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  • 1.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Evaluation of head response to ballistic helmet impacts, using FEM2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Neuronic Engineering (Closed 20130701).
    Proposed global injury thresholds for oblique helmet impacts2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Anna-Carin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Den fysiska arbetsmiljön i förskolan: utveckling, användning och granskning av en riskbedömningsmodell2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The occupational environment in preschool is becoming increasingly important. Occupational injury statistics show an increased incidence of illness among employees in education, health and care. Before action can be taken to improve the working environment, a careful assessment must be made and an action plan created. To include all possible components requires a comprehensive approach. Mapping of the physical work in Hudiksvall Municipality at all preschools provides a means by which to get an overall picture of risk areas within the preschool staff work environment.

    The aim of this work is to describe how the risk assessment model was developed and used with the ambition that it can be used in other municipalities. The model has been tested in Hudiksvall, on two occasions, in 2005 and 2010. The findings from the survey in 2010 are reported here and a comparison with 2005 is made.

    The risk assessment model is based on a survey with open questions for preschool staff combined with observation and assessment of ergonomics and safety engineer of 11 risk areas within the physical environment of the pre-school.

    The results of the survey give a clear picture of current health risks and can be used as a basis for the development of pre-school activities as well as improved maintenance of the municipal buildings. The results have also been communicated to the individual pre-schools to demonstrate their particular areas of risk.

    The combination of survey and professional assessment of several risk areas has been shown to enable a quick identification of possible causes of illness among pre-school staff. To report both positive and negative environmental factors has been an advantage. The clear method of reporting has facilitated decision-making on what if any actions to take. There is a continuing need to develop this and other instruments for the work environment survey of schools, health and social care.

  • 4.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Aspects of Electrical Bioimpedance Spectrum Estimation2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (EBIS) has been used to assess the status or composition of various types of tissue, and examples of EBIS include body composition analysis (BCA) and tissue characterisation for skin cancer detection. EBIS is a non-invasive method that has the potential to provide a large amount of information for diagnosis or monitoring purposes, such as the monitoring of pulmonary oedema, i.e., fluid accumulation in the lungs. However, in many cases, systems based on EBIS have not become generally accepted in clinical practice. Possible reasons behind the low acceptance of EBIS could involve inaccurate models; artefacts, such as those from movements; measurement errors; and estimation errors. Previous thoracic EBIS measurements aimed at pulmonary oedema have shown some uncertainties in their results, making it difficult to produce trustworthy monitoring methods. The current research hypothesis was that these uncertainties mostly originate from estimation errors. In particular, time-varying behaviours of the thorax, e.g., respiratory and cardiac activity, can cause estimation errors, which make it tricky to detect the slowly varying behaviour of this system, i.e., pulmonary oedema.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate potential sources of estimation error in transthoracic impedance spectroscopy (TIS) for pulmonary oedema detection and to propose methods to prevent or compensate for these errors.   This work is mainly focused on two aspects of impedance spectrum estimation: first, the problems associated with the delay between estimations of spectrum samples in the frequency-sweep technique and second, the influence of undersampling (a result of impedance estimation times) when estimating an EBIS spectrum. The delay between frequency sweeps can produce huge errors when analysing EBIS spectra, but its effect decreases with averaging or low-pass filtering, which is a common and simple method for monitoring the time-invariant behaviour of a system. The results show the importance of the undersampling effect as the main estimation error that can cause uncertainty in TIS measurements.  The best time for dealing with this error is during the design process, when the system can be designed to avoid this error or with the possibility to compensate for the error during analysis. A case study of monitoring pulmonary oedema is used to assess the effect of these two estimation errors. However, the results can be generalised to any case for identifying the slowly varying behaviour of physiological systems that also display higher frequency variations.  Finally, some suggestions for designing an EBIS measurement system and analysis methods to avoid or compensate for these estimation errors are discussed.

  • 5.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Towards Heart Rate Variability Tools in P-Health: Pervasive, Preventive, Predictive and Personalized2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has received much attention lately. It has been shown that HRV can be used to monitor the autonomic nervous system and to detect autonomic dysfunction, especially vagal dysfunction. Reduced HRV is associated with several diseases and has also been suggested as a predictor of poor outcomes and sudden cardiac death. HRV is, however, not yet widely accepted as a clinical tool and is mostly used for research. Advances in neuroimmunity with an improved understanding of the link between the nervous and immune systems have opened a new potential arena for HRV applications. An example is when systemic inflammation and autoimmune disease are primarily caused by low vagal activity; it can be detected and prognosticated by reduced HRV. This thesis is the result of several technical development steps and exploratory research where HRV is applied as a prognostic diagnostic tool with preventive potential. The main objectives were 1) to develop an affordable tool for the effective analysis of HRV, 2) to study the correlation between HRV and pro-inflammatory markers and the potential degree of activity in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and 3) to develop a biofeedback application intended for support of personal capability to increase the vagal activity as reflected in increased HRV. Written as a compilation thesis, the methodology and the results of each study are presented in each appended paper. In the thesis frame/summary chapter, a summary of each of the included papers is presented, grouped by topic and with their connections. The summary of the results shows that the developed tools may accurately register and properly analyse and potentially influence HRV through the designed biofeedback game. HRV can be used as a prognostic tool, not just in traditional healthcare with a focus on illness but also in wellness. By using these tools for the early detection of decreased HRV, prompt intervention may be possible, enabling the prevention of disease. Gamification and serious gaming is a potential platform to motivate people to follow a routine of exercise that might, through biofeedback, improve HRV and thereby health.

  • 6.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Berndtsson, Andreas
    Abtahi, Shirin
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Development and preliminary evaluation of an Android based heart rate variability biofeedback system2014In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 3382-3385 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is believed to be associated with several diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In these cases, HRV biofeedback may be a potential intervention method to increase HRV which in turn is beneficial to these patients. In this work, a real-time Android biofeedback application based on a Bluetooth enabled ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (respiration) measurement device has been developed. The system performance and usability have been evaluated in a brief study with eight healthy volunteers. The result demonstrates real-time performance of system and positive effects of biofeedback training session by increased HRV and reduced heart rate. Further development of the application and training protocol is ongoing to investigate duration of training session to find an optimum length and interval of biofeedback sessions to use in potential interventions.

  • 7.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hilderman, Marie
    Bruchfeld, Annette
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Janerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pro-inflammatory Blood Markers and Heart Rate Variability in Apnoea as a Reflection of Basal Vagal ToneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in inflammatory response, which istightly regulated by the nervous system to avoid the damage caused by inflammation. There isevidence for a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that includes afferent and efferent vagalnerves that sense the inflammation and stimulate the anti-inflammatory response. Non-functionalanti-inflammatory response might lead to excessive and chronic inflammation e.g., rheumatoidarthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and poor outcome. Heart rate variability(HRV) has been proposed as a potential tool to monitor the level of anti-inflammatory activitythrough the monitoring of vagal activity. In this paper, the association of pro-inflammatorymarkers with HRV indices is evaluated. We used a database called “Heart Biomarker Evaluationin Apnea Treatment (HeartBEAT)” that consists of 6±2 hours of Electrocardiogram (ECG)recordings during nocturnal sleep from 318 patients at baseline and 301of them at 3 monthsfollow-up. HRV indices are calculated from ECG recordings of 5-360 minutes. The results showa statistically significant correlation between heart rate (HR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines,independent of duration of ECG analysis. HRV indices e.g., standard deviation of all RRintervals (SDNN) show an inverse relation to the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Longer ECGrecordings show a higher potential to reflect the level of anti-inflammatory response. In light oftheories for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a combination of HR and HRV as areflection of basal vagal activity might be a potential prognostic tool for interventional guidance.

  • 8.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Rodby, Kristian
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    A knitted garment using intarsia technique for Heart Rate Variability biofeedback: Evaluation of initial prototype2015In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2015, Vol. 2015, 3121-3124 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is a method based on paced breathing at specific rate called resonance frequency by giving online feedbacks from user respiration and its effect on HRV. Since the HRV is also influence by different factors like stress and emotions, stress related to an unfamiliar measurement device, cables and skin electrodes may cover the underling effect of such kind of intervention. Wearable systems are usually considered as intuitive solutions which are more familiar to the end-user and can help to improve usability and hence reducing the stress. In this work, a prototype of a knitted garment using intarsia technique is developed and evaluated. Results show the satisfactory level of quality for Electrocardiogram and thoracic electrical bioimpedance i.e. for respiration monitoring as a part of HRV biofeedback system. Using intarsia technique and conductive yarn for making the connection instead of cables will reduce the complexity of fabrication in textile production and hence reduce the final costs in a final commercial product. Further development of garment and Android application is ongoing and usability and efficiency of final prototype will be evaluated in detail.

  • 9.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Björlin, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Östlund, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Textile-Electronic Integration in Wearable Measurement Garments for Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Aslamy, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Boujabir, Imaneh
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    An Affordable ECG and Respiration Monitoring System Based on Raspberry PI and ADAS1000: First Step towards Homecare Applications2015In: 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16. NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences. October 14-16, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden, Springer, 2015, 5-8 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homecare is a potential solution for problems associated with an aging population. This may involve several physiological measurements, and hence a flexible but affordable measurement device is needed. In this work, we have designed an ADAS1000-based four-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration monitoring system. It has been implemented using Raspberry PI as a platform for homecare applications. ADuM chips based on iCoupler technology have been used to achieve electrical isolation as required by IEC 60601 and IEC 60950 for patient safety. The result proved the potential of Raspberry PI for the design of a compact, affordable, and medically safe measurement device. Further work involves developing a more flexible software for collecting measurements from different devices (measuring, e.g., blood pressure, weight, impedance spectroscopy, blood glucose) through Bluetooth or user input and integrating them into a cloud-based homecare system.

  • 11.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Dizon, M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Johansson, M
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Högskolan i Borås.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Evaluating Atrial Fibrillation Detection Algorithm based on Heart Rate Variability analysis2015In: Medicinteknikdagarna, Uppsala: Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Dizon, M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Johansson, M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Evaluation of Atrial Fibrillation Detection by using Heart Rate Variability analysis2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Guangchao, Li
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Högskolan i Borås.
    A Knitted Garment using Intarsia Technique for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Evaluation of Initial Prototype.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy in time-variant systems: Is undersampling always a problem?2014In: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, ISSN 1891-5469, Vol. 5, no 1, 28-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied mainly by using the frequency-sweep technique, across a range of many different applications. Traditionally, the tissue under study is considered to be time-invariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored by treating the changes as a noise source. A new trend in EBIS is simultaneous electrical stimulation with several frequencies, through the application of a multi-sine, rectangular or other waveform. This method can provide measurements fast enough to sample dynamic changes of different tissues, such as cardiac muscle. This high sampling rate comes at a price of reduction in SNR and the increase in complexity of devices. Although the frequency-sweep technique is often inadequate for monitoring the dynamic changes in a variant system, it can be used successfully in applications focused on the time-invariant or slowly-variant part of a system. However, in order to successfully use frequency-sweep EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to consider the effects of aliasing and especially the folding of higher frequencies, on the desired frequency e.g. DC level. This paper discusses sub-Nyquist sampling of thoracic EBIS measurements and its application in the case of monitoring pulmonary oedema. It is concluded that by considering aliasing, and with proper implementation of smoothing filters, as well as by using random sampling, frequency-sweep EBIS can be used for assessing time-invariant or slowly-variant properties of time-variant biological systems, even in the presence of aliasing. In general, undersampling is not always a problem, but does always require proper consideration.

  • 15.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Löfgren, Nils
    Elimination of ECG Artefacts in Foetal EEG Using Ensemble Average Subtraction and Wavelet Denoising Methods: A Simulation2014In: XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013, Springer, 2014, 551-554 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological signals recorded from surface electrodes contain interference from other signals which are not desired and should be considered as noise. Heart activity is especially present in EEG and EMG recordings as a noise. In this work, two ECG elimination methods are implemented; ensemble average subtraction (EAS) and wavelet denoising methods. Comparison of these methods has been done by use of simulated signals achieved by adding ECG to neonates EEG. The result shows successful elimination of ECG artifacts by using both methods. In general EAS method which remove estimate of all ECG components from signal is more trustable but it is also harder for implementation due to sensitivity to noise. It is also concluded that EAS behaves like a high-pass filter while wavelet denoising method acts as low-pass filter and hence the choice of one method depends on application.

  • 16.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems.
    Snäll, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Aslamy, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Abtahi, Shirin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. University of Boras, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Medical sensors, signals and systems. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Biosignal PI, an Affordable Open-Source ECG and Respiration Measurement System2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, no 1, 93-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimedical pilot projects e.g., telemedicine, homecare, animal and human trials usually involve several physiological measurements. Technical development of these projects is time consuming and in particular costly. A versatile but affordable biosignal measurement platform can help to reduce time and risk while keeping the focus on the important goal and making an efficient use of resources. In this work, an affordable and open source platform for development of physiological signals is proposed. As a first step an 8–12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration monitoring system is developed. Chips based on iCoupler technology have been used to achieve electrical isolation as required by IEC 60601 for patient safety. The result shows the potential of this platform as a base for prototyping compact, affordable, and medically safe measurement systems. Further work involves both hardware and software development to develop modules. These modules may require development of front-ends for other biosignals or just collect data wirelessly from different devices e.g., blood pressure, weight, bioimpedance spectrum, blood glucose, e.g., through Bluetooth. All design and development documents, files and source codes will be available for non-commercial use through project website, BiosignalPI.org.

  • 17.
    Afroze, Tonima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Isaksson Palmqvist, Mia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Patient Safety Regarding Medical Devices at ICUs in Bangladesh2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accidents related to medical devices are a worldwide problem and result in many deaths each year. It affects patients, relatives, health care workers and society. Due to the complexity of intensive care units (ICUs), such accidents lead to particularly serious consequences. The aim of this thesis was to identify patient safety aspects at ICUs in public and private hospitals in Bangladesh, in order to provide a basis for improving the quality of performance of devices as well as personnel, care and cost effectiveness. The objectives were to

    a)      compare the conditions of medical devices at ICUs in private and public hospitals,

    b)      increase understanding of errors, risks and accidents related to medical devices,

    c)      study reporting systems and communication between staff at ICUs and

    d)      find ways to minimize hazards related to medical equipment to ensure effective and safe use of devices.

    Data was collected through interviews during field visits to six hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were held with the chiefs of the ICUs, physicians, nurses and technicians.

    It was noticed that the admission fees to the public hospitals were lower and had more limited resources. Differences between public and private hospitals could be seen in the aspects of finance, the existence of a Biomedical Engineering Department, maintenance and calibration of medical equipment, further education of staff, working environment and infection control. The reporting systems for adverse events and communication about patients’ conditions between coworkers were weak at all hospitals. The procurement process was lengthy at all hospitals. Access to disposable items was limited at several hospitals.

    The lower admission fee at the government hospitals results in the patients of these hospitals often having a lower income and status, thus less inclined to be critical of the received care.

    A number of suggestions have been proposed in order to improve the work in the ICU. These include

    a)      following up rules made by the authorities to ensure they are implemented at each hospital,

    b)      increasing documentation of malfunctioning devices and adverse events,

    c)      nurses and physicians taking part in the procurement process,

    d)      establishing a Biomedical Engineering Department at all hospitals,

    e)      organizing workshops for health care workers,

    f)       developing biomedical products adapted for multiple time use and with less need for calibration,

    g)      providing more education for health care workers in infection control, management of specific devices, solutions to common technical problems, patient safety and user safety, for example using Information and Communication Technology tools (audio and audiovisual material) and discussion platforms as well as

    h)      constructing an internet forum for consultation on the abovementioned subjects for technicians.

  • 18.
    Afroze, Tonima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Rosén Gardell, Moa
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Algorithm Construction for Efficient Scheduling of Advanced Health Care at Home2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Providing advanced health care at home rather than in a hospital creates a greater quality of life for patients and their families. It also lowers the risk of hospital-acquired infections and accelerates recovery. The overall cost of care per patient is decreased. Manual scheduling of patient visits by health care professionals (HCPs) has become a bottleneck for increased patient capacity at SABH, a ward providing advanced pediatric health care at home (“Sjukhusansluten Avancerad Barnsjukvård i Hemmet” in Swedish), since many parameters need to be taken into account during scheduling. This thesis aims to increase the efficiency of SABH’s daily scheduling of personnel and resources by designing an automated scheduler that constructs a daily schedule and incorporates changes in it when needed in order to remove scheduling as a limitation for increased patient capacity. Requirements on a feasible schedule are identified in cooperation with SABH and literature is investigated about similar areas where the scheduling process has been automated. The scheduling is formulated as a computerized problem and investigated from the perspective of theoretical computer science. We show that the scheduling problem is NP-hard and can therefore not be expected to be solved optimally. The algorithm for scheduling the visits minimizes violations of time windows and travel times, and maximizes person continuity and workload balancing. The algorithm constructs an initial solution that fulfills time constraints using a greedy approach and then uses local search, simulated annealing, and tabu search to iteratively improve the solution. We present an exact rescheduling algorithm that incorporates additional visits after the original schedule has been set. The scheduling algorithm was implemented and tested on real data from SABH. Although we found the algorithm to be efficient, automatic transfer of data from the patient journal system is an imperative for the scheduler to be adopted.

  • 19.
    Agerskov, Niels
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Carrizo, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Application for Deriving 2D Images from 3D CT Image Data for Research Purposes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, has long desired to plan hip prostheses with Computed Tomography (CT) scans instead of plain radiographs to save time and patient discomfort. This has not been possible previously as their current software is limited to prosthesis planning on traditional 2D X-ray images. The purpose of this project was therefore to create an application (software) that allows medical professionals to derive a 2D image from CT images that can be used for prosthesis planning.

    In order to create the application NumPy and The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) Python code libraries were utilised and tied together with a graphical user interface library called PyQt4. The application includes a graphical interface and methods for optimizing the images for prosthesis planning.

    The application was finished and serves its purpose but the quality of the images needs to be evaluated with a larger sample group. 

  • 20.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Real life analysis of myoelectric pattern recognition using continuous monitoring2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of non-invasive signal acquisition methods is today the standard for testing pattern recognition algorithms in prosthetic control. Such research had shown consecutively high performance on both prerecorded and real time data, yet when tested in real life they deteriorate.

    To investigate why, the author who is a congenital amputee, wore a prosthetic system utilizing pattern recognition control on a daily basis for a five-day period. The system generated one new classification every 50 ms and movement execution was made continuously; for classifying open/close; and by winning a majority vote; for classifying side grip, fine grip and pointer. System data was continuously collected and errors were registered through both a manual and an automatic log system.

    Calculations on extracted data show that grip classifications had an individual accuracy of 47%- 70% while open/close got 95%/98%, but if classified according to a majority vote, grips increased their accuracy to above 90% while open/close dropped to 80%. The conclusion was that majority vote might help complex classifications, like fine grips, while simpler proportional movements is exacerbated by majority voting. Major error sources were identified as signal similarities, electrode displacements and socket design.

    After the daily monitoring ended the systems functionality was tested using the "Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control". The ACMC results showed that the system has similar functionality to commercial threshold control and thus is a possible viable option for both acquired and congenital amputees.

  • 21.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Wang, Jie Yu
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Utveckling av en teoretisk elektrokemisk apparatur för vattentransport i hjärnvävnad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year in Sweden there is about 24,000 head injuries due to external trauma and 30,000 strokes. A significant number may develop secondary damage because of the increased water content around the damaged brain tissue. The proposed method is to induce water flow from damaged to healthy tissue based on the theory of electroosmosis. The theory behind the electroosmosis is that a flow is induced when a voltage is applied across a medium. The theory of electroosmosis is applied in industry and called electro-osmotic dewatering (EOD) which is used as a drying technique for the dewatering of bio-materials, clays, tofu sheets and electroosmosis is also applied in clinical treatment of tumors. Several experiments were performed on brain phantoms consisting of agarose gel to examine whether the method can be used to divert water. The first experiment was done prove that a flow can be induced when a voltage is applied over the phantom. The second experiment was to investigate the relationship between the flow rate, voltage and current. The result showed linear correlation between flow rate and voltage, flow rate and current, and between the voltage and current. The literature sources and experimental results were referred to a relationship which is developed to determine the flow induced by electrical field. The work was completed with recommendations in electrode material, design and placement. The recommendations are to use plate electrodes at a current density under 25 mA/m2. Electrode placement is predetermined by Finite Element (FE) simulations of different types of injuries.

  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Ajda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Design of an Improved Rapid Infuser for Safe and Reliable Fluid Resuscitation during Surgical Care2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid infusers are used for rapid fluid administration as a part of medical treatment during surgical procedures. The rapid infusers on the market today have proved to present various functional, usability and safety issues for the customers and the problems have not been adequately addressed. This has motivated SLL Innovation to develop a new improved rapid infusion system. The primary reason for considering the development of a rapid infuser device was to meet customer demands and improve safety during the acute situations when the system is to be used. The Quality Function Deployment method was used to describe the design problem systematically and facilitate the development of an improved design. To investigate the users’ issues with existing rapid infusion devices, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with hospital staff that had experience with the rapid infuser. Customer requirements were subsequently identified to form a basis for the development process.

    The results of the study indicated an evident demand for a new product. A three-dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) solution was presented with enhanced properties and features that met the specifications identified. All the customer requirements were addressed in the final result. Safety was the highest rated engineering specification, thus a lot of time and effort was dedicated to solutions that could affect the safety of the system positively.

    Although the final design is expected to be more efficient and safer than the competition, further research and work is needed before this can be ensured.

  • 23.
    Ahmadi, Ajda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Dizon, Lucas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Kärlstelhetsdetektion genom mätning av tryck och deformation: En experimentell ultraljudsbaserad studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Ahmed, Tanvir Saif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Markovic, Bratislav
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Distribuerade datalagringssystem för tjänsteleverantörer: Undersökning av olika användningsfall för distribuerade datalagringssystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a study of three different uses cases has been made within the field of data storage, which are as following: Cold Storage, High Performance Storage and Virtual Machine Storage. The purpose of the survey is to give an overview of commercial distributed file systems and a deeper study of open source codes distributed file systems in order to find the most optimal solution for these use cases. Within the study, previous works concerning performance, data protection and costs were an-alyzed and compared in means to find different functionalities (snapshotting, multi-tenancy, data duplication and data replication) which distinguish modern distributed file systems. Both commercial and open distributed file systems were examined. A cost estimation for commercial and open distrib-uted file systems were made in means to find out the profitability for these two types of distributed file systems.After comparing and analyzing previous works, it was clear that the open source distributed file sys-tem Ceph was proper as a solution in accordance to the objectives that were set for High Performance Storage and Virtual Machine Storage. The cost estimation showed that it was more profitable to im-plement an open distributed file system. This study can be used as guidance to choose between different distributed file systems.

  • 25.
    Aili, Katarina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Med uppstyckat arbete: En studie som mäter stress bland ackords- och linjestyckare2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna jämförande studie på magisternivå gjordes bland styckare på ett företag i Sverige. Studien gjordes i syfte att utreda hur styckare påverkas av de två vanligast förekommande arbetsuppläggen - arbete vid enkelbord och arbete vid linje. Åtta styckare deltog i studien. Ena veckan arbetade deltagarna vid enkelbord, med ackordslön, andra veckan arbetade de vid linje med maskinstyrt tempo, med lön som sätts utifrån takten på bandet. Stress mättes subjektivt med stress-energi-formuläret. Hjärtfrekvens mättes och jämfördes mellan de olika arbetsuppläggen. Observationer och intervjuer av samtliga deltagare utfördes.

    Skillnaden i arbetsuppläggen består i att styckarna vid enkelbord styckar en större del av grisen, att de väljer tempo själva samt att de arbetar ackordstyrt. Vid linje arbetar styckarna på löpande band under maskinstyrd arbetstakt, de har kortare arbetscykel och mer styrt arbete. Lönen vid linje sätts utifrån takten på bandet.

    En signifikant högre hjärtfrekvens uppmättes vid arbete, samt under pauser, då styckarna arbetade vid enkelbord jämfört med vid linje. Resultatet av svaren på stress-energi-formuläret visade något högre skattad stress vid linje och något högre skattad energi vid enkelbord. Skillnaden var inte signifikant. Beträffande intervjuerna uppgav fyra av åtta att de kände sig mer stressade vid linjearbetet, en av åtta att han kände sig mer stressad vid enkelbord. Fyra av åtta upplevde att de hade mer besvär i nacke/skuldra/rygg efter arbete vid linje, en upplevde mer besvär i nacke/skuldra/rygg efter arbete på enkelbord.

    Endast en av deltagarna uppmätte högre hjärtfrekvens vid arbete och paus vid linje än vid enkelbord. Samma deltagare upplevde arbetet vid linje som mer stressande, samt hade mer besvär av smärta efter arbete vid linje.

    Arbetsbelastningen mätt som hjärtfrekvens verkar således vara högre vid enkelbord. Däremot upplevde fler styckare mer stress och mer besvär i nacke/skuldra/rygg efter arbete vid linje. Det finns det anledning att tro att andra faktorer än den rena mekaniska belastningen styckarna utsätts för i sitt arbete kan vara en bidragande faktor vid besvärsförekomst.

  • 26.
    Akay, Altug
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    A Novel Method to Intelligently Mine Social Media to Assess Consumer Sentiment of Pharmaceutical Drugs2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the development of novel data mining techniques that convert user interactions in social media networks into readable data that would benefit users, companies, and governments. The readable data can either warn of dangerous side effects of pharmaceutical drugs or improve intervention strategies. A weighted model enabled us to represent user activity in the network, that allowed us to reflect user sentiment of a pharmaceutical drug and/or service. The result is an accurate representation of user sentiment. This approach, when modified for specific diseases, drugs, and services, can enable rapid user feedback that can be converted into rapid responses from consumers to industry and government to withdraw possibly dangerous drugs and services from the market or improve said drugs and services.

    Our approach monitors social media networks in real-time, enabling government and industry to rapidly respond to consumer sentiment of pharmaceutical drugs and services.

  • 27.
    Akay, Altug
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Dragomir, A
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    A Novel Data-Mining Approach Leveraging Social Media to Monitor Consumer Opinion of Sitagliptin2015In: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208, Vol. 19, no 1, 389-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel data mining method was developed to gauge the experience of the drug Sitagliptin (trade name Januvia) by patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. To this goal, we devised a two-step analysis framework. Initial exploratory analysis using self-organizing maps was performed to determine structures based on user opinions among the forum posts. The results were a compilation of user's clusters and their correlated (positive or negative) opinion of the drug. Subsequent modeling using network analysis methods was used to determine influential users among the forum members. These findings can open new avenues of research into rapid data collection, feedback, and analysis that can enable improved outcomes and solutions for public health and important feedback for the manufacturer.

  • 28.
    Akay, Altug
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Dragomir, A.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    A novel data-mining platform leveraging social media to monitor outcomes of Januvia2013In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 7484-7487 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel data-mining method was developed to gauge the experiences of the diabetes mellitus drug Januvia. Self-organizing maps were used to analyze forum posts numerically to infer user opinion of drug Januvia. Graph theory was used to discover influential users. The result is a word list compilation correlating positive and negative word cluster groups and a web of influential users on Januvia. The implications could open new research avenues into rapid data collection, feedback, and analysis that would enable improved solutions for public health.

  • 29.
    Alameddine, Raged
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Dashtbozorg, Sajad
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Utredning av för- och nackdelar med TN-S respektive TN-C system2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report analysis the advantages and disadvantages of the TN-C (four conductor system) and TN-S (five conductor system) system. There are different opinion about which system is most appropriate to use in the distribution network and the building main lines. With the help of literature studies and contacts with various power companies and electric companies different opinion have been discussed . TN-C is the most appropriate option in the distribution network and TN-S should be used in the building main lines. This for achieving high and stable electrical environment. This thesis will facilitate the choice of technology and hopefully increase the knowledge about the subject.

  • 30.
    Al-Breihi, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Utveckling av laboration om trefastransformatorn: En studie om transformatorer2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project was carried out on behalf of the unit for Computer

    and Electrical engineering at the School of Technology and Health, KTH.

    This study about transformers, their function and uses, the way they’re

    built, how the core and windings, which are the most important parts of a

    transformer, are made and what kind of materials are used to make them.

    Several types of transformers and their functions are described. A crucial

    part of the study has been to search for different ways to develop

    transformers to make them environmentally safer and to increase their

    life-span. As such this work describes different transformer oils, what

    advantages and disadvantages they have compared to mineral oils, what

    properties they have and in what way they’re less harmful for the

    environment. HVDC units transform high voltages from Alternating

    Current to Direct Current to lessen the resistive losses and energy losses

    which lead to a cleaner environment.

    The theory examination of the transformer is the basis for the formation

    of a lab for educational use, among others in a course about electrical

    power that’s included in Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering at

    KTH.

  • 31.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Att mäta lean-utveckling: En sammanställning av metoder för att mäta utveckling inom lean och en fallstudie på ett företag2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lean produktion (LP) etablerades som begrepp i början av 1990-talet och har sedan dess spridit sig över världen och många företag vill i dag arbeta efter konceptet. Detta innebär att arbetsförhållanden för många arbetstagare påverkas och konsekvenserna för dem är inte helt klarlagda. Ett forskningsprojekt har inletts på STH/KTH för att undersöka hur arbetsförhållanden och hälsa påverkas över tid vid införande av LP. I detta projekt fanns därför ett behov av att kunna mäta eller uppskatta om någon utveckling kan relateras till införandet av LP och en önskan om en kartläggning av metoder som använts för att göra detta.Utifrån dessa behov blev syftet med föreliggande arbete att genom en litteraturstudie undersöka och sammanställa metoder som använts för att göra en bedömning eller skattning av ett företags utveckling inom lean. En intervjuguide skulle också testas gentemot resultatet av studien för att undersöka om effekter av en lean-implementering kunde synliggöras med hjälp av intervjuguiden och i vilken omfattning den täckte in de områden som kommit fram i litteraturstudien. Detta gjordes genom en fallstudie på ett företag som började arbeta med lean under 2007.För att ge en förståelse för lean produktion, historik och utveckling ges inledningsvis en beskrivning av konceptets historiska utveckling fram till och med i dag, tillsammans med dess begrepp, metoder och verktyg. Den begreppsförvirring som råder beskrivs och konsekvenserna av detta tillsammans med bristerna på en enhetlig definition av lean produktion tas upp. Av detta följer en viss problematik kring att mäta/skatta en utveckling inom lean vilken också diskuteras.Litteratursökningen resulterade i tolv olika metoder som presenteras kort tillsammans med de lean-faktorer som angetts. Med lean-faktor avses det område, faktor eller indikator som i metoden använts för att fånga upp en utveckling inom lean. Den faktor som togs upp av två eller flera metoder ansågs höra till de vanligaste. Totalt kunde 43 sådana identifieras. I dessa metoder kunde också sex olika systemkomponenter identifieras som berörda vid en lean-implementering i företaget.Som ett stöd vid mätning av lean-utveckling togs en utvecklingstrappa fram. Den användes i bedömningen av fallföretaget. Med hjälp av intervjuguiden framträdde en god bild av företagets arbete inom lean inom några områden. Med utgångspunkt i resultatet av litteraturstudien bör intervjuguiden kompletteras med frågor kring leverantörssamverkan, kunder och kvalitet för att analysen av ett företags lean-utveckling skall bli mer heltäckande.

  • 32.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Design Measures for Construction Site Safety2012In: The Conference of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Since the 1st of January 2009, all Clients in Sweden are required to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning phase of their building projects. Telephone interviews were carried out with the Coordinators of 42 building projects during 2010. They were asked to give examples of occupational hazards in the projects and to report how these were handled in the design and planning phase. Trauma risks as well as MSD-risks were identified in the design and planning phase. The hazards were mostly generally described and seldomly taken care of by design changes.

  • 33.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 34.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projektörer kan minska risken för arbetsskador2012In: VVS-Forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no 3, 72-73 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungefär en fjärdedel av alla arbetsplatsolyckor med dödlig utgång sker på byggarbetsplatser. Antalet anmälda arbetsskador per sysselsatt är cirka 50 procent högre i byggbranschen än genomsnittet i Sverige. Vanligast är belastningsskador, både akuta och på grund av långvarig belastning. Arbetsgivaren ansvarar för att arbetstagarna ska kunna utföra sina arbetsuppgifter utan att bli skadade eller sjuka. Men förutsättningarna för entreprenörernas skadeförebyggande arbete är olika i olika projekt. De beror bland annat på:- typ av projekt: ROT eller nybyggnation- tidsramar- ekonomiska ramar- byggnadens design: form, konstruktioner,byggprodukter- säkerhetsinformationen från projektering till produktion.

  • 35.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Health and safety coordinators in building projects2014In: Built Environment Project and Asset Management, ISSN 2044-124X, Vol. 4, no 3, 251-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In order to reduce the number of injuries on construction sites, a European Directive prescribes that the clients shall appoint safety and health coordinators in their projects. The purpose of this paper is to find out who are appointed to be health and safety coordinators for the design and planning phase and what they do in order to prevent injuries on sites. Design/methodology/approach – Since the 1st of January 2009, there shall be a coordinator for the design and planning phase in Swedish construction projects. Telephone interviews were made with the coordinators in 42 Swedish building projects.

    Findings – The coordinators’ education and experiences varied widely, as well as their descriptions of their duties: no duties, administration and active injury prevention. The coordinators who were classified as most active had at least one additional leading role in the projects. Research limitations/implications – The study is qualitative for an increased understanding, not a statistical reflection of the coordinator population.

    Practical implications – The legislation needs to clarify whether the early conceptual phase of the project is included in the coordinator’s commission and whether she/he is supposed to participate in identifying, assessing and reducing risks through design changes. These clarifications will have an influence on when the coordinator should be appointed and what competence she/he needs. Originality/value – The study increases the understanding of how the health and safety coordinators of the planning and projecting phase of building projects perceive their mission and what factors, according to them, have an influence on what they do.

  • 36.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Health and Safety Coordinators´Potential to Prevent Injuries on Construction Sites2012In: Working on Safety, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of occupational disease and serious injury in the building and construction industry is high. The earlier in the construction process, the greater are the possibilities to reduce hazards.

    According to the Swedish legislation, Architects and Design Engineers shall, within the framework of their assignment, ensure that aspects of health and safety are considered during the construction of a building as well as in the use of the finished building.

    Since the 1st of January 2009, Clients (natural or legal persons for whom projects are carried out) in Sweden are obliged to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning of the building. The Coordinators must have the educational skills and experience needed to perform their duties.

    The aim of this study was to find out what persons are appointed to be coordinators, how they perceive their duties and, potentially, what could facilitate the Health and Safety Coordinators’ activities and construction site safety.

    Telephone interviews were carried out with 40 Health and Safety Coordinators for the design and planning phase of 42 building projects during 2010.

    The Coordinators education and experiences varied to a large degree. Their description of duties also varied greatly, from no duties, to administrative duties, to active injury prevention.

    According to the Coordinators, the following factors had a positive influence on their possibilities to act for injury prevention:

    • The Coordinator is appointed early in the process
    • The Coordinator has authority in the project
    • The Client prioritizes occupational safety
    • There is knowledge of construction methods in the design team
  • 37.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Influence of the Designer on the Risk of Falling from Heights and of Exposure to Excessive Workloads on two Contruction Sites2012In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 16, no 1, 2-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers on construction sites are exposed to an excessive risk of being injured at work. This study identifies occupational hazards on two construction sites – hazards that were related to the design of the building – and undertakes an analysis of the basis upon which related design decisions were made.Risks of falling from heights were related to the shape of the building. Risks related to an excessive workload were related to the weight of building products and possibilities to use equipment to avoid manual transports.The hazards were discussed at focus group meetings. During these meetings, the participants showed an increased understanding of safety issues in the project, each other's views and difficulties, and their own ability to facilitate acceptable risk levels for others.Some hazards were not foreseen during the design and planning phase. According to the architects, their knowledge about construction methods was not sufficient to predict hazards related to the shape of the building.Other hazards were foreseen, though considered to be primarily the contractor's responsibility. Consultants in the design and planning phase, on behalf of the client, were focused on quality, time schedule and economy, more than on occupational safety. There were building products on the market which were designed to fulfil functional regulatory requirements and requests from consumers, but not sufficient enough to ensure that they could be handled without exposure to an excessive workload. The demands and routines in the project did not ensure that project-specific hazard information was given to the contractor. 

  • 38.
    Alsmo, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101).
    Causes of Poor Air Quality in Swedish Schools2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature survey distinguishes between building and other factors influencing air quality. It does not identify building factors sufficient to account for occupant complaints. It concludes that buildings are often blamed for adverse health effects without sufficient grounds. The risk is there will be too much focusing on the wrong underlying problem when remedying so-called sick buildings. The study shows the importance of ensuring that factors independent of the school building, including the choices of environments and activities, are important for the indoor environment.

  • 39.
    Alsén, Caroline
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering.
    Kostnadsfördelar med IoT för hissystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things is today a development that is strongly moving forward to make society more con-trolled by technology, modern and it will be easier for many people. This technology can be used in many diffrent industries and work areas, such as elevator monitoring. This report evaluates the benefits with Internet of things within elevator monitoring. The company Safeline Sweden AB has developed a product that will make it easier to monitor elevators from a distance. An investigation of this product has been done and what their advantages were. After that, a buisness model was formed for Safelines new product IMS. By interviewing potential customers, the information about the sitaution today and the approach for new technology was discovered. The information from the interviews was then used to create a good and sustainable business model for Safeline.A buisness model was created for Safeline Sweden AB and the produkt IMS. The business model describes how the company should launch the new product, how the customer relations should be created, developed and retained. The information from the interviews made it clear that the IMS should be sold as a system solution because it is considered to be more attractive and be more valu-able for the customers.

  • 40.
    Alvarez, Victor S
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Importance of Windscreen Modelling Approach for Head Injury Prediction2016In: 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of two modelling approaches in capturing  both accelerations and deformations from head impacts, and to evaluate the effect of modelling approach on  brain injury prediction. The first approach is a so‐called smeared technique, in which the properties of the two  glass  sheets and  the intermediate  polyvinyl  butyral  (PVB) are  combined and  divided into  two  coinciding  shell layers, of which one can fracture. The second approach consists of three shell layers, representing the glass and  PVB,  separated by  the  distance of  their  thickness, using a non‐local  failure criterion  to initiate  fracture in  the  glass.  The  two  modelling  approaches  are  compared  to  impact  experiments  of  flat  circular  windscreens,  measuring  deformations  and  accelerations  as  well  as  accelerations  from  impacts  against  full  vehicle  windscreens.  They  are  also  used  to  study  head‐to‐windscreen  impacts  using  a  detailed  Finite  Element  (FE)  model,  varying  velocity,  impact  direction  and  impact  point.  Only  the  non‐local  failure  model  is  able  to  adequately  capture  both  the accelerations and  deformations  of an  impactor. The FE  head model  simulations  also reveal that the choice of modelling approach has a large effect on the both localisation of the strain in the  brain and the characteristics of the strain‐time curve, with a difference in peak strain between 8% and 40%.  

  • 41. Anand, N.
    et al.
    Meijer, D.
    van Duin, J. H. R.
    Tavasszy, L.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Validation of an agent based model using a participatory simulation gaming approach: The case of city logistics2016In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 71, 489-499 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based modeling is used for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous entities aiming to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. At an abstract level, an agent-based model (ABM) is a representation of the many simple agents and interactions among them. The decision making of the agents is based on the rules given to them. In an ABM, the model output is the result of internal decision-making and may differ with alteration in the decision path. On the contrary, with the set of rules embedded in agents, their behavior is modeled to take a ‘certain action’ in a ‘certain situation’. It suggests that the internal decision making behavior of agents is truly responsible for the model output and thus it cannot be ignored while validating ABMs. This research article focuses on the validating agents’ behavior by evaluating decision-making processes of agents. For this purpose, we propose a validation framework based on a participatory simulation game. Using this framework we engage a human player (i.e. a domain stakeholder) to allow us to collect information about choices and validate the behavior of an individual agent. A proof-of-concept game is developed for a city logistics ABM to test the framework.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Cajsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Wallgren, Johanna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Utvärdering av nya ät-träningsmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Mandometer® Method helps people with eating disorders by teaching them how to eat ina ”correct” way by training with a product called Mandometer®. The users learn the correcteating behavior by receiving feedback from the display on the Mandometer® handheldcomputer on whether they eat too fast or too slow during the meal. Mando Group AB, thecompany which has developed the Mandometer® Method, has also created a computerprogram that works as a simulation of a meal with the Mandometer®. The purpose of thisstudy was to examine if training with the simulation could give the same effect as trainingwith Mandometer®. By letting a group of healthy testpersons practice with the simulationduring three weeks a result was given which clearly showed that the eating behavior of thetest persons had changed in the desired direction. The result indicates that there is a possibilityto add the simulation to the Mandometer® Method in the future. However, more testing anddeveloping of the program is first required.To improve Mandometer® further, a new version of the product has been developed wherethe handheld computer has been replaced by a cellphone and its functions by anapplication. The functionality and usability of the application was tested with the methodcognitive walkthrough, which showed that most of the pages of the application maintaineda high standard. With some adjustment of the pages where the usability was low, theapplication should be able to replace the old version of Mandometer® in the future.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Dan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik.
    Implementation av prototyp för inomhuspositionering2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development of technology constantly creates new opportunities but it can also mean major chang-es for companies and organizations. Today phones, tablets, laptops, mobile communications and cloud technology make it possible to be no longer bound by the time, location or device in order to work. The change means that a new office type that is more flexible and space efficient due to no fixed workplaces, is becoming more common. A problem with this type of offices that are known as flex-offices is that it is not obvious where or when a colleague is in the office, especially if it is large office with multiple floors.

    The aim of this work is to develop and implement a Location-Based Service for the company Connecta AB. The service will enable users to use their mobile phone to share their current workplace location in an office environment.

    The result of this work is a Location-Based Service that enables a user to use an Android phone with support for Near Field Communcication to share their current workplace position. The cloud-based server solution, Windows Azure is used to store indexed workplace positions.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Filipsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Upphandling av medicintekniska produkter inom sjukvården i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1994, the Public Procurement Act has undergone changes aimed to improve the procurement process and promoting innovation. In order to promote innovation there are a number of government agencies that offer financial assistance, especially to small business with innovative ideas. Despite these efforts, newly established small businesses have difficulties entering the market.

    The study investigates whether changes have been made in the public procurement of medical devices with regard to price and quality prioritization. The priority criteria is presented by the contracting authority as percentage in the allocation criteria. The study is limited to in vitro diagnostic products contracting in Swedish healthcare between the years 2009 and 2015. All tenders, companies that apply for participation in procurement, were analyzed based on sales, number of employees and year of establishment with the purpose of evaluating differences between winning tenders and other tenders.

    The result shows that prioritization has been increasingly on price rather than the quality. Regarding the winning tenders the study shows that larger, more established companies dominates the market. Noteworthy is that this dominance has increased over theses last years. The increase may be due to a spiral effect that is created when winning tenders get an increased economic power. 

  • 45.
    Andersson, Frida
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Finite Element Modeling of Skull Fractures: Material model improvements of the skull bone in theKTH FE head model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this project was to develop a model for predicting skull fractures of a 50th percentile male, using a finite element head model developed at the Neuronics department of KTH, Royal Instituteof Technology. The skull bone is modeled as a three layered bone, where the outer and inner tables are modeled as shell elements, while the diploë is modeled by two layers of solid elements. The material model of the tables was changed from the material model MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC to a material model including a damage parameter to soften the damaged material and to enable ploting of the damage of the skull bone. Due to the coarse mesh of the FE head model the material model was not allowed to include any erosion, deleting element as they reach their ultimate strain. With these requests, two materials from the LS-DYNA material library seemed appropriate: material 81,MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE and material 105, MAT_DAMAGE_2.

    To evaluate these materials and adjust the input parameters a dog bone FE model was developed and tension tests were simulated with this model, equivalent to tension tests performed on equally shaped skull bone specimens. The material simulating a behavior most similar to the behavior from the tension tests turned out to be material 81. This material model was then implemented in the full FE head model for further input parameter adjustment and validation. Four different cadaver experiments were simulated, with different impacting objects: sphere, box, cylinder and flat cylinder surface, and impacted areas of the head: vertex, temporo-parietal and frontal. The forces obtained in the simulations were compared to the forces of the cadaver experiments. The fracture prediction was based on the damage parameter, which could be plotted to visualize the areas where the ultimate strain was exceeded and thereby the area most likely to be fractured. This parameter was then compared to the documented fractures from the cadaver experiments.

    The result showed that using material 81 with the input parameter EPPFR=0.05 gave the overall most accurate forces and fracture predictions. The breaking stress, σB, did not affect the fractures significantly but a reduced σB resulted in reduction of the peak forces. The thickness of the diploë did not have any significant impact on the fracture occurrence, but a thinner diploë had a reducing impact on the peak forces as well.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Falck, Josefina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Förstudie för utveckling av en höj- och sänkbar pall i operationsmiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Hedvall, Anders
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Relationships Between Skin Properties and Body Water Level2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A need for a quantitative method to determine body water level has been identified by a team of Clinical Innovation Fellows at the Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health (CTMH). A reliable way to determine body water level would bring great benefits to the healthcare sector, where no optimal method is available at the time of writing. A possible solution is a sensor that would measure alterations in skin properties due to changes in total body water. CTMH has had an idea of such a sensor, which is evaluated in this work. At an early stage of this evaluation process, it became clear that the research regarding correlations between skin properties and body hydration level was not sufficient to warrant the initiation of a sensor development process. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis became to investigate such correlations.

    An extensive literature review is presented, from which an experiment was developed. The experiment was performed on four human test subjects and involved measurements of skin thickness and elasticity parameters, before and after a weight loss of 3.2-3.7 % due to dehydration. The results showed clear decreases in skin thickness and indications of alterations in skin distensibility as well as in the skin’s immediate elastic response to applied negative pressure. It could also be seen that skin at different body sites does not respond in the same way - calves showed more distinct results than thighs and volar forearm.

    The material provided in this thesis encourages further studies of the correlation between the mentioned properties and total body water. If a predictable correlation can be found, a sensor development process could start. A reliable way to determine body water level would bring great benefits to the healthcare sector, where no optimal method is available at the time of writing.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Jesse
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Localized Sustainable Water Management in Practice: Ecological Engineering as a means for an eco-cyclic water system at the Berga Greenhouse Project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractDue to a growing concern towards issues of sustainability and sustainable development as well as resource scarcity there is a need for increased local cultivation. Cold climate conditions in Sweden make greenhouses necessary for the cultivation of many species. In order to increase the sustainability of greenhouse production processes water cycles should be nearly closedloop cycles. To demonstrate this in practice the Berga Greenhouse project under development by the Centre for Health and Building at the Royal Institute of Technology is used to provide a visionary example. Through precipitation data and a water budget analysis a water reclamation rate of 85% was determined in order to bring the facility to water neutral status. On site water treatment through the use of ecological engineering was analyzed through the use of a multiple-case study of three prevalent technologies (Living Machines®, Organica Water, and Solar Aquatics™) which determined that Living Machines® was the most appropriate technology based upon factors related system performance and footprint.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Work environment, Lean and Agriculture2014In: PROCEEDINGS: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management & 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Volume I + II, IEA Press , 2014, 661-666 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has become the predominant management concept in industry, but its effect on the work environment is debated. Lean has now reached farms and garden nurseries. This paper aims to identify consequences for the physical and psychosocial work environment when Lean was applied in micro-businesses in the agricultural sector. Observations, a questionnaire and interviews were used as methods. It was concluded that the psychosocial work environment became more structured and less stressful. The physical work environment was partly improved by less transportation on the farm. However, consideration of the physical work environment was insufficient.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Katarina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Optimization of the Implantation Angle for a Talar Resurfacing Implant: A Finite Element Study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) are the third most common type of osteochondral lesion and can cause pain and instability of the ankle joint. Episurf Medical AB is a medical technology company that develops individualized implants for patients who are suffering from focal cartilage lesions. Episurf have recently started a project that aims to implement their implantation technique in the treatment of OLTs.

    This master thesis was a part of Episurf’s talus project and the main goal of the thesis was to find the optimal implantation angle of the Episurf implant when treating OLTs. The optimal implantation angle was defined as the angle that minimized the maximum equivalent (von Mises) strain acting on the implant shaft during the stance phase of a normal gait cycle. It is desirable to minimize the strain acting on the implant shaft, since a reduction of the strain can improve the longevity of the implant.

    To find the optimal implantation angle a finite element model of an ankle joint treated with the Episurf implant was developed. In the model an implant with a diameter of 12 millimeters was placed in the middle part of the medial side of the talar dome. An optimization algorithm was designed to find the implantation angle, which minimized the maximum equivalent strain acting on the implant shaft. The optimal implantation angle was found to be a sagittal angle of 12.5 degrees and a coronal angle of 0 degrees. Both the magnitude and the direction of the force applied to the ankle joint in the simulated stance phase seemed to influence the maximum equivalent strain acting on the implant shaft.

    A number of simplifications have been done in the simulation of this project, which might affect the accuracy of the results. Therefore it is recommended that further, more detailed, simulations based on this project are performed in order to improve the result accuracy.

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