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  • 1. Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Diaz-Olivazrez, Jose A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    Teriö, Heikki
    Mediavilla Martinez, Cesar
    Aso, Santiago
    Tiemann, Christian
    Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017Inngår i: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    —Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

  • 2.
    Adawi, Rahim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

  • 3.
    Bergstrand, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Styckares arbetsmiljö: En studie om knivskärpa, olika knivstålskvaliteter, arbetssätt, samt fysisk ansträngning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Styckare inom köttbranschen i Sverige ligger sedan länge i toppen av statistiken i Sverige, när det gäller yrken med de högsta relativa frekvenserna av anmälda arbetssjukdomar orsakade av belastningsfaktorer. Kniven är styckarens viktigaste verktyg och om den är slö ökar den fysiska belastningen med ökad risk för både belastningsskador och olycksfall. I denna studie på magisternivå var syftet att undersöka sambanden mellan knivens skärpa, knivens stålkvalitet, effekten av individens arbetssätt samt den fysiska ansträngningen vid styckning av nötkött. 12 personer vid två olika företag deltog i studien, under normalt arbete med styckning vid enkelbord under tre arbetsdagar. Tre olika knivstålskvaliteter utvärderades. Mätning av knivskärpa skedde med mätapparat Anago, samt med subjektiva skattningar enligt visuell analog skala (VAS). Tiden som kniven användes innan byte användes också som ett mått på hur länge skärpan kunde bibehållas. Ansträngningen hos styckarna undersöktes med mätning av hjärtfrekvensen under arbete, samt med skattning av ansträngning i händer och armar enligt VAS. Slutligen mättes eventuellt obehag/besvär före och under arbete med skattning enligt VAS.

     

    Det tycks som om det knivstål som var hårdare och inte finns på marknaden fungerade sämst, medan de övriga två var likvärdiga. Det finns indikationer på att det hårdare knivstålet påverkar andra egenskaper negativt, framförallt känslan av knivens följsamhet.

    Det föreligger en signifikant skillnad mellan olika individer i förmågan att bibehålla knivskärpa över tid, och de med obehag/besvär byter kniv oftare. Ytterligare studier krävs för att klargöra vad skillnaderna beror på, men sannolikt har både styckarens arbetsteknik, och företagets och individens rutiner för knivvård betydelse. Förbättrad utbildning inom dessa områden rekommenderas. Utvärderingen av knivtid indikerar att en styckare behöver 5-6 knivar per dag för att säkerställa att arbetet sker med vass kniv hela tiden.

    Det finns ett samband mellan dålig knivskärpa och lokal ansträngningskänsla i händer och armar. Något samband mellan knivskärpan och central ansträngning kunde dock inte påvisas i denna studie. Pulsvärdena visade att arbete som styckare innebär en hög belastning på andnings- och cirkulationsapparaten, och att de löper en stor risk att överskrida det rekommenderade gränsvärdet för energetisk belastning. Större undersökningsmaterial krävs dock för att dra säkrare slutsatser angående detta.

  • 4.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Ramsey Health, Hollywood Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 398-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ahlstrom, Linda
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Forsman, Mikael
    Lindegård, Agneta
    Ahlstrand, Chris
    Kadefors, Roland
    Hagberg, Mats
    Myofeedback training and intensive muscular strength training to improve work ability and decrease pain among female workers on long term sick leave with neck pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial2011Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 335-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical framework is that muscle tension in the neck is related to insufficient muscular rest and is a risk factor for chronic pain and reduced work ability. Promoting muscle strength and muscle rest may increase work ability and reduce neck pain. To test whether myofeedback training or intensive strength training leads to decreased pain and increased work ability in women on long-term sick leave. This is a randomized controlled trial of two 1-month interventions with myofeedback or muscular strength training in the home environment. Female human service organization workers (n = 60) on long-term (> 60 days) sick leave and with chronic neck pain were followed with self-reported and laboratory-observed data of health, pain, muscular activation, and work ability, at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 3 months after baseline. For both intervention groups, pain was lowered over time compared with the control group. Decreased pain and muscular activity was associated with increased self-rated work ability and with laboratory-observed work ability at 3-month follow-up. Decreased pain was also associated with increased self-rated work ability at 1-month follow-up. Muscular strength training was associated with increased self-rated work ability and mental health. Myofeedback was associated with increased observed work ability and self- rated vitality. The two interventions showed positive results, suggesting that they could be developed for use in health care practice to address pain and work ability. The intensive muscular strength training program, which is both easy to conduct at home and easy to coach, was associated with increased work ability.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings tekniska högskola.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Styckarnas arbetssituation: Ett interaktivt forskningprogram för branschstöd och utveckling av åtgärder (Star). dnr 0800142012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Industriell produktion.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Ergonomi (Stängd 20130701).
    Styckarnas arbetssituation: Ett interaktivt forskningprogram för branschstöd och utveckling av åtgärder (Star). dnr 0800142012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Gatzounis, Rena
    et al.
    Research Group Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Research Group Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Crombez, Geert
    Department of Experimental-Clinical & Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Department of Experimental-Clinical & Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.
    S. Vlaeyen, Johan W.
    Research Group Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Research Group Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Belgium.
    A break from pain! Interruption management in the context of pain2018Inngår i: Pain management, ISSN 1758-1869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity interruptions, namely temporary suspensions of an ongoing task with the intention to resume it later, are common in pain. First, pain is a threat signal that urges us to interrupt ongoing activities in order to manage the pain and its cause. Second, activity interruptions are used in chronic pain management. However, activity interruptions by pain may carry costs for activity performance. These costs have recently started to be systematically investigated. We review the evidence on the consequences of activity interruptions by pain for the performance of the interrupted activity. Further, inspired by literature on interruptions from other research fields, we suggest ways to improve interruption management in the field of pain, and provide a future research agenda.

  • 9.
    Hult, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Munguia Chang, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Smartphone Acquisition and Online Visualization of IMU and EMG Sensor Data for Assessment of Wrist Load2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders constitutes a substantial burden for society, generating individual suffering and financial costs. Quantifying the musculoskeletal stress and establishing exposure-response relationships is an important step in facing this problem.

    Observational methods for assessing exposure in the field of ergonomics have shown poor results, and the technical measurement methods that exists are often complicated to use which limits their scope to scientific purposes.

    This work describes the development of a prototype measurement system aimed to simplify ambulatory measurements of musculoskeletal load, specifically aimed at the wrist and hand. Wearable sensors including Inertial Measurement Units (IMU:s) and Electromyography (EMG) were connected to a smartphone and used for measuring wrist movement and forearm muscle activity. Data sampled in the smartphone was stored online in a cloud database, and a webapplication was developed to visualize work-load exposure.

    Testing under controlled conditions indicated that muscular rest can be measured and classified according to suggested risk thresholds. Accurate angular measurements were difficult to implement because of lacking inter-sensor alignment in the horizontal plane, as well as uncertainties in the Bluetooth protocol.

    Future work should focus on the IMU:s and look to further develop a method of correcting the relative angle error, as well as investigating accurate time synchronization of the two sensors.Alternatively, deriving angular velocities directly from the IMU gyroscopes could be investigated.

  • 10.
    Hyppönen, Hannele
    et al.
    Information Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ammenwerth, Elske
    University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT), Hall in Tyrol, Austr i a.
    Nøhr, Christian
    Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Faxvaag, Arild
    Norwegian Research Centre for Electronic Patient Records, Trondheim, Norway.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    eHealth indicators: results of an expert workshop2012Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 180: Quality of Life through Quality of Information, I O S Press , 2012, s. 328-332Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence in management of eHealth systems.

  • 11.
    Hägg, Göran M
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    McGorry, Raymond
    Knife force differences when cutting meat at different temperatures2012Inngår i: NES2012: Ergonomics for Sustainability and Growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Kjerstin Vogel, Göran M Hägg, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Meat cutters in abattoirs is a group with high risks for musculoskeletal disorders. A major reason for this is that they exert high hand forces over a great part of the day when cutting meat. Though meat is refrigerated due to hygienic demands, meat temperature can vary. Meat cutters have claimed that knife forces increase with lower temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat.

    Method

    To be able to do cuts in meat under controlled conditions while measuring cutting forces, a machine, Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer, was used. The machine normally runs a knife at constant speed through a standardized textile ribbon while the force exerted on the ribbon is recorded over time. For this investigation, the ribbon was replaced by a wooden fixture with a 10 mm wide slot where the knife could pass and where meat samples could be fixed.Meat obtained from hind loin and fat tissue of pork was cut into 5 cm long, 4 cm wide and 2 cm thick samples. The meat fibre orientation was aligned with the long axis of the sample. When fixated in the fixture and the machine was started, the knife made a 4 cm long cut through 2 cm thick meat or fat.One hundred and forty four samples of meat and as many of fat were collected and put overnight in one of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12 °C, 48 in each. Well sharpened standard knifes were used for the tests. The knife was changed after 24 cuts. During the procedure samples were taken directly from the refrigerator and put into the fixture and tested immediately. The sample order was generally 2, 7, 12 °C to avoid systematic effects of a gradually blunter knife.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in knife forces at the three meat temperatures. The forces for fat were in average about three times higher than the meat forces. There was no significant difference between forces in fat at 7 and 12 °C. However there was a strongly significant difference between these two groups and the 2 °C fat group. The force was about 30% higher compared to the forces at 7 and 12 °C in fat.

    Conclusion

    In the range 2-12 °C there are no differences in meat. For fat there are no differences in the range 7-12 °C while the force increases about 30% when going from 7 to 2 °C.

  • 12.
    Hägg, Göran M
    et al.
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Industriell produktion.
    McGorry, Raymond
    Knife force differences when cutting meat at different temperatures2012Inngår i: NES2012: Ergonomics for Sustainability and Growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Kjerstin Vogel, Göran M Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Meat cutters in abattoirs is a group with high risks for musculoskeletal disorders. A major reason for this is that they exert high hand forces over a great part of the day when cutting meat. Though meat is refrigerated due to hygienic demands, meat temperature can vary. Meat cutters have claimed that knife forces increase with lower temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat.

    Method

    To be able to do cuts in meat under controlled conditions while measuring cutting forces, a machine, Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer, was used. The machine normally runs a knife at constant speed through a standardized textile ribbon while the force exerted on the ribbon is recorded over time. For this investigation, the ribbon was replaced by a wooden fixture with a 10 mm wide slot where the knife could pass and where meat samples could be fixed.Meat obtained from hind loin and fat tissue of pork was cut into 5 cm long, 4 cm wide and 2 cm thick samples. The meat fibre orientation was aligned with the long axis of the sample. When fixated in the fixture and the machine was started, the knife made a 4 cm long cut through 2 cm thick meat or fat.One hundred and forty four samples of meat and as many of fat were collected and put overnight in one of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12 °C, 48 in each. Well sharpened standard knifes were used for the tests. The knife was changed after 24 cuts. During the procedure samples were taken directly from the refrigerator and put into the fixture and tested immediately. The sample order was generally 2, 7, 12 °C to avoid systematic effects of a gradually blunter knife.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in knife forces at the three meat temperatures. The forces for fat were in average about three times higher than the meat forces. There was no significant difference between forces in fat at 7 and 12 °C. However there was a strongly significant difference between these two groups and the 2 °C fat group. The force was about 30% higher compared to the forces at 7 and 12 °C in fat.

    Conclusion

    In the range 2-12 °C there are no differences in meat. For fat there are no differences in the range 7-12 °C while the force increases about 30% when going from 7 to 2 °C.

  • 13. Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Wahlstrom, Jens
    Liv, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Gävleborg.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Digging deeper into the assessment of upper arm elevation angles using 0 Cross Mark standard inclinometry2015Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, s. 102-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Jaldestad, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Hansson, Ingrid
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Chefsutbildning i Psykosocial Arbetsmiljörond: Utvärdering av en utbildningsinsats inom primär stressprevention2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Stress Prevention Project var ett pilotprojekt som pågick inom ett stort multinationellt högteknologiskt företag under åren 2012-2014. Syftet med projektet var att kartlägga rotorsakerna till medarbetarnas upplevda stress och att ta fram ett arbetssätt för att förebygga dessa rotorsaker. När pilotprojektet var avslutat togs beslut om att interventionen skulle implementeras i hela organisationen. Som inledning till interventionsprocessen kallades samtliga chefer och HR-personal till en utbildning i psykosocial arbetsmiljörond. Utbildningen innefattade dels en introduktion till psykosociala faktorer i arbetsmiljön och hur dessa kan påverka medarbetarna, dels en genomgång av den enkät som används för att kartlägga den psykosociala arbetsmiljön och hur dess resultat ska tolkas.

    Syfte: Syftet med den aktuella studien är att utvärdera det inledande utbildningstillfället, att utvärdera om det är disponerat på ett relevant sätt och vad dess innehåll tillför själva interventionsprocessen.

    Avgränsningar: Författarna har endast utvärderat det inledande utbildningstillfället som är en del av den större interventionen. 

    Metod: Studien var en kvalitativ intervjustudie med tolkande och reflekterande ansats. Intervjuerna genomfördes i fokusgrupper om 2-4 deltagare. I undantagsfall genomfördes enskilda intervjuer, detta på grund av att det inte gick att samla alla chefer då deras scheman i övrigt var fullbokade. Ett urval av chefer från tre olika utbildningsomgångar och avdelningar tillfrågades om deltagande. Deltagandet var frivilligt och all information behandlades konfidentiellt.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att utbildare och deltagare i stor utsträckning hade samma bild av vad utbildningen hade för mål och syfte samt att dessa uppfylldes med undantag av en målsättning. Trots genomgången utbildningen upplever flera deltagare att de fortfarande är dåligt rustade för att ta sig an arbetet med att förändra den psykosociala arbetsmiljön i sina respektive arbetsgrupper. De är dock nöjda med att utbildningen inleder interventionsprocessen och anser att den är viktig för interventionens kvalitet. De önskar även någon form av uppföljning av utbildningstillfället.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Svensson, Mats Y
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Seat adjustment: capacity and repeatability among occupants in a modern car2008Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 232-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and seat rear edge adjustment, related to participant age, sex, stature and weight. Length adjustment has the best intrapersonal repeatability within two repetitions, 49 mm and ICC-value 0.87. Females and younger participants (age < 40 years) adjust seats generally more accurately. Females adjust the seat 41 mm more forward, 120 mm compared to men 79 mm counted from 0-starting position. Females sit with more upright seat backrests, 46 degree compared to 43 degrees for males counted from 0-starting position. Females sit higher than males in both the frontal and rear part of the seat cushion.

  • 16.
    Kaladjev, Stojan
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för musikpedagogisk forskning (MPC).
    Ergonomi i musikutbildningen: ergonomiska och kognitiva aspekter på instrumentalspel2000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Knödler, Stephanie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen Designhögskolan.
    eQu riding therapy saddle: focused on children with cerebral palsy2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There doesn´t exist yet a saddle which is mainly designed for therapeutic riding. What the therapist do nowadays is, that they use either normal saddles and add different devices with screws on, or they use a vaulting girth. Both of them are not the ideal solution and a saddle designed for therapeutic riding is needed. The goals were, to design a saddle where the child sits safer on the horse and the exercises can be done smooth, the therapist should have a stressfree job and the horse should feel comfortable through the entire therapy session.

  • 18. Lindström, Fredric
    et al.
    Ren, Keni
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Comparison of two methods of voice activity detection in field studies2009Inngår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 1658-1663Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the performance of 2 methods of voice activity detection (neck-attached accelerometer vs. binaural recordings) in field studies in environments where voice activity normally occurs.

    Method: A group of 11 healthy adults wore recording equipment during their lunch break. We used binary classification to analyze the results from the 2 methods. The output was compared to a gold standard, obtained through listening tests, and the probability for sensitivity (Ps) and false positive (Pf) was rated. The binary classifiers were set for consistent sensitivity of 99%; thus, the lower false positive rate would indicate the method with the better performance.

    Results: The neck-attached accelerometer (Pf = 0.5%) performed significantly (p < .001) better than the binaural method (Pf = 7%).

    Conclusion: The neck-attached accelerometer is more suitable than the binaural method for voice assessments in environments where people are speaking in close proximity to each other and where the signal-to-noise ratio is moderate to low.

  • 19. Milosavljevic, Stephan
    et al.
    Bergman, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Carman, Allan B
    All-terrain vehicle use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock2010Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 530-535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value (VDV). The daily VDV of 16.6m/s(1.75) was in excess of the 9.1m/s(1.75) action limit set by ISO guidelines suggesting an increased risk of low back injury from such exposure. However, the mean shock factor R, representing cumulative adverse health effects, was 0.31 indicating that these farmers were not exposed to excessive doses of mechanical shock. Extrapolation of daily VDV data to estimated seasonal variations of farmers in ATV riding time demonstrated that all participants would exceed the ISO recommended maximum permissible limits during the spring lambing season, as compared to lower exposures calculated for summer, autumn and winter. Low back pain was the most commonly reported complaint for both 7 day (50%) and 12 month prevalence (67%), followed by the neck (17% and 42%) and the upper back (17% and 25%) respectively. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure within New Zealand farmers and practical recommendations are needed to reduce their exposure to WBV.

  • 20.
    Niemand, Ponthus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Saladdin, Aya
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Management of ergonomic aspects in early design phases using virtual reality: Mapping of ergonomic aspects in early design phases, How would mordern technology like VR be used?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Volvo Group är ett av världens ledande tillverkare av bland annat lastbilar, bussar, entreprenadmaskiner och motorer för marina och industriella applikationer. Volvo Group äger totalt 10 olika märken, dessa är: Volvo Trucks, UD Trucks, Renault Trucks, Mack Trucks, Group Trucks Asia & JVs, Volvo Construction Equipment, Volvo Bus, Volvo Penta, Volvo Financial Services och Governmental Sales. Initiativet till projektet togs av Metod och Processutvecklings avdelningen på Volvo Group Trucks Operations (GTO), som är den delen av Volvo Group som utför själva sammansättningen av lastbilar.

    Volvo GTO finns i flertal olika länder världen över vilket leder till att arbetsprocesserna kan skilja mellan länderna. För att kunna standardisera ett arbetssätt där konstruktören (komponent ägaren) tillsammans med geometri arkitekten kan göra en första ergonomisk analys på den berörda komponenten. För att detta ska vara möjligt så tog projektet fram en handbok på hur man som komponentägare skall gå tillväga för att få en så bra och korrekt analys som möjligt.

    I denna kandidatarbete tas det upp förslag på hur VR hade kunnat hjälpa till ett utvärderingsverktyg redan i konstruktionsstadiet när en ny produkt/komponent ska tas fram eller om det ska göras förbättringar på en befintlig komponent. Kandidatarbetet har valt att fokusera mest på hur konstruktören och geometri arkitekten ska kunna utvärdera de ergonomiska aspekterna med VR som hjälp.

    Projektet har undersökt två user case varav ett av dem presenteras i denna rapport. Detta gäller monteringen av värmeskydd. Anledningen till att just denna montering valdes är på grund av dess dåliga ergonomi och åtkomlighet. Projektet valde att göra både en RULA-analys och PLIBEL-analys. RULA-analysen gav hög totalpoäng, 7 av 7 medan PLIBEL endast är en analys på arbetsplatsen vilket gav ett bra underlag för fortsatt arbete.

    Studien visade att VR är ett väldigt bra hjälpmedel vid analys av ergonomiska aspekter i tidig design fas. Det ger relevanta resultat och har potential för besparingar i resurser och kostnader inom utvecklingsprocessen.

    För att förbättra kandidatarbetes resultat har det gjorts besök på ESI-Group som har gått in med stöttning i form av VR utrustning och workshop. Detta gav projektmedlemmarna en inblick på möjligheterna man har med VR.

  • 21.
    Persson, Lukas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Norén, Johan
    HållRätt: -Hjälp dig hjälpa dig själv Utveckling av ett hållningshjälpmedel för vardagligt bruk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Society is becoming increasingly digitalized and we spend more and more of awake hours infront electronics, both at home and at work. Our bodies, made for being resilient hunters, are not suited for sitting still an entire day. The static work exhausts the muscles and makes it hard to maintain a correct posture throughout the day, enough time in static positions may result in both interior and exterior damages to the body. The main purposes with the project is to increase the awareness of what horrible consequences that may occur when the body is being exposed to an unhealthy posture, also develop a prototype for a product that will guide the user on the road of getting a better default posture.The product we have developed is primarily aimed at companies, which it will be able to offer their employees a better shot at a healthier life, which will result in reduced number of sick leaves for the companies. We, Johan Norén and Lukas Persson, has in our thesis, HållRätt, developed a prototype for a product that will assist you by encouraging you to improve your posture reduce your chances of getting unwanted injuries. The product is a wearable accessory that will be undetectable by your surroundings, unless you choose to wear over your clothes. The product will be a combination of a helper and personal trainer who will guide the user on the way to a better posture and thus better health and a fuller life.

  • 22.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, nr 11, s. 1696-1710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 23.
    Salomonsson, Angelica
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS), Biomekanik och biomedicin.
    Utveckling av medicintekniskt instrument för mätning av muskelstyrka2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete inom biomekanik var ett produktutvecklingsprojekt av ett medicintekniskt instrument för mätning av statisk muskelstyrka i lårmuskulaturen (quadriceps). Instrumentet utvecklades med utgångspunkt från instrumentet Stig Starke som blivit föråldrat och förfallet. Stig Starke nyttjas främst av sjukgymnaster på Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset med syfte att exempelvis utvärdera effekter av sjukgymnastisk behandling. Behovet av en ny version av instrumentet är stort både inom kliniskt arbete och inom forskning. En ny version av instrumentet skulle hjälpa sjukgymnaster och forskare till att kunna fortsätta mäta muskelstyrkan i quadriceps på ett snabbt och enkelt sätt.

    Syftet och målsättningen med detta examensarbete var att utveckla Stig Starke-instrumentet så att mätningar av maximal statisk styrka i lårmuskulaturen (quadriceps), i enheten Newton, kan göras på patienter inom sjukvård och rehabilitering. En problemanalys i form av Workshop gjordes hos användarna på Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset. Problemanalysen tillsammans med en förstudie lade grunden för koncept i form av krav och önskemål till nya versionen av instrumentet. Önskemål på användarvänlighet av instrumentet och standardisering av patientens kroppsposition stod högt i prioritering.

    Via dynamisk produktutveckling och biomekaniska metoder där användarna (sjukgymnasterna) var i fokus kunde ett koncept väljas ut och tillverkas till en funktionell prototyp. Sex nyckelord för arbetet är quadriceps, muskelkraft, instrument, antropometri, användarvänlighet och standardisering. Funktionella prototypen visade via produktutvärdering att goda utvecklingsmöjligheter finns för den nya versionen, då den visade på hög användarvänlighet och standardisering. Behovet av en ny version av instrumentet kommer att finnas kvar tills ett likvärdigt instrument som Stig Starke kan tillämpas i verkligheten. 

  • 24.
    Sandström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    IMPROVING SELF-RESCUE EQUIPMENT: Can a self-contained self-rescue unit be more comfortable to wear over long periods of time, not damage other equipment and be donned easily?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A self-contained self-rescue unit is a device that is used in the mining industry in case of fires or release of toxic gases that depletes or contaminates breathable oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. These units are the first line of defense by providing oxygen in a closed breathing cycle, allowing personnel to get themselves to safety.

    The goal of this project was to design a unit that is more comfortable to carry during the daily operations in and outside the mines. A unit that is easier to done and less likely to damage the users and/or surrounding mining equipment. It is developed in close collaboration with Atlas Copco, as the main sponsor, as well as Dräger and personnel working at Zink Gruvan Mining. 

    The result is a unit with an operational time of twenty minutes and a reduced size and weight. It’s position can be adjusted to be worn around the waist or the chest, depending on the tasks the user performs, as well as simplifying the donning procedure.

  • 25.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Skarp: Ett utbildningsmaterial i att hålla en kniv vass2014Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är ett praktiskt verktyg för utbildning av knivanvändare inom industrin.

  • 26.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Improving meat cutters' work: Changes and effects following an intervention2013Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 996-1003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat cutters face higher risks of injury and musculoskeletal problems than most other occupational groups. The aims of this paper were to describe ergonomics changes implemented in three meat cutting plants and to evaluate effects related to ergonomics on the individual meat cutters and their work. Data was collected by interviews, observations, document studies and a questionnaire (n = 247), as a post intervention study. The changes implemented consisted of reducing knife work to a maximum of 6 h per day and introducing a job rotation scheme with work periods of equal length. Tasks other than traditional meat cutting were added. A competence development plan for each meat cutter and easy adjustment of workplace height were introduced. The questionnaire showed a reduction in perceived physical work load. In general, the changes were perceived positively. Figures from the company showed a positive trend for injuries and sick leave.

  • 27.
    Wramsten Wilmar, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Managers in healthcare organizations and their interactions with the media2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The combination of three forces, the organizations’ desire for visibility, the citizens’ interest in the HSOs and the increasing pressure upon journalists to attract the interest of the audiences have all contributed to the fact that HSO managers nowadays have more interactions with the media than ever before.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper knowledge about HSO managers’ interaction with the media; their experience of the interaction, strategies and support.

    Method: The material of the study A was subject to a qualitative research approach along the lines of grounded theory, whereas content analysis was applied to study B.

    Results: The results show how the personal consequences as well as the consequences for their managerial practice vary in accordance with the extent to which the manager, the organization and the media attribute individual focus. The amount of support and from where within the organization the support was offered varied. When the managers did receive support from within their organization, it primarily came from co-workers or subordinates. Any strategies for interactions with the media were rarely organization-wide or even put into writing. Instead, they were defined by the managers themselves along the way.

    Discussion: The managers’ interactions with the media may be influenced both on a managerial and organizational level. Neither manager nor organization seem to profit from an individual focus, at least not in the long term.

    Conclusions: The result indicate the grade of reactions, stand in relation to the level of personification. Also the results suggests that this was influenced by the manager him- or herself, the organization as a whole and by the media. Managers tended to strive for an open and proactive strategy in relation to the media. They did not perceive much support and felt they were expected to handle the interactions with the media all on their own.

  • 28.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Grooten, W. J. A.
    Forsman, M.
    An iPhone application for upper arm posture and movement measurements2017Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 65, s. 492-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4.6° and 4.8°. All root mean square differences in arm swings and two simulated work tasks were <6.0°, and all mean correlation coefficients were >0.98. The mean absolute iOS-OTS difference of median angular velocity was <13.1°/s, which was significantly lower than only using an accelerometer (<43.5°/s). The accuracy of this iOS application compares well to that of today's research methods and it can be useful for practical upper arm measurements.

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