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  • 151.
    Ayas, Ebru
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Engineering Quality Feelings: Applications in products, service environments and work systems2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary quality issues in product design are moving from materialistic to emotional user fulfillment; comprehensive research is needed to examine quality product feelings. This research is directed toward a deeper understanding of user and customer quality feelings for different product types, including services.

    The quality feelings concept includes dimensions of product quality, especially functionality, ergonomics and aesthetics. The first objective of this thesis is to identify, prioritize and synthesize quality feelings into product attributes in product development applications. The second objective is to explore, test and propose methodological approaches for designing quality feelings into products.

    Several methods from psychology, ergonomics, statistics and probabilistic methods and heuristics were applied to achieve the objectives. From a methodological viewpoint, Likert scales, free elicitation technique and Just About Right scales were applied for data collection. Multiple Regression, Factor Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Genetic algorithms, Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Rough Sets (RS) were applied for data analyses. For ergonomic product evaluations, direct observations, 3D workload simulations, time and frequency analyses were conducted.

    Five product applications are included in this thesis: operator driver cabin design of reach trucks, steering wheel design trigger switch design in right-angled nutrunners, bed-making systemsproducts and waiting room environments.

    Heuristic methods were found effective when there is a high number of product attributes that interact to provide quality feelings. RS results are consistent with PLS attribute predictions. When the number of product attributes is large in comparison to the number of observations, PLS extracts informative results for quality feelings. The RS method is effective in identifying interactions among design attributes.

    Quality feelings are associated with both tangible (tactile characteristics) and intangible (quick and easy to use) product characteristics. Words such as safety, functionality, ergonomics, comfort, reliability, supportiveness, usability, feedback, pleasantness, attractiveness, durability and distinctiveness describe quality feelings from tangible products and services. Based on product type, the quality dimensions represented by these words possess different interactions and dependencies. In work environments, products act as prostheses between workers for social interaction, which need to be considered as important quality feelings dimensions.

  • 152.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    An Affective Engineering Assessment of a Hospital Bedding System Innovation2011In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing bedding products requires consideration of human-product interactions such as usability and quality aspects besides ergonomics and productivity. Previous studies focus on finding associations between discomfort evaluations and physiological measurements of conventional bedding. The purpose of this study is to assess a new bedding system by observing affective and discomfort perceptions, physical loads, and time usage by nursing personnel. Fourteen nursese valuated a conventional and a new bedding system. Results suggest that nurses’ quality perceptions and overall experiences with the new bedding were positive. Considering physical loads the average time and frequency of bending forward were significantly lower for the new bedding versus conventional bedding. The time analysis yielded significant improvements to make a bed with the new bedmaking system. Quality perceptions were associated with tactile qualities (e.g. soft, nice to touch, etc.) and applicability (e.g. quick setup) for both bedmaking systems.

  • 153.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper seeks to deal with affective design of waiting areas (servicescapes) and has twofold aims. The first, is to explore affective values for waiting areas. The second, is to identify interactions between physical design attributes and affective values.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study included a free association method for data collection, applying Kansei engineering methodology to extract design solutions relating to specific feelings. The study was undertaken at six primary health centres in Östergötland County, Sweden. In total, 88 participants (60 patients and 28 staff) were interviewed.

    Findings – The selected waiting areas show significant differences for their perceived affective qualities. The most desired feeling for creating affective values is found to be “calm”. The core design attributes contributing to this feeling are privacy, colours, child play-areas and green plants. Good design of lighting, seating arrangements and a low sound level are also important design attributes to give a more complete design solution.

    Research limitations/implications – The study provides useful insights for understanding affective needs in servicescapes, and it provides design suggestions. The results have not been analysed separately for gender or different age groups.

    Practical implications – The paper proposes a framework model to be applied when dealing with affective values in servicescapes.

    Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to understand affective values towards the physical environment in servicescape design. It offers a methodology to study complex environments with many alternative design solutions using limited resources. Moreover, this study uses a combination of a free association method and Rough Sets theory in affective design.

  • 154.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    Affective engineering evaluation of non-linear trigger switch mechanisms2011In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The trigger switch mechanisms of nutrunners are important for operators to perceive feedback while tightening bolt joints. Previous studies focus on associations between discomfort evaluations and powered tool operation. This paper addresses how operator preferences are linked with functionality requirements from trigger switch mechanisms. Subjects evaluated five switch mechanism prototypes regarding perceptions of quality, feedback, firmness, and distinctness. Results suggest that loading and unloading phases of trigger operation are significant predictors of perceptions of quality. The trigger switch mechanism with a combination of high peak-drop-bottom forces was perceived with better quality, feedback, and distinctness in comparison to the other mechanisms. The study also revealed that when the switch mechanism was designed to give more distinctness and feedback, higher quality is perceived.

  • 155.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    An Analysis on Affective Design of Servicescapes2009In: Proceedings of 12 th QMOD and Toulon-Verona Conference on Quality and Service Sciences, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    Kansei/Affective Engineering Applied to Triggers in Powered Tools2011In: Kansei/Affective Engineering / [ed] Nagamachi, Mitsuo, CRC , 2011, p. 275-293Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Jörgen, Eklund
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Identifying trigger feeling factors2010In: International Conference on Kansei Engineeringand Emotional Research (KEER), Paris, France, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trigger mechanism design in power hand tools is of great importance for communicating with the operator and for providing feedback on operational functioning. Therefore, for a successful power hand tool design, knowledge about how the trigger mechanism feels is required.

    This study aims to define and investigate the design factors related with trigger tactile feeling for electrical right angled nutrunners. A Kansei Engineering (Affective Engineering) study has been conducted for a comparison between users´ (operators that work at an automotive assembly plant) and product developers´ (product development group of a power hand tool manufacturer) to find common and differing semantic expression dimensions for that. 124 Kansei words (descriptors) were collected from literature, interviews and workshops. These words were reduced to 52 by affinity analysis and evaluated by operators and product developers using semantic differential technique.

    From the operator group`s responses six factors (explain 87% of variation ) were extracted as, “professional performance”, “safety and tactile feeling”, “usability”, “smooth operation”, ”communication and durability”, “convenient and comfortable” to define trigger feeling. Correspondingly, five factors (explain 89% of variation) “robust and appealing”, “ergonomics and operator performance”, “controllability and predictability”, “creativity and modern” and“powerful” were distinguished for the product development group. Results showed that the start phase and especially quick start of trigger mechanism is more important to operators, while end feedback is more important to product developers. Soft start of the trigger is correlated with ergonomics, optimal, clear operation and performance for product developers while soft start together with end feedback are associated with well-built, convenient and safe trigger characteristics for operators. According to the results from average ratings the Kansei word “ergonomic” has been rated as the most important descriptor for trigger feeling together with “user-friendly”, “easy to use”, “long life time” and “comfortable” for both groups. By developing a questionnaire using the factors and variables identified; this questionnaire can be used to assess views of operators about trigger functioning and to know how do operators feel about new types of trigger mechanisms.

  • 158. Aydoǧan, R.
    et al.
    Lo, J. C.
    Meijer, Sebastian A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Jonker, C. M.
    Modeling network controller decisions based upon situation awareness through agent-based negotiation2014In: 44th International Simulation and Gaming Association Conference, ISAGA 2013 and 17th IFIP WG 5.7 Workshop on Experimental Interactive Learning in Industrial Management, Springer-Verlag Tokyo Inc., 2014, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dutch railway traffic control is in an urgent need for innovation and therefore turns to gaming simulation as a platform to test and train future configurations of the system. The presence of relevant participants is necessary to keep the fidelity of the gaming simulation high. Network controllers are often needed in such games, but are expensive, scarce, and often have limited action, thus making their involvement less than desirable. To overcome this, the current paper introduces the use of intelligent software agents to replace some roles. The cognitive construct of situation awareness is required to model the evaluation of an offer in a negotiation setting, in which a situation awareness model (SAM) is introduced for evaluating offers in complex and dynamic systems.

  • 159.
    Ayele, Yohannes Haileyesus
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Region-Based Contrast Transfer Function correction for Electron Microscopy Images2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electron crystallography is one of the methods for determining the structure of membrane proteins. However, the resolution that we get from electron crystallography of membrane proteins is limited by crystal disorder and inaccurate determination of contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters. To overcome these problems, we applied single particle refinement with local averaging for long range variation of the crystals and local region-based CTF correction for the tilted images. These two corrections are done on the Melibiose Permease (MelB) data sets and a resolution of 8.6Å is reported.

  • 160. Ayllnon, David
    et al.
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible.

  • 161.
    Ayllon, David
    et al.
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications.
    Cole equation and parameter estimation from electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements: A comparative study2009In: EMBC: 2009 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-20, Buenos Aires: IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology , 2009, p. 3779-3782Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since there are several applications of Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) that use the Cole parameters as base of the analysis, to fit EBI measured data onto the Cole equation is a very common practice within Multifrequency-EBI and spectroscopy. The aim of this paper is to compare different fitting methods for EBI data in order to evaluate their suitability to fit the Cole equation and estimate the Cole parameters. Three of the studied fittings are based on the use of Non-Linear Least Squares on the Cole model, one using the real part only, a second using the imaginary part and the third using the complex impedance. Furthermore, a novel fitting method done on the impedance plane, without using any frequency information has been implemented and included in the comparison. Results show that the four methods perform relatively well but the best fitting in terms of standard error of estimate is the fitting obtained from the resistance only. The results support the possibility of measuring only the resistive part of the bioimpedance to accurately fit Cole equation and estimate the Cole parameters, with entailed advantages.

  • 162. Azar, J.C.
    et al.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Automated Tracking of the Carotid Artery in Ultrasound Image Sequences Using a Self Organizing Neural Network2010In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2010), Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010, p. 2548-2551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated method for the segmentation and tracking of moving vessel walls in 2D ultrasound image sequences is introduced. The method was tested on simulated and real ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery. Tracking was achieved via a self organizing neural network known as Growing Neural Gas. This topology-preserving algorithm assigns a net of nodes connected by edges that distributes itself within the vessel walls and adapts to changes in topology with time. The movement of the nodes was analyzed to uncover the dynamics of the vessel wall. By this way, radial and longitudinal strain and strain rates have been estimated. Finally, wave intensity signals were computed from these measurements. The method proposed improves upon wave intensity wall analysis, WIWA, and opens up a possibility for easy and efficient analysis and diagnosis of vascular disease through noninvasive ultrasonic examination.

  • 163.
    Azhari, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Raghothama, Jayanth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    A Design and Implementation of Interactive Visualizations and Simulation in Transportation2014In: The Shift from Teaching to Learning: Individual, Collective and Organizational Learning Through Gaming Simulation: Proceedings of the 45th Conferenceof the International Simulation and Gaming Association, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation Planners have a long history of using Geographical Information Systems, Simulation Models and Visualizations for decision support. A frame-work that integrates all three can provide enhanced decision support, opportuni-ties for training and planning future scenarios. In the current paper, we describe the concept of such a framework and the first steps toward its development.

  • 164.
    B. Kumar, Ramakrishnan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Zhu, Lin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Jegerschöld, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet, Sverige.
    Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins by Transmission Electron Microscopy2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 121, article id e55148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monotopic proteins exert their function when attached to a membrane surface, and such interactions depend on the specific lipid composition and on the availability of enough area to perform the function. Nanodiscs are used to provide a membrane surface of controlled size and lipid content. In the absence of bound extrinsic proteins, sodium phosphotungstate-stained nanodiscs appear as stacks of coins when viewed from the side by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This protocol is therefore designed to intentionally promote stacking; consequently, the prevention of stacking can be interpreted as the binding of the membrane-binding protein to the nanodisc. In a further step, the TEM images of the protein-nanodisc complexes can be processed with standard single-particle methods to yield low-resolution structures as a basis for higher resolution cryoEM work. Furthermore, the nanodiscs provide samples suitable for either TEM or non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. To illustrate the method, Ca2+-induced binding of 5-lipoxygenase on nanodiscs is presented.

  • 165.
    Baitar, Rami
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Riskanalys av elsystem med funktions-FMEA2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The risk analysis tool failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) that analyzes the com-ponents and signals of a electrical system is design dependent and are therefore per-formed late in the development process of electrical systems. This could lead to that some errors are not analyzed in time and may need to be designed away which can lead to increased system complexity as well as longer and more expensive development proc-esses.The objective of this study is that through a literature review identify if there are any methods or approaches that enables Scania to implement a functional hazard analyzes early in the development process of electrical systems and to analyze these.The results of this thesis shows that it is possible to start the FMEA process early in the development process of the electrical system if the engineers have a functional perspec-tive in mind when performing the risk analysis where they list and rank the functions that is provided by the electrical system and their failure modes, failure effects, failure de-tection, severity, probability and occurrence.By using a function based FMEA, the engineer(s) can identify and promptly handle the safety critical functions early in the development process of a electrical system.A existing functionality at Scania has been broken down into functions and a functional hazard analysis has been performed on these as a demonstration of how a function based FMEA can be carried out and look like.

  • 166. Bak, Zoltan
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Janerot-Sjoberg, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Hemodynamic changes during resuscitation after burns using the Parkland formula2009In: Journal of Trauma, ISSN 0022-5282, E-ISSN 1529-8809, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Parkland formula (2-4 mL/kg/burned area of total body surface area %) with urine output and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as endpoints for the fluid resuscitation in burns is recommended all over the world. There has recently been a discussion on whether central circulatory endpoints should be used instead, and also whether volumes of fluid should be larger. Despite this, there are few central hemodynamic data available in the literature about the results when the formula is used correctly.

    METHODS: Ten burned patients, admitted to our unit early, and with a burned area of >20% of total body surface area were investigated at 12, 24, and 36 hours after injury. Using transesophageal echocardiography, pulmonary artery catheterization, and transpulmonary thermodilution to monitor them, we evaluated the cardiovascular coupling when urinary output and MAP were used as endpoints.

    RESULTS: Oxygen transport variables, heart rate, MAP, and left ventricular fractional area, did not change significantly during fluid resuscitation. Left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic area and global end-diastolic volume index increased from subnormal values at 12 hours to normal ranges at 24 hours after the burn. Extravascular lung water: intrathoracal blood volume ratio was increased 12 hours after the burn.

    CONCLUSIONS: Preload variables, global systolic function, and oxygen transport recorded simultaneously by three separate methods showed no need to increase the total fluid volume within 36 hours of a major burn. Early (12 hours) signs of central circulatory hypovolemia, however, support more rapid infusion of fluid at the beginning of treatment.

  • 167.
    Balakrishnan Kumar, Ramakrishnan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zhu, Lin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet,.
    Idborg, Helena
    Radmark, Olof
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet,.
    Jegerschöld, Caroline
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet,.
    Structural and Functional Analysis of Calcium Ion Mediated Binding of 5-Lipoxygenase to Nanodiscs2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0152116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in the production of inflammatory mediators of the leukotriene family is the Ca2+ mediated recruitment of 5 Lipoxygenase (5LO) to nuclear membranes. To study this reaction in vitro, the natural membrane mimicking environment of nanodiscs was used. Nanodiscs with 10.5 nm inner diameter were made with the lipid POPC and membrane scaffolding protein MSP1E3D1. Monomeric and dimeric 5LO were investigated. Monomeric 5LO mixed with Ca2+ and nanodiscs are shown to form stable complexes that 1) produce the expected leukotriene products from arachidonic acid and 2) can be, for the first time, visualised by native gel electrophoresis and negative stain transmission electron micros-copy and 3) show a highest ratio of two 5LO per nanodisc. We interpret this as one 5LO on each side of the disc. The dimer of 5LO is visualised by negative stain transmission electron microscopy and is shown to not bind to nanodiscs. This study shows the advantages of nanodiscs to obtain basic structural information as well as functional information of a complex between a monotopic membrane protein and the membrane.

  • 168. Bali, TC
    et al.
    Kounalakis, SN
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    PlanHab: The effects of 21-day hypoxic confinement and unloading/inactivity on regional body composition and muscle strength2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Baltoglou, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Karapistoli, E.
    Chatzimisios, P.
    IPTV QoS and QoE measurements in wired and wireless networks2012In: 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE , 2012, p. 1757-1762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet Protocol Television or IPTV is a multimedia content delivery service that is increasingly proliferating in the consumers lives and a hot-topic for telecommunication companies to gain a share on consumers' entertainment budget. This alternate method of distributing television content over IP requires a high level of network performance and guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) in order for the end user to have an assured and high-quality viewing experience. Yet, the quality margins of IPTV are commonly put to test in almost all cases where customers re-distribute the service within their premisses. In this paper, our main motivation is to investigate how such real-life networks perform in terms of distributing this inelastic and high-bandwidth type of service utilizing traffic measurements. Furthermore, our goal is to verify and analyze whether these studied networks are well suited for multicast IPTV traffic.

  • 170.
    Baltoglou, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Karapistoli, Eirini
    Chatzimisios, Periklis
    Real-World IPTV Network Measurements2011In: 2011 IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS (ISCC), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet Protocol Television or IPTV is defined as an alternate method of distributing television content over IP by a telecom carrier or an Internet service provider (ISP) and it is increasingly gaining market share in modern communication networks. IPTV poses specific requirements on the network infrastructure and at the same time it requires that several network performance characteristics are maintained under defined levels in order for the end user to have an assured viewing experience. In this paper, our main motivation is to investigate how a real life network performs in terms of distributing this inelastic and high-bandwidth type of service utilizing traffic measurements. Furthermore, our goal is to verify and analyze whether the studied network is suited for multicast IPTV traffic.

  • 171.
    Bandali, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Availability and perceived availability with interaction design: Cost-effective availability model for a multinational company2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Techniques of measuring web-service uptime have always been a key metric to improve interaction and system integration. Availability is a usual metric in the field of statistics where the goal is to attract customers, but perhaps more importantly the users and providers which can improve the services through this metric. Since availability differs a lot depending on type of service, company and usage, a common problem is to define what availability really is.

    The thesis will give the readers an introduction to availability, and also explain the reasons why it may vary, which is the theory of interaction design behind a service. Though availability is a metric that can be calculated through many different ways, the result is very complex to understand for the public that is interested in it.

    The goal of this thesis is to give the readers an understanding and guidelines of how to define perceived availability based on the system availability, but also present a method of defining, calculating and present the metric in a user-friendly procedure. The result will in turn consist of a cost-effective model for perceived availability and be tested at a multinational company.

  • 172. Barrefelt, Asa
    et al.
    Zhao, Ying
    Larsson, Malin K.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Egri, Gabriella
    Kuiper, Raoul V.
    Hamm, Jorg
    Saghafian, Maryam
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Brismar, Torkel B.
    Aspelin, Peter
    Heuchel, Rainer
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    Dahne, Lars
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Fluorescence labeled microbubbles for multimodal imaging2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 464, no 3, p. 737-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-filled polyvinyl alcohol microbubbles (PVA-MBs) were recently introduced as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. In the present study, we explore the possibility of extending their application in multimodal imaging by labeling them with a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore, VivoTag-680. PVA-MBs were injected intravenously into FVB/N female mice and their dynamic biodistribution over 24 h was determined by 3D-fluorescence imaging co-registered with 3D-mu CT imaging, to verify the anatomic location. To further confirm the biodistribution results from in vivo imaging, organs were removed and examined histologically using bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence imaging detected PVA-MB accumulation in the lungs within the first 30 min post-injection. Redistribution to a low extent was observed in liver and kidneys at 4 h, and to a high extent mainly in the liver and spleen at 24 h. Histology confirmed PVA-MB localization in lung capillaries and macrophages. In the liver, they were associated with Kupffer cells; in the spleen, they were located mostly within the marginal-zone. Occasional MBs were observed in the kidney glomeruli and interstitium. The potential application of PVA-MBs as a contrast agent was also studied using ultrasound (US) imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse models, to visualize blood flow within the tumor mass. In conclusion, this study showed that PVA-MBs are useful as a contrast agent for multimodal imaging. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 173.
    Bassan, Gioia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Dual-Probe Shear Wave Elastography in a Transversely Isotropic Phantom2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound based technique which is able to measure tissue stiffness through the speed of induced shear waves. Tissue stiffness is often related to pathological conditions and detecting mechanical changes can help the recognition of potential diseases. The clinical use of SWE is limited to isotropic tissue due to the difficulty in assessing a theoretical model for more complex tissue and this project therefore aimed to evaluate the possibility of obtaining a full mechanical characterization of a transversely isotropic (TI) phantom with dual-probe SWE. A TI hydrogel phantom was developed and mechanical tests were performed to verify its anisotropy and determine the elastic moduli in both the perpendicular and longitudinal directions. Shear moduli were estimated using conventional and dual-probe SWE comparing the results to theoretical pure-transverse (PT) and quasi-transverse (QT) wave propagation modes. Both mechanical and SWE tests showed that the phantoms were transversely isotropic ET/EL=0.81. Moreover, multiple wave propagation modes calculated with dual-probe SWE showed a good agreement with the theoretical curves and indicated the possibility of measuring all the elasticity constants needed to fully characterize an incompressible, TI tissue with dual-probe SWE.

  • 174. Bassan, Gioia
    et al.
    Larsson, David
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Nordenfur, Tim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Acquisition of multiple mode shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic medium using dualprobe setup2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Batool, Nazre
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Detection and Spatial Analysis of Hepatic Steatosis in Histopathology Images using Sparse Linear Models2016In: 2016 SIXTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING THEORY, TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS (IPTA), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatic steatosis is a defining feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, emerging with the increasing incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The research in image-based analysis of hepatic steatosis mostly focuses on the quantification of fat in biopsy images. This work furthers the image-based analysis of hepatic steatosis by exploring the spatial characteristics of fat globules in whole slide biopsy images after performing fat detection. An algorithm based on morphological filtering and sparse linear models is presented for fat detection. Then the spatial properties of detected fat globules in relation to the hepatic anatomical structures of central veins and portal tracts are explored. The test dataset consists of 38 high resolution images from 21 patients. The experimental results provide an insight into the size distributions of fat globules and their location with respect to the anatomical structures.

  • 176.
    Baumann, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Performance of a Micro-CT System: Characterisation of Hamamatsu X-ray source L10951-04 and flat panel C7942CA-222014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis evaluated the performance of a micro-CT system consisting of Hamamatsu microfocus X-ray source L10951-04 and CMOS flat panel C7942CA-22. The X-ray source and flat panel have been characterised in terms of dark current, image noise and beam profile. Additionally, the micro-CT system’s spatial resolution, detector lag and detector X-ray response have been measured. Guidance for full image correction and methods for characterisation and performance test of the X-ray source and detector is presented.

    A spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm at 10 % MTF was measured. A detector lag of 0.3 % was observed after ten minutes of radiation exposure. The performance of the micro-CT system was found to be sufficient for high resolution X-ray imaging. However, the detector lag effect is strong enough to reduce image quality during subsequent image acquisition and must either be avoided or corrected for.

  • 177.
    Baumann, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Damberg, Emmy
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Preoperativ värmning för att minska risken för hypotermi vid stor bukkirurgi: en pilotstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 178. Beillas, P.
    et al.
    Petit, P.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kirscht, S.
    Chawla, A.
    Jolivet, E.
    Faure, F.
    Praxl, N.
    Bhaskar, A.
    Specifications of a software framework to position and personalise human body models2015In: 2015 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2015, p. 594-595Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Bekkouche, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Functional Implications from Changes in Volume and Periaxonal Space of C-fibers2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Bengt, Halling
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean Implementation: the significance of people and dualism2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean, with its origins at the Toyota Motor Company, is a concept that is known to increase effectiveness in manufacturing. The Lean concept is now argued to be relevant not only in manufacturing but in service and health-care delivery as well. The reported results of Lean implementation efforts are divided. There are reports that most of the Lean implementation efforts are not reaching the goal; on the other hand, there are reports of promising results. The divided results from Lean implementation efforts show how important it is to research and identify factors that are barriers to successful implementation of Lean. This thesis aims to contribute knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation by collecting empirical findings from manufacturing and health care and structuring the perceived barriers and difficulties to Lean implementation. My first study aimed to compare similarities and divergences in barriers to Lean described by key informants in manufacturing and health care. The data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Findings showed that the perceived difficulties and barriers are much the same in manufacturing and health care. The second study was a case study at a manufacturing firm, researching how the views on Lean of the managers implementing Lean influence its implementation. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 individuals and covered all hierarchical management levels in the company. Findings showed that managers' views on Lean influence the implementation but also that learning during the implementation process can alter managers' views of Lean. The third study aimed to research how management of Lean is described in the literature. This was done through a literature review. The findings showed that Lean management is a matter of dualism, consisting of two complementary systems of action, management and leadership, which are related to the two basic principles of Lean, continuous improvement and respect for the people.

  • 181.
    Bennani, Safia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    An evaluation and improvement of an in vitro heart phantom of the hearts coronary circulation.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to validate the in-vitro heart simulation model of the coronary arteries called Flowlab, identify limitations and potential problems, and to offer suggestions for improvement. Flowlab emulates arterial characteristics such as pressure and flow, providing a simulation environment with the ability to measure the volumetric coronary blood flow and arterial blood pressure. Compared to current simulation systems, this will give a better understanding of both position and severity of the cardiovascular disease, and also provide essential information regarding the hemodynamics in the coronary arteries.

     

    To understand the fluid dynamics of the coronary system and gain a deeper understanding of the arterial function and physiology, the first phase of this thesis will focus on gathering information regarding the anatomy, physiology and hemodynamics of the coronary arteries. This will also be done to provide the Flowlab construction with appropriate measurements for the coronary simulation pipe, and input data for its final design.

     

    The Flowlab construction will then be tested to verify the accuracy of the produced values compared with the sought after values of pressure and flow, to further enable an adjustment of the system.

     

    The results from the test show that the final calibration of the simulation environment was not sufficient to produce an accurate result for both pressure and flow regulation, only flow. The flow had an accuracy of 10 %, while the generated pressure was underestimated at low pressures and overestimated at high pressure at up to 20 %. An accuracy of 10 % for generated flow is satisfying and sufficient; meanwhile the pressure calibration had to be altered for more reliable data.

     

    The analysis also revealed several shortages in the design of the Flowlab system that needed to be adjusted for more consistent pressure and flow measurements.

  • 182.
    Bennati, Paolo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Dasu, A.
    Colarieti-Tosti, Massimiliano
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Lönn, Gustaf
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsson, David
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Fabbri, A.
    Galasso, M.
    Cinti, M. N.
    Pellegrini, R.
    Pani, R.
    Preliminary study of a new gamma imager for on-line proton range monitoring during proton radiotherapy2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, no 5, article id C05009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed and tested new concept imaging devices, based on a thin scintillating crystal, aimed at the online monitoring of the range of protons in tissue during proton radiotherapy. The proposed crystal can guarantee better spatial resolution and lower sensitivity with respect to a thicker one, at the cost of a coarser energy resolution. Two different samples of thin crystals were coupled to a position sensitive photo multiplier tube read out by 64 independent channels electronics. The detector was equipped with a knife-edge Lead collimator that defined a reasonable field of view of about 10 cm in the target. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations were used to optimize the design of the experimental setup and assess the accuracy of the results. Experimental measurements were carried out at the Skandion Clinic, the recently opened proton beam facility in Uppsala, Sweden. PMMA and water phantoms studies were performed with a first prototype based on a round 6.0 mm thick Cry019 crystal and with a second detector based on a thinner 5 × 5 cm2, 2.0 mm thick LFS crystal. Phantoms were irradiated with mono-energetic proton beams whose energy was in the range between 110 and 160 MeV. According with the simulations and the experimental data, the detector based on LFS crystal seems able to identify the peak of prompt-gamma radiation and its results are in fair agreement with the expected shift of the proton range as a function of energy. The count rate remains one of the most critical limitations of our system, which was able to cope with only about 20% of the clinical dose rate. Nevertheless, we are confident that our study might provide the basis for developing a new full-functional system.

  • 183. Bense, L
    et al.
    Eklund, G
    Jorulf, H
    Farkas, A
    Balashazy, I
    Hedenstierna, G
    Krebsz, A
    Balazs, G
    Eden Strindberg, J
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Douglas, J
    Perforation of the right main bronchus, detected by HRCT 3D technique2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184. Bense, L
    et al.
    Jorulf, H
    Farkas, A
    Eden-Strindberg, J
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Jokay, A
    Krebsz, A
    Pulmonary gas conducting interstitial pathway2015In: Acta Radiologica Open, ISSN 2058-4601, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing efforts oriented towards revealing different aspects of emphysema, the persistence of the emphysematous or emphysema-like changes (ELCs) is not explored yet in the open literature. In this study we demonstrate the persistence of an ELC for 22 years in a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) patient which indicates a hitherto unknown gas supply to the ELC. For this purpose we used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images processed into three-dimensional (3D) geometry. By the same token, not only a long persistence but also the volume increase of this ELC between 2002 and 2010 was demonstrated. The 3D geometry visualized an aerated interstitial structure between the sites of supposed gas leakage at the wall of the third generation airways and the ELC. This potential gas conducting interstitial pathway is not a continuation and has neither the form nor the structure of a bronchus. The finding suggests that in this patient the intrabronchial gas passes through the bronchial wall and via a gas conducting interstitial pathway reaches the ELC. Despite the availability of the presently employed techniques for at least 15 years, such case and phenomenon have not been described previously. The retrieval of the patient suggests that the findings could be relevant for a considerable proportion of the population.

  • 185. Berg, Ulf
    et al.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Fysiska tester i samband med Grundläggande militär utbildning (GMU)2012Report (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Bergh, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Danielsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Värmehandbok för markstridssoldaten2011Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsolle, A.
    Acquiring instantaneous multispectral imagery using a single image sensor with multiple filter mosaic2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Bergkvist, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Mazaheri, Ava
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Sjukhusövergripande datalager för vitalparametrar: Sammanställning av regelverk och riktlinjer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the opening of emergency hospital Nya Karolinska Solna approaches, a data warehouse for vital signs is being designed. The system is referred to as T5 and the intention is to allow collected medical data to follow the patient throughout the entire hospital stay.

    Before the procurement of the system there is a need for a review of legal frameworks, standards and guidelines applicable to T5. The project was carried out through research of documents and interviews with professionals involved with subjects relevant to the project. As a final product, a recommendation on how the standards and legal frameworks could be applied to the system was compiled.

    Project results show that if data managed in T5 is aimed to be used in a medical purpose, the system qualifies as a medical device. Furthermore, the system should be classified according to hazard class I, assuming that the information in T5 will not be used for real time monitoring of patient conditions.

  • 189.
    Bergkvist, Sandra
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ergonomiskt Burklock: en produktutvecklingsprocess av skruvlock för glasburkar2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet syftar till att utforma ett ergonomiskt lock till glasburkar innehållandelivsmedel. Locket ska ersätta de skruvlock som finns idag då dessa upplevs somsvårhanterliga bland reumatiker. Personerna i fråga har svårare att genomföra vissarörelser än andra vilket bland annat beror på stela och ömmande leder. Problemen ochsvårigheterna varierar men det kan vara rörelser som att greppa saker, användapincettgreppet (tumme och pekfinger), stödja, precisera samt vrida.

    Olika rörelser och positioner påverkar handens styrka och funktion. Den mestfunktionella positionen är när handen och handleden hålls raka, vilket inte är möjligtdå ett skruvlock ska öppnas. Skilda forskningsrapporter har belyst problemet medvridande moment och åtgärder till dessa. På marknaden finns en mängd hjälpmedeltill skruvlock men enligt utvärderingar gjorda av reumatiker är inget riktigttillfredställande. Utvärderingar har även gjorts på andra typer av lock med resultatetatt många brister finns på dem med. Efter att ha intervjuat personer i målgruppenkunde olika kundbehov och viktiga produktegenskaper listas. För att utforma energonomisk produkt har lösningar till påträffade problem utarbetats och en checklistaför hur ergonomiska handverktyg ska utformas har använts som stöd. Metoder somQFD och Pughs metod har använts för att välja ut ett koncept bland flera som bästuppfyller de krav som framkommit under arbetets gång.

    Resultatet är ett lock som helt löser problematiken med vridande moment. Istället föratt öppna och stänga locket genom att skruva av det, som är fallet i dagsläget, kan detöppnas och stängas genom en nedåtriktad kraft vilken fångas upp av en knapp. Rakarehänder och handleder kan användas vilket är den mest skonsamma positionen vidarbete. Storleken på knappen är så stor att locket kan öppnas inte bara med hjälp avfingrarna och händerna utan även med hjälp av armbågen eller andra delar av kroppenom så önskas. Motståndet på knappen är tillräckligt stort för att locket inte ska kunnaöppnas av misstag men samtidigt så litet att ingen större kraftansträngning behövs.Locket är ergonomiskt utformat och lätthanterligt för reumatiker vid både öppningoch stängning av glasburkar.

  • 190.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Sturm, Dennis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Embracing Entrepreneurial Behaviour in a Research School2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Product Innovation Engineering program (PIEp) has recently established a Research School withthe aim to increase innovation capabilities in Swedish industries and to promote entrepreneurialbehaviour. By following a bottom-up approach PIEp has been able to both embrace and fosterentrepreneurship. As a result, the research school has already been able to change preexisting mindsetsand to encourage PhD students to be more proactive, risk-taking and innovative. Through descriptions of their own experiences and of key cases along the way, the authors illustratethe transformation from the initial idea to the research school as it is today. This paper seeks toprovide insight and draw comparisons with other research schools to further research and assist policymakers interested in founding new research schools.

  • 191.
    Berglund, Ida S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Brar, Harpreet S.
    Dolgova, Natalia
    Acharya, Abhinav P.
    Keselowsky, Benjamin G.
    Sarntinoranont, Malisa
    Manuel, Michele V.
    Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Ca-Sr alloys for biodegradable orthopedic implant applications2012In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 100B, no 6, p. 1524-1534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium has recently received an increased amount of interest due to its potential use in biodegradable implant applications. The rapid degradation of conventional Mg is, however, a major limitation that needs to be addressed in the design of these materials, along with consideration of toxicity in selection of alloying elements. In this study, five alloys in the Mg-xCa-ySr system (x = 0.57.0 wt %; y = 0.53.5 wt %) were prepared and characterized for their suitability as degradable orthopedic implant materials. The alloys were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, degradation measurements in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C, compression testing, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing with a mouse osteoblastic cell line. The results indicate that the Mg-1.0Ca-0.5Sr alloy is the most promising alloy for orthopedic implant applications since it showed the lowest degradation rate in Hanks' solution (0.01 mL cm-2 h-1) along with no significant toxicity to MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and a compressive strength of 274 +/- 4 MPa.

  • 192.
    Berglund, Joann
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Analys och uppdatering av utrustning för spirometri2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 193.
    Berglund, Martina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Using Tentacles in Planning and Scheduling Work: Activities, Roles and Contributions2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling production scheduling is increasingly difficult for manyenterprises, and human involvement is necessary. The overall objective ofthis research was to gain further understanding of planners’ and schedulers’work within the manufacturing industry, to elucidate how their worksituation is formed, and to explain their significance to other employees’work and company activities. Scheduling work was studied in fourcompanies in the Swedish woodworking industry; a sawmill, a parquet floormanufacturer, a furniture manufacturer and a house manufacturer. Themethod used was activity analysis which is based on the analysis of workactivities in real work situations. Data collection included 20 days’observations and 65 interviews. Cross-case analysis with British cases onplanning work was also included.The findings revealed that the schedulers’ tasks lead to many activities. Twothirds of these are what can be expected. The remaining third constitutesactivities that depend on the schedulers’ individual attributes and the contextin which they work. The schedulers serve as problem solvers in a number ofdomains and constitute efficient information nodes, making them animportant service function. Furthermore, they have an alignment rolebetween different organizational groups. This role is specifically remarkablein dealing with production enquiries that must be aligned with productioncapability. Here, both planners and schedulers play an essential role inlinking the manufacturing and the commercial sides and their differentfunctional logics.Planners and schedulers in daily work exert strong influence on others. Theydo not hold legitimate power. Instead their influence emanates mainly fromaccess to and control of information and their ability to apply expertise tointerpret this information and examine the impact of decisions made acrossdifferent areas of the business. Personal power related to social skills is alsosignificant.Furthermore, they facilitate others’ work in continuous personalinteractions, serving the technical scheduling software system, and aligningdifferent organizational functions. In combination with expert knowledgeand developed social skills, they significantly contribute to quality operationsperformance. Finally, the schedulers influence the decision latitude of otheremployees and may indirectly promote job satisfaction, thus contributing todeveloping appropriate working conditions for others in the company.

  • 194.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Guinery, Jane
    Production planning aligning customer requests with production capabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Guinery, Jane
    The influence of production planners and schedulers at manufacturing and commercial interfaces2008In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 548-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes empirical research undertaken to identify how production planners and schedulers in manufacturing businesses exert influence on employees in production and commercial departments. Through the analysis of observations and interviews conducted in four case studies, sources of power were identified and categorized. It was found that although production planners and schedulers often did not have formal authority, in practice they had considerable influence. In the main, their sources of influence resided in their access to information. company agendas, and influential arenas, as well as their knowledge and social skills. The discussion draws from the findings examining influencing behaviors and considering their implications. The findings inform associated research on the processes, behaviors. and roles that schedulers and planners perform at functional interfaces, in support of effective and responsive order fulfillment. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 196.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Human, technological and organizational aspects influencing the production scheduling process2007In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 160-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of scheduling work in practice addresses how the production-scheduling processes in four companies are influenced by human, technological, and organizational aspects. A conclusion is that the outcome of the scheduling process is influenced by the scheduler adding human capabilities that cannot be automated, by technical constraints in the scheduled production system and by the available scheduling software tools. Furthermore, the outcome is influenced not only by how the scheduling process is formally organized, but also by the scheduler's informal authority and the role taken to interconnect activities between different organizational groups. The findings from the study support a number of previous studies done on scheduling in practice whilst giving new insights into their interpretation. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 197.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH.
    Schedulers’ work content – a quantified analysis2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198. Bergman, Caroline
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Skagert, Katrin
    Exploring communication processes in workplace meetings: A mixed methods study in a Swedish healthcare organization2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An efficient team and a good organizational climate not only improve employee health but also the health and safety of the patients. Building up trust, a good organizational climate and a healthy workplace requires effective communication processes. In Sweden, workplace meetings as settings for communication processes are regulated by a collective labor agreement. However, little is known about how these meetings are organized in which communication processes can be strengthened. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore communication processes during workplace meetings in a Swedish healthcare organization. METHODS: A qualitatively driven, mixed methods design was used with data collected by observations, interviews, focus group interviews and mirroring feedback seminars. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional content analysis. RESULTS: The communication flow and the organization of the observed meetings varied in terms of physical setting, frequency, time allocated and duration. The topics for the workplace meetings were mainly functional with a focus on clinical processes. Overall, the meetings were viewed not only as an opportunity to communicate information top down but also a means by which employees could influence decision-making and development at the workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace meetings have very distinct health-promoting value. It emerged that information and the opportunity to influence decisions related to workplace development are important to the workers. These aspects also affect the outcome of the care provided.

  • 199.
    Bergqvist, Timmy
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Solenergi med energieffektiva byggnader och kostnadseffektiv lagring2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När en investering ska göras är priset en prioriterad faktor att ta hänsyn till. Att investera i ett solcellssystem kostar mycket pengar som på längre sikt kommer resultera i en större intäkt än kostnad. När detta inträffar skiljer sig markant i många fall och med regeringens krångliga regler blir det inte lättare. Examensarbetet innefattar flera analyserande lösnings-metoder för plusenergikontoret i Väla Gård, Helsingborg. Anledningen är att kostnadseffektivisera solcellssystemet så att intresset för solproduk-tionen ökar i Sverige.Tre olika kostnadsmässiga scenarier med timdebitering, egenlagring och nettodebitering jämförs och presenteras grundat på beräkningsmetod inom aktuell forskning. Det bäst lämpade scenarierna ges i form av ett önskat införande för optimal vinst för kund och miljö.Energimarknaden kan snabbt äventyras vilket gör att valet av lämplig lösning minskar solcellsägarens riskfaktor och förhoppningsvis ökar sol-energiproduktionen.

  • 200.
    Bergstrand, Maria
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Styckares arbetsmiljö: En studie om knivskärpa, olika knivstålskvaliteter, arbetssätt, samt fysisk ansträngning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Styckare inom köttbranschen i Sverige ligger sedan länge i toppen av statistiken i Sverige, när det gäller yrken med de högsta relativa frekvenserna av anmälda arbetssjukdomar orsakade av belastningsfaktorer. Kniven är styckarens viktigaste verktyg och om den är slö ökar den fysiska belastningen med ökad risk för både belastningsskador och olycksfall. I denna studie på magisternivå var syftet att undersöka sambanden mellan knivens skärpa, knivens stålkvalitet, effekten av individens arbetssätt samt den fysiska ansträngningen vid styckning av nötkött. 12 personer vid två olika företag deltog i studien, under normalt arbete med styckning vid enkelbord under tre arbetsdagar. Tre olika knivstålskvaliteter utvärderades. Mätning av knivskärpa skedde med mätapparat Anago, samt med subjektiva skattningar enligt visuell analog skala (VAS). Tiden som kniven användes innan byte användes också som ett mått på hur länge skärpan kunde bibehållas. Ansträngningen hos styckarna undersöktes med mätning av hjärtfrekvensen under arbete, samt med skattning av ansträngning i händer och armar enligt VAS. Slutligen mättes eventuellt obehag/besvär före och under arbete med skattning enligt VAS.

     

    Det tycks som om det knivstål som var hårdare och inte finns på marknaden fungerade sämst, medan de övriga två var likvärdiga. Det finns indikationer på att det hårdare knivstålet påverkar andra egenskaper negativt, framförallt känslan av knivens följsamhet.

    Det föreligger en signifikant skillnad mellan olika individer i förmågan att bibehålla knivskärpa över tid, och de med obehag/besvär byter kniv oftare. Ytterligare studier krävs för att klargöra vad skillnaderna beror på, men sannolikt har både styckarens arbetsteknik, och företagets och individens rutiner för knivvård betydelse. Förbättrad utbildning inom dessa områden rekommenderas. Utvärderingen av knivtid indikerar att en styckare behöver 5-6 knivar per dag för att säkerställa att arbetet sker med vass kniv hela tiden.

    Det finns ett samband mellan dålig knivskärpa och lokal ansträngningskänsla i händer och armar. Något samband mellan knivskärpan och central ansträngning kunde dock inte påvisas i denna studie. Pulsvärdena visade att arbete som styckare innebär en hög belastning på andnings- och cirkulationsapparaten, och att de löper en stor risk att överskrida det rekommenderade gränsvärdet för energetisk belastning. Större undersökningsmaterial krävs dock för att dra säkrare slutsatser angående detta.

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