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  • 301.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Thermal comfort with low temperature heating2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Márquez Ruiz, Juan Carlos
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    On the Feasibility of Using Textile Electrodes for Electrical Bioimpedance Measurements2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Work Science (closed 20130101).
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    The human factor?2010In: Risks in Technological Systems / [ed] Grimvall G, Holmgren Å & Jacobsson, P, London: Springer-Verlag London , 2010, 245-254 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On March 27, 1977, an aircraft disaster occurred in Tenerife on the Canary Islands that sheds some light on the concept of the human factor. The background to the accident was a terrorist attack on the airport in Las Palmas, which led to the redirection of all air traffic to Tenerife including one Pan AM aircraft and one KLM aircraft. The crews of the two aircraft were very concerned about the redirection. In the case of the Pan Am aircraft, there was a risk that the regulated working hours would be exceeded before they reached their final destination in Las Palmas. The KLM aircraft was to return to the Netherlands, and delays were not accepted by the airline management.

  • 304.
    Mårtensson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Errors and Limitations in Ultrasound Imaging Systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are binding regulations requiring safety and efficacy aspects of medical devices. The requirements ask for documentation that the devices are safe and effective for their intended use, i.e. if a device has a measuring function it must be correct. In addition to this there are demands for quality systems describing development, manufacturing, labelling, and manufacturing of a device. The requirements are established to guarantee that non-defective medical devices are used in the routine clinical practice. The fast rates in which the imaging modalities have evolved during the last decades have resulted in numerous new diagnostic tools, such as velocity and deformation imaging in ultrasound imaging. However, it seems as if the development of evaluation methods and test routines has not been able to keep up the same pace. Two of the studies in this thesis, Study I and IV, showed that computed tomography-based and ultrasound based volume measurements can yield very disparate measurements, and that tissue Doppler imaging-based ultrasound measurements can be unreliable.

    Furthermore, the new ultrasound modalities impose higher demands on the ultrasound transducers. Transducers are known to be fragile, but defective transducers were less of a problem earlier when the ultrasound systems to a lesser extent were used for measurements. The two other studies, Study II and III, showed that serious transducer errors are very common, and that annual testing of the transducers is not sufficient to guarantee an error free function.

    The studies in the thesis indicate that the system with Notified Bodies, in accordance with the EU’s Medical Device Directive, checking the function and manufacturing of medical devices does not work entirely satisfactory. They also show that the evaluation of new methods have led to the undesirable situation, where new measuring tools, such as volume rendering from imaging systems, and tissue Doppler-based velocity and deformation imaging in echocardiography are available for clinicians without proven knowledge about their accuracy.

  • 305. Nagy, A. I.
    et al.
    Venkatesharan, Ashwin I.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, India.
    Merkely, B.
    Winter, Reidar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Barooah, B.
    Dash, P. K.
    Manouras, Aristomenis I.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure accurately reflects both normal and elevated left atrial pressure2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, 1184-1184 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 306. Neumann, Patrick
    et al.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Hansson, Bo
    Lindbeck, Lars
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    On Effect Assessment in Work Environment Interventions: A Literature Overview and Methodological Reflection2010In: Industrial Engineering Publications and ResearchArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many positive case studies our overview of the work environment intervention (WEI) research literature finds mixed results. There is support for the profitability of WEI investments such as training and personnel policies at the organisational level but less clear results for disorder reductions. The financial benefits of WEIs were greater for performance gains than for reduced sickness costs. Multifactor interventions are widely seen as key to successful intervention but are difficult to evaluate and unused in experimental studies. Review inclusion criteria excluding studies with good interventions but non-experimental evaluations, pose a quality criteria selection bias. Difficulties in proving WEI effectiveness may depend on views of what constitutes good scientific quality. WEI effects are clear in some cases but are difficult to show in others. Evaluation poses methodological challenges that contribute to the lack of clear evidence for WEI effectiveness. There is a need for more practical multifactor WEIs and non-experimental evaluation strategies suited to today’s complex systems.

    RELEVANCE: Ergonomists and managers should understand that the problems in 'proving' the effectiveness of ergonomics are related to perceptions of what constitutes proof. Progress in the practise of ergonomics should recognise the difficulty of organisational change, the weaknesses of experimental traditions, and the need for multifactor interventions that reach deep into the work process to maximise impact. Isolating effects is difficult but this does not mean no effects exist.

  • 307.
    Nilsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    A Helping Hand: On Innovations for Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on assistive and rehabilitation technology for restoring the function of the hand. It presents three different approaches to assistive technology: one in the form of an orthosis, one in the form of a brain-computer interface combined with functional electrical stimulation and finally one totally aiming at rehabilitating the nervous system by restoring brain function using the concept of neuroplasticity. The thesis also includes an epidemiological study based on statistics from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and a review on different methods for assessment of hand function.

    A novel invention of an orthosis in form of a light weight glove, the SEM (Soft Extra Muscle) glove, is introduced and described in detail. The SEM glove is constructed for improving the grasping capability of a human independently of the particular task being performed. A key feature is that a controlling and strengthening effect is achieved without the need for an external mechanical structure in the form of an exoskeleton. The glove is activated by input from tactile sensors in its fingertips and palm. The sensors react when the applied force is larger than 0.2 N and feed a microcontroller of DC motors. These pull lines, which are attached to the fingers of the glove and thus work as artificial tendons.

    A clinical study on the feasibility of the SEM glove to improve hand function on a group of patients with varying degree of disability has been made. Assessments included passive and active range of finger motion, flexor muscle strength according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) 0-5 scale, grip strength using the Grippit hand dynamometer, fine motor skills according to the Nine Hole Peg test and hand function in common activities by use of the Sollerman test. Participants rated the potential benefit on a Visual Analogue Scale.

    A prototype for a system for combining BCI (Brain-Computer Interface) and FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) is described. The system is intended to be used during the first period of recovery from a TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) or stroke that have led to paresis in the hand, before deciding on a permanent system, thus allowing the patients to get a quick start on the motor relearning. The system contains EEG recording electrodes, a control unit and a power unit. Initially the patients will practice controlling the movement of a robotic hand and then move on to controlling pulses being sent to stimulus electrodes placed on the paretic muscle.

    An innovative electrophysiological device for rehabilitation of brain lesions is presented, consisting of a portable headset with electrodes on both sides adapted on the localization of treatment area. The purpose is to receive the outgoing signal from the healthy side of the brain and transfer that signal to the injured and surrounding area of the remote side, thereby having the potential to facilitate the reactivation of the injured brain tissue. The device consists of a control unit as well as a power unit to activate the circuit electronics for amplifying, filtering, AD-converting, multiplexing and switching the outgoing electric signals to the most optimal ingoing signal for treatment of the injured and surrounding area.

  • 308.
    Nilsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    On the introduction of a grip strengthening glove for rehabilitating and assistive technology2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Fryxell Westerberg, Annika
    Department Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, Jörgen
    Department Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wadell, Carl
    Bioservo Technologies AB, Kista, Sweden.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    A clinical study of a grip strengthening gloveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Fryxell Westerberg, Annika
    Wadell, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Borg, Jörgen
    Grip strengthening glove to improve hand function in patients with neuromuscular disorders: A feasibility studyIn: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Ingvast, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    The SEMGlove system for improving the grasping capabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Nyberg, Tobias
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    An innovative electrophysiological device for rehabilitation of brain lesionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Nyberg, Tobias
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    EEG based control of a brain-computer interface for neuromuscular stimulationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Nobel, Gerard
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Effects of Motion Sickness on Human Thermoregulatory Mechanisms2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented studies were performed to investigate the effects of motion sickness (MS) on human autonomic and behavioural thermoregulatory mechanisms during cold stress and in a thermoneutral environment. The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in autonomic thermoregulation and MS-dependent dysfunction of autonomic thermoregulation were studied using a histamine-receptor blocker, dimenhydrinate (DMH), and a muscarine-receptor blocker, scopolamine (Scop). In addition, the effects of these substances on MS-induced nausea and perceptual thermoregulatory responses were studied. MS was found to lower core temperature, during cold stress by attenuation of cold-induced vasoconstriction and decreased shivering thermogenesis, and in a thermoneutral environment by inducing sweating and vasodilatation. The increased core cooling during cold stress was counteracted by DMH but not by Scop. In a thermoneutral environment, the temperature was perceived as uncomfortably warm during and after the MS provocation despite decreases in both core and skin temperature. No such effect was seen during cold-water immersion. Both pharmacologic substances had per se different effects on autonomic thermoregulatory responses during cold stress. Scop decreased heat preservation, but did not affect core cooling, while DMH reduced the rate of core cooling through increased shivering thermogenesis. Both DMH and Scop per se decreased thermal discomfort during cold-water immersion.Findings support the notion of modulating roles of histamine (H) and acetylcholine (Ach) in autonomic thermoregulation and during MS. MS activates cholinergic and histaminergic pathways, thereby increasing the levels of H and Ach in several neuro-anatomical structures. As a secondary effect, MS also elevates blood levels of several neuropeptides, which in turn would influence central and/or peripheral thermoregulatory responses.In conclusion, MS may predispose to hypothermia, by impairment of autonomic thermoregulation in both cold and thermoneutral environments and by modulation of behavioural thermoregulatory input signals. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

  • 315.
    Nordberg, Axel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Treatment of Bone Fractures Using Fibre Reinforced Adhesive Patches2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Nordberg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Antoni, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Fibre reinforced Thiol-Ene patch fixation of bone fracturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Nordberg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Evaluation of fiber reinforced adhesive fixation of vertebral fractures; an experimental and numerical studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Nordberg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Montañez, Maria I.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Ramakrishnan, Subashiyni
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Higly adhesive DOPA primers for fibre reinforced Thiol-Ene patch fixation of bone fractures.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Nordenfur, Tim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Babic, Aleksandar
    GE Vingmed Ultrasound.
    Bulatovic, Ivana
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Giesecke, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ripsweden, Jonaz
    Department of Clinical Science, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet.
    Samset, Eigil
    GE Vingmed Ultrasound.
    Winter, Reidar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Cardiac fusion imaging of 3D echocardiography and coronary computed tomography angiography2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The choice of treatment strategy for coronary artery disease is often based on: 1) anatomical information on stenosis locations, and 2) functional information on their haemodynamic relevance, e.g. myocardial deformation or perfusion. Inspecting a single fused image containing both anatomical and functional information, as opposed to viewing separate images side-by-side, facilitates this treatment choice. The aim of this study is to develop a novel cardiac fusion imaging technique to combine 3D+time echocardiography (3DE) (functional information) with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (anatomical information).

    Method. 3DE and CCTA data sets were obtained from 20 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. The coronary artery tree was segmented from the CCTA images. A semi-automatic fusion algorithm was developed to perform the following steps: The left ventricle (LV) 3D surfaces were segmented in the CCTA image and 3DE images and used to align the two data sets. The moving 3DE LV was then visualized along with the CCTA coronary arteries. Myocardial strain was estimated and visualized on the LV surface.

    Results. Preliminary fusion results from images of one patient have been obtained. The figure shows the CCTA coronary artery tree aligned with a) 3DE LV endocardium in end-systole, b) 3DE LV endocardium in end-diastole, and c) 3DE LV with colour-coded instantaneous longitudinal strain.

    Discussion. Preliminary results show that fusion of CCTA and 3DE images is feasible. However, the algorithm needs to be further developed to increase automation and include other functional parameters, such as myocardial perfusion. Moreover, a validation study to assess algorithm performance and diagnostic value in multiple patients will be performed.

  • 320.
    Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Blomé, Michael
    Guve, Bertil
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Kaulio, Matti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Work Science.
    Odenrick, Pär
    Olsson, Annika
    Så skapar du det innovativa företaget2008In: Innovationsföråga: Innovation capability / [ed] Olsson A., Stockholm: PIEp , 2008, 18-39 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Performance Monitoring and Control in Wireless Sensor Networks2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless personal area networks have emerged as an important communication infrastructure in areas such as at-home healthcare and home automation, independent living and assistive technology, as well as sports and wellness. Wireless personal area networks, including body sensor networks, are becoming more mature and are considered to be a realistic alternative as communication infrastructure for demanding services. However, to transmit data from e.g., an ECG in wireless networks is also a challenge, especially if multiple sensors compete for access. Contention-based networks offer simplicity and utilization advantages, but the drawback is lack of predictable performance. Recipients of data sent in wireless sensor networks need to know whether they can trust the information or not. Performance measurements, monitoring and control is of crucial importance for medical and healthcare applications in wireless sensor networks.

    This thesis focuses on development, prototype implementation and evaluation of a performance management system with performance and admission control for wireless sensor networks. Furthermore, an implementation of a new method to compensate for clock drift between multiple wireless sensor nodes is also shown. Errors in time synchronization between nodes in Bluetooth networks, resulting in inadequate data fusion, are also analysed.

  • 322. Petrlova, Jitka
    et al.
    Zhu, Lin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Morgelin, Matthias
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Jegerschold, Caroline
    Voss, John C.
    Lagerstedt, Jens O.
    Structural properties of functional HDL and variants of apoA-I2012In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Raghothama, Jayanth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Integrating Computational and Participatory Simulations for Design in Complex Systems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding and conceptualization of cities and its constituent systems such as transportation and healthcare as open and complex is shifting the debates around the technical and communicative rationales of planning. Viewing cities in a holistic manner presents methodological challenges, where our understanding of complexity is applied in a tangible fashion to planning processes. Bridging the two rationales in the tools and methodologies of planning is necessary for the emergence of a 'non-linear rationality' of planning, one that accounts for and is premised upon complexity. Simulations representing complex systems provide evidence and support for planning, and have the potential to serve as an interface between the more abstract and political decision making and the material city systems.

    Moving beyond current planning methods, this thesis explores the role of simulations in planning. Recognizing the need for holistic representations, the thesis integrates multiple disparate simulations into a holistic whole achieving complex representations of systems. These representations are then applied and studied in an interactive environment to address planning problems in different contexts. The thesis contributes an approach towards the development of complex representations of systems; improvements on participatory methods to integrate computational simulations; a nuanced understanding of the relative value of simulation constructs; technologies and frameworks that facilitate the easy development of integrated simulations that can support participatory planning processes.

    The thesis develops contributions through experiments which involved problems and stakeholders from real world systems. The approach towards development of integrated simulations is realized in an open source framework. The framework creates computationally efficient, scalable and interactive simulations of complex systems, which used in a participatory manner delivers tangible plans and designs.

  • 324.
    Renström, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Senior Managers and Lean- The importance of becoming a practitioner2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considered to be one of the most influential paradigms in manufacturing, Lean has developed and expanded beyond the shop floor and manufacturing environment of the auto industry. Lean is considered to be applicable throughout organizations and other industries besides manufacturing. Interest in both research and implementation of the Lean concept, heavily influenced by Toyota Motor Company, is said to continue to increase despite the fact that the concept is said to be both ambiguous and difficult to implement. Two main traditions of Lean are said to exist: “toolboxLean” and “Lean thinking.” The particular translation of the concept that is accepted will influence management’s approach in implementing a Lean way of working. The Toyota Motor Company, where Lean originates, is described as a learning organization. Therefore, a management approach and leader behavior supporting organizational learning would be required to successfully implement an enterprise system inspired by both the Toyota Production System and Lean. This thesis approaches the Lean concept through an organizational learning perspective, thereby highlighting the importance of knowledge of organizational learning in a Lean development effort. Difficulties regarding Lean implementations have been shown to often occur due to the overlooked but crucial differences in approach in management. There is, however a stated gap in the literature on Lean production regarding management. The purpose of this thesis is to explore senior management’s ability to implement and sustain a Lean-based enterprise system. Three studies are included in the thesis. The first study focuses on how the view on Lean among managers implementing Lean affects its implementation. The study was performed as a case study and conducted at a larger, international manufacturing company. The study covered management levels from shop floor manager to the president of the company. Findings show that all management levels had a similar view of Lean and that this influenced the implementation. The first study further showed that the view on Lean may develop and change during an implementation, revealing unforeseen managerial and organizational challenges and obstacles.The second study focused on how management of Lean is described in the existing literature. The results revealed a dualistic complementarity between leadership and management, which can be seen as reflected in the two foundational Toyota principles of continuous improvement and respect for people. This duality can also be found in descriptions of prerequisites for organizational learning where the ability to combine transactional and transformational leadership is considered a success factor. The third study focused on implications for senior management and aimed to research senior managers’ ability to support a Lean implementation process. The study is based on interviews with eight senior managers. The study revealed four main managerial obstacles to Lean implementation. Lack of initial competence evaluation and ensuing competence development for senior management was found to be a central obstacle to Lean implementation. Main conclusions in the thesis are that initial understanding of the aims of a Lean implementation, and the ensuing implications for the organization is central in order to be able to support the development. Additionally, initial senior management competence development is indicated to be vital in order to ensure the ability to understand the organizational and managerial implications brought on by a Lean implementation. Leading with action is indicated as providing an opportunity for senior management competence development.

  • 325.
    Renström, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Niss, Camilla
    Senior managers’ perspectives on obstacles to Lean implementationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Distriktsveterinärer i Bil: Arbetsmiljöenkät, Fältstudie, Underlag till fordonsspecifikation2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien

    En studie av distriktsveterinärernas arbetsmiljö vid arbete i och runt bilen har genomförts vid KTH:s skola för teknik och hälsa i samarbete med Jordbruksverket och Svenska Distriktsveterinärföreningen och med finansiellt stöd från Utvecklingsrådet.

    Enkät

    En enkät om bilen som arbetsmiljö besvarades av 95% av distriktsveterinärerna. Av denna framgår att

    • endast fyra uppger att de ej kör bil i tjänsten,
    • 67% kör bil i jobbet dagligen, 60% av kvinnorna och 76% av männen,
    • 86% kör VW Passat,
    • 40% hoppar in och ut ur bilen mer än 10 ggr/dag,
    • uppgivna körsträckor varierar mellan 1000-8000 mil/år, medianen är 3000 mil,
    • 59% använder dator i bilen.

    Bilen får goda omdömen vad gäller väghållning, vinterkörning, säkerhet, klimat/ventilation, motorstyrka, instrumentering, sikt, sittkomfort vid körning, mindre bra omdömen om stiga i/ur, lastutrymmets rymlighet och tillgänglighet, hur utrustning transporteras och huruvida bilen är funktionell som arbetsfordon. Bilen får negativa omdömen för arbetsställningar vid lasthantering och mest negativt är arbetsställning vid datorarbete.

    Ungefär hälften av (47%) uppger att de har fysiska besvär som de sätter i samband med arbetet i bilen. Andelen kvinnliga distriktsveterinärer med kortare tid i yrket än 10 år (46%) är dubbelt så stor som motsvarande andel bland de manliga distriktsveterinärerna (21%). Bland de kvinnor som arbetat kortare än 10 år som veterinär är andelen som rapporterar besvär 47%. Motsvarande andel bland männen var 27%. 91% uppgav att de är mycket eller ganska nöjda med sitt arbete.

    Fältstudier

    Sex stationer besöktes och 12 veterinärer (8 kvinnor, 4 män) intervjuades, deras arbetsoperationer i och runt bilen filmades/analyserades och EMG registrering av belastningar i övre extremiteter/rygg/nacke genomfördes.

    Samtliga intervjuade angav att de hade besvär i form av smärta från muskler eller leder, 10 av 12 från rygg/nacke/axlar, de övriga från knä respektive höft.

    Arbetet i bilen upptar mellan 2-4 timmar av arbetsdagen, man kör ca 3000 mil/år. De arbetsoperationer som registrerades och analyserades inkluderade i och urstigning, telefonering, datoranvändning, lasthantering, samt användning av olika packsystem.

    Resultaten från analyserna indikerar sammanfattningsvis bl.a. att

    • insteget i bilen och förarstolens läge är lågt,
    • de som använder dator i bilen anser att arbetsställningen är olämplig,
    • arbetsbelysning i bilen är bristfällig, speciellt för telefon- och datorarbete,
    • bilen upplevs som trång och med otillräcklig lastkapacitet,
    • låg lastlucka hindrar upprätt arbetsställning för långa,
    • bilarna ofta har lös utrustning eller ej fixerat datorbord under färd,
    • kontorsutrustningen gör att batteriet ofta laddar ur,
    • det finns inte plats för passagerare/praktikant i bilen.

    Underlag till specifikation för nytt arbetsfordon

    Ett antal förslag till designkrav för ett nytt arbetsfordon för distriktsveterinärer inkluderar aspekter på trafiksäkerhet, komfort, datorarbetsplatsens förutsättningar, utformning och placering, belysningsergonomi, lasthantering, hygien och strömförsörjning.

    I rapportens bilagor redovisas enkätens frågor, intervjuschema för fältstudien, data och exempel från fältstudien samt slutligen sex möjliga designlösningar för ett arbetsfordon med datorarbetsplats.

  • 327.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ergo-Index Slutrapport Etapp 1: Resultat från litteraturstudie och försöksstudie2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta projekt är att vidareutveckla Ergo-Index modellen, som kan användas för att analysera olika sätt att utföra ett arbete på och välja det lämpligaste ur både belastningsergonomiska och produktionsekonomiska aspekter. I Etapp 1 sammanfattas i denna rapport. Här har målet varit att i) samla kunskap om sambanden mellan belastning, belastningstid och återhämtningsbehov samt risken för belastningsskador och ii) samla data som ger underlag för modellering av återhämtningsbehovet. Etapp 1 har till största delen finansierats av SBUF, Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond, och till del av de medverkande organisationerna.

     

    En litteraturstudie baserad på främst databassökningar i Medline, Ergonomics Abstracts och Scopus genomfördes med huvudfokus på samband mellan belastningsnivå, belastningstid, återhämtningsbehov samt modeller inom detta område. En försöksstudie med 10 medverkande från rörbranschen som gjorde sammanlagt 160 försök genomfördes i syfte att få fram data om samband mellan belastningstid, belastningsnivå och återhämtningsbehov. I försöken tryckte de medverkande på ett handtag på en armlängds avstånd framför kroppen i ögonhöjd. Belastningsnivån och belastningstiden varierades mellan olika försök. Såväl subjektiva metoder, t ex skattningar enligt Borg’s CR-10 och RPE skala, som objektiva metoder som kraftmätning och tidtagning användes. Resultaten har bearbetats med statistiska metoder och regressionsanalys har använts för inledande modellering.

     

    Exponentiella samband bestämda genom kurvanpassning av försöksdata presenteras, såväl för uthållighetstid (funktion av belastningsnivå) som för återhämtningstid (funktion av belastningsnivå och relativ belastningstid). Högre belastningsnivåer leder till kortare uthållighetstider. Tiden för återhämtning efter belastning som pågått under en relativ belastningstid (fraktion av uthållighetstiden) minskar generellt med minskande belastning för att sedan öka igen vid låga belastningar. Återhämtningstiden är längre för belastningar motsvarande 10 % av maxkraften än vid 30 % vid relativ belastningstid. Sådana data har, enligt författarens kännedom, inte rapporterats tidigare. Däremot, om man normerar återhämtningstiden med reella belastningstiden tenderar denna kvot att vara konstant, vilket innebär att återhämtningstiden är proportionell mot belastningstiden, med olika proportionalitetskonstant för olika belastningsnivåer. Denna proportionalitet är tydligare för belastningscykel 1 än för cykel 2. Vidare visar resultaten att uthållighetstiden är kortare och återhämtningstiden längre vid en upprepad belastning, vilket indikerar att trötthet ackumuleras.

     

    Litteraturstudien har gett viktiga resultat exempelvis vad avser olika trötthetsmekanismer, olika typer av belastningssituationer, könsskillnader och psykosociala faktorer. Resultaten från både försöksstudien och litteraturstudien bidrar med viktig kunskap till den vidareutvecklingen av Ergo-Index modellen som kommer att utföras i projektets Etapp 2. I rapporten diskuteras vilka faktorer som bör inkluderas i den fortsatta modellutvecklingen.

  • 328.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ergo-IndexEtapp 2: Vidareutveckling av metod föranalys av produktionsmetoder   – sambandmellan belastningsfaktorer, återhämtning, risk och produktionstid2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with refinement of the Ergo-Index model, initially developed in the 1980’s by a group of researchers and practitioners. Ergo-Index is intended to enable comparison of different methods to perform a work task with the aim to support the choice of working methods to satisfy ergonomics requirements as well as requirements on time consumption and production economics. The outputs from the method are assessments of recovery need, production time and load level. The project has been carried out in two parts, of which this report deals with the second part.

    The objective has been to gain relevant information and to develop the Ergo-Index model further, especially regarding recovery, based on a literature review and an experimental study.  In the experimental study maximum exerted forces as well as subjectively assessed Endurance and Resumption times for 15 different loading cases were determined with different load levels and loading times.

    The results revealed a previously unknown fatigue-load phenomenon, namely that the recovery need was found to be shortest, expressed in relative loading time, for a medium load level (30 % of max), compared to low (10 % of max)  and high (50 % of max) load levels. This led to some unexpected difficulties in the project.

    After several rounds of modeling relations for endurance and recovery need, the new Ergo-Index was developed. This, partly performed by deriving at mathematical relationships via regression analysis and partly by using results from other published studies and also Swedish physical ergonomics legislation recommendations, is described in the report. Seven examples of applications of the model are also given. These form a start of a planned database where applied examples are gathered to facilitate the use of the method.  These tasks were also evaluated with subjective methods by the participants, using Borg’s CR10 scale, a body map and interviews and photo- and video-documented. 

    The new model should to be applied and evaluated more than has been done up until now, before it is spread to a large extent. Application and evaluation is planned with a couple of companies.

    The experimental results have also been used for developing a prediction model of perceived fatigue. Further, also based on the experimental study, where the working task was carried out with one repetition in two subsequent trials, a model for accumulation of fatigue is presented. Both these parts have not been tested or evaluated, but it is suggested to evaluate them in studies with applied repetitive working tasks. These results may also be used to form an enhanced recovery assessment model on occupational tasks for selection of working methods and job design from ergonomics and time perspectives for repetitive work.

    Issues regarding modeling, such as field of application and accuracy, are discussed. Dissemination of the results, to companies, in educations as well as in the research community, is also described.

  • 329.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ergonomics and its Consequences for Businesses2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Ergonomics and its Consequences for Businesses2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As ergonomists, for many of us, a driving force is to improve work environments to “do good”:  to reduce risks for injury and human suffering, improve working conditions and support human well-being. This motivation is in accordance with the first of the two objectives of ergonomics as in the IEA definition – ‘…to optimize human well-being and overall system performance”. However, ‘doing good’ in this sense can be difficult. A challenging task we face as ergonomists is to motivate work site improvements within a business environment that is focused on the second objective of ergonomics, overall system performance. Thus, the art of ergonomics lies in balancing the two – in addressing individual wellbeing as well as the broader goals of system performance. As part of this balancing act, displaying financial impacts of ergonomics plays an important role and is therefore the focus of this key-note.

    In all business activity decision makers have to choose between different investment options. For investments that can improve ergonomics, the full economic benefits are often difficult to quantify. Such benefits are associated with reduced costs related to non-optimal work environment. Visible costs, such as direct costs for absenteeism, are quite easily measured while hidden costs, related to business key parameters, such as productivity and quality issues, are often complex, contextually dependent and difficult to estimate. However, these issues are vital for organizations and such costs, which directly affect the company’s competitiveness, are often many times greater than the visible costs.  If decision makers only are aware of the direct financial impact of investments they may prioritize solutions that are not optimal neither for organizational performance and business results nor for the work environment and health of the employees. In extreme cases this can jeopardize the company’s future.

    So, what is needed for informed decision-making?  First, awareness that ergonomics also influences core business parameters and organizational performance is needed. Second, there is a need for user-friendly assessment tools to estimate the financial effects associated with workplace ergonomics. In the presentation a survey of existing assessment tools and methods is presented. Reasons why these tools aren’t more widely used are discussed.

    There is an increased call from companies for assessment tools that companies can use in their operational management to motivate and carry out ergonomic improvements. This is partly due to the need to form business cases to motivate investments. There is also an increased awareness from company management, who recognize that improved working environments also lead to other positive effects for the company. Increasingly managers seek knowledge for informed decision making, for example when prioritizing between work environment improvements and strategic corporate decisions.  The assessment tools can be used i) proactively in the design of production systems, which leads to advantages for the staff as well as for the company’s performance, ii) reactively to evaluate different scenarios to reduce work environment, productivity and quality problems and iii) strategically for promoting the company.

    So, what actions are needed to improve these assessment tools, increase their use of and make them a natural part in the company operational processes? In this presentation some research and development suggestions are given. These involve tool as well as organizational and process development.

    In summary, working towards improved tools and their usage in striving towards the twofold ergonomics objective involves many challenges, but strengthens the possibilities to be successful in “doing good”, for individuals and organizations, as well as for societies.

  • 331.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    From Haze to Clarity - RAMP for Systematic Risk Management2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Methods for assessment of economic effects of work environment at companies2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Musculoskeletal Disorders – Why bother?: Applied examples and risk management methods2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    RAMP -  A tool for systematic MSD risk management in manual handling jobs2017Other (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    RAMP: A systematic MSD risk management tool for manual handling2017Other (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    RAMP: Ett nytt riskhanteringsverktyg   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –: Slutrapport i projektet ”Utveckling, implementering och spridning av belastningsergonomiskt bedömningsverktyg och åtgärdsprocess” (Dnr 090168)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs riskhanteringsmetoden RAMP – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively – och dess utveckling som gjorts i projektet ”Utveckling, implementering och spridning av belastningsergonomiskt bedömningsverktyg och åtgärds-process”. Projektets mål har varit att utveckla en fritt tillgänglig metod för riskhantering för arbete med manuell hantering. Metoden ska kunna användas för att bedöma risken att utveckla belastningsbesvär och stötta det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet genom att ge en struktur för förbättringsåtgärder och utarbetande av handlingsplaner. Syftet är att användningen av verktyget ska bidra att arbetsmiljöförbättrande åtgärder genomförs, vilket förväntas leda till positiva hälsoeffekter.

    Projektet har genomförts som ett samarbetsprojekt med interaktiv metodologisk ansats mellan forskare vid KTH Skolan för Teknik och hälsa, Enheten för Ergonomi, och personer som aktivt deltagit i projektet i egenskap av professionella yrkesverksamma med olika roller på de medverkande företagen Arla Foods, Scania CV AB, Svenskt Butikskött AB och Mikael Loods Åkeri AB – exempelvis operatör, logistiker, chef, VD, skyddsombud, produktionstekniker, ergonom, och global arbetsmiljösmordnare. Till projektet har en referensgrupp och en expertgrupp varit knutna. Projektet har finansierats av i huvudsak Afa Försäkring och de medverkande företagen.

    Bland metoderna om används i projektet finns litteraturgenomgång, iterativ prototyp-utveckling, användartester och utvärdering av prototyper, work-shops, intervjuer och enkäter. RAMP baseras på vetenskapliga studier, svensk arbetsmiljölagstiftning, ergonomistandarder, andra bedömningsmetoder, expertbedömningar av projektets expertgrupp, erfarenheter och expertbedömningar från personer verksamma i industrin inom bland annat företagshälsovård, ledning och produktion, användartester samt referensgruppens feed-back.

    I rapporten presenteras RAMP-verktyget som består av fyra moduler: RAMP I - en checklista för screening av belastningsergonomiska riskfaktorer; RAMP II – som möjliggör en fördjupad analys; en Resultatmodul där resultatet kan presenteras på olika detaljnivå och med olika omfattning och en Åtgärdsmodul som ger stöd för det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet med bland annat åtgärdsförslag och en mall för att utforma handlingsplaner för att minska riskerna.

    En prototyp av RAMP har utvärderades i ett examensarbete genom validitets- och reliabilitets- och användbarhetsstudier. Utvärderingen visar på hög repeterbarhet av bedömningar genomförda av icke-experter samt att överensstämmelsen var hög mellan experter och icke-experter. Användbarhetsstudien visade att RAMP uppleveds som ganska lätt att använda och tidseffektiv.

    Digitaliseringen av RAMP förväntas bli klar under hösten 2014. RAMP kommer därefter att göras fritt tillgänglig via KTH STHs hemsida och en implementeringsstudie av metoden sker på de medverkande företagen. Metoden kommer att spridas enligt projektets kommunikationsplan som beskrivs i rapporten.

  • 337.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    RAMP för systematisk hantering av belastningsskaderisker vid manuell hantering –relevant för sjöfartsbranschen?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Seminar on the RAMP tool2017Other (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Rose, Linda M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Workshop: learn how to use the ramp tool for risk assessment and risk management of msd risks in manual handling2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Manual handling work is regarded as one of the main causes to increased risks of developing Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Several MSD risk assessment tools have been developed, but have been found to have insufficiencies for managing MSD risks in manual handling. The RAMP tool (Risk Assessment and Management tool for Manual Handling – Proactively), was developed to support the whole process of risk management of MSD risks in manual handling: from identification and assessment of risks to developing risk reducing suggestions and systematic risk management.

     

    What will you learn?

    In this workshop you will learn how to use the RAMP tool by participating in applying the tool on an example.

     

    RAMP consists of four parts:

    -        The checklist based RAMP I for screening of MSD risks in manual handling,

    -        RAMP II for a more in depth analysis of such risks,

    -        The Action module to support development of risk reducing measures and support systematic risk management, and

    -        The Results module, for communicating the results. It enables presentation of the results at different level of detail and scope, ranging from a work station to the whole company.

     

    In the workshop you will get experience from using the four parts of the RAMP tool, based on a film-based example. Bring your laptop to download and use the RAMP tool on your computer!

  • 340.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Användarmanual för riskhanteringsverktyget RAMP©   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –2017Other (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    User Manual for the Risk Management Tool RAMP©   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –2017Other (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Rose, Linda M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Neumann, W Patrick
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Designing Jobs in Manufacturing: Rest Allowances2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of work along a conventional production line layout has called for the consideration of both human (e.g., rest breaks, work pace) and technical factors, striving for the optimization of ergonomics and production. Linda Rose and Patrick Neumann discuss these issues in relation to muscle fatigue.

  • 343. Rutsdottir, Gudrun
    et al.
    Härmark, Johan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Weide, Yoran
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Ib Rasmussen, Morten
    Højrup, Peter
    Söderberg, Christopher
    Emanuelsson, Cecilia
    Structure model obtained by homology modelling and cryo-EM for the Hsp21 dodecamer and evaluation of the importance of oligomerization for chaperone activityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Rylander, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Bringing the “I” Back Into the Self: Body, Place and Emotion in Identity ConstructionManuscript (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Rylander, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Making sense of knowledge work2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a dominant discourse in contemporary writings and research, we are living in a Knowledge Economy where knowledge is seen as the pre-eminent resource and the key to success for individuals as well as organizations and nations. Consequently, much effort in management research has been dedicated to devising new concepts and theories such as the knowledge-based theory of the firm and the intellectual capital perspective, all premised on the assumption that knowledge work is somehow different from other forms of work. But what, actually, is knowledge work? And what is it that makes it so different?

    This dissertation represents an attempt to make some sense of this discourse. Research themes investigate the role of tangible and intangible dimensions of knowledge work and organizations. Particular attention is paid to organizational identity and the physical work environment. The notion of identity is central to the Knowledge Economy Rhetoric, while the physical setting is a neglected, but potentially important, aspect of knowledge work and identity construction. Various theoretical and methodological perspectives were applied throughout the research process to illuminate these themes. The thesis covers two empirical case studies; one of a small high-tech firm in the telecommunications sector as it developed a knowledge based strategy. The other study explored the relationship between the design of the office and identity construction in a large IT/management consulting firm. In addition, a study of the literature on the organizational category of knowledge-intensive firms was conducted to explore the dominant constructions of knowledge work within the research community. The results from these studies are presented in five papers. While addressing different questions, the papers all deal with some aspect of sensemaking of, or in, knowledge work. The first paper describes how the management team in the case company went through a process to make sense of the intangible dimensions of their organization. The second paper is a conceptual treatise outlining an alternative conceptualization of strategy for knowledge-intensive firms that emphasizes the importance of identity. Paper three provides an analysis of how the category of knowledge-intensive firms is used in the research literature and the consequences thereof. In paper four branding is analyzed as a management practice. The last paper discusses the role of emotion, ambivalence and embodied experience of the physical environment in identity construction.

    The exposition reflects further on the insights from this journey and what they entail for making sense of knowledge work. It is argued that a better understanding of knowledge work has to take the knowledge worker – the individual – as the starting point for theorizing. Taking this position requires us to scrutinize the theoretical perspectives that guide our conceptualizations of the knowledge worker. Theoretical perspectives are constructions that allow us to see certain things and not others. Current conceptualizations are, by necessity, extensions of earlier dominant perspectives or worldviews. Based on the findings from the empirical studies, an alternative perspective is proposed that takes the embodied experience of the knowledge worker as a point of departure. Implications of this perspective for conceptualizing and studying knowledge work are then discussed.

  • 346.
    Rylander, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Peppard, Joe
    What Really is a Knowledge-Intensive Firm? (Re)framing Research in the “Knowledge Economy"2005Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a knowledge intensive firm (KIF) is seemingly an important category of organizations that is being increasingly studied. The underlying inference from the literature is that the KIF constitutes a category of organizations that is distinct and different from other organizational categories. The research reported in this paper explores how scholars are using the concept in their studies, analyzing how it is portrayed in the literature, and critiquing the implications that are drawn from these studies. As categories are important for ordering reality and in shaping meaning, the consequence of our analysis surfaces a number of problems that this research raises for the perpetuation of the knowledge economy rhetoric and its potential flaws. We suggests that what is needed is not a better definition of a KIF, but a better understanding of the classification systems and their underpinning assumptions that guide how we present research on knowledge in organizations.

  • 347.
    S. Alvarez, Victor
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Understanding Boundary Conditions for Brain Injury Prediction: Finite Element Analysis of Vulnerable Road Users2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerable road users (VRUs) are overrepresented in the statistics on severe and deadly injuries in traffic accidents, most commonly involving the head. The finite element (FE) method presents the possibility to model complex interactions between the human body and vehicles in order to better understand the injury mechanisms. While the rapid development of computer capacity has allowed for increasingly detailed FE-models, there is always a benefit of reducing the studied problem. Due to its material properties, the brain is more sensitive to rotational motion than to purely linear, resulting in complex injury causation. When studying brain injuries caused by a direct impact to the head, simulations using an isolated head model significantly increases efficiency compared to using a complete human body model. Also evaluation of head protective systems uses isolated mechanical head representations. It is not, however, established the extent to which the boundary conditions of the head determine the outcome of brain injuries.

    FE models of both the entire human body and the isolated head were used in this thesis to study the effect of the body, as well as active neck muscle tension, on brain injury outcome in VRU accidents. A pediatric neck model was also developed to enable the study of age-specific effects. A vehicle windscreen model was developed to evaluate the necessity of capturing the failure deformation during pedestrian head impacts.

    It was shown that the influence of the neck and body on brain injury prediction is greater in longer duration impacts, such as pedestrian head-to-windscreen impacts with an average difference of 21%. In accidents with shorter duration impacts, such as head-to-ground bicycle accidents, the average influence was between 3-12%. The influence did not consistently increase or limit the severity, and was dependent on the degree of rotation induced by the impact, as well as the mode of deformation induced in the neck. It was also shown that the predicted brain injury severity is dependent on capturing the large deformations of fractured windscreen, with the greatest effect near the windscreen frame. The pediatric neck model showed a large effect of age-dependent anatomical changes on inertial head loading, making it a promising tool to study the age-dependent effects in VRU accidents.

  • 348.
    S. Alvarez, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    Autoliv Research.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Influence of Body and Head Angular Velocity on Brain Injury Prediction in Pedestrian AccidentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian protection has historically not been prioritized in the vehicle safety development, but represents a large portion of the severe and deadly injuries in vehicle accidents. One of the most common severely injured body parts is the head and the focus of many researchers and safety system developers. The Finite Element (FE) method is an increasingly popular approach to better understand the injury biomechanics, but due to the large system needed to be solved in pedestrian simulations a common approach is to reduce the problem to a head only impact. In EuroNCAP rating an isolated head form is impacted towards different regions of the vehicle with only linear velocity components. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of removing the neck and body, as well as rotational velocity components on the brain injury prediction. A pedestrian full body human FE model was impacted against a generalized buck model to simulate pedestrian accidents involving windscreen impacts, at three velocities (30, 40 and 50 or 45 km/h), two pedestrian velocities (0 and 5 km/h) and two standard walking gaits. The head position was extracted from the pedestrian full body simulations at 1 ms before head impact. The isolated head was impacted with the vehicle model using either all velocity components from the full body simulations, or only the linear components. The results show that the body and neck can affect the brain injury prediction in windscreen impacts, reducing the strains by up to 49%. It was also shown that removing the rotational impact velocities, in general, further increased the strain, with up to 138%. However, several cases showed a reduction in brain strains for the head only simulations by up to 40%, and in other cases only very small difference down to 1% were seen, indicating a high sensitivity to impact conditions and highlighting the difficulty in generalizing the effect. It is however generally seen that the body is limiting the severity in impacts close to the windscreen center, and amplifying the severity of those close to the lower frame. It could also be seen that removing the angular velocity, in most cases, further increased the difference between the full body and head only simulations.

  • 349.
    S. Alvarez, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Effect of Pediatric Growth on Cervical Spine Injury Risk in Automotive CrashesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-year-old using a non-linear scaling technique, accounting for local topological changes. The oldest and youngest ages were also scaled using homogeneous geometric scaling. To study the effect of pediatric spinal growth on head kinematics and intervertebral disc strain, the models were exerted to 3.5 g acceleration pulse at the T1 vertebra to simulate frontal, rear and side impacts. It was shown that the head rotation decreases with age, but is over predicted when geometrically scaling down from 18- to 1.5-year-old and under predicted when geometrically scaling up from 1.5- to 18-year-old. The strain in the disc, however, showed a clear decrease with age in side impact and for the upper cervical spine in rear impact, indicating a higher susceptibility for neck injury at younger ages. In the frontal impact, no clear age dependence could be seen, suggesting a large contribution from changed facet joint angles, and lower levels of strain, suggesting a lower risk of injury. The results also highlight the benefit of rearward facing children in a seat limiting head lateral motion.

  • 350. Sahlen, A.
    et al.
    Abdula, G.
    Norman, M.
    Manouras, Aristomenis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Lund, L. H.
    Shahgaldi, Kambiz
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Winter, Reidar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Altered arterial haemodynamics during exercise in elderly female hypertensives with poor stroke volume reserve2011In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 32, 10-11 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
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