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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jesse
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Localized Sustainable Water Management in Practice: Ecological Engineering as a means for an eco-cyclic water system at the Berga Greenhouse Project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractDue to a growing concern towards issues of sustainability and sustainable development as well as resource scarcity there is a need for increased local cultivation. Cold climate conditions in Sweden make greenhouses necessary for the cultivation of many species. In order to increase the sustainability of greenhouse production processes water cycles should be nearly closedloop cycles. To demonstrate this in practice the Berga Greenhouse project under development by the Centre for Health and Building at the Royal Institute of Technology is used to provide a visionary example. Through precipitation data and a water budget analysis a water reclamation rate of 85% was determined in order to bring the facility to water neutral status. On site water treatment through the use of ecological engineering was analyzed through the use of a multiple-case study of three prevalent technologies (Living Machines®, Organica Water, and Solar Aquatics™) which determined that Living Machines® was the most appropriate technology based upon factors related system performance and footprint.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Tomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Automatic evaluation of breast density in mammographic images2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop a computerized method for automatic estimation of the mammographic density of mammographic images from 5 different types of mammography units.

     

    Mammographic density is a measurement of the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast. This is the single most attributable risk factor for breast cancer; an accurate measurement of the mammographic density can increase the accuracy of cancer prediction in mammography. Today it is commonly estimated through visual inspection by a radiologist, which is subjective and results in inter-reader variation.

     

    The developed method estimates the density as a ratio of #pixels-containing-dense-tissue over #pixels-containing-any-breast-tissue and also according to the BI-RADS density categories. To achieve this, each mammographic image is:

    • corrected for breast thickness and normalized such that some global threshold can separate dense and non-dense tissue.
    • iteratively thresholded until a good threshold is found.  This process is monitored and automatically stopped by a classifier which is trained on sample segmentations using features based on different image intensity characteristics in specified image regions.
    • filtered to remove noise such as blood vessels from the segmentation.
    • Finally, the ratio of dense tissue is calculated and a BI-RADS density class is assigned based on a calibrated scale (after averaging the ratings of both craniocaudal images for each patient). The calibration is based on resulting density ratio estimations of over 1300 training samples against ratings by radiologists of the same images.

     

    The method was tested on craniocaudal images (not included in the training process) acquired with different mammography units of 703 patients which had also been rated by radiologists according to the BI-RADS density classes. The agreement with the radiologist rating in terms of Cohen’s weighted kappa is substantial (0.73). In 68% of the cases the agreement is exact, only in 1.2% of the cases the disagreement is more than 1 class.

  • 3.
    Christiansson, Samuel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Potentialen för spillvärmeuppvärmda växthus i Sverige: ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Denna studie är en delstudie i ett större växthusprojekt som drivs av KTH Centrum för Hälsa och Byggande i Haninge utanför Stockholm. Projektet inbegriper ett integrerat spillvärme- och växthussystem med besöks- och forskningsändamål, placerat i anslutning till en reningsanläggning och ett naturbruksgymnasium. Studiens primära syften är att undersöka spillvärmepotentialen och potentialen för uppvärmning av växthus med spillvärme i Sverige. De sekundära syftena är att undersöka vilka hållbarhetsaspekter som kan identifieras som viktiga för spillvärme-växthus-system och att göra en idé- och informationssammanställning för dem som vill bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, med bland annat tips om hur produktpriser kan beräknas, vilka nyckeltal som kan användas för energikalkyler och vilka användningsområden som finns med ett växthus. Rapporten får ett visst fokus på livsmedels- och tomatodling, eftersom både tidigare studier och den fallstudie som ingår i rapporten handlade om detta. Studiens avsikt är dock att förespråka för en bredare syn på växthusanvändning.

    Studien visar att det finns stora spillvärmepotentialer bland särskilt högtempererade spillvärmekällor på västkusten och medeltempererade spillvärmekällor i Stockholmsområdet, eftersom dessa områden har både god spillvärmepotential och stor befolkning. Växthus kan byggas nära spillvärmekällan och kräver inte lika höga ingångstemperaturer som exempelvis fjärrvärmenäten, vilket gör spillvärme-växthus-system mer flexibla än spillvärme-fjärrvärme-system. Studien visar på viktiga fysiska, ekonomiska och organisatoriska förutsättningar för att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, att det finns biologiska, sociala och kulturella potentialer med växthusen och vidare att det finns flera intressanta hållbarhetsaspekter med spillvärme-växthus-system, särskilt om de byggs rätt från början.

    Så gjordes i Habo, där studiens fallstudie gjordes. I Habo drivs ekologisk växthusodling med hjälp av spillvärme från en närliggande och elproducerande biogasanläggning, där de organiska resurserna består av gödsel och godisrester från en lokal godisindustri. Hela spillvärme-växthus-systemet är småskaligt och i stort sett kretsloppsanpassat. Modellen rekommenderas starkt både för projektet i Haninge och var helst man funderar på att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, eftersom det överallt finns och alltid kommer att finnas tillgång på organiskt avfall. Energistudier visar att det finns stor potential i det organiska avfallet, särskilt från jordbruk

  • 4.
    Hussain, Shabbir
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    A Simple PET Imaging Educational Demonstrator2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent interests in computer based tools and simulations for PET imaging studies have been a leading source for many new developments. A strong emphasis in these studies has been to improve and optimize the PET scanners for better image quality and quantification of related system parameters. In this project, an attempt has been made to develop a Matlab tool intended to be of educational nature for new students where one can perform demonstration of PET-like imaging in a simple and quick way. This demonstration tool utilizes a high resolution, voxel based digital brain (Zubal) phantom as a primary study object. A tumor of specific size is defined by the user on a chosen slice of the phantom. The output images from this tool show the exact location of the predefined tumor. The algorithm attempts to estimate the positron emission direction, positron range distribution and photon detection in a circular geometry. Additional attempt has been made to estimate certain statistical parameters against a specific amount of radiotracer uptake. These include spatial resolution, photons count, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the ultimate PET image. Dependence of these estimated results by the tool on different system input parameters has been studied.

  • 5.
    Iveroth, Solveig
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Framtagning av personas för analys av Reumatologiska klinikens (Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset) patientunderlag2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Personas are fictional users which are defined by their goals, and are often used to represent a specific group of people. The purpose of this study consisted of creating personas in order to analyze the patients of the Karolinska University hospital´s Rheumatology clinic. This study’s aim was to create a more patient-centered healthcare, and to give focus to the patients’ goals and needs. The assignment is an inquiry from CTMH, and is performed in collaboration with Karolinska University hospital and Clinical Innovation Fellowships.

                          The process started with a literature study, followed by developing and submitting an application for ethical vetting. The next step was to interview some of the personnel of Karolinska University hospital that had experience with patients suffering from a rheumatic disease. This was done in order to get a background before the next phase of the project took place: interviewing patients. The scope of the study was limited to only including patients suffering from the rheumatic disease Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Based on the interviews done with patients, a survey was created and sent out to 200 randomly selected patients with RA. The result of the survey was then used in several cluster analyzes, which divided the patients into groups based on their answers. The groups from these analyzes that gave the clearest division and the most interesting answers were then selected.

                          The results consisted of four personas which were evaluated by a focus group. The conclusion of the results and the evaluation was that the personas created are easy to recognize and well usable. The four personas are a good tool for analyzing the patients of the Rheumatology clinic, and are a step towards placing the patients’ goals and needs as key elements in the healthcare of today.

  • 6.
    Javanshir Moghaddam, Mandana
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Coupled Curves Segmentation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we proposed distance enforced penalized (DEeP) random walks segmentation framework to delineate coupled boundaries by modifying classical random walks formulations. We take into account curves inter-dependencies and incorporate associated distances into weight function of conventional random walker. This effectively leverages segmentation of weaker boundaries guided by stronger counterparts, which is the main advantage over classical random walks techniques where the weight function is only dependent on intensity differences between connected pixels, resulting in unfavorable outcomes in the context of poor contrasted images. First, we applied our developed algorithm on synthetic data and then on cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images for detection of myocardium borders. We obtained encouraging results and observed that proposed algorithm prevents epicardial border to leak into right ventricle or cross back into endocardial border that often observe when conventional random walker is used. We applied our method on forty cardiac MR images and quantified the results with corresponding manual traced borders as ground truths. We found the Dice coefficients 70%   14% and 43% ±14% respectively for distance penalized random walks and conventional one.

  • 7.
    Karlström, Marina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Självmonitorering som väg till ökat patientdeltagande2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Telemonitorering är teknik för att medicinskt övervaka individer på distans. Tekniken har, trots att den är ny och outforskad, stora förväntningar på sig att vara en del av lösningen på vårdens framtida utmaningar. Syftet med den här rapporten är att presentera en översiktlig analys av telemonitorering som den används i vården idag. Dessutom att diskutera vilka vårdprocesser den bäst ska tillämpas i för att framöver leda till så stor patientnytta som möjligt.

     

    Området är svåröverblickbart av flera anledningar. Bland annat på grund av brist på en gemensam terminologi som används konsekvent och att den empiri som hittills genererats för att undersöka nyttan har gett spridda resultat. Mot den bakgrunden valdes en kvalitativ metod som har bestått i att genomföra litteraturstudier, omvärldsbevakning, intervjuer samt en avgränsad fördjupning i hur tekniken skulle kunna användas hos en vårdaktör (Health Navigator AB). Analysen av det insamlade materialet har resulterat i insikten att det största potentiella resultatet av tekniken följer av att den kan leda till ökat vårddeltagande. Därför har benämningen ”självmonitorering” valts.

     

    Rapportens resultat är en nulägesbeskrivning som omfattar områdets största intressenter, tongivande studier, projekt samt identifierade möjligheter och utmaningar. Slutsatsen är att det både finns ett behov av, och vinster med, självmonitorering – förutsatt att den utformas efter ett antal framgångsfaktorer som presenteras i rapporten.

  • 8.
    Najar, salwan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Simulering av 1-Wire sensorer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 1-wire bus is a communication bus system which is designed to provide data, signals and power over a single signal with low data rates, a high resolution and a long range. It is typically used to communicate with small inexpensive devices, as temperature sensors, which is worked as a slave with the master computer (PC).

    The 1-wire bus system provides the sufficient control and operation signal, a unique ID serial number of each sensor and it supports multiple temperature sensors by a driving power (Parasite Power) on single line.

    On the 1-Wire bus system, temperature sensors are supplied by two types of power supplies, external Power supply and Parasitic Power.

    The aim of this project is to program the microprocessor (Arduino) by using Arduino programming language to work as a temperature sensor type DS18B20 and also as a slave on the 1-Wire bus system.

    This report explains the 1-Wire bus system techniques and how the communication is achieved between the master and the slave (sensors) to measure the temperature values.

    The measured temperature values are collected from the output of each active sensor on the 1-Wire bus. These data are displayed by the personal computer (PC) which is worked as a master on the 1-Wire bus, and the data are represent the measured temperature values from twelve active sensors on the bus system.

    In this thesis, the temperature values from the 12 active sensors can be read and displayed on the master (PC) by using the following programs: Open Logger One Wire (OLOW) program, One Wire Viewer, DigiTemp and OWFS and I validated all the temperature values from these active sensors which are read and monitored by the drive bus programs. The comparison is done among the measured temperature values to see if the active sensors are given accurate temperature values with different drive bus programs.

    The project shows that the sensors can be connected in a network with the master, by using 1-Wire bus techniques. This thesis will be used by Karolinska University Hospital, and it can also be developed for different requirements in the future.

  • 9.
    Ren, Wuwei
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Brain Imaging with a Coded Pinhole Mask2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Turco, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Monte Carlo simulations of a small-animal PET scanner: Analysis of performances and comparison between camera designs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Ye, Luming
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Perception Metrics in Medical Imaging2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
1 - 11 of 11
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