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  • 101.
    Elmlund, Dominika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Elmlund, Hans
    SIMPLE: an image processing system for ab initio 3D reconstruction in single-particleelectron microscopyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Elmlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Protein structure dynamics and interplay: by single-particle electron microscopy2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a method capable of obtaining information about the structural organization and dynamics of large macromolecular assemblies. In the late nineties, the method was suggested to have the potential of generating “atomic resolution” reconstructions of particles above a certain mass. However, visualization of secondary structure elements in cryo-EM reconstructions has so far been achieved mainly for highly symmetrical macromolecular assemblies or by using previously existing X-ray structures to solve the initial alignment problem. A factor that severely limits the resolution for low-symmetry (point group symmetry Cn) particles is the problem of ab initio three-dimensional alignment of cryo-EM projection images of proteins in vitreous ice.

    A more general problem in the field of molecular biology is the study of heterogeneous structural properties of particles in preparations of purified macromolecular complexes. If not resolved, structural heterogeneity limits the achievable resolution of a cryo-EM reconstruction and makes correct biological interpretation difficult. If resolved, the heterogeneity instead offers a tremendous biological insight into the dynamic behaviour of a structure, and statistical information about partitioning over subpopulations with distinct structural features within the ensemble of particles may be gained.

    This thesis adds to the existing body of methods in the field of single-particle cryo-EM by addressing the problem of ab initio rotational alignment and the problem of resolving structural heterogeneity without using a priori information about the structural variability within large populations of cryo-EM projections of unstained proteins. The thesis aims at making the single-particle cryo-EM method a generally applicable tool for generating subnanometer resolution reconstructions and perform heterogeneity analysis of biological macromolecules.

  • 103.
    Elmlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Baraznenok, Vera
    Division of Metabolic Diseases, Karolinska Institutet.
    Linder, Tomas
    Division of Metabolic Diseases, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rofougaran, Reza
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University.
    Hofer, Anders
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Lindahl, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Claes M.
    Dept. of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Göteborg University.
    Visualization of a massive TBP-binding coupled histone-fold domain rearrangement within the general transcription factor IIDArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Elmstedt, Nina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Prenatal Tisse Velocity Imaging of the Heart: A new approach to assess fetal myocardial function2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis has been to evaluate color‐coded tissue velocity imaging (TVI) as an approach to developing a new, non‐invasive assessment method for fetal myocardial function. Such a method could hypothetically give early indications of fetal pathology, as myocardial dysfunction is often the consequence when the circulation tries to adapt to deteriorating situations. This would be beneficial in clinical decision making when evaluating fetal well‐being in a wide range of pregnancy associated conditions, to facilitate risk assessment and to monitor the benefit of therapeutic interventions.

    TVI is an ultrasound technique that enables quantification of longitudinal myocardial motion with high temporal resolution, which is essential in the identification of fetal myocardial movements of short duration. Furthermore, the longitudinal motion is mainly determined by subendocardial fibers that usually become abnormal in the very early stages of cardiac dysfunction as they are sensitive to milder degrees of hypoxia. Thus, TVI has the potential to give early indications of impaired fetal myocardial function and hypothetically facilitate the detection of intrauterine hypoxia. Hypoxia is a common phenomenon of many pathological conditions in pregnancy, from which a substantial number of children either die or acquire permanent brain injury during delivery every year.

    After having established optimal sampling requirements and ensured an acceptable reproducibility for TVI measurements of the fetal myocardium, normal reference values were determined feasible and sensitive enough to provide insight into maturational changes in myocardial function. This provided a foundation that should enable further investigations and was partly accomplished using the cardiac state diagram (CSD) to accurately time the myocardial events during a cardiac cycle according to the motion shifts of the atrioventricular plane.

    The demonstrated results are promising and the general conclusion of this thesis is that TVI contributes to increasing the knowledge and understanding of fetal myocardial function and dysfunction. Used together with CSD this technique has great potential as an assessment method. However, further testing of the clinical potential is needed in larger study populations concerning the pathological or physiological questions at issue, and additional development of the method is required to render the method simple enough to be of potential aid in clinical practice.

  • 105.
    Elmstedt, Nina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Ferm-Widlund, K.
    Westgren, M.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Fetal heart contractile function and gestational age2012In: Cardiovascular Research, ISSN 0008-6363, E-ISSN 1755-3245, Vol. 93, p. S108-S108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Inventering av förfarande vid nyanställning och arbetsskador samt hälsofrämjande personalåtgärder för styckare: Intervjuer utförda vid 10 av de största företagen i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Be excellent and tell it!2006In: KB, Kungl. biblioteket i Humlegården och i (cyber)världen / [ed] Margareta Törngren, Stockholm: Kungl. biblioteket , 2006, p. 451-459Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Tentativt kvantitativ analys av högskoleverkets utvärderingar av utbildningskvalitet år 2011-2012.2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ analys av Högskoleverkets (HSV) utvärderingar av utbildningskvalitet har genomförts såväl beskrivande som med försök till statistisk prövning av tänkbara samband mellan olika kvantitativa variabler och nyckeltal karaktäriserande universiteten och högskolornas verksamhet. Ett sammanvägt mått "Utbildningskvalitet" för de olika lärosätena bildades baserat på de av HSV för respektive utbildning använda omdömena "Bristande kvalitet" (= 1 p), "Hög kvalitet" (= 2 p) och "Mycket hög kvalitet" (= 3 p). "Utbildningskvaliteten" kan därmed arbiträrt anta ett värde mellan 1 till 3 där ett högre värde anger en högre bedömd kvalitet. De i juli 2012 av HSV publicerade utvärderingarna av 481 olika utbildningar/examina vid 28 st lärosäten ingick i den deskriptiva redovisningen. För statistiska test av eventuella samband mellan "Utbildningskvalitet" och olika kvantitativa variabler och nyckeltal eller skillnader mellan olika grupperingar av lärosätena inkluderades enbart de 17 st lärosäten som hade tio eller fler utvärderingar genomförda (totalt 429 utvärderingar).

    Resultaten av de statistiska analyserna indikerar att den i HSV:s utvärderingar gjorda bedömningen av utbildningarnas kvalitet ("Utbildningskvalitet") positivt samvarierar med hur mycket forskning ett lärosäte har uttryckt i absoluta ekonomiska tal. Det finns ett negativt men statistiskt säkerställt samband mellan bedömd "Utbildningskvalitet" och hur mycket utbildning ett lärosäte har i relativa tal i förhållande till forskning. Ju högre andel forskning, ju högre bedömd "Utbildningskvalitet". Något statistiskt säkerställt samband mellan den av HSV bedömda kvaliteten i utbildningen och antalet studenter, total ekonomisk omsättning eller graden av lärosätenas uppdragsutbildning återfanns inte.

    När lärosätena grupperades i de två kategorierna "Universitet" respektive "Högskolor" återfanns ingen statistiskt säkerställd skillnad i bedömd "Utbildningskvalitet" mellan kategorierna. Vid en gruppering av lärosätena i de två kategorierna "Äldre universitet" (inrättade före 1999) respektive "Nya universitet och högskolor" erhölls en statistiskt säkerställd skillnad med högre bedömd "Utbildningskvalitet" för gruppen "Äldre universitet".

    Då studien enbart omfattar de första 19 av de av HSV planerade drygt hundra bedömda huvudområdena så kan studien rimligen inte anses som representativ och generaliserbar för hela högskolesektorns olika utbildningsområden. Denna studie måste därför betraktas som tentativ och av mer hypotesgenererande karaktär.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Samverkan i förbättringsarbete inom sjukvård2014In: Om samverkan: för utveckling av hälsa och välfärd / [ed] Runo Axelsson och Susanna Bihari Axelsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Strömgren, Marcus
    KTH.
    Emma, Edström Bard
    Utveckling av hållbart och hälsofrämjande ledarskap –  i vardag och förändring: Utvärdering av interaktiv metodik för företagshälsovårdsdrivna interventioner2016Report (Other academic)
  • 111.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lindencrona, Fredrik
    Olsson, Ingela
    Puskeppeleit, Monika
    Intersektoriell samverkan i utvecklingsprojekt: En jämförande analys2007In: Folkhälsa i samverkan mellan professioner, organisationer och samhällssektorer / [ed] Runo Axelsson och Susanna Bihari Axelsson, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 87-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Strömgren, Marcus
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Experiences of Implementing Occupational Health Services Driven Intervention Methods for Sustainable Leadership in Health Care2016In: International Journal for Quality in Health Care, ISSN 1353-4505, E-ISSN 1464-3677, Vol. 28, p. 50-51Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Implementation of the organizational concept lean production: Case studies of two Swedish hospitals2012In: NOVO Symposium: Hållbar hälso- och sjukvård, 2012, p. 25-25Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Three Swedish hospitals’ lean strategies and their contribution to organizational development2014In: ODAM/NES, 2014, p. 657-658Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Haptic and visual simulation of material cutting process: a study focused on bone surgery and the use of simulators for education and training2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A prototype of a haptic and virtual reality simulator has been developed for simulation of the bone milling and material removal process occurring in several operations, e.g. temporal bone surgery or dental milling. The milling phase of an operation is difficult, safety critical and very time consuming. Reduction of operation time by only a few percent would in the long run save society large expenses. In order to reduce operation time and to provide surgeons with an invaluable practicing environment, this licentiate thesis discusses the introduction of a simulator system to be used in both surgeon curriculum and in close connection to the actual operations.

    The virtual reality and haptic feedback topics still constitute a young and unexplored area. It has only been active for about 10-15 years for medical applications. High risk training on real patients and the change from open surgery to endoscopic procedures have enforced the introduction of haptic and virtual reality simulators for training of surgeons. Increased computer power and the similarity to the successful aviation simulators also motivate to start using simulators for training of surgical skills.

    The research focus has been twofold: 1) To develop a well working VR-system for realistic graphical representation of the skull itself including the changes resulting from milling, and 2) to find an efficient algorithm for haptic feedback to mimic the milling procedure using the volumetric Computer Tomography (CT) data of the skull. The developed haptic algorithm has been verified and tested in the simulator. The visualization of the milling process is rendered at a graphical frame rate of 30 Hz and the haptic rendering loop is updated at 1000 Hz. Test results show that the real-time demands are fulfilled. The visual and haptic implementations have been the two major steps to reach the over all goal with this research project.

    A survey study is also included where the use of VR and haptic simulators in the surgical curriculum is investigated. The study starts with a historical perspective of the VR and haptic topics and is built up by answering different questions related to this topic and the implementation of simulators at the medical centres. The questions are of general concern for those developing surgical VR and haptic simulators.

    Suggested future work includes modelling, development and validation of the haptic forces occurring in the milling process and, based on this, implementation in the simulator system. Also, further development of the simulator should be done in close cooperation with surgeons in order to get appropriate feedback for further improvements of the functionality and performance of the simulator.

  • 116.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Haptic Milling Simulation in Six Degrees-of-Freedom: With Application to Surgery in Stiff Tissue2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this thesis describes a substantial part of the design of a prototypical surgical training simulator. The results are intended to be applied in future simulators used to educate and train surgeons for bone milling operations. In earlier work we have developed a haptic bone milling surgery simulator prototype based on three degrees-of-freedom force feedback. The contributions presented here constitute an extension to that work by further developing the haptic algorithms to enable six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) haptic feedback. Such feedback is crucial for a realistic haptic experience when interacting in a more complex virtual environment, particularly in milling applications.The main contributions of this thesis are:The developed 6-DOF haptic algorithm is based on the work done by Barbic and James, but differs in that the algorithm is modified and optimized for milling applications. The new algorithm handles the challenging problem of real-time rendering of volume data changes due to material removal, while fulfilling the requirements on stability and smoothness of the kind of haptic applications that we approach. The material removal algorithm and the graphic rendering presented here are based on the earlier research. The new 6-DOF haptic milling algorithm is characterized by voxel-based collision detection, penalty-based and constraint-based haptic feedback, and by using a virtual coupling for stable interaction.Milling a hole in an object in the virtual environment or dragging the virtual tool along the surface of a virtual object shall generate realistic contact force and torque in the correct directions. These are important requirements for a bone milling simulator to be used as a future training tool in the curriculum of surgeons. The goal of this thesis is to present and state the quality of a newly developed 6-DOF haptic milling algorithm. The quality of the algorithm is confirmed through a verification test and a face validity study performed in collaboration with the Division of Orthopedics at the Karolinska University Hospital. In a simulator prototype, the haptic algorithm is implemented together with a new 6-DOF haptic device based on parallel kinematics. This device is developed with workspace, transparency and stiffness characteristics specifically adapted to the particular procedure. This thesis is focuses on the 6-DOF haptic algorithm.

  • 117.
    Eriksson, Magnus G.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    The use of virtual reality and haptic simulators for training and education of surgical skills2006In: Simulation in Healthcare: journal of the society for simulation in healthcare, ISSN 1559-2332Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Overview of international standardization in informatics2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Safety Management and Accident Forensics2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Varför köper vi sämre alternativ då det finns billigare och bättre?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Medicinsk säkerhet2016In: Anestesi / [ed] Sten GE Lindahl, Ola Winsö, Jonas Åkeson, Stockholm: Liber AB , 2016, 3, p. 168-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    et al.,
    Slutrapport RO 2013:02: Dödsfall på hjärtklinikens hjärtintensivavdelning N25 vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset i Solna, den 17 oktober 20102013Report (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Numerical Accident Reconstructions: A Biomechanical Tool to Understand and Prevent Head Injuries2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world, with an estimated 10 million deaths and instances of hospitalization annually. Numerical methods such as finite element (FE) methods can be used to study head injuries and optimize the protection, which can lead to a decrease in the number of injuries. The FE head models were initially evaluated for biofidelity by comparing with donated corpses experiments. However, there are some limitations in experiments of corpses, including material degradation after death. One feasible alternative to evaluating head models with living human tissue is to use reconstruction of real accidents. However, the process of accident reconstruction entails some uncertainties since it is not a controlled experiment. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the accident reconstruction process is needed in order to be able to improve the FE human models. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate and further develop more advanced strategies for accident reconstructions involving head injuries.

    A FE head model was used to study head injuries in accidents. Existing bicycle accident data was used, as were hypothetical accident situations for cyclists and pedestrians. A FE bicycle helmet model having different designs was developed to study the protective effect.

    An objective method was developed based on the Overlap Index (OI) and Location Index (LI) to facilitate the comparison of FE model responses with injuries visible in medical images. Three bicycle accident reconstructions were performed and the proposed method evaluated. The method showed to have potential to be an objective method to compare FE model response with medical images and could be a step towards improving the evaluation of results from injury reconstructions.

    The simulations demonstrated the protective effect of a bicycle helmet. A decrease was seen in the injurious effect on both the brain tissue and the skull. However, the results also showed that the brain tissue strain could be further decreased by modifying the helmet design.

    Two different numerical pedestrian models were compared to evaluate whether the more time-efficient rigid body model could be used, instead of a FE pedestrian model, to roughly determine the initial conditions as an accident reconstruction involves some uncertainties. The difference, in terms of the head impact location, rotation and velocity, attributable to the two models was in the same range as differences due to uncertainties in some of the initial parameters, such as vehicle impact velocity.

  • 124.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Comparison of MADYMO and Finite Element Human Body Models in Pedestrian Accidents with the Focus on Head KinematicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    The Protective Effect of Bicycle HelmetsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Ferreira Gonzalez, Javier
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Textile-enabled Bioimpedance Instrumentation for Personalised Health Monitoring Applications2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of factors, including the costs, technological advancements, an ageing population, and medical errors are leading industrialised countries to invest in research on alternative solutions to improving their health care systems and increasing patients’ life quality. Personal Health System (PHS) solutions envision the use of information and communication technologies that enable a paradigm shift from the traditional hospital-centred healthcare delivery model toward a preventive and person-centred approach. PHS offers the means to follow patient health using wearable, portable or implantable systems that offer ubiquitous, unobtrusive bio-data acquisition, allowing remote access to patient status and treatment monitoring.

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) technology is a non-invasive, quick and relatively affordable technique that can be used for assessing and monitoring different health conditions, e.g., body composition assessments for nutrition. EBI technology combined with state-of-the-art advances in sensor and textile technology are fostering the implementation of wearable bioimpedance monitors that use functional garments for the implementation of personalised healthcare applications.

    This research studies the development of a portable EBI spectrometer that can use dry textile electrodes for the assessment of body composition for the purposes of clinical uses. The portable bioimpedance monitor has been developed using the latest advances in system-on-chip technology for bioimpedance spectroscopy instrumentation. The obtained portable spectrometer has been validated against commercial spectrometer that performs total body composition assessment using functional textrode garments.

    The development of a portable Bioimpedance spectrometer using functional garments and dry textile electrodes for body composition assessment has been shown to be a feasible option. The availability of such measurement systems bring closer the real implementation of personalised healthcare systems.

  • 127.
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. Högskolan i Borås.
    Modular textile-enabled bioimpedance system for personalized health monitoring applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of factors, including costs, technological advancements, ageing populations, and medical errors, are leading industrialized countries to invest in research on alternative solutions to improve their health-care systems and increase patients’ quality of life. Personal health systems (PHS) examplify the use of information and communication technologies that enable a paradigm shift from the traditional hospital-centered healthcare delivery model toward a preventive and person-centered approach. PHS offer the means to monitor a patient’s health using wearable, portable or implantable systems that offer ubiquitous, unobtrusive biodata

    acquisition, allowing remote monitoring of treatment and access to the patient’s status. Electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technology is non-invasive, quick and relatively affordable technique that can be used for assessing and monitoring different health conditions, e.g., body composition assessments for nutrition. When combined with state-of-the-art advances in sensors and textiles, EBI technologies are fostering the implementation of wearable bioimpedance monitors that use functional garments for personalized healthcare applications. This research work is

    focused on the development of wearable EBI-based monitoring systems for ubiquitous health monitoring applications. The monitoring systems are built upon portable monitoring instrumentation and custom-made textile electrode garments.

    Portable EBI-based monitors have been developed using the latest material technology and advances in system-on-chip technology. For instance, a portable EBI spectrometer has been validated against a commercial spectrometer for total body composition assessment using functional textile electrode garments. The development of wearable EBI-based monitoring units using functional garments and dry textile electrodes for body composition assessment and respiratory monitoring has been shown to be a feasible approach. The availability of these measurement systems indicates progress toward the real implementation of personalized healthcare systems.

  • 128.
    Freitag, Sonja
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Impact of Stressful Postures on the Physical Workload in Nursing2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing staff have an elevated risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, in particular in the lower back area. Statistics produced by leading industrial nations show that back problems are the world’s number one work-related health problem, and that healthcare workers suffer from a greater occurrence of such problems than workers in other professions. In this context, many studies have examined manual patient handling activities, which was thought to be the main cause of musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back. But nurses have many other types of work to perform and several reviews have concluded that approaches which only focus on manual patient handling activities do not sufficiently reduce back problems in nursing professions.

    Other risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back discussed in the literature included repeated bending and the high proportion of static trunk postures. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to examine the influence of stressful trunk postures on the physical workload of nursing staff in hospitals and nursing homes. It focuses on the type, number and extent of stressful postures and on identifying activities that encourage their occurrence. We used our findings to derive strategies for reducing stressful postures in nursing, and examined whether nursing staff regard such a reduction as actually relieving their physical workload.

    A secondary aim was to consider the older people potentially in need of care. The background to this is that, due to steadily rising costs, many older people are unable to afford care in a nursing home, and additionally that the forecast severe shortage of nursing staff in future gives reason to look for solutions that can reduce the demand for nursing staff. Among older people who still look after themselves, we therefore examined which stressful postures they adopt when carrying out domestic tasks such as cooking and washing laundry. From the results, we provided some examples of a better design of the domestic environment, which reduces stressful postures, when performing these tasks and helps older people to be able to look after themselves in their own homes for longer.

  • 129.
    Frånberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Oxygen content in semi-closed rebreathing apparatuses for underwater use: Measurements and modeling2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present series of unmanned hyperbaric tests were conducted in order to investigate the oxygen fraction variability in semi-closed underwater rebreathing apparatuses. The tested rebreathers were RB80 (Halcyon dive systems, High springs, FL, USA), IS-Mix (Interspiro AB, Stockholm, Sweden), CRABE (Aqua Lung, Carros Cedex, France), and Viper+ (Cobham plc, Davenport, IA, USA). The tests were conducted using a catalytically based propene combusting metabolic simulator. The metabolic simulator connected to a breathing simulator, both placed inside a hyperbaric pressure chamber, was first tested to demonstrate its usefulness to simulate human respiration in a hyperbaric situation. Following this the metabolic simulator was shown to be a useful tool in accident investigations as well as to assess the impact of different engineering designs and physiological variables on the oxygen content in the gas delivered to the diver by the rebreathing apparatuses. A multi-compartment model of the oxygen fractions was developed and compared to the previously published single-compartment models. The root mean squared error (RMSE) of the multi-compartment model was smaller than the RMSE for the single-compartment model, showing its usefulness to estimate the impact of different designs and physiological variables on the inspired oxygen fraction.

  • 130.
    Frånberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Modeling a demand constant volume ratio exhaust and a self-mixing constant oxygen injection semi-closed rebreatherManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unmanned tests of two types of gas dosage techniques for semi-closed underwater rebreathing apparatuses were carried out with a metabolic simulator in a water filled pressure chamber. Tests were conducted over a wide range of tidal volumes (0.5-3 L), respiratory frequencies (5-25 min-1), and oxygen consumptions (0.5-4 L/min), as well as with changing chamber pressures from 100 kPa to 920 kPa. Two models were set up, one single compartment model and one model assuming multiple serial compartments. Both models seem to have about the same level of accuracy at predicting the inspired oxygen levels at pressure, but the surface tests seem to favor the serial compartments model.

  • 131.
    Frånberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Oxygenandningsapparat med nitroxväxlingsmöjlighet.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Jämförelse mellan två olika slussystem för djup FU från ubåt2011Report (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Kolmonoxidnivåer i ubåtsatmosfär2011Report (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Luftkvalitet för BIBS- och HIS-gas2011Report (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    PM angående Trimixdyk med IS-Mix vid Søværnets dykerskole, maj 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    PM avseende resultat av provdykningar med OMD10 (IS-MIX) vid DN under våren 2016.2016Report (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Blogg, S.L.
    Jurd, K.
    Pre-dive exercise and post-dive evolution of gas emboli2011In: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Effekter av exponering för måttlig hypoxi vid vistelse i brandsäkrat arbetsutrymme.2011Report (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Frånberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Maximala dyktider för direktuppstigning med FM återandningssystem2012Report (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Giordano, Chiara
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Development of an Anisotropic Finite Element Head Model for Traumatic Brain Injury Prediction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide health care problem with very high associatedmorbidity and mortality rates. In particular, the diagnosis of TBI is challenging: symptomsoverlap with other pathologies and the injury is typically not visible with conventionalneuroimaging techniques.Finite element (FE) head models can provide valuable insight into uncovering themechanism underlying brain damage. These models enable the calculation of tissue loadsand deformation patterns, which are thought to be associated with the injury. Measuresbased on tissue strain or invariants of the strain tensor are used as injury predictors and riskinjury curves can be inferred to establish the tolerance of the human head to external loads.However, while in-vitro research shows that the vulnerability to injury is due to highlyorganized structure in white matter tracts, the majority of the current FE models model thebrain as isotropic and homogenous. The deformation of white matter tracts is not calculated.The aim of this doctoral thesis was to incorporate the effects of inhomogeneity andanisotropy of brain tissue into injury analysis. Based on in-vitro experimental evidence, thestrain in the direction of the axons (axonal strain) was proposed as a new, more anatomicallyrelevant, injury predictor. The initial hypothesis to investigate was that an FE anisotropichead model is a better tool to represent TBI because it is more biofidelic in describing thelocal mechanism of axonal impairment.The studies reported in this thesis describe a method for implementing the orientation of thewhite matter tracts in an anisotropic constitutive law for FE modeling. Results from thestudies suggested that the anisotropy of the brain significantly affected the injury predictionsof an FE head model. For an injury dataset from the American National Football League, thepeak of axonal strain - MAS - was found to be a better predictor of injury than isotropic localor global predictors. Finally, based on 27 cases of intracranial pressure, relative skull-brainmotion and brain deformation, the introduction of the brain anisotropy in the FE modelpartially enhanced the biofidelity of the simulations. However, given that the enhancementin biofidelity was not major, it was concluded that further research is necessary forunderstanding the relationship between tissue-level loading and axonal injury.

  • 141.
    Glimme, S
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Törnquist, A L
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Teär Fahnerhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lighting and task analysis in an eye hospital.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting is crucial in visually demanding activities and essential for a good visual environment. Access to daylight is important for health, wellbeing, production, and patient safety. The purpose of the present project is to design innovative multifunction examination rooms for the planning of a new eye hospital. The specific aims of the current study were to evaluate existing lighting conditions in examination rooms, to identify the tasks undertaken by eye care professionals, and how they relate to lighting. Lighting conditions in three such rooms and task analyses of three ophthalmologists’ work are presented. The mean illumination levels and the equability of illumination were inadequate. Even if there was access to daylight through windows existed, this possibility was rarely used. Task analyses showed that a significant percentage of the time was devoted to examining the patients (44 %), reading and writing or prescribing drops (23%), in medical records. The lighting was adjusted several times between full and dim illumination during contact with patients. There is substantial potential to improve the lighting conditions.

  • 142.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Developments for a future health care at home step by step2010In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Examples from the building construction and health care industries2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A good work environment is important for the individual, for industry and for society. The work environment research has, predominantly, targeted identification of problems and the measurement of the size of these problems.

    Innovations to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorder, MSD, have been introduced in different branches of industry, but with limited success.

    Few of the ergonomic innovations developed for the building and construction industry have reached a sufficient level of adoption. Ergonomic innovations in the health care sector are of an incremental character and seem to have similar problems of adoption as the ones in the building and construction industry.

    Three examples of ergonomic innovation are examined in the thesis:

    • a glue spreader for floor layers

    • a four-wheel walker with a lifting device

    • a sonographer’s scanning support device

    The studies show that an ergonomic innovation is not adopted for prevention of occupational injury unless the innovation also has other relative advantages apart from the ergonomic ones. For the group who already has sustained an injury, it is enough that the ergonomic problems are solved, while the other, symptom-free group, requires other advantages in order to adopt the innovation; increased production economy seems to be the most prominent potential advantage.

  • 144.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Sonographer's scanning support deviceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of how people relate to the risk of occupational injury indicate that there is a tendency to underestimate the risk at work compared to other risks in society. Ultrasound examinations of the heart involve a static and very uncomfortable working posture for the sonographer. As a result many sonographers experience shoulder and neck pains which can result in long term sickness leaves.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how a more radical ergonomic innovation, a remote controlled ultrasound robot for cardiac examinations, Medirob, has been adopted. The study was conducted by interviews with department heads and heads of clinics, responsible for the procurement of the equipment.

    The results of this study have shown that it is not maybe enough to solve an ergonomic problem with an innovation to get it accepted and used. To prevent injuries the intervention must also have other qualities, for example improved productivity.

  • 145.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utvecklad projektering och planering: Fallrapport (Åkerbyparken)1995Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1990 initierades Åkerbyparken av Täby kommun för seniorbostäder. Projektet genomfördes av Besqab i samarbete med SIAB och berörde samtliga verksamma på arbetsplatsen och i projekteringen. Projektets målsättning har varit att genom en utvecklad projektering och planering förebygga att arbetssituationer som kan leda till förslitningsskador uppkommer. Genom att särskilt beakta dessa frågor i alla skeden av ett byggobjekts genomförande kan man skapa förutsättningar för minskade förslitningsskador i branschen samt även skapa en bättre produktionsekonomi.

  • 146.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 11995Report (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utveckling av utrustning för utläggning av gjutasfalt1996Report (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Forsberg, Johan
    Wernersson, Å
    Byggrobot för spackling och målning1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriften beskriver ett autonomt mobilt robotsystem för sprutspackling och annan ytbehandling inomhus vid i första hand nybyggnation av större byggnader. I skriften jämförs de två prototyper som utvecklats vad avser sensorer, mekanisk konstruktion, styrsystem och datoralgoritmer för att extrahera information från omgivningen.

  • 149.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Graff, Daniel
    m.fl, m.fl
    Robotstöd till arbetsmässigt besvärliga byggarbeten: prototypuppbyggnad1995Book (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Svedberg, B
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 21998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I etapp 1 av projektet har en inledande undersökning genomförts med avsikt att pröva "armeringsbolls-principen" för att förstärka betong. Syftet med denna etapp 2 har varit att vidareutveckla och utprova metoden med armeringsbollar. Försöken har inriktats mot tester av egenskaper vad gäller energiupptagande förmåga. I samband med dessa tester har även olika utformningar prövats. Resultaten visar att armeringsbollen har bättre egenskaper än traditionell armering för dessa tillämpningar.

    Innehåller tre bilagor:- Wireball reinforcement for seismic resistance- Quasi-static loading of spherically reinforced concrete columns- Potential of wireball reinforcement for seismic design

     

     

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