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  • 151.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Svedberg, B
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 21998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I etapp 1 av projektet har en inledande undersökning genomförts med avsikt att pröva "armeringsbolls-principen" för att förstärka betong. Syftet med denna etapp 2 har varit att vidareutveckla och utprova metoden med armeringsbollar. Försöken har inriktats mot tester av egenskaper vad gäller energiupptagande förmåga. I samband med dessa tester har även olika utformningar prövats. Resultaten visar att armeringsbollen har bättre egenskaper än traditionell armering för dessa tillämpningar.

    Innehåller tre bilagor:- Wireball reinforcement for seismic resistance- Quasi-static loading of spherically reinforced concrete columns- Potential of wireball reinforcement for seismic design

     

     

  • 152.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Wernersson, Å
    Nygårds, J
    Högström, T
    Inmätning av byggnader: Från lasermätningar till CAD-modell1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en förstudie av möjligheterna att från avståndsmätningar med laser finna geometriska primitiver till CAD modeller av byggnader. Rapporten tar upp laserteknologi genom ett antal illustrativa mätningar samt refererar till nödvändiga algoritmer för att extrahera CAD-modellens geometriska element.

  • 153.
    Govind, Satish C.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Myocardial Effects of Type 2 Diabetes, Co-morbidities, and Changing Loading Conditions: a Clinical Study by Tissue Velocity Echocardiography2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the validation of the tissue velocity echocardiography (TVE) technique more than a decade ago the modality has been used rather successfully in various clinical situations, at rest as well as during stress echocardiography. Hitherto, dobutamine stress echocardiography has been the hallmark of all forms of stress procedures, now with TVE, quantification of the longitudinal motions of the left ventricle shows far superiority, with improved sensitivity and specificity in the functional diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Morever there has been continued interest in this technique for even assessing subclinical myocardial systolic and diastolic function in clinical scenarios like diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate left ventricular myocardial functions by applying TVE in human subjects having type 2 diabetes with or without co-morbidities and during changing loading conditions. The effects of changing loading conditions were analyzed during hemodialysis and following oral administration of an AT1 receptor blocker. The studied subjects included individuals with diabetes as well as those with associated hypertension, coronary artery disease, microalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease. All patients with type 2 diabetes and co-morbidities underwent TVE enhanced dobutamine stress echocardiography while load dependant left ventricular functions were analyzed at rest. There were 270 subjects in the study of type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases and 101 subjects in the study of changing loading conditions.

    Patients with type 2 diabetes revealed subclinical left ventricular dysfunction characterized by reduced functional reserve. This influence becomes quantitatively more pronounced in the presence of coexistent coronary artery disease and hypertension. The coexistence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension appears to have additive negative effect on both systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, even in the absence of coronary artery disease. The presence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes patients does not worsen diminished myocardial functional reserve. A single session of hemodialysis improves left ventricular function in patients with end-stage renal disease only in the absence of type 2 diabetes and co-morbidities, while a single dose of an AT1 receptor blocker valsartan results in reduction of afterload and, subsequently, in improvement of left ventricular function. TVE appears to be a sensitive tool for objective assessment of left ventricular function and can be successfully applied for the clinical evaluation of the effect of type 2 diabetes and co-morbidities on myocardial performance.

  • 154. Govindan, Malini
    et al.
    Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli
    Batchvarov, Velislav
    Saha, Samir K.
    Dougal, Kate
    Teoh, Evaun
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Camm, John
    LEFT ATRIAL EXPANSION INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IS A PREDICTOR OF SINUS RHYTHM MAINTENANCE AFTER CARDIOVERSION2010In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 55, no 10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Granroth, Marko
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Luftväxling påverkas av byggmaterial2006In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 6, 41-43 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökade energipriser och krav på energideklaration leder till ökade kravpå åtgärder som tätare hus och minskade luftflöden. Valet påverkas bland annat av vilka emissioner materialet släpper ifrån sig.

  • 156. Groselj, L. Dolenc
    et al.
    Morrison, S. A.
    Rojc, B.
    Mirnik, D.
    Korsic, S.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Hypoxic bedrest and sleep architecture: effect of initial hypoxic exposure and total stimulus duration2016In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, 236-236 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157. Groselj, L. Dolenc
    et al.
    Rojc, B.
    Jeran, J.
    Pangerc, A.
    Morrison, S. A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Effect of bed rest and hypoxia on sleep macrostructure and respiration during sleep2012In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, 63-63 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Effekter av tryckbortfall i G-skyddssystemet i JAS 39 Gripen2009Report (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Skyddsdräkter för ytbärgare; Utvärdering under 2 timmars immersion i 6-gradigt vatten2015Report (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Johannesson, Björn
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    KTH test report of CBRN equipment in the centrifuge2013Report (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Gunnarsson, Ewa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andersson, SusanneStockholms universitet.Vänje, AnnikaKTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Where have all the structures gone?: Doing Gender in Organisations, Examples from Finland, Norway and Sweden2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 162. Gyllencreutz, Erika
    et al.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Nordström, Lennart
    Lindqvist, Pelle
    Holzmann, Malin
    Characteristics of variable decelerations and prediction of fetal acidemia2017In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 216, no 1, S507-S507 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 163. Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    Renström, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lean Ledership: a Matter of DualismManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Informatics, logistics and management (Closed 20130701).
    Activation by Collective Learning, Performing Coursework Activities by Team Work and Obtaining Individual Grades2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Informatics, logistics and management (Closed 20130701).
    Computerized Examination (e-exam) with Multiple Choice and Essay Questions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Image Enhancement And Reduction Of Radiation Dose For Panoramic Dental X-Ray Imaging2013In: Swedish Medical Engineering Conference 2013, Medicinteknikdagarna 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Background Reducing the X-ray dose too much produces images with low quality; Noisy, blurred, faded, under exposed. The approach used in this work aims at enhancing image quality by using advanced  automatic image processing algorithms.

    2.  Purpose To minimize X-ray dose exposure during panoramic dental X-ray imaging, in addition to automatically enhancing the acquired X-ray images to achieve high quality images that can be viewed using ordinary monitors.

    3.  Method An automatic, adaptive image enhancement algorithm was developed and implemented on multi-core CPU as well as GPU to achieve real time performance.

    4.  ResultsThe method was tested on panoramic dental X-ray images acquired with varying radiation dose. The results were promising and indicated the possibility of obtaining diagnostically usable images using a reduced dose by 50%. A group of ten dentists and specialists evaluated the resulted images. Figure (1) shows a comparison between an enhanced panoramic dental X-ray acquired with reduced dose by 50% and an original (unprocessed) panoramic dental X-ray acquired with a standard dose.

    5.  Discussion and conclusionsThis study shows the possibility to achieve a number of goals that can lead to better patient safety and better healthcare in general, such as:Minimized X-ray dose to the patient, which can lead to reduced risk of physical damage (e.g. cancer) and psycological consequences (e.g. stress).Better image quality which can lead to better, faster and more accurate and confident diagnostic.The resulted enhanced images can be automatically produced without any noticeable waiting time and viewed using any ordinary monitor (LCD/LED TV or computer screens) without any need for any expensive/exclusive high-dynamic-range displays.

  • 167.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Image Enhancement Combined with Reduction of X-Ray Dose During PCI-Operations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Camera-spectrometer for instantaneous multi- and hyperspectral imaging2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Camera-spectrometer for multi- and hyperspectral imaging2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Moustafa, A.N.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Temperaturvariationsanalys för hudcancerscreening, Poster, Barncancerfondens tredje konferens2013In: Barncancerfondens tredje konferens: Medicinsk Teknik för Barn med Cancer, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien visar att det är möjligt att detektera tydliga temperaturskillnader mellan cancervävnad och frisk vävnad. Detta kan vara ett resultat av både angiogenes (processen som leder till nybildning av blodkärl från de minsta befintliga blodkärl) och ökad ämnesomsättning hos cancerceller (medan cancertumörer formas) jämfört med friska normala celler, som ändrar och ökar intensiteten av den termiska IR-strålningen inom cancervävnads områden. Temperaturförändringarna detekterades genom mätningar av termisk IR-strålning inom våglängdsområdet 8-14 μm. Intensiva experiment utfördes på möss med hudcancer. Cancerområdet hade i genomsitt 0.3 – 0.5 °C högre temperatur än de friska grannområdena. Både kvalitativa och kvantitativa statistiska metoder användes för att analysera dessa mätningar. Analysresultaten verifierar användbarheten av att mäta termisk IR-strålning för att kunna detektera hudcancerområden.

  • 171.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Raghavendra, Jammalamadaka
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Optomyografi (OMG): Ny teknik för muskelaktivitets mätning2015In: Abstract Proceedings of Medicinteknik dagarna 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion / Mål

    Den nya tekniken är effektivare och har inte de brister som de existerande teknikerna (elektromyografi EMG och mekanomyografi MMG) lider av, exempelvis, lågt signal till brus förhållande (SNR), interferens med andra biosignaler, interferens med externa signaler från omgivningen, påverkas av hudegenskaperna, komplicerad installation och kalibrering, kan inte användas vid extrema förhållanden, kan inte användas i rymden eller under vatten. Den nya tekniken används av:

    *Idrottare: för att optimera träningen.

    *Patienter och handikappade personer som lider av rörelsestörningar, svaga händer, amputerade händer, rygg eller nackskador.

    *Astronauter: för människa-dator interaktion och robotstyrning.

    Metod

    Den nya tekniken använder fotoelektriska sensorer som mäter reflekterade närainfraröda strålar från hudytan. Den reflekterade signalen varierar då topografiska förändringar, på landskapet som formas av hudytan, sker. Nästan inga bio- eller omgivande signaler interfererar med närainfraröda strålar. Hudens kemiska och fysiska egenskaper påverkar inte heller mätsignalernas kvalitet. Därför registreras signaler av hög SNR. Ytterligare fördelar med den nya tekniken är att den är kostnadseffektiv, mobil, användarvänlig, icke-invasiv och riskfri. Ett armband med två sensorer används för att mäta kontinuerliga tidssignaler när försökspersonen utför ett antal handrörelser.

    Resultat

    Olika handrörelser producerar olika signaler som mäts med hjälp av ett oscilloskop. Varje rörelse ger två signaler eller ett signalpar som skiljer sig från de signalpar som produceras av andra handrörelser.

    Sammanfattning

    Fotoelektriska sensorer används för att mäta reflekterade närainfraröda strålar från huden. Olika muskelaktiviteter och rörelser förändrar topografin av landskapet som formas av hudytan. Miniatyr lysdiod-sensor par byggs in i kläder för att mäta och analysera muskelaktivitet och rörelse. Mätvärdena skickas trådlöst till mobilen för att analyseras och ge återkoppling i realtid för att varna och optimera tränings eller rehabiliterings aktiviteterna.

  • 172.
    Hayashi, Shirley
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Myocardial Function in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Colour Tissue Velocity Imaging Study2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), overhydration, uremic toxins and left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony are factors that may lead to LV dysfunction and conduction abnormalities and thus contribute to the high cardiac mortality. Colour tissue velocity imaging (TVI) allows a detailed quantitative analysis of cardiac function in CKD patients, opening new possibilities to evaluate longitudinal myocardial motion, rapid isovolumetric events, LV filling pressure and LV synchronicity. Aims: Using TVI technique: 1. To evaluate myocardial function disturbances and their relations to risk factors in CKD patients. 2. To assess LV synchronicity in HD patients, both at baseline and after HD, and 3. To study acute cardiac effects of HD and i.v. furosemide in HD patients. Methods: 40 predialysis CKD (stages I, II, III, IV and V) (Study II) and 59 HD (Studies I, III, IV and V) patients were studied. In both groups of patients LV function was evaluated using TVI, and in HD patients LV synchronicity was also assessed using tissue synchronization imaging (TSI). In HD patients the evaluations were performed before and after HD (Studies III and V) and i.v. furosemide infusion (Study IV). Results: 1. TVI detected: a) LV contraction disturbances in CKD patients with LVH and normal ejection fraction. b) An increase of LV contractility after HD. c) No changes in cardiac function induced by furosemide. 2. TSI detected the presence of LV dyssynchrony and its improvement after HD. 3. In CKD, cardiac dysfunction seemed to be related to high levels of PTH, phosphate and blood pressure. Conclusions: TVI is a sensitive tool for studies on cardiac function in CKD, allowing a detailed and accurate evaluation of disturbances in LV function. TVI also provides the possibility to follow the changes in LV function and synchronicity induced by different therapeutical interventions. The obtained information may contribute to a better management of CKD patients.

  • 173.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology. Karolinska Institutet,.
    Two-dimensional crystallization of biological macromolecules2009In: Molecules: Nucleation, Aggregation and Crystallization: Beyond Medical and Other Implications, World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2009, 95-111 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological macromolecules can be arranged periodically in single layers as twodimensional (2D) crystals. This enables crystallographic structure analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Periodic repeat of a large number of unit cells contributes to significant information in images or diffraction patterns from unstained specimens. Structural details at a resolution of a few Ångströms in all directions can be obtained. Such three-dimensional maps are used for building atomic models. The techniques have been used to determine structure and function relationships for membrane proteins. The dense packing obtained in 2D crystals can also be used for constructing devices at the molecular level.

  • 174.
    Hedenstierna, Sofia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    3D Finite Element Modeling of Cervical Musculature and its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries to the head and neck are potentially the most severe injuries in humans, since they may damage the nervous system. In accidents, the cervical musculature stabilizes the neck in order to prevent injury to the spinal column and is also a potential site for acute muscle strain, resulting in neck pain. The musculature is consequently an important factor in the understanding of neck injuries. There is however a lack of data on muscle response and little is known about the dynamics of the individual muscles. In this thesis the numerical method of Finite Elements (FE) is used to examine the importance of musculature in accidental injuries. In order to study the influence of a continuum musculature, a 3D solid element muscle model with continuum mechanical material properties was developed. It was hypothesized that a 3D musculature model would improve the biofidelity of a numerical neck model by accounting for the passive compressive stiffness, mass inertia, and contact interfaces between muscles. A solid element representation would also enable the study of muscle tissue strain injuries.

    A solid element muscle model representing a 50th percentile male was created, based on the geometry from MRI, and incorporated into an existing FE model of the spine. The passive material response was modeled with nonlinear-elastic and viscoelastic properties derived from experimental tensile tests. The active forces were modeled with discrete Hill elements. In the first version of the model the passive solid element muscles were used together with separate active spring elements. In the second version the active elements were integrated in the solid mesh with coincident nodes. This combined element, called the Super-positioned Muscle Finite Element (SMFE), was evaluated for a single muscle model before it was incorporated in the more complex neck muscle model. The main limitation of the SMFE was that the serial connected Hill-type elements are unstable due to their individual force-length relationship. The instabilities in the SMFE were minimized by the addition of passive compressive stiffness from the solid element and by the decreased gradient of the force-length relation curve.

     The solid element musculature stabilized the vertebral column and reduced the predicted ligament strains during simulated impacts. The solid element compressive stiffness added to the passive stiffness of the cervical model. This decreased the need for additional active forces to reproduce the kinematic response of volunteers during impact. The active response of the SMFE improved model biofidelity and reduced buckling of muscles in compression. The solid element model predicted forces, strains, and energies for individual muscles and showed that the muscle response is dependent on impact direction and severity. For each impact direction, the model identified a few muscles as main load carriers that corresponded to muscles generating high EMG signals in volunteers. The single largest contributing factor to neck injury prediction was the muscle active forces. Muscle activation reduced the risk of injury in ligaments in high-energy impacts. The most urgent improvements of the solid element muscle model concerns: the stability of the SMFE; the boundary conditions from surrounding tissues; and more detailed representations of the myotendinous junctions. The model should also be more extensively validated for the kinematical response and for the muscle load predictions.

    It was concluded that a solid muscle model with continuum mechanical material properties improves the kinematical response and injury prediction of a FE neck model compared to a spring muscle model. The solid muscle model can predict muscle loads and provide insight to how muscle dynamics affect spinal stability as well as muscle acute strain injuries.

  • 175.
    Hedenstierna, Sofia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Development of an active solid neck muscle FE model and its influence on neck injury predictionManuscript (Other academic)
  • 176. Hernandez, F.
    et al.
    Wu, L. C.
    Yip, M. C.
    Hoffman, A. R.
    Lopez, J.
    Grant, G.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Camarillo, D. B.
    Finite Element Simulation Of Brain Deformation From Six Degree Of Freedom Acceleration Measurements Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury2014In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 31, no 12, A124-A124 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 177. Hernandez, Fidel
    et al.
    Giordano, Chiara
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Camarillo, David
    CORONAL HEAD ROTATION, FALX CEREBRI DISPLACEMENT, AND CORPUS CALLOSUM STRAIN ARE RELATED AND IMPLICATED IN SPORTS-RELATED MTBI2016In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 33, no 13, A34-A35 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Hidefjäll, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Ensuring The Value Of A Medical Device Innovation Prior To Market Launch2012In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 15, no 7, A490-A490 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Hidefjäll, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Stakeholder Involvement In Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Of Novel Medical Devices2012In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 15, no 7, A324-A324 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Ergonomics at Home: Design for Safe Living and Home Care2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The home should represent safety and security for the person who lives there, and this is an important factor for independence and autonomy in very old age. With aging populations, the needs for long-term care increase, care provided by spouses and/or from the growing home care sector. Injuries among these groups are common.

    In this study, an ergonomics perspective was applied in the analysis of some basic daily activities performed by old persons and by home care workers, assisting.

    • The postures and movements of home care staff assisting at toilet visits, and transferring persons from wheelchair to toilet, were measured and analysed.

    • Some daily activities related to making food and washing clothes, performed by a group of persons between the age of 75 and 100, were measured and analysed.

    • The task of getting up from the floor – on your own and with the help of a walker equipped with a lifting device – was analysed with the help of older persons and nursing staff. The design was built on the knowledge gained from analysing how older people get up from floor.

    • Requirements for access with a four-wheeled walker in the local built environment were investigated.

    Observations were made with the help of video recording. Postures were recorded with the CUELA measurement system. The VIDAR ergonomics evaluation instrument was used to register the participants’ experiences of discomfort and pain during getting up from the floor with or without the walker with a lifting device. Structured interviews were used to find out about older peoples’ experience of using the four-wheel walker.

    It is concluded that ageing at home requires improved architectural and technical bathroom design and improved access in the local built environment.

  • 181.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Risk of Injury during home care work2010In: On the Road to Vision Zero?: Workers with high risk exposure, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Old peoples’ homes and bathrooms are sometimes also a workplace for nurses. Statistics show that the risk of injury and long‐term sick‐leave is high in this occupation. In a case study, 30 nurses from the Home Care Services of Haninge council, Sweden, performed different work tasks associated with assisting someone with their personal hygiene in the bathroom. The tests were performed in the full-scale laboratory of the CHB, in a bathroom equipped with a wall-mounted toilet, height‐ adjustable and equipped with support rails. The participating nurses were wearing a measurement system CUELA (‘computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal loads’) which together with video recordings made it possible to analyse the risk postures occuring. Postures including back flexion and rotation were regularly involved in the hygiene assisting tasks, but one specific sub-task indicated a high risk of traumatic overexertion or fall on the part of the care worker. The subtask when the nurse is assisting a person with balance or strength problems standing in front of the toilet, helping to pull up or down the trousers, combined a forward bending posture often more than 50º, while rotated with their balance affected, and, at the same time, with the person cared for in a position which highly affected his or hers stability. The typical assistive device applied to toilets are foldable armrests on one or both sides of the toilet, but it was found that for this sub‐task they affected the nurses’ posture in a negative way. A new and better solution for assistive technology in this particular task is needed.

  • 182.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Getting up from the floor: Older peroples´ abilities and experiencesIn: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyse the movement patterns of people over 75 years of age when getting up from the floor, and to find out what they describe as critical moments in getting up.

    Design: Observation of old people performing get up from floor and evaluation of experiences in VIDAR evaluation program.

    Setting: Tests were made in a laboratory environment

    Participants: 20 participants, eleven women and nine men. The mean age was 79 years.

    Result: Most elderly persons in this case did experience difficulties in getting up. The difficulties were mainly described in legs and were related to discomfort, weakness and balance issues. Most of the participants 18 of 20 made the getting up by themselves. The most of the participants 18 of 20 preferred a getting up including a position kneeling. The most critical part in getting were lifting one leg forward and then stretch the legs after kneeling, 17 of 18 described difficulties in this part.

    Conclusions: When developing aids to help persons to get up the main goal should be to reduce load on legs and support balance for the user. Training should include balance and muscle exercise of the leg.

  • 183.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Ergonomi i hemmiljö - Badrummet som arbetsplats: En rapport från ett forskningsprojekt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project was conducted in 2010. The aim was to analyze risks in the home care work in the bathroom when they assist an ambulatory care recipient to and from the toilet. Two scenarios were tested and 30 and 24 research subjects, home care worker, were participating.

    The results show that staffs in around 70 percent of the time are working in a position with back flexion in this work. This increases the risk for over-extersion injuries. In this case study the greatest risk of occupational injury was judged to be in the moment when the home care worker helps the care recipient with his pants. In this situation the care recipient balance is effected and the risk increases that care recipient loses balance and also the risk for the personnel’s back to get injured when they try to reach for the patient from an already fragile working position.

    The report includes suggestions for further research in this area, mostly in the form of risk analysis. The results of the study indicate that health care workers should have extended knowledge in handling technique and encouraged to work out from the front of care recipient. The bathroom design should evolve to minimize the time staff are working in positions that contain both flexion and rotation of the back, and by facilitating the patient to perform the most out of their own.

  • 184.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Helping in transfer from wheelchair to toilet: A case study analysing ergonomic postures in the bathroom for home care workers2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are common among home care workers, and the task of helping care recipients between wheelchair and toilet is described as particularly burdensome.

    OBJECTIVES: This study’s objectives were to find out where exposure to risks is highest for overexertion injuries in the task of helping a care recipient move between wheelchair and toilet, and to suggest how the bathroom environment or assistive devices could be improved to decrease risk of injury.

    METHODS: In a full-scale laboratory, home care workers helped persons move between wheelchair and toilet. The CUELA measurement system was used, combined with video observation, to record postures assumed during the task.

    RESULTS: Maximum back inclination on average exceeded 40 degrees. This angle is, combined with rotation of the back and the weight of the care recipient, well over recommended limits for helping in the task. The knees were exposed to a particularly heavy load when the wheelchair was adjusted, taking off leg-rests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Solutions should be developed which increase possibilities for the care recipient to participate and bear much of the load. Development of wheelchairs and other assistive devices should include usability aspects for the assisting care workers.

  • 185.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Work Postures When Assisting People at the Toilet2015In: Ergonomics in design, ISSN 1064-8046, E-ISSN 2169-5083, Vol. 23, no 2, 16-22 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to analyze the home care workers’ movement patterns and postures of their backs, relating them to risks while helping an ambulatory care recipient to/from the toilet in a homelike environment. We found severe risks of unpredictable movements with exposed postures could explain many injuries. Because of high risk injuries, we suggest decreasing the time when the care recipient stands and the home care worker helps with clothing and personal hygiene. Another suggestion to decrease high risk is development of support in front of the recipient to prevent her/him falling forward.

  • 186.
    Ho, Johnson
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Generation of Patient Specific Finite Element Head Models2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great burden for the society worldwide and the statisticsindicates a relative constant total annual rate of TBI. It seems that the present preventativestrategies are not sufficient. To be able to develop head safety measures against accidents ine.g. sports or automobile environment, one needs to understand the mechanism behindtraumatic brain injuries. Through the years, different test subjects have been used, such ascadavers, animals and crash dummies, but there are ethical issues in animal and human testingusing accelerations at injury-level and crash dummies are not completely human-like. In aFinite Element (FE) head model, the complex shape of the intracranial components can bemodeled and mechanical entities, such as pressure, stresses and strains, can be quantified atany theoretical point. It is suggested that the size of the head, the skull-brain boundarycondition, the heterogeneity, and the tethering and suspension system can alter the mechanicalresponse of the brain. It can be seen that the shape of the skull, the composition of gray andwhite matter, the distribution of sulci, the volume of cerebrospinal fluid and geometry of othersoft tissues varies greatly between individuals. All this, suggests the development of patientspecific FE head models.A method to generate patient specific FE head model was contrived based on the geometryfrom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans. The geometry was extracted usingexpectation maximization classification and the mesh of the FE head model was constructedby directly converting the pixel into hexahedral elements. The generated FE model had goodelement quality, the geometrical details were more than 90 % accurate and it correlated wellwith experimental data of relative brain-skull motion. The method was thought to beautomatic but some hypothetically important anatomical structures were not possible to beextracted from medical images. This leads to investigations on the biomechanical influence ofthe cerebral vasculature, the falx and tentorium complex. It was found that biomechanicalinfluence of the cerebral vasculature was minimal, due to the convoluting geometry and thenon-linear elastic material properties of the blood vessels. It suggests that futurebiomechanical FE head model does not necessarily have to include these blood vessels. Theinclusion of falx and tentorium in an FE head model has on the other hand a substantialbiomechanical influence by affecting its surrounding tissue. Therefore, in the investigation ofthe biomechanical influence of the sulci, the falx and tentorium were manually added to theanatomically detailed 3D FE head model. The biomechanical influence of the sulci haspreviously not been studied in 3D and the results indicated an obvious reduction of the strainin the model with sulci compared to the model without sulci in all simulations, and mostinteresting was the consistent reduction of strain in the corpus callosum. The development ofgyri not only produces a larger area for synapses but also forms the sulci to protect the brainfrom external forces.Based on the results, a patient specific FE head model for traumatic brain injury predictionshould at least include the skull, cerebrospinal fluid, falx, tentorium and pia mater, in additionto the brain. With these anatomically detailed 3D models, the injury biomechanics can bebetter understood. Hopefully, the burden of TBI to the society can be alleviated with betterprotective systems and improved understanding of the patients’ condition and hence, theirmedical treatments

  • 187.
    Ho, Johnson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Investigation of the Dynamic Response Contribution of Vasculature in a 3D Finite Element Head Model2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Ho, Johnson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    The influence of the falx and tentorium: A 3D computational study of impacts using detailed FE head modelsManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the falx and tentorium on biomechanics of the head during impact was studied in the current study with finite element analysis. A study of such has not been done previously in 3D. Three detailed 3D finite element models were created based on images of a healthy person with a normal size head. Two of the models contained the addition of falx and tentorium with different material properties. The models were subjected to coronal and sagittal rotational impulses applied to the skull. The acceleration of the impulse was large enough to theoretically induce diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). Strain distributions in the brain of the different models were compared and the findings indicated that the falx induced large strain to the surrounding brain tissues, especially to the corpus callosum in coronal rotation. The tentorium seemed to constrain motion of the cerebellum while inducing large strain in the brain stem in both rotations. Lower strains in the different lobes while higher strains in the brain stem and corpus callosum which are the classical site for DAI, were found in the model with falx and tentorium. The result indicated the need of modeling dura mater with non-linear elastic material model, which otherwise would have been too stiff. The non-sliding interface of the protruding dura mater is suspected to induce too large strains in adjacent areas and needed to investigate further.

  • 189. Hägg, Göran
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Odenrick, Per
    Fysisk belastning2008In: Arbete och teknik på människans villkor / [ed] Bohgard et al, Stockholm: Prevent , 2008, 1, 129-188 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 190. Hägg, Göran M
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Odenrick, Per
    Physical load2009In: Work and technology on human terms / [ed] Bohgard M et al, Stockholm: Prevent , 2009, 1. uppl.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Härmark, Johan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Structural studies of microbubbles and molecular chaperones using transmission electron microscopy2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasound contrast agents (CAs) are typically used in clinic for perfusion studies (blood flow through a specific region) and border delineating (differentiate borders between tissue structures) during cardiac imaging. The CAs used during ultrasound imaging usually consist of gas filled microbubbles (MBs) (diameter 1-5 μm) that are injected intravenously into the circulatory system. This thesis partially involves a novel polymer-shelled ultrasound CA that consists of air filled MBs stabilized by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) shell. These MBs could be coupled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in order to serve as a combined CA for ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The first three papers (Paper A-C) in this thesis investigate the structural characteristic and the elimination process of the CA.

    In Paper A, two types (PVA Type A and PVA Type B) of the novel CA were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of thin sectioned MBs. The images demonstrated that the SPIONs were either attached to the PVA shell surface (PVA Type A) or embedded in the shell (PVA Type B). The average shell thickness of the MBs was determined in Paper B by introducing a model that calculated the shell thickness from TEM images of cross-sectioned MBs. The shell thickness of PVA Type A was determined to 651 nm, whereas the shell thickness of PVA Type B was calculated to 637 nm. In Paper C, a prolonged blood elimination time was obtained for PVA-shelled MBs compared to the lipid-shelled CA SonoVue used in clinic. In addition, TEM analyzed tissue sections showed that the PVA-shelled MBs were recognized by the macrophage system. However, structurally intact MBs were still found in the circulation 24 h post injection. These studies illustrate that the PVA-shelled MBs are stable and offer large chemical variability, which make them suitable as CA for multimodal imaging.

    This thesis also involves studies (Paper D-E) of the molecular chaperones (Hsp21 and DNAJB6). The small heat shock protein Hsp21 effectively protects other proteins from unfolding and aggregation during stress. This chaperone ability requires oligomerization of the protein. In Paper D, cryo-electron microscopy together with complementary structural methods, obtained a structure model which showed that the Hsp21 dodecamer (12-mer) is kept together by paired C-terminal interactions.The human protein DNAJB6 functions as a very efficient suppressor of polyglutamine (polyQ) and amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) aggregation. Aggregation of these peptides are associated with development of Huntington’s (polyQ) and Alzheimer’s (Aβ42) disease. In Paper E, a reconstructed map of this highly dynamic protein is presented, showing an oligomer with two-fold symmetry, indicating that the oligomers are assembled by two subunits.

  • 192.
    Härmark, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Månsson, Cecilia
    Rasmussen, Morten
    Höjrup, Peter
    Al-Karadaghi, Salam
    Söderberg, Christopher G
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Structural Biotechnology.
    Emanuelsson, Cecilia
    Structural information on the oligomeric human molecular chaperone DNAJB6Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Idenfors, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå Universitet.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå Universitet.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    Uppssala universitet.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    När det brister: En studie av dammsäkehet och säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat från en studie om dammsäkerhet och säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar längs två reglerade älvar i Västerbotten. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur dammsäkerhetsarbetet, när det gäller dammbrott, säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar och incidenter relaterade till nyttjandet av älvarna, är organiserat och fungerar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven. Övriga älvar i länet samt gruvdammar ingår inte i undersökningen. Det ansvar som Statens geotekniska institut (SGI), Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), försvarsmakten, Boverket, Vägverket och polisen har för att förebygga och agera i samband med översvämningar behandlas inte heller i studien.

    Rapporten baseras på en litteraturöversikt rörande den senaste forskningen på området, dokumentstudier, intervjuer med säkerhetsansvariga vid Länsstyrelsen Västerbotten, Umeå, Vännäs, Lycksele och Skellefteå kommun, samt två vattenregleringsföretag.

    Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i begreppet mänsklig säkerhet och analyserar dammsäkerhet och säkerhetsarbete utifrån ett sociotekniskt perspektiv. Det innebär att varje teknisk konstruktion, varje tekniskt system, såsom vattenkraftverk och dammar, där olika tekniska instrument används för att kontrollera och reglera vattenflöden och producera elektricitet, också utgör sociala system. Det innebär att rapporten uppmärksammar deltagande och delaktighet som en central aspekt av säkerhetsarbetet.

    Utifrån resultaten drar studien följande slutsatser:

    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet och säkerhetsarbetet mot översvämningar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven uppvisar brister ifråga om resurser, kompetens och insyn.
    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet inkluderar inte allmänhetens säkerhet vid och på dammar (public safety around dams).
    • Det finns oklarheter rörande vem som har ansvar för dammsäkerhet och för säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar.
    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet i Västerbotten inkluderar endast i begränsad omfattning sociala aspekter, lokal kunskap tas inte tillvara, och allmänhet och rättighetsinnehavare ignoreras i stor utsträckning i säkerhetsarbetet.
    • Det är generellt svårt att bedöma effekter av säkerhetsarbetet kring dammar och längs älvarna, men klart är att pågående säkerhetsarbete, i form av till exempel enskilda projekt och övningar, ökar kunskaperna om risker och ansvar, samt stärker samverkan mellan olika aktörer.
    • Dammsäkerhet uppfattas främst handla om tekniska konstruktioner medan människa-maskin- natur och mellanmänskliga och organisatoriska säkerhetsaspekter hamnar i skymundan.
  • 194.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    And Then They Lived Sustainably Ever After?: Experiences from Rural Electrification in Tanzania, Zambia and Kenya2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerating the introduction of basic, clean energy services is seen as a key strategy for promoting sustainable development in rural areas. Still, many people worldwide lack access to modern energy such as electricity, and Africa lags behind other developing regions of the world. Support to rural electrification is therefore given high priority by the national governments and donor organisations.

    There is a trend to encourage the involvement of other actors than national utilities for implementation of rural electrification. At the same time, it is required that the activities shall contribute to sustainable development.

    The objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to reach increased knowledge on the impact from organisational factors on project sustainability, and to examine whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. A key activity of the research work has been to improve and develop the present methodologies used for evaluations, as to attain a more functional in-field evaluation method.

    The thesis presents findings from seven rural electrification cases in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

    In addition, a literature survey shows that among stakeholders there are a number of “concepts-taken-for-granted” as regards to rural electrification. These are not supported by the findings from the seven cases. The observed deviations between expectations and realities can obstruct the development as decision-makers may have unrealistic expectations when planning for new electrification activities. Instead, activities have to be implemented with the empirical reality in mind. By doing so the ambiguities, complexities and all the paradoxes of rural electrification can hopefully be better managed.

    The study has been funded by The Swedish International Development Agency, Department for Research Cooperation (SAREC), and Ångpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and Development (ÅFORSK).

  • 195.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Rural electrification sustainability indicators: - Manual for field workers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

    This report presents a manual for field based evaluation of rural electrification projects. The manual consists of a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The manual presents the indicators and gives detailed instruction on the procedure to calculate the indicators based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies. Lastly, SWOT-analyses have been made based on information received from discussions with stakeholders. The SWOT-analysis is seen as a simple and useful complement to the evaluation method that can bring additional information to the evaluation, which will not be covered by the selected indicators.

    The manual is a result from a PhD study. The aim of the study has been to investigate the reasons behind successful/less successful implementation of rural electrification, with the overall objective to facilitate for decision-makers to improve their basis for future decisions and measures on rural electrification activities.

  • 196.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Småskalig elförsörjning: Marknadsanalys för svensk export av utrustning och tjänster.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Study on access to services in peoples settlements: Interdisciplinary perspectives on infrastructure issues in Kenya and Tanzania2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal settlements (slum-areas) are often considered a transient phenomenon and an outcome from economic hardship which will ease once the national economy improves. This has however proven to be a myth rather than reality. Instead, different forms of informal settlements in and around cities are constantly growing worldwide. Access and affordability to infrastructure services such as water, sanitation, energy and communication is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. Even so, the living conditions for people in these areas are far below an acceptable level.

    This report presents the result from a study on infrastructural issues in informal settlements in East Africa. The aim of the study was to identify indicators within the infrastructural sector that are of special concern for vulnerable groups, such as female-headed households. An additional aim was to apply and test a method for participatory documentation – photo eliciting.

    The study targeted two informal settlements: Kibera in Nairobi, and Vingunguti in Dar es Salaam, where Vingunguti was selected for the implementation of a field study. In the study 18 female-headed households were interviewed, each of them equipped with a disposable camera with which they were asked to document the problems of their everyday life. The photos were developed and used as a base for individual discussions. In addition, one focus-group discussion was held with 6 (1/3) of the femaleheaded households.

    The implementation of the study was made using as reference, a previously implemented mapping survey of the settlement.

    From the study, it is clearly seen that the use of indicators is crucial to get an overview of infrastructural conditions in a settlement. However, indicators can fail to acknowledge problems for vulnerable groups. In the case of Vinguguti, major problems concerning infrastructure such as the sewage dams, an abattoir, and a city dump could not be properly described by traditional indicators.

    Instead there is a need of increased focus on functionality and accessibility, a dimension not covered by indicators commonly utilised today. Also, photo eliciting is proposed as a way of visualising the every-day life, and a tool for increased participation by the respondents in a study.

    In addition, photo eliciting of infrastructure shows how interrelated the different issues are. The result from the study clearly illustrates the awareness of the respondents of health implications due to inadequate infrastructure (e.g. no water-dust problems-bronchitis-expensive drugs; rain emptied latrines-bad water quality-stomach problems etc) although they lack the resources to do something about it. This is contrary to other studies, where it is stated that there is a low awareness among residents with regards to these issues.

    Photo eliciting may also be a way of bridging gaps between the researcher as interviewer and the poor dweller as the interviewee. Lastly, by implementing photo eliciting as a supplemental methodology, the task of definition and interpretation of questions/answers can be easier addressed.

    The hypothesis of the study was based on the presumption that the specific need of access to infrastructure faced by vulnerable groups in informal settlements is not entirely met by on-going development activities. While this is true, it is not likely that the design of planned infrastructural programmes for informal settlements of Dar es Salaam or Nairobi had been very much different if the perspective of the women included in the study had been fully included. Many poor people are living in informal settlements of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, and the measures proposed in Action Plans etc., based on results from socio-economic surveys previously referred to, can therefore still be assessed to be suitable from a perspective of reaching the majority of people inhabiting these areas.

    The study was implemented during 2008-2009 by KTH, School of Environment and Heath, Centre for Health and Building, in corporation with the University of Dar es Salaam, Sociological Department.

    The project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Department for Research Corporation (SAREC).

  • 198.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Överslagsberäkning av kloridkoncentrationen i en akvifer längs E20, Svanberg, Västergötland1999Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Johnson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    The Cardiac State Diagram: A new method for assessing cardiac mechanics2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Jörgens, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Moreno, Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Image Processing and Visualization.
    Clustering of tensor votes for inference of fibre orientations in DTI data2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    mong the various diffusion MRI techniques, diffusion ten-sor imaging (DTI) is still most commonly used in clinicalpractice in order to investigate connectivity and fibre anatomyin the human brain. Besides its apparent advantages of a shortacquisition time and noise robustness compared to other tech-niques, it suffers from its major weakness of assuming a sin-gle fibre model in each voxel. This constitutes a problem forDTI fibre tracking algorithms in regions with crossing fibres.Methods approaching this problem in a postprocessing stepemploy diffusion-like techniques to correct the directional in-formation. We propose an extension of tensor voting in whichinformation from voxels with a single fibre is used to inferorientation distributions in multi fibre voxels. The method isable to resolve multiple fibre orientations by clustering tensorvotes instead of adding them up. Moreover, a new vote cast-ing procedure is proposed which is appropriate even for smallneighbourhoods. To account for the locality of DTI data, weuse a small neighbourhood for distributing information at atime, but apply the algorithm iteratively to close larger gaps.The method shows promising results in both synthetic casesand for processing DTI-data of the human brain.

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