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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Nilsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Incidence of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries and amputations in Sweden between 1998 and 20062008In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To define the epidemiological pattern of nerve injuries and traumatic amputations in Sweden, 1998-2006, and investigate possible targets for emerging neural engineering and neuroprosthetic technologies.

    Methods: The Swedish Hospital Discharge Register was used as basis of information, including data from all public in-patient care, excluding out-patient data. ICD-10 codes were screened for nerve injuries and traumatic amputations of high incidence or in-patient care time. Selected codes, causing factors, age and gender distribution were discussed in detail, and potential targets for tailored solutions were identified.

    Results: Incidence rate was determined to 13.9 for nerve injuries and 5.21 for amputations per 100 000 person-yrs. The majority of injuries occurred at wrist and hand level although it could be concluded that these are often minor injuries requiring less than a week of hospitalization. The single most care consuming nerve injury was brachial plexus injury constituting, in average, 68 injuries and 960 hospital days annually. When minor amputations of fingers and toes were disregarded, most frequent site of amputation was between knee and ankle (24 patients / year).

    Conclusions: Based on analysis of incidence and care time, we find that brachial plexus injuries and lower leg amputations should be primary targets of these new technologies.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Composite biomolecule/PEDOT materials for neural electrodes2008In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 3, no 3, 83-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodes intended for neural communication must be designed to meet boththe electrochemical and biological requirements essential for long term functionality. Metallic electrode materials have been found inadequate to meet theserequirements and therefore conducting polymers for neural electrodes have emergedas a field of interest. One clear advantage with polymerelectrodes is the possibility to tailor the material to haveoptimal biomechanical and chemical properties for certain applications. To identifyand evaluate new materials for neural communication electrodes, three chargedbiomolecules, fibrinogen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and heparin are used ascounterions in the electrochemical polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The resultingmaterial is evaluated electrochemically and the amount of exposed biomoleculeon the surface is quantified. PEDOT:biomolecule surfaces are also studiedwith static contact angle measurements as well as scanning electronmicroscopy and compared to surfaces of PEDOT electrochemically deposited withsurfactant counterion polystyrene sulphonate (PSS). Electrochemical measurements show that PEDOT:heparinand PEDOT:HA, both have the electrochemical properties required for neuralelectrodes, and PEDOT:heparin also compares well to PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT:fibrinogen isfound less suitable as neural electrode material.

  • 3.
    Ayas, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper seeks to deal with affective design of waiting areas (servicescapes) and has twofold aims. The first, is to explore affective values for waiting areas. The second, is to identify interactions between physical design attributes and affective values.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study included a free association method for data collection, applying Kansei engineering methodology to extract design solutions relating to specific feelings. The study was undertaken at six primary health centres in Östergötland County, Sweden. In total, 88 participants (60 patients and 28 staff) were interviewed.

    Findings – The selected waiting areas show significant differences for their perceived affective qualities. The most desired feeling for creating affective values is found to be “calm”. The core design attributes contributing to this feeling are privacy, colours, child play-areas and green plants. Good design of lighting, seating arrangements and a low sound level are also important design attributes to give a more complete design solution.

    Research limitations/implications – The study provides useful insights for understanding affective needs in servicescapes, and it provides design suggestions. The results have not been analysed separately for gender or different age groups.

    Practical implications – The paper proposes a framework model to be applied when dealing with affective values in servicescapes.

    Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to understand affective values towards the physical environment in servicescape design. It offers a methodology to study complex environments with many alternative design solutions using limited resources. Moreover, this study uses a combination of a free association method and Rough Sets theory in affective design.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Guinery, Jane
    The influence of production planners and schedulers at manufacturing and commercial interfaces2008In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 18, no 5, 548-564 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes empirical research undertaken to identify how production planners and schedulers in manufacturing businesses exert influence on employees in production and commercial departments. Through the analysis of observations and interviews conducted in four case studies, sources of power were identified and categorized. It was found that although production planners and schedulers often did not have formal authority, in practice they had considerable influence. In the main, their sources of influence resided in their access to information. company agendas, and influential arenas, as well as their knowledge and social skills. The discussion draws from the findings examining influencing behaviors and considering their implications. The findings inform associated research on the processes, behaviors. and roles that schedulers and planners perform at functional interfaces, in support of effective and responsive order fulfillment. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 5. Bjorkander, Inge
    et al.
    Forslund, Lennart
    Kahan, Thomas
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Held, Claes
    Rehnqvist, Nina
    Hjemdahl, Paul
    Differential index: a simple time domain heart rate variability analysis with prognostic implications in stable angina pectoris2008In: Cardiology, ISSN 0008-6312, E-ISSN 1421-9751, Vol. 111, no 2, 126-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the usefulness of time domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements by a simple graphical method, the differential index (DI), in prognostic assessments of patients with chronic stable angina pectoris.

    METHODS: HRV measurements in the time domain by DI were compared to conventional measurements of standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), percent of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals >50 ms (PNN50) and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals (RMSSD) from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings in 678 patients in the Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm. The patients received double-blind treatment with metoprolol or verapamil. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction during follow-up (median 40 months).

    RESULTS: Patients suffering cardiovascular death (n = 30) had lower DI, SDNN and PNN50 (all p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, DI below median independently predicted cardiovascular death (p = 0.002), as did SDNN (p = 0.016) and PNN50 (p = 0.030), but not RMSSD (p = 0.10). The separation of survival curves was most pronounced and specificity was slightly better with DI. DI and PNN50 increased with metoprolol but not verapamil treatment. Short-term treatment effects were not related to prognosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Low time domain HRV carries independent prognostic information regarding cardiovascular death in stable angina pectoris. The simple DI method provided equally good or better prognostic information than conventional, more laborious HRV methods.

  • 6. Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Multivariate relationships between pain intensity and other aspects of health in rheumatoid arthritis - cross sectional and five year longitudinal analyses (the Swedish TIRA project)2008In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 30, no 19, 1429-1438 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study analyses the relationships between pain intensity and other aspects of health commonly used to assess disease activity and disability in early rheumatoid arthritis and examines whether such relationships were different between women and men. Subjects and methods. This study included the 189 patients (69% women) with early RA (symptoms < 12 months at diagnosis) still remaining in the Swedish TIRA cohort 5 years after inclusion. Disease activity and disability was assessed 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months (M0-M60) after inclusion by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), number of swollen and tender joints, physicians global assessment of disease activity (PGA), grip force average over 10 seconds (Grippit), Grip Ability Test (GAT), Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI) in hand, lower limb and upper limb, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and pain intensity measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). The variables were divided into meaningful blocks according to the correlation structure in a principal component analysis (PCA) at M60. Using hierarchical partial least squares (PLS) analyses, this study investigated the blocks cross-sectionally to test for correlations with pain intensity at M0 and M60. The blocks at M0 were also used as predictors of pain intensity at M60 in a hierarchical PLS. Results. The strongest relationship was found between pain intensity and the second block, consisting of HAQ and SOFI-lower limb at the cross-sectional analyses in both women and men. The block representing disease activity (i.e., ESR, CRP, PGA, and swollen and tender joints) had the weakest relation to pain intensity. According to the longitudinal analyses, the disease activity variables (block 1) at M0 had the strongest relationship to pain intensity at M60 in men. In contrast, HAQ and SOFI-lower limb (block 2) at M0 had a strong relation to pain intensity in women.

  • 7.
    Bohgard, Mats
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Karlsson, StigLuleå tekniska universitet.Lovén, EvaLinköpings universitet.Mikaelsson, Lars-ÅkeMittuniversitetet.Mårtensson, LenaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Work Science (closed 20130101).Osvalder, Anna-LisaChalmers tekniska högskola.Rose, Linda M.KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).Ulfvengren, PernillaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Arbete och teknik på människans villkor2008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Brolin, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Hedenstierna, Sofia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Bass, Cameron
    Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
    Alem, Nabih
    US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker.
    The importance of muscle tension on the outcome of impacts with a major vertical component2008In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 5, 487-498 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that muscle tension protects the spine from injuries in helicopter scenarios was tested using a finite-element model of the human head and neck. It was compared with cadaver crash sled experiment with good correlation. Then, simulations were performed with a sinusoidal velocity (5-22 G) applied at T1 60° to the horizontal plane. The model with relaxed muscle activation had delayed and decreased peak head rotation compared with passive properties only. Full muscle activation decreased the injury risk for the 13.5-22 G impacts. A sensitivity study of the impact angle showed a very slight variation of the resulting neck flexion, and 1° change affected all ligament injury predictions less than 4%. Finally, simulations with helmets resulted in increased ligament and disc strains with increasing helmet mass and with an anterior or inferior shift of the centre of gravity. It is concluded that the hypothesis seems to hold.

  • 9. Börsbo, Björn
    et al.
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Catastrophizing, depression, and pain: Correlation with and influence on quality of life and health - A study of chronic whiplash-associated disorders2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 7, 562-569 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were: (i) to classify subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing, and investigate distribution in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders; and (h) to investigate how these subgroups were distributed and inter-related multivariately with respect to consequences such as health and quality of life outcome measures. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Patients: A total of 275 consecutive chronic pain patients with whiplash-associated disorders who were referred to a university hospital. Methods: The following data were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires: pain intensity in neck and shoulders, background history, Beck Depression Inventory, the catastrophizing scale of Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Checklist, the SF-36 Health Survey, and the EuroQol. Results: Principal component analysis was used to recognize subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing. These subgroups have specific characteristics according to perceived health and quality of life, and the degree of depression appears to be the most important influencing factor. Conclusion: From a clinical point of view, these findings indicate that it is important to assess patients for intensity of pain, depression, and catastrophizing when planning a rehabilitation programme. Such an evaluation will help individualize therapy and intervention techniques so as to optimize the efficiency of the programme.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Future of ergonomics: A personal view2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Petersen, Jostein
    Elg, Mattias
    Bolling, Andreas
    Interactive research for production and work development2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive research performed as a collaborative approach in conjunction with organizations is considered a new and promising alternative to other research approaches. The purpose of this paper is to describe how interactive research could be used in the interaction between researchers and organizations when running projects to develop production systems and work performed in these systems. It also aims to identify advantages and disadvantages when applying interactive research. Two long term interactive research projects, organised in collaboration with the partnership of Helix Vinn Excellence Centre at Linköping University were performed and data were collected from documentation of interactive seminars, from notes and from interviews with key actors. Interactive research offers several advantages in comparison with traditional research approaches, foremost higher practitioner involvement and validation opportunities of the results. There are also several difficulties, foremost the need of extensive resources and competencies for the research. The overall experiences from participating practitioners were that they considered that the discussions had been useful, stimulating and interesting, and that the fast feedback from data collection was appreciated. One crucial issue is to what extent this interactive research approach may contribute to high quality research, or to what extent the pressure from the practitioners for actionable practical results will take over.

  • 12.
    Elmlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Lundqvist, Joakirn
    Lund Univ, Dept Mol Biophys.
    Al-Karadaghi, Salam
    Lund Univ, Dept Mol Biophys.
    Hansson, Mats
    Lund Univ, Dept Biochem.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Lindahl, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    A new cryo-EM single-particle ab initio reconstruction method visualizes secondary structure elements in an ATP-fueled AAA+ motor2008In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 375, no 4, 934-947 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ab initio three-dimensional (3D) models is a bottleneck in the studies of large macromolecular assemblies by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. We describe here a novel method, in which established methods for two-dimensional image processing are combined with newly developed programs for joint rotational 3D alignment of a large number of class averages (RAD) and calculation of 3D volumes from aligned projections (VolRec). We demonstrate the power of the method by reconstructing an similar to 660-kDa ATP-fueled AAA+ motor to 7.5 angstrom resolution, with secondary structure elements identified throughout the structure. We propose the method as a generally applicable automated strategy to obtain 3D reconstructions from unstained single particles imaged in vitreous ice.

  • 13.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Work environment at state-of-the-art recycling centres2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling centres have a key role in the recycling branch. It is important that the waste is disposed in the right container to avoid pollution of the fraction. The layout of the facilities as well as the employees at the recycling centres are important to secure good sorting quality. There is a high frequency of injuries among the employees. The aim of the present study is to compare the work environment at the two new built recycling centres with improved layout, with other recycling centres in Sweden. The study population comprised all employees at 42 older recycling centres, totally 122 persons and 300 visitors, and 8 employees, and 41 visitors at two new built recycling centres. Questionnaires were used for data collection. More visitors at the two new recycling centres assessed it easy to find the right container for their waste and high quality of service compared to the first study. The employees at the new recycling centres assessed their physical tiredness lower, compared to employees at the older recycling centres. The employees had the highest risk for an injury was when picking up wrongly sorted waste and when packing manually in cages. There is still some need for improvement, especially concerning lifting and transfer equipment at the new recycling centres

  • 14. Falkmer, Torbjern
    et al.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Dukic, Tania
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Larsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, 710-724 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 15.
    Guha, Jaideep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology.
    A Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of a Natural Wind Driven Suction Cylinder for Building Ventilation2008In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 7, no 3, 197-206 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suction cylinder described in this paper is a device to increase the ventilation flow rate, especially in naturally ventilated buildings. Outdoor wind is the driving force. The principle of operation is the development of a pressure drop created by the relative increase in flow velocity as wind driven air flows through a nozzle. This paper basically describes how this pressure drop and resultant momentum can be used to provide exhaust ventilation. The suction cylinder is particularly designed for natural and hybrid ventilation systems, especially for times when the temperature gradient between inside and outside is not enough to drive stack driven ventilation. A 1-dimensional analytical flow model was derived to establish a relationship between the volume of air entering through the inlet and the volume of air sucked by the suction cylinder. The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, was used to visualise the flow system inside the suction cylinder. A corresponding wind tunnel experiment was also made. Preliminary results show advantages in using a suction cylinder for building ventilation.

  • 16.
    Hayashi, Shirley Yumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Division of Renal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Gunnes, Sigurd
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Alvestrand, Anders
    Division of Renal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Mazza do Nascimento, Marcelo
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Acute effects of low and high intravenous doses of furosemide on myocardial function in anuric haemodialysis patients: a tissue Doppler study2008In: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 23, no 4, 1355-1361 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In patients with pulmonary oedema and preserved renal function, furosemide has not only a renal, but also a vascular effect, causing a rapid fall in left ventricular filling pressure accompanied by an increase in venous compliance. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the vascular effects of furosemide in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of our study was to investigate whether furosemide induces changes in central cardiac haemodynamics in anuric ESRD patients, using conventional echocardiography and colour tissue Doppler velocity imaging (TVI), a new quantitative and sensitive method. Methods. Repeated low doses (40 mg followed by an additional dose of 40 mg after 30 min) of i.v. furosemide were administered to 12 (61.6 +/- 16 years, 7 men) and a high dose (250 mg) of i.v. furosemide to 6 (64.1 +/- 3.6 years, 5 men) clinically stable anuric haemodialysis (HD) patients. Conventional two-dimensional echocardiography and colour TVI images were recorded immediately before (0 min) the furosemide infusion in both groups, and in the group receiving the repeated low-dose infusion (at 0 and 30 min), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 70 min after the administration of the first infusion. In the group receiving the single high dose of furosemide the ultrasound investigation was repeated 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after the infusion. The myocardial tissue velocities (v; cm/s) for isovolumetric contraction (IVC), peak systole (PS), early (E') and late (A') myocardial diastolic filling velocities were measured in the left ventricle (LV) at six sites (infero-septal, antero-lateral, inferior, anterior, infero-lateral and antero-septal walls) at the basal region. IVC time (IVCT), IV relaxation time (IVRT), PS time (PSt), RR interval, mitral annulus motion (MAM), strain rate (SR), left ventricular filling pressure (E/E') and cardiac output were also measured. The average of the different walls was used to evaluate global function. Right ventricle (RV) dynamics was evaluated from measurements of IVC velocity (IVCv), peak systolic velocity (PSv), E' and A' from the RV free wall. Results. No significant changes in cardiac output, IVCv, PSv, SR, MAM, E', A', E'/A', IVRT and LV filling pressure were observed, indicating that neither 40 mg (plus additional 40 mg after 30 min) nor 250 mg of furosemide had any measurable effects on LV filling pressure and LV and RV systolic and diastolic function. Conclusions. In anuric HD patients, low and high doses of furosemide had no significant effects on central cardiac haemodynamics. Therefore, the use of furosemide infusion in anuric ESRD patients with acute pulmonary oedema is not supported by the results of this study.

  • 17.
    Hayashi, Shirley Yumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lind, Britta
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nowak, Jacek
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Mazza do Nascimento, Marcelo
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    A single session of haemodialysis improves left ventricular synchronicity in patients with end-stage renal disease: A pilot tissue synchronization imaging study2008In: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 23, no 11, 3622-3628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Mechanical left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony impairs cardiac function in patients with heart failure and LV hypertrophy (LVH) and may be a factor contributing to the high incidence of cardiac deaths in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

    Objectives. To evaluate the possible presence of LV dyssynchrony in ESRD patients, and acute effect of haemodialysis (HD) on LV synchronicity using a tailored echocardiographic modality, tissue synchronization imaging (TSI).

    Methods. In 13 clinically stable ESRD patients (7 men; 65 +/- 10 years) with LVH, echocardiography data were acquired before and after a single HD session for subsequent off-line TSI analysis enabling the retrieval of regional intraventricular systolic delay data. Six basal and six midventricular LV segments were evaluated. Dyssynchrony was defined as a regional difference in time to peak systolic velocity > 105 ms.

    Results. Before HD, all patients had at least one dyssynchronous LV segment. The percentage of delayed segments correlated positively to LV end-diastolic diameter (r = 0.68, P < 0.05). HD induced a substantial decrease in the percentage of delayed segments from 36 +/- 25% to 19 +/- 14% (P < 0.01), reduced average maximal mechanical systolic LV delay from 300 +/- 89 to 225 +/- 116 ms (P < 0.05) and completely normalized LV synchronicity in three patients (23%).

    Conclusions. LV dyssynchrony appears to be present frequently in ESRD patients with LVH. The severity of LV dyssynchrony correlates with LV end-diastolic diameter and decreases after a single session of HD suggesting a mechanistic relevance of volume overload and possibly other toxins accumulating in HD patients.

  • 18.
    Hedenstierna, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    How does a three-dimensional continuum muscle model affect the kinematics and muscle strains of a finite element neck model compared to a discrete muscle model in rear-end, frontal, and lateral impacts2008In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 33, no 8, E236-E245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN. A finite element (FE) model of the human neck with incorporated continuum or discrete muscles was used to simulate experimental impacts in rear, frontal, and lateral directions. OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine how a continuum muscle model influences the impact behavior of a FE human neck model compared with a discrete muscle model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Most FE neck models used for impact analysis today include a spring element musculature and are limited to discrete geometries and nodal output results. A solid-element muscle model was thought to improve the behavior of the model by adding properties such as tissue inertia and compressive stiffness and by improving the geometry. It would also predict the strain distribution within the continuum elements. METHODS. A passive continuum muscle model with nonlinear viscoelastic materials was incorporated into the KTH neck model together with active spring muscles and used in impact simulations. The resulting head and vertebral kinematics was compared with the results from a discrete muscle model as well as volunteer corridors. The muscle strain prediction was compared between the 2 muscle models. RESULTS. The head and vertebral kinematics were within the volunteer corridors for both models when activated. The continuum model behaved more stiffly than the discrete model and needed less active force to fit the experimental results. The largest difference was seen in the rear impact. The strain predicted by the continuum model was lower than for the discrete model. CONCLUSION. The continuum muscle model stiffened the response of the KTH neck model compared with a discrete model, and the strain prediction in the muscles was improved.

  • 19.
    Hedenstierna, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Brolin, Karin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Evaluation of a combination of continuum and truss finite elements in a model of passive and active muscle tissue2008In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1025-5842, E-ISSN 1476-8259, Vol. 11, no 6, 627-639 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The numerical method of finite elements (FE) is a powerful tool for analysing stresses and strains in the human body. One area of increasing interest is the skeletal musculature. This study evaluated modelling of skeletal muscle tissue using a combination of passive non-linear, viscoelastic solid elements and active Hill-type truss elements, the super-positioned muscle finite element (SMFE). The performance of the combined materials and elements was evaluated for eccentric motions by simulating a tensile experiment from a published study on a stimulated rabbit muscle including three different strain rates. It was also evaluated for isometric and concentric contractions. The resulting stress-strain curves had the same overall pattern as the experiments, with the main limitation being sensitivity to the active force-length relation. It was concluded that the SMFE could model active and passive muscle tissue at constant rate elongations for strains below failure, as well as isometric and concentric contractions.

  • 20.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Modelling of low-temperature heating systems in buildings2008In: World Renewable Energy Conference, WREC 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    The influence of room air flow and turbulence on heat transfer from human body – a new comfort model consideration2008In: Indoor Air 2008, 11th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Indicators for assessment of rural electrification: an approach for the comparison of apples and pears2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, 2665-2673 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

    An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility.

    This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies.

    It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk.

  • 23.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    And then they lived sustainably ever after?: Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, 2674-2684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue.

    This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators.

    The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability.

    The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

  • 24. Janerot-Sjöberg, B.
    et al.
    Winter, R.
    Engvall, J.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Mobila tekniker för diagnostik vid sängkanten2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 43, 3025-3030 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jegerschöld, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology (Closed 20130701).
    Paweizik, Sven-Christian
    Purhonen, Pasi
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology (Closed 20130701).
    Bhakat, Priyaranian
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology (Closed 20130701).
    Gheorghe, Karina Roxana
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology (Closed 20130701).
    Gyobu, Nobuhiko
    Mitsuoka, Kaoru
    Morgenstern, Ralf
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology (Closed 20130701).
    Structural basis for induced formation of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E-22008In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, no 32, 11110-11115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostaglandins (PG) are bioactive lipids produced from arachidonic acid via the action of cyclooxygenases and terminal PG synthases. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (MPGES1) constitutes an inducible glutathione-dependent integral membrane protein that catalyzes the oxidoreduction of cyclooxygenase derived PGH(2) into PGE(2). MPGES1 has been implicated in a number of human diseases or pathological conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fever, and pain, and is therefore regarded as a primary target for development of novel antiinflammatory drugs. To provide a structural basis for insight in the catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of MPGES1 in complex with glutathione by electron crystallography from 2D crystals induced in the presence of phospholipids. Together with results from site-directed mutagenesis and activity measurements, we can thereby demonstrate the role of specific amino acid residues. Glutathione is found to bind in a U-shaped conformation at the interface between subunits in the protein trimer. It is exposed to a site facing the lipid bilayer, which forms the specific environment for the oxidoreduction of PGH(2) to PGE(2) after displacement of the cytoplasmic half of the IN-terminal transmembrane helix. Hence, insight into the dynamic behavior of MPGES1 and homologous membrane proteins in inflammation and detoxification is provided.

  • 26.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Biomechanics and thresholds for MTBI in humans2008In: IBIA 2008: MTBI Pre-Congress Symposium, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Koeck, Philip J. B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Purhonen, P.
    Alvang, R.
    Grundberg, B.
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    3D-correlation-averaging for membrane-protein-crystals2008In: EMC 2008 14th European Microscopy Congress, 2008, 55-56 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few 2-dimensional protein crystals can be used to determine high-resolution structures, whereas most electron crystallography projects remain at a resolution around 10 Ångström. This might be partly due to lack of flatness of many two-dimensional crystals [1]. We have investigated this problem and suggest single particle projection matching (3D-correlation averaging) of locally averaged unit cells to improve the quality of three-dimensional maps. Theoretical considerations and tests on simulated data demonstrate the feasibility of this refinement method [2].

  • 28.
    Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Gonga, Antonio
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    A performance monitoring method for wireless sensor networks2008In: PETRA '08 Proceedings of the 1st international conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, New York: ACM , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a monitoring method and its implementation as a light-weight end-to-end performance meter for quality-demanding applications in wireless sensor networks. The use of performance feedback information for control and management is also considered. The method is evaluated in a wireless sensor network testbed for healthcare applications.

  • 29.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Inclusive Design Instead of Assistive Technology in Housing2008In: Proceedings of the 4th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology / [ed] Clarkson, PJ et al ( Eds), 2008, 107-112 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The growing number of inhabitants in need of care and rehabilitation is a common problem in most industrialised countries. More medical conditions can be treated, but often at increasing costs. Care and housing are often interlinked and more interest is being paid to the possibility of offering care to elderly in their own homes. It is not only technology and care that matter; an equally important issue is how well the dwellings are adapted to care, both from a spatial perspective and in supporting new technology. It is a relatively widespread opinion that ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has the potential to support the resources of the caring professions without reducing the quality of the care itself. The complexity of relatively simple technology in use with Home Care and Telemedicine is often underestimated; there are many obstacles.

    In order to conduct applied research about assistive technologies and ergonomics when an apartment is also a work place for professionals giving care and assistance to people in their own home, the University has decided to construct a full scale laboratory in the form of two complete, self-contained and fully equipped apartments. The laboratory will be used to study and develop new technologies and work processes in the home. In different zones such as the kitchen, the bedroom, the living room, the hallway, the cloakroom and the bathroom, there will be different research projects implemented. Subjects and professional care staff will be invited to participate in the studies.

     In different zones there will be different research project implemented:

     In the bathroom we will develop design for assistive work respectively design for independent intimate hygiene. The Japanese toilet style which include cleaning and drying system will be tested.

    In the bedroom we are planning a lightning system for light close to the floor as a guide when one goes up in the night time.

    In the kitchen we will investigate how to create good lighting and storage conditions while preventing old people from falling when trying to replace a bulb or climb to high cupboards.

    In the kitchen new approaches to deal with fire risk and the stove and oven will be studied.

    In one project we have planned to study how the access to the apartment can be dealt with in ways that support the elderly person with memory problems and the healthcare provider.

     

    By using a full scale laboratory where tenants and caring professionals as well as facilities managers are included, all aspects of the apartment can be scrutinized. Instead of assistive technologies the goal is to develop and test solutions based on the concept of inclusive design.

     

  • 30. Lundbäck, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    van den Berg, Susanne
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Berglund, Helena
    Eshaghi, Said
    Exploring the activity of tobacco etch virus protease in detergent solutions2008In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 382, no 1, 69-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease is generally used to remove affinity tags from target proteins. It has been reported that some detergents inhibit the activity of this protease, and therefore should be avoided when removing affinity tags from membrane proteins. The aim of this study was to explore and evaluate this further. Hence, affinity tag removal with TEV protease was tested from three membrane proteins (a Pgp synthase and two CorA homologs) in the presence of 16 different detergents commonly used in membrane protein purification and crystallization. We observed that in the presence of the same detergent (Triton X-100), TEV protease could remove the affinity tag completely from one protein (CorA) but not from another protein (Pgp synthase). There was also a large variation in yield of cleaved membrane protein in different detergents, which probably depends on features of the protein-detergent complex. These observations show that, contrary to an earlier report, detergents do not inhibit the enzymatic activity of the TEV protease.

  • 31. Molina, Daniel Martinez
    et al.
    Lundbäck, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Niegowski, Damian
    Eshaghi, Said
    Expression and purification of the recombinant membrane protein YidC: A case study for increased stability and solubility2008In: Protein Expression and Purification, ISSN 1046-5928, E-ISSN 1096-0279, Vol. 62, no 1, 49-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    YidC is an inner membrane protein from Escherichia coli and is an essential component in insertion, translocation and assembly of membrane proteins in the membranes. Previous purification attempts resulted in heavy aggregates and precipitated protein at later stages of purification. Here we present a rapid and straightforward stability screening strategy based on gel filtration chromatography, which requires as little as 10 mu g of protein and takes less than 15 min to perform. With this technique, we could rapidly screen several buffers in order to identify an optimum condition that stabilizes purified YidC. After optimization we could obtain several milligrams of purified YidC that could be easily prepared at high concentrations and that was stable for weeks at +4 degrees C. The isolated protein is thus well suited for structural studies.

  • 32.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Flow patterns and thermal comfort in a room with panel, floor and wall heating2008In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 40, no 4, 524-536 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal comfort aspects in a room vary with different space heating methods. The main focus in this study was how different heating systems and their position affect the indoor climate in an exhaust-ventilated office under Swedish winter conditions. The heat emitters used were a high and a medium-high temperature radiator, a floor heating system and large wall heating surfaces at low temperature. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to investigate possible cold draught problems, differences in vertical temperature gradients, air speed levels and energy consumption. Two office rooms with different ventilation systems and heating needs were evaluated. Both systems had high air exchange rates and cold infiltration air.

    The general conclusions from this study were that low temperature heating systems may improve indoor climate, giving lower air speeds and lower temperature differences in the room than a conventional high temperature radiator system. The disadvantage with low temperature systems is a weakness in counteracting cold down-flow from ventilation supply units. For that reason the location of heat emitters and the design of ventilation systems proved to be of particular importance. Measurements performed in a test chamber were used to validate the results from the CFD simulations.

  • 33.
    Mårtensson, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging.
    Winter, Reidar
    Cederlund, Kerstin
    Ripsweden, Jonaz
    Mir-Akbari, Habib
    Nowak, Jacek
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Assessment of left ventricular volumes using simplified 3-D echocardiography and computed tomography - a phantom and clinical study2008In: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare the accuracy of simplified 3-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography vs. multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) software for the quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. Design: Three-D echocardiography (3-planes approach) and MSCT-CardIQ software were calibrated by measuring known volumes of 10 phantoms designed to closely mimic blood-endocardium interface. Subsequently, LV volumes were measured with both the methods in 9 patients referred routinely for coronary angiography and the agreement between the measurements was evaluated. Results: Simplified 3D-echocardiography provided higher degree of agreement between the measured and true phantom volumes (mean difference 0 +/- 1 ml, variation range + 4 to -4 ml) than MSCT software (mean difference 6 +/- 5 ml; variation range + 22 to -10 ml). The agreement between LV measurements in the patients was considerably poorer, with significantly larger volumes produced by MSCT (mean difference - 23 +/- 40 ml, variation between + 93 and -138 ml). Conclusion: Simplified 3-D echocardiography provides more accurate assessment of phantom volumes than MSCT-CardIQ software. The discrepancy between the results of LV measurements with the two methods is even greater and does not warrant their interchangeable diagnostic use.

  • 34. Nagarajan, A.
    et al.
    Varadharajan, V.
    Hitchens, M.
    Arora, Saurabh
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Informatics, logistics and management (Closed 20130701).
    On the applicability of trusted computing in distributed authorization using Web services2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed authorization provides the ability to control access to resources spread over the Internet. Typical authorization systems consider a range of security information like user identities, role identities or even temporal, spatial and contextual information associated with the access requestor. However, the ability to include computing platform related information has been quite limited due to constraints in identification and validation of platforms when distributed. Trusted computing is an exciting technology that can provide new ways to bridge this gap. In this paper, we provide the first steps necessary to achieving distributed authorization using trusted computing platforms. We introduce the notion of a Property Manifest that can be used in the specification of authorization policies. We provide an overview of our authorization architecture, its components and functions. We then illustrate the applicability of our system by implementing it in a Web service oriented architecture.

  • 35. Norman, Kerstrin
    et al.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Working conditions in a selected sample of call centre companies in Sweden2008In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, no 2, 177-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Call centres (CCs) are among the most rapidly growing forms of workplaces in Sweden. The purpose of the study was to describe and compare working conditions between operators at internal and external CC companies and work tasks of different complexity. Method. A questionnaire was answered by 1183 operators, 848 women and 335 men, from 28 different CCs. The questionnaire covered background factors, employment, working hours and remuneration, call logging and monitoring, duties, computer work and workplace design during the previous month. Results. Operators at external companies and operators with low-complexity work tasks were younger, more often employed by the hour and worked on a varying roster. They spent longer time on customer calls and had less varied tasks. Additional remuneration, call logging and monitoring were more common at external companies and among operators with low-complexity work tasks. Conclusion. The working conditions varied between internal and external CCs. There was also a variation in working conditions between work tasks of different complexity. There were aspects of supervision style and organization of work at CCs, especially at external ones and those with low-complexity tasks that could introduce stress and lack of well being among the staff.

  • 36.
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Gonga, Antonio
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    An End-to-End Performance Meter for Applications in Wireless Body Sensor Networks2008In: 2008 5th International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2008, 295-298 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a monitoring method and its implementation as a light-weight end-to-end performance meter for quality-demanding applications in wireless body sensor networks. The method is evaluated in a wireless sensor network testbed for healthcare applications.

  • 37. Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Predictive factors for long-term outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion: a multivariate data analysis2008In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 17, no 3, 406-414 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a prospective randomized study to investigate predictive factors for short- and long-term outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) as measured by current pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by disability using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Current understanding about how preoperative and short-term outcome data predict long-term outcome is sparse, and there are few studies involving analysis of short-term follow-up using multivariate approaches with quantification of the relative importance of each variable studied. A total of 95 patients were randomly allocated for ACDF with the cervical intervertebral fusion cage or the Cloward procedure. The mean follow-up time was 19 months (range 12-24) for short-term follow-up and 76 months (range 56-94 months) for long-term. Background factors, radiologically detected findings, physiological measurements, treatment type, pain, and disability were used as potential predictors. Multivariate statistical analysis by projection to latent structures was used to investigate predictors of importance for short- and long-term outcome of ACDF. A "preoperative" low disability and pain intensity, non-smoking status, male sex, good hand strength, and an active range of motion (AROM) in the neck were significant predictors for good short- and long-term outcomes. The short-term outcome data were better at predicting long-term outcome than were baseline data. Radiologically detected findings and surgical technique used were mainly insignificant as predictors. We suggest that the inclusion criteria for ACDF should be based on a bio-psycho-social model including NDI. NDI may also be regarded as an important outcome measurement in evaluation of ACDF.

  • 38.
    Peolsson, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Larsson, Britt
    Brodin, Lars-Ake
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Gerdle, Björn
    A pilot study using Tissue Velocity Ultrasound Imaging (TVI) to assess muscle activity pattern in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia2008In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different research techniques indicate alterations in muscle tissue and in neuromuscular control of aching muscles in patients with chronic localized pain. Ultrasound can be used for analysis of muscle tissue dynamics in clinical practice. Aim: This study introduces a new muscle tissue sensitive ultrasound technique in order to provide a new methodology for providing a description of local muscle changes. This method is applied to investigate trapezius muscle tissue response especially with respect to specific regional deformation and deformation rates - during concentric shoulder elevation in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia and healthy controls before and after pain provocation. Methods: Patients with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls were analyzed using an ultrasound system equipped with tissue velocity imaging (TVI). The patients performed a standardized 3-cm concentric shoulder elevation before and after pain provocation/exercise at a standardized elevation tempo (30 bpm). A standardized region of interest (ROI), an ellipsis with a size that captures the upper and lower fascia of the trapezius muscle (4 cm width) at rest, was placed in the first frame of the loop registration of the elevation. The ROI was re-anchored frame by frame following the same anatomical landmark in the basal fascia during all frames of the concentric phase. In cardiac measurement, tissue velocities are measured in the axial projection towards and against the probe where red colour represents shortening and red lengthening. In the case of measuring the trapezius muscle, tissue deformation measurements are made orthogonally, thus, indirectly. Based on the assumption of muscle volume incompressibility, blue represents tissue contraction and red relaxation. Within the ROI, two variables were calculated as a function of time: deformation and deformation rate. Hereafter, max, mean, and quadratic mean values (RMS) of each variable were calculated and compared before and after pain provocation/exercise. Results: This new methodology seems valuable when looking at local muscle changes and studying the mechanism behind chronic muscle pain. The univariate analyses indicate that patients with chronic trapezius myalgia after pain provocation due to exercise at group level showed decreased strain and unchanged strain rate while healthy controls had unchanged strain and increased strain rate. However, the multivariate analysis indicates that most patients showed lower levels according to both strain and strain rate after exercise compared to most controls. Conclusion: Tissue velocity imaging can help describe musculoskeletal tissue activity and dynamics in patients with chronic pain conditions. An altered muscle tissue dynamic after pain provocation/exercise among the majority of trapezius myalgia patients compared with the healthy controls was found.

  • 39. Pipkorn, B.
    et al.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Jakobsson, L.
    Iraeus, J.
    Backlund, M.
    Mroz, K.
    Lanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Holmqvist, K.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Mathematical human body models in side impacts- A validation study with particular emphasis on the torso and shoulder and their influence on head and neck motion2008In: Int. Res. Counc. Biomech. Inj. - Int. IRCOBI Conf. Biomech. Inj., Proc., 2008, 99-114 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of three mathematical human body models to predict previously published human responses in two different side impact loading configurations was evaluated using an objective rating method. In particular the kinematics of the shoulder, T1 and head were evaluated. The human body models evaluated were THUMS, HUMOS 2 and the GM model. The impact loading configurations used were pendulum impact tests and sled tests. In the pendulum configurations, the closest correlation to the published responses was shown by THUMS followed by the GM model. In the sled configuration, closest correlation to the published responses was shown by HUMOS 2 followed by THUMS. According to the objective rating method the published responses in the pendulum configuration were predicted by all human body models. The published responses in the sled configuration were predicted by HUMOS 2 and THUMS.

  • 40.
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola School of Mechanical Engineering. Institutionen för tillämpad mekanik. .
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Jakobsson, Lotta
    Chalmers tekniska högskola School of Mechanical Engineering. Institutionen för tillämpad mekanik. .
    Iraeus, Johan
    Backlund, ria
    Mroz, Krystoffer
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Chalmers tekniska högskola School of Mechanical Engineering. Institutionen för tillämpad mekanik. .
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Mathematical Occupant Models in Side Impacts: A Validation Study with Particular Emphasis on the Torso and Shoulder and their Influence on Head and Neck Motion2008In: International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, 2008, 99-111 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of three mathematical human body models to predict previously published human responses in two different side impact loading configurations was evaluated using an objective rating method. In particular the kinematics of the shoulder, T1 and head were evaluated. The human body models evaluated were THUMS, HUMOS 2 and the GM model. The impact loading configurations used were pendulum impact tests and sled tests. In the pendulum configurations, the closest correlation to the published responses was shown by THUMS followed by the GM model. In the sled configuration, closest correlation to the published responses was shown by HUMOS 2 followed by THUMS. According to the objective rating method the published responses in the pendulum configuration were predicted by all human body models. The published responses in the sled configuration were predicted by HUMOS 2 and THUMS.

  • 41.
    Piñeiro, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH. Stanford University, United States .
    Case, P.
    Outsourcing in high-tech corporations: Voices of dissent, resistance, and complicity in a computer programming community2008In: Management Practices in High-Tech Environments, IGI Global, 2008, 209-227 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management has historically sought to restrict the options for manual workers to rebel by simplifying and limiting their jobs according to Tayloristic principles. The need for their experience and knowledge has been consciously minimized, having been relocated instead to supervisors and middle managers, working routines and machines. In high-tech industries, by contrast, the workers' fundamental contribution to the enterprise is their very knowledge, offering other possibilities for rebellious activities or, at least, for rebellious plans. This chapter focuses on one of the common denominators in the exchanges among programmers, namely the concept of knowledge: how to get it, who has got it (and who hasn't), what kinds are important and its role in their conflict with management.

  • 42. Purhonen, P
    et al.
    Koeck, Philip J. B.
    Thomsen, K
    Maunsbach, AB
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Cryo-EM studies of renal Na,K-ATPase in native membranes2008In: Proc of the 12th International ATPase Conference. Na,K-ATPase and related transport ATPases of P-type, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Schagerlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Elmlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Gakh, Oleksandr
    Nordlund, Gustav
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Lindahl, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Isaya, Grazia
    Al-Karadaghi, Salam
    Structural basis of the iron storage function of frataxin from single-particle reconstruction of the iron-loaded oligomer2008In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 47, no 17, 4948-4954 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mitochondrial protein frataxin plays a central role in mitochondrial iron homeostasis, and frataxin deficiency is responsible for Friedreich ataxia, a neurodegenerative and cardiac disease that affects 1 in 40000 children. Here we present a single-particle reconstruction from cryoelectron microscopic images of iron-loaded 24-subunit oligomeric frataxin particles at 13 and 17 angstrom resolution. Computer-aided classification of particle images showed heterogeneity in particle size, which was hypothesized to result from gradual accumulation of iron within the core structure. Thus, two reconstructions were created from two classes of particles with iron cores of different sizes. The reconstructions show the iron core of frataxin for the first time. Compared to the previous reconstruction of iron-free particles from negatively stained images, the higher resolution of the present reconstruction allowed a more reliable analysis of the overall three-dimensional structure of the 24-meric assembly. This was done after docking the X-ray structure of the frataxin trimer into the EM reconstruction. The structure revealed a close proximity of the suggested ferroxidation sites of different monomers to the site proposed to serve in iron nucleation and mineralization. The model also assigns a new role to the N-terminal helix of frataxin in controlling the channel at the 4-fold axis of the 24-subunit oligomer. The reconstructions show that, together with some common features, frataxin has several unique features which distinguish it from ferritin. These include the overall organization of the oligomers, the way they are stabilized, and the mechanisms of iron core nucleation.

  • 44. Schütte, Simon
    et al.
    Krus, Petter
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Integration of affective engineering in product development processes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Ferreira, Javier
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Sanchéz, Juan José
    Bragós, Ramon
    Technical University of Catalonia.
    An analog front-end enables electrical impedance spectroscopy system on-chip for biomedical applications2008In: Physiological Measurement, ISSN 0967-3334, E-ISSN 1361-6579, Vol. 29, no 6, S267-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number of applications of electrical bioimpedance measurements in biomedical practice, together with continuous advances in textile technology, has encouraged several researchers to make the first attempts to develop portable, even wearable, electrical bioimpedance measurement systems. The main target of these systems is personal and home monitoring. Analog Devices has made available AD5933, a new system-on-chip fully integrated electrical impedance spectrometer, which might allow the implementation of minimum-size instrumentation for electrical bioimpedance measurements. However, AD5933 as such is not suitable for most applications of electrical bioimpedance. In this work, we present a relatively simple analog front-end that adapts AD5933 to a four-electrode strategy, allowing its use in biomedical applications for the first time. The resulting impedance measurements exhibit a very good performance in aspects like load dynamic range and accuracy. This type of minimum-size, system-on-chip-based bioimpedance measurement system would lead researchers to develop and implement light and wearable electrical bioimpedance systems for home and personal health monitoring applications, a new and huge niche for medical technology development.

  • 46. Shahgaldi, Kambiz
    et al.
    Söderqvist, Emil
    Gudmundsson, Petri
    Winter, Reidar
    Nowak, Jacek
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Flow-volume loops derived from three-dimensional echocardiography: a novel approach to the assessment of left ventricular hemodynamics2008In: Cardiovascular Ultrasound, ISSN 1476-7120, E-ISSN 1476-7120, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study explores the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of left ventricular (LV) flow-volume dynamics using 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, and the capacity of such an approach to identify altered LV hemodynamic states caused by valvular abnormalities.

    Methods: Thirty-one patients with moderate-severe aortic (AS) and mitral (MS) stenoses (21 and 10 patients, respectively) and 10 healthy volunteers underwent 3D echocardiography with full volume acquisition using Philips Sonos 7500 equipment. The digital 3D data were post-processed using TomTec software. LV flow-volume loops were subsequently constructed for each subject by plotting instantaneous LV volume data sampled throughout the cardiac cycle vs. their first derivative representing LV flow. After correction for body surface area, an average flow-volume loop was calculated for each subject group.

    Results: Flow-volume loops were obtainable in all subjects, except 3 patients with AS. The flow-volume diagrams displayed clear differences in the form and position of the loops between normal individuals and the respective patient groups. In patients with AS, an "obstructive" pattern was observed, with lower flow values during early systole and larger end-systolic volume. On the other hand, patients with MS displayed a "restrictive" flow-volume pattern, with reduced diastolic filling and smaller end-diastolic volume.

    Conclusion: Non-invasive evaluation of LV flow-volume dynamics using 3D-echocardiographic data is technically possible and the approach has a capacity to identify certain specific types of alteration of LV flow-volume pattern caused by valvular abnormalities, thus reflecting underlying hemodynamic states specific for these abnormalities.

  • 47. Sirijovski, Nickolche
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Joakim
    Rosenback, Matilda
    Elmlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Structural Biotechnology.
    Al-Karadaghi, Salam
    Willows, Robert D.
    Hansson, Mats
    Substrate-binding model of the chlorophyll biosynthetic magnesium chelatase BchH subunit2008In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 283, no 17, 11652-11660 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthetic organisms require chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll to harness light energy and to transform water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The biosynthesis of these pigments is initiated by magnesium chelatase, an enzyme composed of BchI, BchD, and BchH proteins, which catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX ( Proto) to produce Mg-protoporphyrin IX. BchI and BchD form an ATP-dependent AAA(+) complex that transiently interacts with the Proto-binding BchH subunit, at which point Mg2+ is chelated. In this study, controlled proteolysis, electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens, and single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction have been used to probe the structure and substrate-binding mechanism of the BchH subunit to a resolution of 25 angstrom. The apo structure contains three major lobeshaped domains connected at a single point with additional densities at the tip of two lobes termed the "thumb" and "finger." With the independent reconstruction of a substratebound BchH complex (BchH.Proto), we observed a distinct conformational change in the thumb and finger subdomains. Prolonged proteolysis of native apo-BchH produced a stable C-terminal fragment of 45 kDa, and Proto was shown to protect the full-length polypeptide from degradation. Fitting of a truncated BchH polypeptide reconstruction identified the Nand C-terminal domains. Our results show that the N- and C-terminal domains play crucial roles in the substrate-binding mechanism.

  • 48. Stanoiu, M.
    et al.
    Sohler, D.
    Sorlin, O.
    Azaiez, F.
    Dombradi, Z.
    Brown, B. A.
    Belleguic, M.
    Borcea, C.
    Bourgeois, C.
    Dlouhy, Z.
    Elekes, Z.
    Fulop, Z.
    Grevy, S.
    Guillemaud-Mueller, D.
    Ibrahim, F.
    Kerek, Andras
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Krasznahorkay, A.
    Lewitowicz, M.
    Lukyanov, S. M.
    Mandal, S.
    Mrazek, J.
    Negoita, F.
    Penionzhkevich, Y. E.
    Podolyak, Z.
    Roussel-Chomaz, P.
    Saint-Laurent, M. G.
    Savajols, H.
    Sletten, G.
    Timar, J.
    Timis, C.
    Yamamoto, A.
    Disappearance of the N=14 shell gap in the carbon isotopic chain2008In: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics, ISSN 0556-2813, E-ISSN 1089-490X, Vol. 78, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of C-17-20(6) nuclei was investigated by means of the in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy technique using fragmentation reactions of radioactive beams. Based on particle-gamma and particle-gamma gamma coincidence data, level schemes are constructed for the neutron-rich C17-20 nuclei. The systematics of the first excited 2(+) states in the carbon isotopes is extended for the first time to A = 20 showing that in contrast to the case of the oxygen isotopes, the N = 14 subshell closure disappears. Experimental results are compared with shell-model calculations. Agreement between them is found only if a reduced neutron-neutron effective interaction is used. Implications of this reduced interaction in some properties of weakly bound neutron-rich Carbon are discussed.

  • 49. Valzania, Cinzia
    et al.
    Gadler, Fredrik
    Winter, Reidar
    Braunschweig, Frieder
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Gudmundsson, Petri
    Borian, Giuseppe
    Eriksson, Maria J.
    Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on coronary blood flow: Evaluation by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography2008In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 10, no 5, 514-520 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Relatively limited and conflicting data are available on the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on coronary blood flow (CBF). Aims: To investigate changes in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow under different CRT pacing modes by means of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE). Methods: Twenty-two responders to CRT (67 11 years) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent TTE assessment of LAD flow and Tissue Velocity Imaging during 4 programming modes: intrinsic conduction (IC), right ventricular pacing (RV), simultaneous biventricular pacing (BVP), BVP with left ventricular (LV) pre-activation. Results: Mean coronary flow velocity (CFV) was increased by simultaneous BVP (p = 0.0063 vs. IC) and BVP with LV pre-activation (p<0.0001 vs. IC; p=0.027 vs. simultaneous BVP). Peak CFV and LAD flow velocity/time integral were highest during BVP with LV pre-activation. A reduction in septal-to-lateral delay and an increase in peak systolic velocity in the basal septum were observed during simultaneous BVP and BVP with LV pre-activation. Conclusions: In CRT responders with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, an increase in LAD flow, assessed by TTE, was observed during simultaneous BVP and BVP with LV pre-activation. This was associated with an improvement in regional myocardial contraction and a decrease in intraventricular dyssynchrony.

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