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  • 1.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Evaluation of head response to ballistic helmet impacts, using FEM2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Proposed global injury thresholds for oblique helmet impacts2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering.
    Injuries from motorcycle- and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999.2003In: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, E-ISSN 1744-4985, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 131-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study injuries from motorcycle and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999. Databases at the National Board for Health and Welfare and codes from both ICD9 and ICD10 systems were used, including patterns of age, gender, E-code and type of injury. Length of hospital stay, type of injuries and trends over time was evaluated. To get a more detailed picture of the age distribution, type of vehicle used and number of killed, data from the Swedish National Road Administration were also used. In Sweden, 27,122 individuals received in-patient care due to motorcycle and moped injuries between 1987 and 1999. The motorcycle and moped injury rate was reduced in the second half of the studied period and so were the total days of treatment per year. Males had eight times the incidence of injuries compared to females. Riders under the age of 26 and in particular those at an age of 15 had the highest incidence rate. Head injuries were the most frequent diagnosis, followed by fractures to the lower limbs. Concussion was the most frequent head injury. Focal and diffuse brain injuries combined showed the same frequency as concussion. It is concluded that more preventative strategies must be presented before the injury rate can be reduced.

  • 4. Grape, Christina
    et al.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Hansson, Lars-Olof
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Theorell, Töres
    Does singing promote well-being?: An empirical study of professional and amateur singers during a singing lesson.2003In: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, ISSN 1053-881X, E-ISSN 2168-7846, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the possible beneficial effects of singing on well-being during a singing lesson. Eight amateur (2m, 6f, age 28-53 yrs) and eight professional (4m, 4f, age 26-49 yrs) singers who had been attending singing lessons for at least six months were included. Continuous ECG was recorded and computerized spectral analysis was performed. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, prolactin, cortisol, and oxytocin were measured before and 30 min after the lesson. Five visual analogue scales (VAS, sad-joyful, anxious-calm, worried-elated, listless-energetic, and tense-relaxed) were scored before and after the lesson. In addition, a semi-structured interview was performed. Heart rate variability analyses showed significant changes over time in the two groups for total power, and low and high frequency power. Power increased during singing in professionals, whereas there were no changes in amateurs. This indicates an ability to retain more "heart-brain connection." i.e., more cardio-physiological fitness for singing in professional singers, compared to amateur singers. Serum concentration of TNF-alpha increased in professionals after the singing lesson, whereas the concentration in amateurs decreased. Serum concentrations of prolactin and cortisol increased after the lesson in the group of men and vice versa for women. Oxytocin concentrations increased significantly in both groups after the singing lesson. Amateurs reported increasing joy and elatedness (VAS), whereas professionals did not. However, both groups felt more energetic and relaxed after the singing lesson. The interviews showed that the professionals were clearly achievement-oriented, with focus on singing technique, vocal apparatus and body during the lesson. The amateurs used the singing lessons as a means of self-actualization and self-expression as a way to release emotional tensions. In summary, in this study, singing during a singing lesson seemed to promote more well-being and less arousal for amateurs compared to professional singers, who seemed to experience less well-being and more arousal.

  • 5.
    Halldin, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Aare, Magnus
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Improved helmet design and test methods to reduce rotational induced brain injuries2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Halldin, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Aare, Magnus
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Reduced risk for DAI by use of a new safety helmet2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kleiven, Svein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Juntikka, Rickard
    Optimization of Single Skin Surfaces for Head Injury Prevention – A Comparison of Optima Calculated for Global versus Local Injury Thresholds.2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Is small business a safety problem?2003In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common beliefs in relation to safety in small business are of two types; a) small businesses are more unsafe, apply unsafe practices, and thus have a higher incidence of occupational injury and a higher average severity of injury, and b) small business have poor knowledge of, and exhibit low compliance with, laws, rules and regulations, and are increasingly difficult to control.

    A survey of 100 small business operators in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia was undertaken. Ten different industries - farming, nurseries, fishing, printing, metal manufacturing, concreting, electrical work, cleaning services, cafes and restaurants, women’s hairdressing - were included in the regional sample. The face-to-face conducted interview included questions on educational background, business experience, number and type of staff, own ill health, perceptions of hazards, experience of work-related injury or illhealth in the company, comparison of risks at work with risks outside work, claims experience, knowledge of experience rating system, attitudes to investment in risk-reduction, to safety and productivity, attitudes to the nature of safety problems at work, willingness to pay, decision-making style, relation between debts and assets in the business, recent and future investment in safety, and contacts with government bodies, insurers and OH&S professionals.

    Small business operators seemed to know quite well which type of risks they, and their family and staff, are exposed to. Educational background, the long average trade/ business experience, the risk exposure from the practical and hands-on type of work that virtually all owners/managers in this study do, their experience of work-related ill-health and traumatic injury, together with the perceived risks reported from the different industries, support this. When claims cost was checked against size of remuneration it was indicated that there could be a systematic under-reporting of minor-medium claims from small businesses, particularly from businesses smaller than AUD120,000 in remuneration, ie. the typical company-size of this study.

    The study generates no real proof that size of an industrial establishment in itself is an important factor for OH&S. Some industrial activities and processes define size - small or large - and the hazards generated in the process, and the actual risk exposure, will explain the incidence and type of occupational trauma and disease. However, some occupational groups, particularly in high-risk areas, tend to under-estimate or be prepared to bear the high inherent health risks of their trade. Concreting is an example in this study. Farmers have a tradition of high risk acceptance, which is combined with a low resource level.

    It is crucial for successful approaches to improved work environment and safety in small business to accept that most small business operators have reasonable capacity, knowledge and experience to handle the risks in their own operations. To be relevant and useful to small business, the emphasis of the OH&S information should shift from the legalistic formal administration of safety to the practical solution of typical and high-priority technical risk problems in specific industries. In view of the social characteristics of small business, and their pervasive inclusion of work in family and general life, communication about OH&S in small business should shift its focus from the traditional industrial relations and workers’ compensation arguments to a genuine 24-hour perspective of public and family health.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Who will use claims data for the prevention of occupational trauma?2003In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If claims data from the public fund workers' compensation system is merged with the relevant census data, the relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the system can be calculated. A reconstituted occupational code, made from combining the present occupational and industrial codes, can be used to differentiate occupations in relation to hazards. A four-part injury severity index, generated in the claims settling process, can be used to further differentiate occupations, tasks and activities in terms of priorities for intervention.

    Occupational injury incidence and severity in Victoria between 1992 and 2000 were analysed. Among large and small occupational groups the combined criteria of high annual injury incidence and extreme injury severity identified the occupational groups which represent the top priorities for occupational trauma prevention counter-measures in Victoria (Larsson & Field, 2002a, 2002b). All claims for over-exertion and soft tissue injury ("sprains and strains") between 1996 and 2000 (45% of the total claims volume) were analysed with specific control for age and gender. Detailed information on accident processes and exposures commonly involved were retrieved from the claims files. The top priority groups in terms of countermeasures were identified with a combination of the variables industry, occupation, age, gender and hazardous activity associated with the trauma (Larsson et al, 2001).

    However, the development of systematic and detailed prevention information does not necessarily generate any prevention activities or interventions actioned by the combined public fund workers' compensation and industrial safety inspectorate system. In fact, it seems that systematic injury information is not commonly used for prevention by the public fund workers' compensation system and this might be due to a number of factors like:

    · actuaries determine policies in the insurance and prevention is not properly defined,

    · no proper agents for injury prevention exist in the system,

    · legislation and regulation is built for prosecution, not prevention,

    · safety and health is seen as commodities to be left to market forces, demand and private investment,

    · the only suitable workers' compensation insurance intervention is information (pamphlets, posters, advertising campaigns, etc).

    The roles of public fund workers' compensation systems, unions and collective and individual employers in practical and applied occupational injury prevention needs to be critically appraised. To move from statistics and dinner speeches to measurable reduction of clearly identified work-related injury problems, the methods and the appropriate agents for cost-efficient and systematic intervention against occupational trauma must be credibly defined.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Tore J
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    fl, m
    Industrial forklift trucks: Dynamic stability and the design of safe logistics2003In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forklift trucks represent a well-known occupational hazard in many modern industrial environments. In terms of severe work-related injuries and fatalities, exposure to forklift trucks in the transport industry, in wholesale and retail and in manufacturing implies high risks to operators, pedestrian workers and others in the environment. Creating industrial environments where vehicle, pedestrian and material movements can flow productively without hazardous conflicts requires logistics and safety analyses as a basis for the design and layout of facilities.

    Monash University Accident Research Centre, funded by Worksafe Victoria (the local workers’ compensation insurer and industrial safety regulator), has coordinated a development project with the following components:

    · the development and testing of a paradigm for dynamic stability assessment of industrial forklift trucks;

    · the formation of a local team of experts in forklift safety, transport, logistics, and industrial architecture/design to develop, through a series of workshops, the details of safe forklift transport systems operationalized into "blueprint" format for a freight terminal and a warehouse, including relevant goods receiving and dispatch  areas;

    · a warehouse management software application, incorporating features for conflict prognosis and necessary parameters for the managing of a distribution centre;

    The project has also analysed existing alert, proximity warning and navigational systems, including systems based on ultraviolet, microwave and laser technology, together with several applications of speed limiting technology, and developed and tested a prototype RF-tag and on-vehicle receiver unit to assess costs and feasibility of using radio frequency technology to identify pedestrians in forklift truck zones.

    Testing of different combinations of electronic control devices for on-vehicle or other traffic management applications for industrial forklift trucks is undertaken at a number of industrial "testbed" locations.

    The blueprint designs will be used in a planned subsidy program targeting existing and prospective medium-size transport terminal operators in Victoria, where Worksafe Victoria covers the cost of expert assistance in translating the blueprint to the specific requirements of an operator willing to use the design as the basis for their new or upgraded facility.

    The development project aims to report its findings in the form of a ”Safe Forklift Management Manual”, the main focus of which is the safe management of the forklift transport system, with basic parameters such as rational logistics, good information ergonomics, optimal traffic separation and management, speed and proximity control, well-structured operational environments, good systems management and preferred secondary vehicle safety features.

  • 11. Lönnerholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Blomström, Per
    Nilsson, Leif
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Kesek, Milos
    Jideus, Lena
    Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina
    Autonomic denervation after the Maze procedure.2003In: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, ISSN 0147-8389, E-ISSN 1540-8159, Vol. 26, no 2 Pt 1, p. 587-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Maze III procedure is a surgical operation for curative treatment of AF. The procedure is extensive, however, with multiple incisions in both atria, and its effects on autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm are not known. This study comprises 17 patients, 10 with paroxysmal AF and 7 with chronic AF, who had no concurrent cardiac disease known to affect heart rate variability (HRV). A 24-hour Holter recording was performed preoperatively and 2 months (early) and 7 months (late) after surgery, for analysis of HRV in the time and frequency domains. Early after the Maze procedure all HRV components were markedly reduced compared to baseline (mean +/- 1 SD): SDNN 73 +/- 13 versus 148 +/- 50 (ms), total power 168 +/- 126 versus 560 +/- 1567 (ms2), low frequency (LF) power 47 +/- 67 versus 826 +/- 677 (ms2), high frequency (HF) power 47 +/- 40 versus 678 +/- 666 (ms2), and LF:HF 1.22 +/- 0.9 versus 2.55 +/- 1.4. Late after the Maze procedure all variables were still reduced. Only total power increased significantly between early and late follow-up (168 +/- 126 vs 496 +/- 435 ms2). Late after Maze surgery, values of the different HRV components did not differ between the patients with paroxysmal AF and chronic AF. Early after the Maze procedure there is a marked decrease of all HRV components, which is maintained 7 months after surgery, a pattern consistent with denervation of the heart.

  • 12. Persson, Håkan
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Tomson, Torbjörn
    Carbamazepine affects autonomic cardiac control in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.2003In: Epilepsy Research, ISSN 0920-1211, E-ISSN 1872-6844, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that epilepsy patients may have impaired autonomic cardiovascular control in the interictal state although it is unclear whether the observed reduction in cardiovascular responses is due to the epilepsy and the interictal epileptogenic discharges, or to the treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability makes it possible to partly separate the sympathetic components, low frequency (LF), from the vagal components, high frequency (HF) of autonomic cardiac control. We used spectral analysis of heart rate variability to assess the effect of carbamazepine (CBZ) on autonomic cardiac control in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Fifteen adult outpatients with newly diagnosed seizures/epilepsy underwent 24 h ambulatory EKG recordings before and after commencement of CBZ treatment. Total power as well as low frequency (LF), very low frequency (VLF) and high frequency (HF) power in heart rate variability was calculated. When analysing the full 24 h recordings, patients had significantly lower standard deviation of RR-intervals (P=0.0015), total power (P=0.0010), LF (P=0.0002), VLF (P=0.0025) and HF (P=0.0139) during treatment with CBZ than before. The results were very similar for daytime and night time recordings. Our observations demonstrate that CBZ may suppress both parasympathetic and sympathetic functions in newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy. The possible implications of our results for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy are discussed.

  • 13. Rohdin, M
    et al.
    Petersson, J
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Mure, M
    Glenny, RW
    Lindahl, SG
    Linnarsson, D
    Effects of gravity on lung diffusing capacity and cardiac output in prone and supine humans.2003In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both in normal subjects exposed to hypergravity and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, there are increased hydrostatic pressure gradients down the lung. Also, both conditions show an impaired arterial oxygenation, which is less severe in the prone than in the supine posture. The aim of this study was to use hypergravity to further investigate the mechanisms behind the differences in arterial oxygenation between the prone and the supine posture. Ten healthy subjects were studied in a human centrifuge while exposed to 1 and 5 times normal gravity (1 G, 5 G) in the anterioposterior (supine) and posterioanterior (prone) direction. They performed one rebreathing maneuver after approximately 5 min at each G level and posture. Lung diffusing capacity decreased in hypergravity compared with 1 G (ANOVA, P = 0.002); it decreased by 46% in the supine posture compared with 25% in the prone (P = 0.01 for supine vs. prone). At the same time, functional residual capacity decreased by 33 and 23%, respectively (P < 0.001 for supine vs. prone), and cardiac output by 40 and 31% (P = 0.007 for supine vs. prone), despite an increase in heart rate of 16 and 28% (P < 0.001 for supine vs. prone), respectively. The finding of a more impaired diffusing capacity in the supine posture compared with the prone at 5 G supports our previous observations of more severe arterial hypoxemia in the supine posture during hypergravity. A reduced pulmonary-capillary blood flow and a reduced estimated alveolar volume can explain most of the reduction in diffusing capacity when supine.

  • 14.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Linnarsson, D
    Relationship between breath-synchronous arterial pressure and heart rate variations during orthostatic stress.2003In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been shown that the phase relationship between respiration-induced changes in arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) are different in supine and upright postures. We wanted to further analyse the coupling between respiration, arterial blood pressure and HR in the time domain, and how this coupling was altered during orthostatic stress. Nine healthy subjects were studied. Respiration-induced changes in AP and HR were recorded during frequency- and volume-controlled breathing. This was done during supine rest with and without lower body negative pressure (-50 mmHg) (LBNP). All experiments were performed after beta1-blockade. Responses were averaged breath-by-breath to enhance the time resolution and to eliminate noise. The respiration-induced changes in arterial pulse pressure (PP) were different between control and LBNP: The peak in PP during the respiratory cycle occurred 0.9 +/- 0.8 (mean +/- SD) s before the onset of inspiration during supine control and 0.8 +/- 2.1 s after the onset of inspiration during LBNP (P = 0.03). These changes in the timing of peak PP significantly distorted the cyclic systolic AP and mean AP fluctuations during LBNP. Despite the altered AP response with LBNP, HR fluctuations closely correlated in time with respiration in all conditions, albeit with a significantly reduced amplitude during LBNP (-49%, P = 0.01). The results points to a lack of coupling between AP and HR during paced breathing and thus suggest that respiratory sinus dysrhythmia at least, to a large extent, is independent of the arterial baroreflex.

  • 15.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Increased chloride concentration in a lake due to deicing salt application2003In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During winter, the Swedish National Road Administration uses on average 250,000 tonnes of sodium chloride for deicing purposes. Chloride concentration is a function of the amount of deicing salt applied during the winter season and the amount of water in which the salt can be diluted. An estimation of seasonal amount of deicing salt in relation to amount of run-off was used in order to identify the effects of deicing salt. The measured chloride concentration in a lake used as a municipal water supply was similar to the concentration estimated by a simple steady state method accounting for the catchment area. The simplified steady state method was a useful tool for estimating steady state concentrations on a regional level, including a non-influenced lake as a comparison.

  • 16.
    Vänje Rosell, Annika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Teknik och emancipation: doing gender som interaktivt förändringsarbete.2003In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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