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  • 1.
    Halilovic, Armin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Naturvetenskapliga avdelningen (Closed 20130701).
    On some properties of bilinear and multilinear Stieltjes integrals1998In: Radovi Matematicki, ISSN ISSN: 0352-6100, Vol. 8, no 2, 201-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider some properties of the bilinear and multilinear Stieltjes integrals in Banach spaces in the Riemann-Stieltjes, Moore-Pollard and Young senses

  • 2. Jensen-Urstad, M
    et al.
    Jensen-Urstad, K
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Johansson, J
    Heart rate variability is related to leucocyte count in men and to blood lipoproteins in women in a healthy population of 35-year-old subjects.1998In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 243, no 1, 33-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if, in a healthy randomly-selected population of 35-year-old men and women, there already is a relation between decreased heart rate variability and conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been used for estimating tonic autonomic activity. HRV is reduced in patients with various cardiovascular diseases. If a decreased HRV is a late phenomenon in the progression of cardiovascular disease, or if it parallels or even precedes manifest disease is unknown.

    DESIGN: Spectral analysis of HRV was made from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms in a randomised population of healthy 35-year-old men (n = 63) and women (n = 70). The different spectral indices of HRV were analysed against gender, leucocyte count (previously described as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease), blood lipoproteins, smoking, heredity, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure.

    SETTING: A research centre of general medicine and a university hospital.

    RESULTS: Mean heart rate was lower, total power (TP), very low frequency power (VLF) and low frequency power (LF) were higher in men than in women. In women TP, VLF and LF were negatively correlated to BMI, smoking, triglycerides and positively correlated to HDL cholesterol. TP and VLF were also negatively correlated to risk factor score. High frequency power (HF), a marker of parasympathetic activity, was positively related to HDL cholesterol. In men, at daytime, TP, VLF, LF and HF were negatively correlated to leucocyte count. TP, VLF and LF were also negatively correlated to triglycerides and VLF also to risk factor score.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are correlations between HRV and known risk factors for cardiovascular disease already in a healthy 35-year-old population. A novel observation is the relationship in men between leucocyte count and heart rate variability.

  • 3.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Factors regulating the air-borne spreading of pollutants from roads1998In: The Xth International PIARC Winter Road Congress, London: PTRC Education and Research Services Ltd , 1998, 459-468 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollutants from roads are spread by mechanisms such as splash, spray and ploughing. In this study, the spreading was studied at two locations where information on the local weather was available and the amount of salt applied on the road could be obtained. When comparing the deposition of Na, Ca, K and Mg, the road-related gradient is obvious; the increase of sodium in the containers closest to the road is sometimes more than 1000-fold, and the increase of the other cations 10 - 100 fold. Also during a period of no de-icing the deposition of cations is higher towards the road. The deposition of Na is related to the amount of road salt applied, and also to wind and type and amount of precipitation. The increase of other cations could be an effect of weathering and/or ion-exchange on the fresh surfaces of the road.

  • 4. Spaak, J
    et al.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Linnarsson, D
    Human carotid baroreflex during isometric lower arm contraction and ischemia.1998In: American Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0002-9513, E-ISSN 2163-5773, Vol. 275, no 3 Pt 2, H940-945 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to determine the roles of somatomotor activation and muscle ischemia for the tachycardia and hypertension of isometric arm contraction. Carotid-cardiac and carotid-mean arterial pressure (MAP) baroreflex response curves were determined in 10 men during rest, during isometric arm contraction at 30% of maximum, and during postcontraction ischemia. Carotid distending pressure (CDP) was changed by applying pressure and suction in a neck chamber. Pressures ranged from +40 to -80 mmHg and were applied repeatedly for 15 s during the three conditions. Maximum slopes and ranges of the response curves did not differ among conditions. The heart rate (HR) curve was shifted to a 14 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- SE) beats/min higher HR and a 9 +/- 5.7 mmHg higher CDP during contraction and to a 14 +/- 5.9 mmHg higher CDP during postcontraction ischemia with no change of HR compared with rest. The MAP curve was shifted to a 20 +/- 2.8 mmHg higher MAP and to a 18 +/- 5.4 mmHg higher CDP during contraction, and the same shifts were recorded during postcontraction ischemia. We conclude that neither somatomotor activation nor muscle ischemia changes the sensitivity of arterial baroreflexes. The upward shift of the MAP response curve, with no shift of the HR response curve during postexercise ischemia, supports the notion of parallel pathways for MAP and HR regulation in which HR responses are entirely caused by somatomotor activation and the pressor response is mainly caused by muscle ischemia.

  • 5. Tanaka, H
    et al.
    Hyllienmark, L
    Thulesius, O
    Brismar, T
    Ludvigsson, J
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Lindblad, L E
    Tamai, H
    Autonomic function in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.1998In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 15, no 5, 402-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated autonomic function in 58 children and young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (aged 7-22 years, duration from 3 to 18, 8.6 +/- 3.4 years) and in 74 healthy controls (6-21 years) using power spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate in addition to conventional standard autonomic function tests: deep breathing, the Valsalva manoeuvre, and a standing test. None of the diabetic patients were symptomatic. Reproducibility of the tests was assessed by determining the coefficient of variation in 9 controls (7.8-37.7%). Thirteen per cent of the subjects had difficulty in adequately performing the Valsalva manoeuvre. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and respiratory frequency, results of the Valsalva manoeuvre and deep breathing were not different between patients and controls and there was no significant postural reduction in systolic blood pressure (> or = 20 mmHg) in the patients. Heart rate variation in the supine position during natural breathing was low in patients, although power spectral analysis of heart rate variation did not show a significant decrease in the power density in the high and the low frequency in patients compared to healthy controls. Beat-to-beat blood pressure fluctuation was significantly lower in patients and correlated with metabolic control (mean annual haemoglobin A1c), but not with disease duration and was abnormal in 7 diabetic children (12%). In contrast, tests of vagal activity were not impaired in the patients in this age range. We concluded that vagal involvement in Type 1 diabetic patients determined by spectral analysis of R-R intervals in addition to conventional tests is uncommon, but that beat-to-beat blood pressure variation was more likely to be affected.

  • 6. Tomson, T
    et al.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Ihrman, C
    Lindblad, L E
    Heart rate variability in patients with epilepsy.1998In: Epilepsy Research, ISSN 0920-1211, E-ISSN 1872-6844, Vol. 30, no 1, 77-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomic function was studied by the use of spectral analysis of heart-rate variability in patients with epilepsy in relation to type of epilepsy and anti-epileptic drug therapy. A total of 21 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and 21 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were included; 18 patients were treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), 16 with valproate (VPA) and seven with phenytoin (PHT). One healthy drug free control, matched for age and sex, was selected for each patient. Patients and controls underwent an ambulatory 24 h EKG. Heart-rate variability was analyzed in time and frequency domains. Patients with TLE had significantly lower S.D. of the RR-intervals, lower low frequency power and a lower low frequency/high frequency power ratio than their controls. A lower low frequency/high frequency power ratio was the only significant difference between the JME patient group and their controls. Treatment, however, may have had a considerable influence on the heart rate variability in the epilepsy patients. Patients on CBZ had significantly lower S.D. of RR-intervals, low frequency power and a low frequency/ high frequency power ratio than did their matched healthy drug free controls. The ratio of low frequency/high frequency power was also lower in patients on VPA compared with their controls, but apart from that no differences could be demonstrated between this treatment group and the controls. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy appear to have an altered autonomic control of the heart, with a reduction in some heart-rate variability measures, suggesting a decreased sympathetic tone, which may be related to the drug therapy or the epilepsy as such. Further studies are warranted to explore these changes and their possible relevance for sudden death in epilepsy.

  • 7. Åborg, C
    et al.
    Fernström, E
    Ericson, Mats O
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Work content and satisfaction before and after a reorganisation of data entry work.1998In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 29, no 6, 473-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyse the psychosocial and physical effects of a reorganisation of data entry work at a data processing unit with 153 employees. The reorganisation was planned to redistribute the repetitive work and improve health and satisfaction as well as efficiency. Methods used were questionnaires and, for a sub-group of 22 participants, interviews, diaries and video recordings. During the one-and-a-half-year study period the data processing unit was closed down and the employees transferred to units with more varied tasks. The reorganisation gave opportunities to improve working conditions. The results of this study show that important improvements were achieved. The majority of the 22 participants got less data entry work and the changes permitted a better work-load distribution. However, the work content after the reorganisation still did not provide satisfactory mental variation for most of the subjects, and the changes did not seem to affect health complaints.

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