduling of robot cells that produce multiple object types in low volumes are considered. The challenge is to maximize the number of objects produced in a given time window as well as to adopt the  schedule for changing object types. Proposed algorithm, POPStar, is based on a partial order planner which is guided by best-first search algorithm and landmarks. The best-first search, uses heuristics to help the planner to create complete plans while minimizing the makespan. The algorithm takes landmarks, which are extracted from user's instructions given in structured English as input. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which will be processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the POPStar algorithm can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production.

  • 140.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Augmented Reality-based Industrial Robot Control2011In: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2011 / [ed] Larsson, Thomas ; Kjelldahl, Lars ; Jää-Aro, Kai-Mikael, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, 113-114 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the interfaces which are designed to control or program industrial robots are complex and require special training for the user. This complexity alongside the changing environment of small medium enterprises (SMEs) has lead to absence of robots from SMEs. The costs of (re)programming the robots and (re)training the robot users exceed initial costs of installation. In order to solve this shortcoming, we propose a new interface which uses augmented reality (AR) and multimodal human-robot interaction. We show that such an approach allows easier manipulation of robots at industrial environments.

  • 141.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Intuitive Industrial Robot Programming Through Incremental Multimodal Language and Augmented Reality2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conferance on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011), IEEE , 2011, 3934-3939 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs exceed installation costs by a large margin. In addition, traditional programming methods for industrial robots is too complex for an inexperienced robot programmer, thus external assistance is often needed. In this paper a new incremental multimodal language, which uses augmented reality (AR) environment, is presented. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place the objects in the scene. This approach shifts the focus of industrial robot programming from coordinate based programming paradigm, to object based programming scheme. This makes it possible for non-experts to program the robot in an intuitive way, without going through rigorous training in robot programming.

  • 142.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Interacting with industrial robots through a multi-modal language and sensory systems2008In: 39th International Sysmposium on Robotics, Seoul, Korea, 2008, 66-69 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased a company's efficiency as well as strengthening their competitiveness in the market.

    Despite this fact, in many cases, robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging as well as costly by small and medium sized enterprises (SME). We hypothesize that in order to make industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by task experts rather than robot programming experts. Within this project we propose to develop a high level language for intelligent human robot interaction that relies on multi-sensor inputs providing an abstract instructional programming environment for the user. Eventually to bring robot programming to stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague

  • 143.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling POP-Star for Automatic Creation of Robot Cell Programs2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical pick and place, and machine tending applications often require an industrial robot to be embedded in a cell and to communicate with other devices in the cell. Programming the program logic is a tedious job, requiring expert programming knowledge, and it can take more time than programming the specific robot movements itself. We propose a new system, which takes in the description of the whole manufacturing process in natural language as input, fills in the implicit actions, and plans the sequence of actions to accomplish the task described in minimal makespan using a modified partial planning algorithm. Finally we demonstrate that the proposed system can come up with a sensible plan for the given instructions.

  • 144.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Object selection using a spatial language for flexible assembly2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Object Selection using a Spatial Language for Flexible Assembly2009In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2009. (ETFA 2009), Mallorca, Spain, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new simplified natural language that makes use of spatial relations between the objects in scene to navigate an industrial robot for simple pick and place applications. Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are far higher than installation costs. In order to hide the complexities of robot programming we propose a natural language where the use can control and jog the robot based on reference objects in the scene. We used Gaussian kernels to represent spatial regions, such as left or above. Finally we present some dialogues between the user and robot to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system.

  • 146.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Towards Robust Human Robot Collaboration in Industrial Environments2010In: 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2010, 2010, 71-72 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a system, which is driven through natural language, that allows operators to select and manipulate objects in the environment using an industrial robot is proposed. In order to hide the complexities of robot programming we propose a natural language where the user can control and jog the robot based on reference objects in the scene. We used semantic networks to relate different types of objects in the scene

  • 147.
    Akgüre, Elanur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dabiri, Shiva
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Miljövänligare inflygningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Detta examensarbete handlar om miljövänligare inflygningar. Gröna- och kurvade inflygningar gör flyget mer miljövänligt. Det är ett effektivt sätt att minska flygets miljöpåverkan. Varje grön- och kurvad inflygning innebär minskad bränsleförbrukning, utsläpp samt betydligt lägre buller vid landning.

     Vid en grön inflygning, sjunker flygplanet kontinuerligt från sin marschhöjd till landningsbanan med motorerna på tomgång. En kurvad inflygning är en kombination av grön inflygning och kurvad inflygning. Med en kurvad inflygning kan man välja en väg där man inte flyger över bostadsområde. På så sätt blir det inga köbildningar i luften innan landningen. Vid kurvade inflygningar blir miljövinster större än med vanliga gröna inflygningar.

    För att ett flygplan skall kunna genomföra en grön inflygning krävs att det är utrustad med FMS (Flight Management System). Det är utrustning för navigering som bestämmer flygplants position genom att integrera navigationsuppgifter från en eller flera positionsgivare med information från flygplants fartmätar- och höjdmätarsystem.

    Flygvägar som SID och STAR skapar flygsäkerhet och ordning i luftrummet. SID är flygvägar för angående trafik och STAR är flygvägar för ankommande trafik. Syftet med P-RNAV STAR är att ett flygplan med navigeringsutrustning ska kunna programmera in färdvägen i sin FMS och på så sätt genomförs en optimal inflygning med låga koldioxidutsläpp.

    Gröna inflygningar har visat kunnat spara 100-150 kilo bränsle och 314-474 kilo koldioxidutsläpp vid varje miljövänlig inflygning beroende på flygplansmodell.

  • 148.
    Aksit, Kaan
    et al.
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Kade, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Özcan, Oguzhan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Ürey, Hakan
    Koç University, Turkey.
    Head-worn Mixed Reality Projection Display Application2014In: ACM International Conference Proceedings Series (ICPS), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this research is to develop a mixed real- ity (MR) application to support motion capture actors. This application allows seeing and exploring a digital environment without occluding the actor’s visual field. A prototype is built by combining a retro-reflective screen covering surrounding walls and a headband consisting of a laser scanning projector with a smartphone. Built-in sensors of a smartphone provide navigation capabilities in the digital world. The integrated system has some unique advantages, which are collectively demonstrated for the first time: (i) providing fixed field-of- view (50o in diagonal), fixed retinal images at full-resolution, and distortion-free images that are independent of the screen distance and shape; (ii) presenting different perspectives to the users as they move around or tilt their heads, (iii) allow- ing a focus-free and calibration-free display even on non-flat surfaces using laser scanning technology, (iv) enabling mul- tiple users to share the same screen without crosstalk due to the use of retro-reflectors, and (v) producing high brightness pictures with a projector of only 15 lm; due to a high-gain retro-reflective screen. We demonstrated a lightweight, com- fortable to wear and low cost head-mounted projection dis- play (HMPD) which acts as a stand-a-lone mobile system. Initial informal functionality tests have been successfully per- formed. The prototype can also be used as a 3D stereo system using the same hardware by additionally mounting polarized glasses and an active polarization rotator, while maintaining all of the advantages listed above. 

  • 149.
    Al, Goran
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Boge, Kasper
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Metod för att säkra innehållet i Scania lastbilars underhållsprogram: Tillämpning av MSG-3 processen från flygindustrin2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 150.
    Al Hamrani, Emad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Al-Dulaimi, Anmar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Framtida installationskrav på Electronic Flight Bags (EFB): Med hänsyn till litiumbatterier2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project studies the future regulations for the installation of electronic flight bags (EFB) with focus on the hardware and its safety implications in which the task was given by Bromma Air Maintenance (BAM). The aim is to ease the operator to handle issues dealing with EFB; such as lithium battery fire in the cockpit, placement of EFB in the cockpit, etc. This also addresses flight safety, flight controls, emergency evacuation and solutions in dealing with such issues. Flight safely is a vital factor to be considered since it jeopardizes lives. As recent reports indicate an increase in lithium battery powered devices incidents on aircrafts, this paves the way to find new solutions and procedures to mitigate them. By studying the current regulations, Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC), Advisory Circular (AC) regarding the usage/installation of EFB and future regulation draft (NPA) this study analyzed the changes, which indicated that there were not many significant changes made to the future regulation (new AMC). Although many chapter of the current AMC have been removed and introduced into a new section under AMC & GM (Guidance Material). Different placement of the EFB in cockpit has also been studied in this degree project, which has shown that depending on the placement choice of the aircraft operator there are advantages and disadvantages. This follows by studying the lithium (Li-ion) batteries: technology, mitigation of fire and procedures for lithium battery fire while also studying the recent incidents regarding lithium batteries fire and explosion in commercial and cargo flights. The solutions consist of using the latest technology to propose a new approach to charge the batteries, and store the burning batteries as well. This lead to a smart inductive charger and a smart fire contamination bag to be integrated into the procedures.

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