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  • 2251.
    Wik, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH.
    Lander, Emelie
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH.
    Organisatoriska orsaker till stressproblematik: Stressintervention i ett globalt verkstadsföretag2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work related stress exists within all parts of our society and causes suffering for employees as well as organizations. To reduce stress at an organizational level, a major global organization within the engineering industry has decided to that implement a stress prevention project.

    Aim: To identify stress related organizational root causes from the results of mapping the psychosocial work environment. The occupational health care service and the Human Resources departments’ role, in cooperation with managers, was to initialize improvements of the psychosocial work environment within the organization.

    Limitations: This study has been limited to the initial phase of the stress prevention project, an analysis of the mapping results of the stress related root causes with a focus on managers working situation. The second phase, including implementing the interventions and the follow up survey, will not be addressed in this thesis.

    Method: The mapping consisted of two parts. A quantitative approach, the survey "Modern working life" and a qualitative approach, a non-participation observation. The survey was sent out to 331 permanent employees, managers and coworkers, with a response rate of 76 percent. The observations were conducted at nine meetings where the survey results were presented to the managers. During the meetings the managers discussed the survey results and listed stress related root causes which were to be focus areas for upcoming interventions during autumn 2012.

    Results/Conclusions: The results display stress related problems for both managers and employees. The main problem areas highlighted by the survey were: unclear work roles, lack of participation in decision making, absence of an immediate manager, high and conflicting demands, IT problems, lack of recourses and time. The results from the observations demonstrate that the root causes mentioned above are connected to factors such as the global nature of the company, with an unclear chain of decision-making and a company culture of setting challenges. These connections would not have been discovered without the stress prevention project including meetings where the managers were able to discuss the results. One important conclusion was evident: To succeed with a stress prevention project, the complete support from top management is imperative.

  • 2252.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Ingvast, Johan
    Kraftförstärkande handske2006Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2253.
    Wikström, Ewa
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Arman, Rabecka
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vad gör chefer med sin tid och hur kan tid och engagemang hanteras på ett mer hållbart sätt?2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie om chefers tidsanvändning har genomförts med syftet att undersöka hur man kan understödja mer hållbar tidsanvändning och hållbart engagemang. Chefer hade många korta aktiviteter och många möten men kommunicerade sällan med sin egen chef på tu man hand. Arbetet präglades av ständiga förhandlingar, prioriteringar och omprioriteringar. Om chefer inte har enskild tid för att kommunicera med sin överordnade får det konsekvenser avseende att kunna göra välavvägda och acceptabla prioriteringar och i förlängningen för legitimiteten i ledarskapet. Vården och dess chefer har mycket att vinna på att utveckla kommunikationen om vardagsarbetetes dilemman. Utifrån våra resultat har ett studiematerial utvecklats som syftar till att stödja chefer och ledningsgrupper i det vardagliga arbetet avseende hållbart ledarskap, chefskap och tidsanvändning.

  • 2254.
    Wikström, Stephanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Huisman, Simon
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    The infant incubator from a hygienic and HTO perspective: Using ATP luminescence to identify problem areas and suggesting solutions2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) are a major problem in healthcare today. Preterm infants have problems keeping their body temperature within normal boundaries due to heat-loss. They therefore need special care that is administered with the help of incubators, which help minimise the heat loss via convection. Within neonatology the incubator has been identified as one of the contributing factors to HCAI due to the warm and humid environment, making it easy to spread nosocomial flora.

    To assess if the incubator is a factor in the spreading of HCAI this project has focused on ATP+AMP (total ATP) luminescence measurements to find areas in the incubator that are likely to contribute to the spread of HCAI and suggesting solutions to some of these. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is found in both organic debris and bacteria and is therefore a good indicator of a problem area due to organic debris acting as nutrients. Only the incubator box of the Giraffe® OmniBed® incubator was studied.

    The cleaning process was observed on multiple occasions and together with interviews resulted in a number of 29 hypothesised problem areas, on or within the incubator box, that were measured before and after cleaning. The results show that incubators collect a substantial amount of total ATP during its use. Measurements also show that parts that are cleaned by a disinfector are cleaner than those parts that are cleaned manually. Areas on the main compartment became more contaminated after cleaning which further indicated that the design of the incubator needs improving. It was also concluded that there often was residue from soap left on the surface of the main compartment resulting in inhibition of the total ATP luminescence reaction. This resulted in unrealistic low values due to the inclusion of foam and soap in the sample and as a result 45 out of 570 measurements were excluded. Caution is advised when using the Kikkoman total ATP luminescence method, especially on the main body (chassis) of the incubator.

    A steam vapour cleaner and flask cleanser brush could be used to better reach and clean areas such as cavities and around the bed heating element. The use of the steam vapour cleaner could also diminish or eliminate the use of surface disinfectant that causes red irritated eyes and dizziness in the cleaning staff. The functionality of the incubator was found to be excellent but major improvements can be made in the incubator design to make the cleaning of the incubator easier.

  • 2255. Willenheimer, R.
    et al.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boman, K.
    Hagerman, I.
    Dahlström, U. L. F.
    Definition av diastolisk hjärtsvikt2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 34, p. 2333-2337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2256.
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Beställarkompetens eller relationsbyggande?: Om begreppsförvirring i jakten på ett gott SAM-arbete2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I svensk litteratur om företagshälsovård (FHV) och inköp eller upphandling av FHV förekommer begreppet beställarkompetens. Det används som ett sätt att beskriva brister i hur inköp av företagshälsovårdande tjänster planeras och genomförs. Syftet med denna rapport har varit att utreda innebörden av begreppet beställarkompetens gällande inköp av arbetsmiljörelaterade tjänster såsom de tjänster som ryms inom svensk FHV. Detta har genomförts dels genom en explorativ litteraturstudie av svensk och delvis utländsk litteratur som rör FHV, upphandling, inköp av tjänster och svensk arbetsmiljölagstiftning, och dels genom intervjuer med två köpare av arbetsmiljörelaterade tjänster samt två sakkunniga i området.

    Den främsta slutsatsen som dragits är att användandet av begreppet beställarkompetens inte tillför något till företagshälsovårdsdebatten och att det därför bör undvikas. Detta då användandet i sig grundar sig i en skev syn på beställarkompetens som något som enbart ligger hos beställaren, medan det egentligen handlar om en samlad kompetens hos köparen och leverantören av dessa tjänster. Begreppet används för att beskriva både administrativ kompetens att genomföra upphandlingar av dessa tjänster på ett adekvat sätt, och för att beskriva kompetens att identifiera och matcha behov i organisationer mot rätt tjänst med rätt innehåll. För en god samlad kompetens kring inköp av dessa tjänster behöver båda parter, köpare och leverantör, se varandra som samarbetspartners med det gemensamma målet att nå ett gott systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. Att begreppet beställarkompetens används i dessa sammanhang är ett tecken på en bristfällig dialog parterna emellan. Kartläggningen av nyttjande och upphandling av svensk FHV är begränsad och forskningen i detsamma närmare obefintlig. För att kunna öka samarbetet mellan företag och FHV är det av största vikt att få dokumenterat att och hur FHV:s arbete är till nytta för företags produktion och ekonomi. Detta är en förutsättning för att FHV ska kunna marknadsföra sig själv och därmed också nå ut med tjänster som verkligen ger effekt för företagen.

  • 2257.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Karltun, Anette
    Visual management in hospitals during organizational developments: Benefits and contributions for working conditions and efficacy.2015In: Proceedings from 9th NOVO Symposium, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many hospitals choose to use certain tools related to lean, such as visual management (VM) during organizational development (OD) and daily processes. By using VM in the strategic planning process and depending on what is visualized in what stage of the planning process, different cognitive, social and emotional benefi ts may be gained. Research on VM in healthcare has so far concerned case studies of VM in surgical departments or during OD, and there is a lack of studies with rich empirical data. The aim of this paper was to explore VM use at hospital units undergoing OD; the main VM focus, and the benefi ts and perceived VM contributions concerning working conditions and efficacy.

  • 2258.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Karltun, Anette
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Visualizing improvements of care processes- supporting engagement and perceived systems performance in improvement work2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2259.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Organization of change agents during care process redesign in Swedish health care2016In: Journal of Hospital Administration, ISSN 1927-6990, E-ISSN 1927-7008, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 20-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish health care organizations (HCOs) are changing using management concepts such as Lean, in attempts of improving efficiency, quality of care and work environment. Since there are pre-conditional challenges for operative managers to engage in change, HCOs tend to assign supportive functions such as change agents (CAs) to facilitate change. Research on the use of CAs in HCOs is sparse, thus the aim of this study explores role assignments and conditions of formally appointed CAs contributing to care process redesign.

    Methods: A purposive sample of three Swedish hospitals initiating Lean-inspired care process redesign during 2010–2011 was done. In-depth interviews were held with fifty-one key functions during change. Focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-eight health care professionals. Data were analysed by content analysis.

    Results: Top managers’ goal was to have operative management responsible for change during care process redesign, with support from assigned CAs. Organizing of CAs varied concerning, e.g. their hierarchical positions, job descriptions and practices, and conditions to act as driving forces towards change. Being granted formal power, having earned legitimacy and credibility, clarity regarding roles and responsibilities in change; a good sense of timing and ability to build relationships and trust, were identified as beneficial for CAs to support change.

    Conclusions: Role assignment and organizing of CAs varies. A position closer to the operative levels, formalized and clarified responsibilities, earned legitimacy and timing support adaptation and alignment of planned change, such as Lean-inspired care process redesign.

  • 2260.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    The organization and work practice of change agents in health care organizations; effects on health care professionals’ engagement and participation in improvement work2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2261.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Who are the change agents when hospitals are implementing Lean?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2262.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Anette
    Jönköping University.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Gothenburg.
    Visual management; condition or consequence to social capital and clinical engagement among nurses?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2263.
    Wilson, Feras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Kourie, Jack
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Dynamisk tolkning och konvertering av data till ett superformat2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2264. Winger, Anette
    et al.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Bruun Wyller, Vegard
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway .
    Pain and quality of life among adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2265. Winger, Anette
    et al.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway .
    Wyller, Vegard B.
    Helseth, Solvi
    'Sometimes it feels as if the world goes on without me': adolescents' experiences of living with chronic fatigue syndrome2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 17-18, p. 2649-2657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. To explore the experience of being an adolescent with chronic fatigue syndrome. Background. Despite ample research, chronic fatigue syndrome is still poorly understood, and there are still controversies related to the illness. Adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome are often unable to attend school and lose social relations with friends. The challenges they face will affect their quality of life. Design. A qualitative, phenomenological hermeneutical design. Method. Six boys and twelve girls, aged 12-18, were interviewed, emphasising their own experiences living with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analyses were performed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Results. The core theme, 'Sometimes it feels as if the world goes on without me', encompasses the feelings an adolescent living with chronic fatigue syndrome might have about life. The core theme was supported by four subthemes: 'On the side of life - locked in and shut out'; 'the body, the illness and me'; 'if the illness is not visible to others, does it exist?'; and 'handling life while hoping for a better future'. The subthemes reflect the experience of social isolation, their own and others' understanding of the illness and hope for the future. Conclusions. Not being able to be with friends, or attend school, made the adolescents feel different and forgotten. They felt alienated in their own bodies and were struggling to be visible to themselves and to their surroundings. Spending less time with friends and more time with their parents constituted a threat to independence and development. Yet they managed to envision a better future despite all the difficulties. Relevance for clinical practice. To provide effective support and constructive relations to adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome, all health professions involved need insight from the persons who are themselves ill. Health centres could function as resource centres for patients and healthcare professionals.

  • 2266. Winger, Anette
    et al.
    Kvarstein, Gunnvald
    Wyller, Vegard Bruun
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Sulheim, Dag
    Fagermoen, Even
    Smastuen, Milada Cvancarova
    Helseth, Solvi
    Health related quality of life in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: a cross-sectional study2015In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 13, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study health related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and to investigate in which domains their HRQOL and depressive symptoms differ from those of healthy adolescents. Background and objective: Several symptoms such as disabling fatigue, pain and depressive symptoms affect different life domains of adolescents with CFS. Compared to adolescents with other chronic diseases, young people with CFS are reported to be severely impaired, both physiologically and mentally. Despite this, few have investigated the HRQOL in this group. Method: This is a cross-sectional study on HRQOL including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 healthy controls (HC), between 12 and 18 years. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (TM), 4.0 (PedsQL) was used to assess HRQOL. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire assessed depressive symptoms. Data were collected between March 2010 and October 2012 as part of the NorCAPITAL project (Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial). Linear and logistic regression models were used in analysis, and all tests were two-sided. Results: Adolescents with CFS reported significantly lower overall HRQOL compared to HCs. When controlling for gender differences, CFS patients scored 44 points lower overall HRQOL on a scale from 0-100 compared to HCs. The domains with the largest differences were interference with physical health (B = -59, 95 % CI -54 to -65) and school functioning (B = -52, 95 % CI -45 to -58). Both depressive symptoms and being a patient were independently associated with lower levels of HRQOL Conclusion: The difference in HRQOL between CFS patients and healthy adolescents was even larger than we expected. The large sample of adolescents with CFS in our study confirms previous findings from smaller studies, and emphasizes that CFS is a seriously disabling condition that has a strong impact on their HRQOL. Even though depressive symptoms were found in the group of patients, they could not statistically explain the poor HRQOL.

  • 2267. Winter, R.
    et al.
    Mobasseri, Y.
    Nowak, J.
    Saha, S.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Colour-coded tissue tracking is an accurate, fast, and simple tool for identification of non-ischemic patients in the hand of inexperienced stress echocardiography reader2006In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 124A-124AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 2268.
    Winther, Viktor
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Translation of Clinical Rupture Risk Factors for the Biomechanics based AAA Simulations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The abdominal aorta is the largest blood vessel in the abdomen and the main supplier of blood to the lower body. An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an unnatural enlargement of the abdominal aorta, which is a serious condition with a high risk of mortality. If the aneurysm exceeds a certain diameter or growth rate, surgical interventions are justified. Use of a diameter-based criterion has been proven to be inaccurate though since some smaller aneurysms can rupture whilst some larger aneurysms remain quiescent. A biomechanical rupture risk assessment (BRRA) that utilizes the finite element method can be used to evaluate the risk of aneurysm rupture. The BRRA calculates the stresses in the aneurysm based upon CT scans and patients blood pressure. Comparing the stresses with the strength of wall in the aneurysm makes it possible to evaluate the risk of rupture. If the stress exceeds the strength, the aneurysm will rupture. To calculate the strength of the vessel wall, a strength equation is used. The strength equation consists of risk factors such as family history, gender, intra luminal pressure and aneurysm diameter. To individualize the assessment further it would be possible to identify and use other risk factors.

    Rupture risk factors were searched for through two spate literature searches. To identify the risk factors the search utilized keywords such as “rupture risk factors” and “abdominal aortic aneurysm” together with “peak wall stress” or “wall stress”. The search also used a state of the art article from previous research, which contained a list of risk factors that could be searched for. For a factor to be used in this study they had to be global risk factors. Instead of increasing the risk of rupture in a localised point in the aneurysm, a global factor affects the aneurysm uniformly throughout its entirety.

    The search focused on statistical trials that evaluate the factors impact on wall stress or wall strength. An AAA wall strength equation was constructed based on the rupture risk factors that were identified. This equation was translated into the Finite element analysis program (FEAP) to evaluate its behaviour. A statistical analysis was performed in Matlab using data from the program A4CLINICS developed by VASCOPS gMBh. Using 41 patients along with known patient characteristics and CT scans Biomechanical rupture risk assessment (BRRA) was conducted using the new strength equation.

    The assessment resulted in a new peak wall rupture index (PWRI). The resulting data was separated into two groups based upon their volume growth rate, one fast growing and one slow growing group. This separation was done for both the VASCOPS strength equation and the new one. Pearson correlation testing was used to test the correlation between both strength equations and volume growth or diameter growth. To evaluate the sensitivity of the strength equation, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were also used.

    The PWRI in fast and slow groups were not different (p-values of 0.1257 for VASCOPS and 0.0679 for the new equation). The Pearson correlation coefficients showed a higher correlation between new PWRI and volume growth compared to diameter growth. The new PWRI had a higher sensitivity for predicting the volume growth compared to the diameter growth. Initial volume and diameter had the highest sensitivity of all predictors.

    The new PWRI could be used to predict volume growth. Volume growth is a potential predictor of aneurysm rupture, which indicates the new PWRI can be used in the BRRA. But to achieve results with statistical significance, new simulations using larger population must be performed and the strength equation must be revised.

  • 2269. Wollmann, Thomas
    et al.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Eghdam, Abouzar
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Haag, Martin
    Koch, Sabine
    User-Centred Design and Usability Evaluation of a Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Game2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4, p. 5531-5539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicatorof a malfunctioning autonomic nervous system. Resonant frequencybreathing is a potential non-invasive means of intervention for improvingthe balance of the autonomic nervous system and increasing HRV. However,such breathing exercises are regarded as boring and monotonous tasks.The use of gaming elements (gamification) or a full gaming experience is awell-recognised method for achieving higher motivation and engagement invarious tasks. However, there is limited documented knowledge on how todesign a game for breathing exercises. In particular, the influence of additionalinteractive elements on the main course of training has not yet beenexplored. In this study, we evaluated the satisfaction levels achieved usingdifferent game elements and how disruptive they were to the main task, i.e.,paced breathing training.

    Methods: An Android flight game was developed with three game modes thatdiffer in the degrees of multitasking they require. Design, development and evaluation were conducted using a user-centred approach, including contextanalysis, the design of game principle mock-ups, the selection of game principlesthrough a survey, the design of the game mechanics and GUI mock-up,icon testing and the performance of a summative study through user questionnairesand interviews. A summative evaluation of the developed gamewas performed with 11 healthy participants (ages 40-67) in a controlled setting.Results: The results confirm the potential of video games for motivatingplayers to engage in HRV biofeedback training. The highest training performanceon the first try was achieved through pure visualisation rather thanin a multitasking mode. Players had higher motivation to play the morechallenging game and were more interested in long-term engagement.Conclusion: A framework for gamified HRV biofeedback research is presented.It has been shown that multitasking has considerable influence onHRV biofeedback and should be used with an adaptive challenge level.

  • 2270.
    Woodhouse, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Samverkan mellan myndigheter: gemensam satsning för minskad ohälsa2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration is a recurring topic in the public debate, and is often seen as a possible solution to many problems. When the disease rate kept increasing in the early 2000s, the Swedish government decided to allocate funds to enable government agencies to set up projects, as a step towards reversing the trend. The disease rate in Sweden fell between the years 2002 and 2010, and then started increasing again. There is still a need for measures to be taken in order to improve the working environment and reduce ill health in society.

    This paper describes the interactions in a joint project concerning health ratios. The main objective is to identify the conditions for a group of government agencies, called the Centro-group, and to study the interaction between the participating authorities. A second objective is to carry out a literature review of the cooperation, collaboration and related concepts. The third objective is to describe and analyse the remaining results of the joint project. From a Human-Technology-Organisation (HTO) and Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) perspective, it is interesting to see if cooperation between organizations can contribute to a better working environment and to reducing morbidity.

    This paper is written during two periods. During the first part I studied the Centro authorities' Health accounting Project, and in the second part I followed up what happened with the authorities' use of key indicators. Through participant observation, combined with individual interviews, I studied the authorities' cooperation during the project. Based on the theoretical background of the platform needed for successful cooperation, the participants described the project's conditions based on the parameters; reliance, equal relations, time and resources, as well as external support.

    The results showed that there were good conditions for the project, as they were defined in the theoretical platform. The project was carried out as planned and delivered a result consisting of joint health indicators and a final report. Over time it has been shown that the health indicators were not used as intended, because only two of the authorities use the key indicators in their Annual Report. The main reasons that the health indicators did not have the intended impact were reported to be reorganisations, difficulties with the digital transmission, as well as replacement of employees in certain key positions.

  • 2271.
    Wramsten Wilmar, Maria
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Managers in healthcare organizations and their interactions with the media2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The combination of three forces, the organizations’ desire for visibility, the citizens’ interest in the HSOs and the increasing pressure upon journalists to attract the interest of the audiences have all contributed to the fact that HSO managers nowadays have more interactions with the media than ever before.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper knowledge about HSO managers’ interaction with the media; their experience of the interaction, strategies and support.

    Method: The material of the study A was subject to a qualitative research approach along the lines of grounded theory, whereas content analysis was applied to study B.

    Results: The results show how the personal consequences as well as the consequences for their managerial practice vary in accordance with the extent to which the manager, the organization and the media attribute individual focus. The amount of support and from where within the organization the support was offered varied. When the managers did receive support from within their organization, it primarily came from co-workers or subordinates. Any strategies for interactions with the media were rarely organization-wide or even put into writing. Instead, they were defined by the managers themselves along the way.

    Discussion: The managers’ interactions with the media may be influenced both on a managerial and organizational level. Neither manager nor organization seem to profit from an individual focus, at least not in the long term.

    Conclusions: The result indicate the grade of reactions, stand in relation to the level of personification. Also the results suggests that this was influenced by the manager him- or herself, the organization as a whole and by the media. Managers tended to strive for an open and proactive strategy in relation to the media. They did not perceive much support and felt they were expected to handle the interactions with the media all on their own.

  • 2272.
    Wramsten Wilmar, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Ahlborg, Gunnar, Jr.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Healthcare managers in negative media focus: a qualitative study of personification processes and their personal consequences2014In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 14, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the last decade healthcare management and managers have increasingly been in focus in public debate. The purpose of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of how prolonged, unfavorable media focus can influence both the individual as a person and his or her managerial practice in the healthcare organization. Methods: In-depth interviews (n = 49) with 24 managers and their superiors, or subordinate human resources/information professionals, and partners were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results: The conceptual model explains how perceived uncertainties related to the managerial role influence personification and its negative consequences. The role ambiguities comprised challenges regarding the separation of individual identity from the professional function, the interaction with intra-organizational support and political play, and the understanding and acceptance of roles in society. A higher degree of uncertainty in role ambiguity increased both personification and the personal reaction to intense media pressure. Three types of reactions were related to the feeling of being infringed: avoidance and narrow-mindedness; being hard on self, on subordinates, and/or family members; and resignation and dejection. The results are discussed so as to elucidate the importance of support from others within the organization when under media scrutiny. Conclusions: The degree of personification seems to determine the personal consequences as well as the consequences for their managerial practice. Organizational support for managers appearing in the media would probably be beneficial for both the manager and the organization.

  • 2273.
    Wramsten Wilmar, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. Högskolan i Borås.
    Ahlborg, Gunnar
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Psykologiska Inst, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Healthcare managers and media attention: a qualitative study of support and actions during media attention2016Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2274. Wu, Lyndia C.
    et al.
    Laksari, Kaveh
    Kuo, Calvin
    Luck, Jason F.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Bass, Cameron R. 'Dale'
    Camarillo, David B.
    Bandwidth and sample rate requirements for wearable head impact sensors2016In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 49, no 13, p. 2918-2924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable inertial sensors measure human head impact kinematics important to the on-going development and validation of head injury criteria. However, sensor specifications have not been scientifically justified in the context of the anticipated field impact dynamics. The objective of our study is to determine the minimum bandwidth and sample rate required to capture the impact frequency response relevant to injury. We used high-bandwidth head impact data as ground-truth measurements, and investigated the attenuation of various injury criteria at lower bandwidths. Given a 10% attenuation threshold, we determined the minimum bandwidths required to study injury criteria based on skull kinematics and brain deformation in three different model systems: helmeted cadaver (no neck), unhelmeted cadaver (no neck), and helmeted dummy impacts (with neck). We found that higher bandwidths are required for unhelmeted impacts in general and for studying strain rate injury criteria. Minimum gyroscope bandwidths of 300 Hz in helmeted sports and 500 Hz in unhelmeted sports are necessary to study strain rate based injury criteria. A minimum accelerometer bandwidth of 500 Hz in unhelmeted sports is necessary to study most injury criteria. Current devices typically sample at 1000 Hz, with gyroscope bandwidths below 200 Hz, which are not always sufficient according to these requirements. With hard contact test conditions, the identified requirements may be higher than most soft contacts on the field, but should be satisfied to capture the worst contact, and often higher risk, scenarios relative to the specific sport or activity. Our findings will help establish standard guidelines for sensor choice and design in traumatic brain injury research.

  • 2275.
    Wu, Weiling
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Carbon Footprint: A case study on the municipality of Haninge2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractCarbon Footprints, as an indicator of climate performance, help identify major GHG emission sources and potential areas of improvement. In the context of greatly expanding sub-national climate efforts, research on Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is timely and necessary to facilitate the establishment of local climate strategies. This study aims at exploring the methodologies for Carbon Footprint assessment at municipality level, based on the case study of Haninge municipality in Sweden. In the study, a Greenhouse Gas inventory of Haninge is developed and it is discussed how the municipality can reduce its Carbon Footprint. The Carbon Footprint of Haninge is estimated to be more than 338,225 tonnesCO2eq, and 4.5 tonnes CO2eq per capita. These numbers are twice as large as the production-based emissions, which are estimated to be 169,024 tonnes CO2eq in total, and approximately 2.3 tonnes CO2eq per capita. Among them the most important parts are emissions caused by energy use, and indirect emissions caused by local private consumption. It is worth noting that a large proportion of emissions occur outside Haninge as a result of local consumption. Intensive use of biomass for heat production and electricity from renewable sources and nuclear power have significantly reduced the climate impact of Haninge. The major barrier for Carbon Footprint accounting at municipality level is lack of local statistics. In the case of Sweden, several databases providing emission statistics are used in the research, including KRE, RUS, NIR and Environmental Account.

     

  • 2276. Wulff, Ragna
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Joakim
    Rutsdottir, Gudrun
    Hansson, Andreas
    Stenbaek, Anders
    Elmlund, Dominika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Elmlund, Hans
    Jensen, Paul Erik
    Hansson, Mats
    NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C and its possible involvement in the cyclase reaction of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathwayManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2277. Wulff, Ragna Peterson
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Joakim
    Rutsdottir, Gudrun
    Hansson, Andreas
    Stenbaek, Anne
    Elmlund, Dominika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Elmlund, Hans
    Jensen, Poul Erik
    Hansson, Mats
    The Activity of Barley NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase C Is Independent of the Oligomeric State of the Protein: Tetrameric Structure Determined by Cryo-Electron Microscopy2011In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 50, no 18, p. 3713-3723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase can regulate cell metabolism through redox regulation of disulfide bridges or through removal of H2O2. These two enzymatic functions are combined in NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), which contains an N-terminal thioredoxin reductase domain fused with a C-terminal thioredoxin domain. Rice NTRC exists in different oligomeric states, depending on the absence or presence of its NADPH cofactor. It has been suggested that the different oligomeric states may have diverse activity. Thus, the redox status of the chloroplast could influence the oligomeric state of NTRC and thereby its activity. We have characterized the oligomeric states of NTRC from barley (Hard rum vulgare L.). This also includes a structural model of the tetrameric NTRC derived from cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction. We conclude that the tetrameric NTRC is a dimeric arrangement of two NTRC homodimers. Unlike that of rice NTRC, the quaternary structure of barley NTRC complexes is unaffected by addition of NADPH. The activity of NTRC was tested with two different enzyme assays. The N-terminal part of NTRC was tested in a thioredoxin reductase assay. A peroxide sensitive Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase enzyme system of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway was used to test the catalytic ability of both the N- and C-terminal parts of NTRC. The different oligomeric assembly states do not exhibit significantly different activities. Thus, it appears that the activities are independent of the oligomeric state of barley NTRC.

  • 2278. Wågström, Elle
    et al.
    Johnson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Ferm-Widlund, Kjerstin
    Elmstedt, Nina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Liuba, Karina
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lundbäck, Stig
    Westgren, Magnus
    The cardiac state diagram as a novel approach for the evaluation of pre- and post-ejection phases of the cardiac cycle in asphyxiated fetal lambs2013In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 1682-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial wall motion using echocardiography and color-coded tissue velocity imaging and to generate a cardiac state diagram for evaluation of the duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases in asphyxiated fetal lambs. Six near-term lambs were partly exteriorized and brought to cardiac arrest through asphyxia. Echocardiography measurements were recorded simultaneously with arterial blood sampling for lactate and blood gases. All fetal lambs exhibited prolongation of the pre- and post-ejection phases at the time when the most pronounced changes in lactate concentration and pH occurred. The mean change in duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases for all fetal lambs was 36 +/- 7 ms (p < 0.002) and 77 +/- 17 ms (p < 0.019), respectively, and the percentage change was 50% (p < 0.001) and 38% (p < 0.049), respectively. As asphyxia progressed in fetal lambs, the duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases increased. The cardiac state diagram has the potential to be a comprehensible tool for detecting fetal asphyxia.

  • 2279. Wågström, Elle
    et al.
    Johnson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Ferm-Widlund, Kjerstin
    Elmstedt, Nina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Liuba, Karina
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Westgren, Magnus
    The Cardiac State Diagram as a novel approach for evaluation of phases of the cardiac cycle in asfyxiated fetal lambs2012In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 91, p. 144-144Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2280.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik.
    Multi-Sensor Data Synchronization using Mobile Phones2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Body sensor networking is a rapidly growing technology. Today wearable sensors are used to measure and monitor e.g. pulse, temperature, skin conductance, heart activity, and movement (through GPS or inertial measurement units). Mobile phones can act as coordinating nodes in wireless personal area networks used in home automation, healthcare, sport and wellness e.g. to measure pulse and distance. Integration of data from multiple sources sensors (data fusion) means that data from each sensor node needs to be associated with data from other sensor nodes sampled at approximately the same time. Accurate methods for time synchronization are therefore a necessary prerequisite for reliable data fusion.

    This thesis studies time synchronization problems in Bluetooth piconets between multiple wireless sensor nodes connected to a mobile phone that acts as coordinating node. Three different algorithms to enable correct data fusion have been developed, implemented and evaluated. The first is a single clock solution that synchronizes multiple wireless sensor nodes based solely on the mobile phone’s clock. The other two algorithms synchronize the clocks in sensor nodes to the clock in the coordinating node. 

  • 2281.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Real-time Performance Management of Assisted Living Services for Bluetooth Low Energy Sensor Communication2017In: Integrated Network and Service Management (IM), 2017 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PerfMon is a prototype implementation of a realtime performance management method for sensor data communication in assisted living applications. It is implemented in accordance with the specification for GATT services in Bluetooth low energy (BLE). PerfMon provides a tool for real-time performance monitoring and control for caregivers and service providers. Test results from monitoring and control of packet loss ratio related to alarm thresholds are presented. PerfMon is adapted to cloud-based web services using RESTful APIs and established object models. Performance management is a necessary component in an overall management system of IoT devices for healthcare and assisted living applications.

  • 2282.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Smartphone-Centric Wi-Fi Device-to-Device Sensor Communication for User Mobility in AAL Services2016In: Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 80-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates a use-case for smartphone-centric Wi-Fi device-to-device sensor communication that enables user mobility in ambient assisted living (AAL) services. A real-time performance measurement method has been developed and implemented to evaluate the smartphone’s ability to act as a hub and gateway for Wi-Fi connected sensor nodes. The results show that Wi-Fi Direct and Wi-Fi Hotspot are feasible solutions for smartphone-centric device-to-device communication that enables user mobility. In addition, a cloud-based web application for monitoring and displaying sensor data has been implemented.

  • 2283.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    A novel approach to multi-sensor data synchronization using mobile phones2011In: Proceedings of the 5th International ICST Conference on Body Area Networks: BodyNets 2010, 2011, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new algorithm for synchronization of data from multiple sensors arriving to a mobile phone's Bluetooth interface with possibly unknown and different sampling frequencies. A system that provides feedback signals to an athlete is one example where it is crucial to synchronize data from several wireless sensors; especially sensor nodes use different and unknown sampling rates.

  • 2284.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Local Time Synchronization in Bluetooth Piconets for Data Fusion Using Mobile Phones2011In: BSN 2011: 8th International Conference on Body Sensor Networks, 2011, p. 113-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method to synchronize the clocks in a Bluetooth piconet from the application layer in a mobile phone. It adapts algorithms for time synchronization of distributed systems and the Internet to Bluetooth networks. The performance issues that cause problems for data synchronization between master and slaves in Bluetooth are highlighted. The tests show that the synchronization error is limited to one sampling time.

  • 2285.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS) (Closed 20130701).
    A novel approch to multi-sensor data synchronisation using mobile phones2013In: International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, ISSN 1754-8632, E-ISSN 1754-8640, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new algorithm for application layer synchronisation of data from multiple sensors arriving to a mobile phone's Bluetooth interface. A system that provides feedback signals to an athlete is one example where it is crucial to synchronise data from several wireless sensors. This paper also discusses synchronisation problems caused by unpredictable Bluetooth transmission performance. 

  • 2286.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Sturm, Dennis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Performance evaluation of time synchronization and clock drift compensation in wireless personal area networks2012In: BodyNets '12 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Body Area Networks, ICST , 2012, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient algorithms for time synchronization, including compensation for clock drift, are essential in order to obtain reliable fusion of data samples from multiple wireless sensor nodes. This paper evaluates the performance of algorithms based on three different approaches; one that synchronizes the local clocks on the sensor nodes, and a second that uses a single clock on the receiving node (e.g. a mobile phone), and a third that uses broadcast messages. The performances of the synchronization algorithms are evaluated in wireless personal area networks, especially Bluetooth piconets and ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 networks. A new approach for compensation of clock drift and a realtime implementation of single node synchronization from the mobile phone are presented and tested. Finally, applications of data fusion and time synchronization are shown in two different use cases; a kayaking sports case, and monitoring of heart and respiration of prematurely born infants. 

  • 2287.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Sturm, Dennis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    ExecutiveSummary of AugmentIT: A Smart Phone App that generates kinematic feedback based on augmented reality data e.g. vidoeo and IMU (or other sensor) data2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2288.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Linlin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai, China .
    Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes2013In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2013, p. 1478-1481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the increased interest in wearable long-term healthcare monitoring systems, varieties of dry electrodes are proposed based on different materials with different patterns and structures. Most of the studies reported in the literature focus on proposing new electrodes and comparing its performance with commercial electrodes. Few papers are about detailed comparison among different dry electrodes. In this paper, printed metal-plate electrodes, textile based electrodes, and spiked electrodes are for the first time evaluated and compared under the same experimental setup. The contact impedance and noise characterization are measured. The in-vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is applied to evaluate the overall performance of different electrodes. Textile electrodes and printed electrodes gain comparable high-quality ECG signals. The ECG signal obtained by spiked electrodes is noisier. However, a clear ECG envelope can be observed and the signal quality can be easily improved by backend signal processing. The features of each type of electrodes are analyzed and the suitable application scenario is addressed.

  • 2289. Xiu, L.
    et al.
    Svensson, V.
    Johansson, E.
    Ek, A.
    Marcus, C.
    Ekstedt, M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Bedtime eating and sleep disturbances among 2 years old children2016In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, p. 326-327Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2290.
    Xu, Jia Cheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Jildenbäck, Manne
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Förbättring av energieffektivitet vid gång: En studie på patienter med höftledsartros efter total höftledsplastik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hip osteoarthritis is a common disease associated with everyday pain and limited mobility. This causes a change in gait characteristics during walking, which tends to give a lower energy efficiency than normal. For patients with hip osteoarthritis, hip arthroplasty is considered a last option due to the related risks of a surgery.

    To investigate whether the patients show signs of improvement after the surgery, through an energy efficiency standpoint, data have been collected through a gait analysis. In this study, gait analysis was performed on a healthy reference group to obtain reference data. Data from the patient group, which consisted of patients with hip osteoarthritis pre- and post surgery using total hip arthroplasty, THA, was given by Karolinska Institutet. To determine if THA is an appropriate action, data from the patients were compared to the reference data.

    By performing and collecting data through a gait analysis on a healthy reference group and on patients with hip osteoarthritis pre- and post surgery using total hip arthroplasty, THA, this study has investigated whether the patients show signs of improvement after the surgery and also if the patients differentiate from the reference group through an energy efficiency standpoint. This is used to determine whether THA is an appropriate action.

     The study showed a difference in energy efficiency pre- and post surgery. An obvious improvement after THA was shown in most of the patients (p = 0,0094). However, 36 % showed in at least one case, decreased- or an unchanged value in energy efficiency. Although, through an average standpoint only two patients showed decreased efficiency, but the patients after THA only reached an energy efficiency that was approximately half the efficiency of the reference group.

    The results in this study indicates that further studies are necessary. Considerable alternatives to THA, especially surface hip arthroplasty, SRA, as well as parameters such as pain and mobility should be examined with respect to energy efficiency. Until then, hip arthroplasty should still be considered a last option for patients.

  • 2291.
    Xu, Xiayu
    et al.
    School of Life Science and Technology,Xián University, Xián, China.
    Akay, Altug
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Wei, Huilin
    Wang, ShuQi
    Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Li, Xiujun
    Lee, Wongu
    Hu, Jie
    Wang, Lin
    Xu, Feng
    Advances in Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostics: This paper reviews the state-of-the-art advances in smartphone-based point-of-care diagnostic technologies and their applications in medicine and biology.2015In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 236-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is playing an increasingly important role in public health, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. Smartphones, alone or in conjunction with add-on devices, have shown great capability of data collection, analysis, display, and transmission, making them popular in POC diagnostics. In this article, the state-ofthe- art advances in smartphone-based POC diagnostic technologies and their applications in the past few years are outlined, ranging from in vivo tests that use smartphone’s built-in/external sensors to detect biological signals to in vitro tests that involves complicated biochemical reactions. Novel techniques are illustrated by a number of attractive examples, followed by a brief discussion of the smartphone’s role in telemedicine. The challenges and perspectives of smartphonebased POC diagnostics are also provided.

  • 2292. Yamamoto, T.
    et al.
    Nascimento, M. M.
    Hayashi, Shirley Y.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Qureshi, A. R.
    Waniewski, J.
    Brodin, L. A.
    Anderstam, B.
    Lind, B.
    Riella, M. C.
    Seeberger, A.
    Lindholm, B.
    Changes in circulating biomarkers during a single hemodialysis session2013In: Hemodialysis International, ISSN 1492-7535, E-ISSN 1542-4758, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hemodialysis (HD) procedure induces an inflammatory response potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated the acute impact of HD on circulating biomarkers. Circulating biomarkers (small solutes, middle molecular-sized peptides, and proteins) related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification (VC) were measured before and after a single session of HD in 45 clinically stable patients. Concentrations were corrected for ultrafiltration-induced hemoconcentration. Among vascular calcification-related biomarkers, osteoprotegerin and fetuin-A remained unchanged while fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) decreased by -19%. Changes of FGF23 and changes of phosphate correlated (ρ=0.61, P<0.001). While C-reactive protein did not change, interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased by 14% and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) increased by 45%. IL-6 and PTX3 appear to be valid biomarkers of the intradialytic inflammatory response. VC-related markers were in general not affected by the single HD session; however, the observed correlation between acute changes of FGF-23 and phosphate during HD warrants further studies.

  • 2293. Yamazaki, Junya
    et al.
    Gilgien, Matthias
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    McIntosh, Andrew S.
    Nachbauer, Werner
    Müller, Erich
    Bere, Tone
    Bahr, Roald
    Krosshaug, Tron
    Analysis of a Severe Head Injury in World Cup Alpine Skiing: A Case Report.2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1113-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in alpine skiing. It has been found that helmet use can reduce the incidence of head injuries between 15% and 60%. However, knowledge on optimal helmet performance criteria in World Cup alpine skiing is currently limited owing to the lack of biomechanical data from real crash situations. Purpose: This study aimed to estimate impact velocities in a severe TBI case in World Cup alpine skiing. Methods: Video sequences from a TBI case in World Cup alpine skiing were analyzed using a model-based image matching technique. Video sequences from four camera views were obtained in full high-definition (1080p) format. A three-dimensional model of the course was built based on accurate measurements of piste landmarks and matched to the background video footage using the animation software Poser 4. A trunk-neck-head model was used for tracking the skier's trajectory. Results: Immediately before head impact, the downward velocity component was estimated to be 8 m.s(-1). After impact, the upward velocity was 3 m.s(-1), whereas the velocity parallel to the slope surface was reduced from 33 m.s(-1) to 22 m.s(-1). The frontal plane angular velocity of the head changed from 80 radIsj1 left tilt immediately before impact to 20 rad.s(-1) right tilt immediately after impact. Conclusions: A unique combination of high-definition video footage and accurate measurements of landmarks in the slope made possible a high-quality analysis of head impact velocity in a severe TBI case. The estimates can provide crucial information on how to prevent TBI through helmet performance criteria and design.

  • 2294.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Development and validation of a novel iOS application for measuring arm inclination2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work in demanding postures is a known risk factor for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), specifically work with elevated arms may cause neck/shoulder disorders. Such a disorder is a tragedy for the individual, and costly for society. Technical measurements are more precise in estimating the work exposure, than observation and self-reports, and there is a need for uncomplicated methods for risk assessments. The aim of this project was to develop and validate an iOS application for measuring arm elevation angle.

    Such an application was developed, based on the built-in accelerometer and gyroscope of the iPhone/iPod Touch. The application was designed to be self-exploratory. Directly after a measurement, 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of angular distribution and median angular velocity, and percentage of time above 30°, 60°, and 90° are presented. The focused user group, ergonomists, was consulted during the user interface design phase. Complete angular datasets may be exported via email as text files for further analyses.

    The application was validated by comparison to the output of an optical motion capture system for four subjects. The two methods correlated above 0.99, with absolute error below 4.8° in arm flexion and abduction positions. During arm swing movements, the average root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) were 3.7°, 4.6° and 6.5° for slow (0.1 Hz), medium (0.4 Hz) and fast (0.8 Hz) arm swings, respectively. For simulated painting, the mean RMSDs was 5.5°.

    Since the accuracy was similar to other tested field research methods, this convenient and “low-cost” application should be useful for ergonomists, for risk assessments or educational use. The plan is to publish this iOS application on Apple Store (Apple Inc.) for free. New user feedback may further improve the user interface.

  • 2295.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Grooten, W. J. A.
    Forsman, M.
    An iPhone application for upper arm posture and movement measurements2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 65, p. 492-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4.6° and 4.8°. All root mean square differences in arm swings and two simulated work tasks were <6.0°, and all mean correlation coefficients were >0.98. The mean absolute iOS-OTS difference of median angular velocity was <13.1°/s, which was significantly lower than only using an accelerometer (<43.5°/s). The accuracy of this iOS application compares well to that of today's research methods and it can be useful for practical upper arm measurements.

  • 2296.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lu, Ke
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    A pilot study of using smart clothes for physicalworkload assessment2017In: JOY AT WORK, Lund, Sweden, 2017, p. 169-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2297.
    Yang, Zhen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Ståställningens påverkan på lederna i de nedre extremiteterna: en pilotstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn med en allvarlig cerebral pares (CP) diagnos har begränsad eller obefintlig förmåga att stå självständigt. Tillståndet medför även en stor risk för subluxation i höftlederna. En befintlig teori bland ortopeder och sjukgymnaster idag är att hjälpmedel för ståträning för barn med CP, såsom ståskal, med höfter i ett abducerade läge kan motverka höftledernas negativa utveckling. Hittills saknas det dock vetenskapliga bevis för denna teori.

    TeamOlmed Barn & Ungdom tillverkar ståskal med 30 graders abduktionsvinkel enligt teorin ovan. Men kunskaperna inom området är begränsade och företaget önskade undersöka om hypotesen stämmer och hur de biomekaniska förutsättningarna påverkas av ståskalen.

    Detta examensarbete fokuserar på olika ståställningar i abduktion för en frisk person och dess inverkan i de nedre extremiteterna i syfte att undersöka den befintliga teorin. Rörelseanalyssystemet Vicon Nexus användes för datainsamling och analys av moment kring knälederna. Vid analys av krafterna i höftlederna användes OpenSim, ett simuleringsprogram för det muskuloskeletala systemet i 3D.

    Resultatet från Vicon visar att knäna har ett inre varusmoment i frontalplanet, vilket är ofarligt för knälederna, i såväl abducerade som vanlig höftposition. Simuleringsresultatet från OpenSim visar att kraftvektorernas riktningar ändras i samband med ändringar av abduktionsvinklar. Detta betyder att kraftvektorernas riktningar i höfterna, uttryckta i femurs koordinatsystem, är snarlika för ståpositioner med olika abduktionsvinklar. Beloppet av kontaktkraften ökade dock med ökande höftabduktionsvinkel.

    Momenten som uppstår vid olika ståställningar är ofarliga för knälederna och kraftvektorernas riktningar i höfterna är oberoende av abduktionsvinklarna för en frisk person. Den enda skillnaden i höftbelastning med stående i höftabduktion var ökade belopp av höftkontaktkrafter. För att noggrannt kunna utvärdera huruvida en ökad kontaktkraft kan påverka höftens tendens att migrera ur led, samt huruvida liknande observationer finns hos patienter med CP skador i sina ståskal, krävs det vidare studier. Tack vare observationerna av denna pilotstudie kan man ställa mer relevanta studiefrågor kring biomekaniska mekanismer i en större studie med barn med CP-diagnoser.

  • 2298.
    Ye, Luming
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Perception Metrics in Medical Imaging2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2299. Yogev, Daniel
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Pisot, Rado
    Biolo, Gianni
    di Prampero, Pietro
    Narici, Marco
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on behavioural thermoregulation2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the effect of 21 days of horizontal bed rest on cutaneous cold and warm sensitivity, and on behavioural temperature regulation. Healthy male subjects (N = 10) were accommodated in a hospital ward for the duration of the study and were under 24-h medical care. All activities (eating, drinking, hygiene, etc.) were conducted in the horizontal position. On the 1st and 22nd day of bed rest, cutaneous temperature sensitivity was tested by applying cold and warm stimuli of different magnitudes to the volar region of the forearm via a Peltier element thermode. Behavioural thermoregulation was assessed by having the subjects regulate the temperature of the water within a water-perfused suit (T (wps)) they were wearing. A control unit established a sinusoidal change in T (wps), such that it varied from 27 to 42A degrees C. The subjects could alter the direction of the change of T (wps), when they perceived it as thermally uncomfortable. The magnitude of the oscillations towards the end of the trial was assumed to represent the upper and lower boundaries of the thermal comfort zone. The cutaneous threshold for detecting cold stimulus decreased (P < 0.05) from 1.6 (1.0)A degrees C on day 1 to 1.0 (0.3)A degrees C on day 22. No effect was observed on the ability to detect warm stimuli or on the regulated T (wps). We conclude that although cold sensitivity increased after bed rest, it was not of sufficient magnitude to cause any alteration in behavioural thermoregulatory responses.

  • 2300.
    Yu, Sicong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Hamid Muhammad, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Denoising of SPECT-image sinogram-data before reconstruction2014In: WMSCI 2014 - 18th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings, 2014, Vol. 1, p. 202-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear medicine images have low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to several physical limitations which degrade the image quality considerably. In this study, the Gaussian filter and the patch confidence Gaussian filter (PCG) were used to improve the image quality for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The new approach applies these filtering methods on the acquired 2D-projections before reconstructing the image. The new approach was evaluated on a SPECT dataset and the performance was compared with several conventional methods presented in the literature.

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