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  • 4301.
    Vrethem, Per
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    LEGAL ASPEC`TS ON PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE PATENTING OF BIOTECHNICAL INVENTIONS2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the achievements within the field of biotechnology have been immense. In this paper I will take a closer look at how and to which degree patent law has managed to adjust and keep up with the advancements in this relatively new composite scientific field. The intention is to try and extract what the central prerequisites for patentability are. The achievements within synthetic genomics will also briefly be touched upon.

     

    The main objective is to look at the current legal framework regarding patents and the situation within Sweden. The study is not meant to be comparative and foreign circumstances will only be touched upon when needed for analysis. Patent law does not exist in a vacuum and therefore the relevant legislation, guidelines and practice of the European Community, especially the Directive 98/44/EC Biotechnology Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, as well as of the European Patent convention and the European Patent Office will be thoroughly analyzed.

     

    Since biotechnology is a rather distinct field that in many respects differs greatly from other technological and scientific fields, how we define the concepts, like biological material, discovery, invention, and technical applicability therefore become central for how we regard inventions that include biological material. Often the concepts introduced in the law could be regarded as rather hollow which means that we must apply ourselves to analyze these and fill them with substance.

     

    Patent law is a very complex area that affects many other legal frameworks, like commercial and contract law. It is almost impossible to analyze patent law without touching on questions of competition law since exclusive property rights as such have implications on free trade. On the other hand patent and competition law are generally regarded to complement each other when it comes to the development and the dissemination of technology. This has to do with the nature of exclusive right. Used in the proper way it will not only serve as a valuable means for market penetration and commercialization but also set the standard for other creative people to come up with inventions that either can use this technology or make it redundant. In order to get a comprehensive look at the subject matter and gain a better understanding of patent law and biotechnical inventions I have, however, decided to only look at the legal framework for the granting of exclusive rights. Bioethics will not be dealt with at all.

    First there will be a brief introduction to the subject. Then I will conduct a thorough analysis of the Patent Act (1967:837) and thoroughly examine the concepts of the law and try to establish whether there is a unanimous view on how the legal provisions should be interpreted and applied.

     

    In the final part of the thesis I will use my findings as a stance to take a closer look at the problems and opportunities that biotechnology, and especially gene technology, introduces to patent law.

    Product and gene patents pose a specific problem in that their broad claims, if granted, are excluding certain biological material from the public domain. However, they do not always have to be bad. If the technical feat achieved by an inventor calls for it, extensive exclusive rights are often a guarantee that the proper financial rewards are extended. The concept of invention and the prerequisites of the Patent Act all serve to set a high standard for what can be considered to be patentable and there is a system in place for examining an invention from all angles before a patent is either rejected or granted.

     

    To conclude the thesis, I will analyze the concept of inventive step and conduct a discussion around important, some ground breaking, inventions in the biotechnological field. Some of these have been granted a paten and some not. If a patent is granted, the holder of said patent will also come to enjoy equivalency protection. If a patent cannot be granted we have to find other ways to move forward and find some kind of property protection so that the invention can be commercialized.

  • 4302.
    Vulic, Manuela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Ekonomisk verksamhet: En analys av det mervärdesskatterättsliga begreppet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med denna uppsats är att analysera begreppet ekonomisk verksamhet i mervärdesskattehänseende och att utreda vid vilken grad av aktivitet en sådan verksamhet uppkommer samt vilka objektiva omständigheter som kännetecknar begreppet .

    Ekonomisk verksamhet är ett av de mest grundläggande begreppen inom mervärdesskatteområdet och mervärdesskattedirektivet. Begreppet är av väsentlig betydelse vid bedömningen av huruvida någon utgör en beskattningsbar person och ska vara underkastad mervärdesbeskattning. Definitionen återfinns i artikel 9 i mervärdesskattedirektivet. Med ekonomisk verksamhet  avses sådan verksamhet som bedrivs av en producent, en handlare eller en tjänsteleverantör. Här inbegrips både gruvdrift och jordbruksverksamhet samt verksamheter inom fria och därmed likställda yrken. Vidare definieras ekonomisk verksamhet som utnyttjande av materiella eller immateriella tillgångar i avsikt att fortlöpande vinna intäkter. 

    Begreppet infördes inom svensk rätt först år 2013 som en följd av Europeiska kommissionens fördragsbrottsförfarande mot Sverige som inleddes den 27 juni 2008. I samband med detta fick den svenska lagstiftningen samma lydelse som mervärdesskattedirektivet.

    Av praxis från Europeiska Unionens domstol framgår det att begreppet ekonomisk verksamhet ska ges en vid tolkning. Avsikten att bedriva en ekonomisk verksamhet ska styrkas med objektiva omständigheter. Det är upp till de nationella myndigheterna och domstolarna att i varje enskilt fall bedöma alla relevanta och objektiva fakta, såsom anskaffade tillgångar, ingångna avtal, antalet kunder och intäkternas belopp. Bedömningen ska göras oberoende av verksamhetens syfte och resultat. Vid bedömningen ska de svenska domstolarna utgå från mervärdesskattedirektivet och den rättspraxis från Europeiska Unionen som finns. Då förutsättningarna i de enskilda fallen sällan är de samma är den rättspraxis och direktiv från Europeiska Unionen som finns inte tillräckligt för att utgöra en grund som säkerställer att begreppet ekonomisk verksamhet tolkas enhetligt i medlemsstaterna.

  • 4303. Wade, Marianne
    et al.
    Aebi, Marcelo
    de Cavarlay, Bruno Aubusson
    Balcells, Marc
    Gilliéron, Gwladys
    Hakeri, Hakan
    Killias, Martin
    Lewis, Christopher
    Roth, Erika
    Smit, Paul
    Sobota, Piotr
    Turkovic, Ksenija
    Zila, Josef
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    When the Line Is Crossed...: Path To Control and Sanction Behaviour Necessitating a State Reaction2008In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 14, no 2-3, p. 101-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the various forms of proceedings available within 11 European criminal justice systems and reflects upon their core features. It also provides a picture of how far alternative, non-criminal proceedings are used by some of the systems as a different path to imposing a state reaction upon wrong-doers.

  • 4304.
    Wadström, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Trusten - skattesubjekt i Sverige?: The Trust - recognizable for Tax Purposes?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the question whether a trust can be recognizable for tax purposes in Sweden. In its home state it is often the trustee, and not the trust itself, who is regarded as the owner of the fund and therefore also liable to income tax etc.

    Trusts have often, and without any explanation, been compared to a foundation when it has appeared in Swedish legal cases. The Swedish Supreme Administrative Court has considered a foreign foundation to be recognizable to tax in Sweden. Could that be indicating that also a trust could be recognizable? By examining the concept of foundation it is found that it is far from being uniform. Going through case law regarding foundations and tax one can see that in the assessing of taxes no strict line has been upheld for what is a foundation and what is not. One has to take more into consideration than just the name of a legal figure. The question from what legal system a foreign legal figure, such as the trust, is to be viewed is also brought up to discussion.

  • 4305.
    Wagner, Ben
    et al.
    European University Viadrina.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Multistakeholder Governance and Nodal Authority – Understanding Internet Exchange Points2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study considers Internet exchange points (IXPs) as an example of governance processes in action. Internet exchange points are the points of connection between different Internet networks, which enable different networks to exchange traffic at a shared facility without cost to either party through a process known as “peering”. Three different IXP governance models representing large and influential IXPs are compared: the DE-CIX in Frankfurt, CAIX in Cairo, and KIXP in Nairobi. DE-CIX, the largest IXP in the world, is a subsidiary of the German Internet trade association eco, and is thus “owned” by the Internet industry in Germany. Though well functioning, this has meant that key stakeholder groups such as civil society, and the academic and technical communities are excluded from participating in discussions over policy decisions. In contrast, the Cairo Internet Exchange Point (CAIX) is run by a public authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Though it is governed by a broad set of stakeholders including private sector, government, and civil society representatives, its decision-making processes are somewhat opaque. Lastly, KIXP was founded by a Kenyan network engineer and is governed by a local trade association. While set up with multistakeholder coordination under the leadership of the private sector, its dayto-day operations and governance fall under private sector control. By tracing out the plurality of models used for IXP governance and comparing the processes of developing peering relationships, this case provides unique lessons for the governance process, particularly surrounding trade-offs between inclusiveness and effectiveness.

  • 4306.
    Wahlbom, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Missbruk beivras: En studie av sambandet mellan artikel 102 FEUF och principen om räddningsförvärv.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen presenteras en möjlighet för dominerande företag att missbruka sin marknadsställning i syfte att kringgå existerande koncentrationsförbud. Konsekvenserna för det dominerande tillika missbrukande företaget behöver nödvändigtvis inte bli så kännbara som en läsare kanske inledningsvis antar. I arbetet presenteras även en lösning på detta problem.

  • 4307.
    Wahlbäck, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Avbrutna offentliga upphandlingar: Ett oförutsebart område inom upphandlingsrätten2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av att upphandlingslagstiftningen inte stadgar någon kontraheringsplikt är det upp till den upphandlande myndigheten att välja hur en upphandling avslutas. Ett sätt att avsluta en upphandling är genom att avbryta den. Förutsättningarna för ett avbrytande finns inte uttryckligen reglerat i LOU utan har istället kommit att utvecklas i praxis. I det fall ett avbrytandebeslut blir föremål för överprövning måste den upphandlande myndigheten övertyga rätten om att beslutet vilat på sakliga skäl för att inte bli upphävt. Vad som kan utgöra sakliga skäl råder det i flera fall tveksamheter kring då praxis är spretig och långt från heltäckande. Det i sin tur kan skapa oförutsebarhet eftersom aktörerna inte alltid vet vad de ska förhålla sig till.

    Idag tycks oförutsebarheten inte ha lika starkt samband med vad som kan utgöra sakliga skäl då avgörandena från domstolarna ändå följer en viss röd tråd. Oförutsebarheten är snarare relaterad till osäkerheten kring om det enskilda fallet omfattas av de skäl som domstolarna tidigare har ansett som sakliga. Som exempel på denna problematik kan anges bristande konkurrens som av samtliga instanser har ansetts vara ett sakligt skäl för ett avbrytande. När det återstår en eller ingen anbudsgivare i upphandlingen är utgången i målet oftast självklar. Men om det istället återstår två eller flera anbudsgivare och skälet bristande konkurrens anförs blir utgången i målet emellertid oviss. Att domstolarna i flera fall också tycks ställa olika beviskrav medför svårigheter att förutspå möjligheterna att nå framgång i en överprövningsprocess. Det i sin tur skulle kunna inverka på rättssäkerheten och troligen processbenägenheten.

    Möjligheten att avbryta en upphandling är däremot inte villkorslös. Utöver att avbrytandebeslutet kan bli upphävt kan den upphandlande myndigheten dessutom ådra sig skadeståndsskyldighet motsvarande den uteblivna vinsten. Att en upphandling som avbrutits kan leda till höga skadestånd är ett nytt fenomen till följd av den senaste rättsutvecklingen. Eftersom skadeståndets funktion bland annat är att verka preventivt kan den senaste rättsutvecklingen tänkas få konsekvenser på benägenheten att vilja avbryta respektive överpröva avbrytandebeslut.

    Vidare tycks den lagstadgade motiveringsskyldigheten avseende avbrytandebeslut inte motsvara anbudsgivarnas förväntningar då ett sådant beslut inte tydligt behöver motiveras. Det i sin tur kan ge upphov till onödiga överprövningar. Då det redan finns en bestämmelse om utvidgad motiveringsskyldighet i LOU för vissa typer av beslut, hade det varit önskvärt att även inkludera avbrytandebeslut i den bestämmelsen.

  • 4308.
    Wahlgren, Joakim
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law. Jönköping University.
    Googles varumärkespolicy: En föränddring av varumärkets värde?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During September 2010, Google decided to change their trade mark policy to allow keywords which is equal to an already own trademark to be offered to all who intend to link the word to their ad. They offered a service for this called Adwords. The update followed since The Court Of Justice (CoJ) stated that Google does not commit trade mark infringement by doing this. The question to answer is whether the proprietors of trademarks can do something to stop them from being used by competitors as keywords in Adwords. CoJ has stated that the advertisers are infringing the exclusive right of a trademark if the used keyword is identical to the trademark, the commercial focuses on products that is identical to the products which are registered on the trademark and if the commercial makes it difficult or impossible to an average internet user to decide whether the products originate from the proprietor, a company which has a financial connection to the proprietor or a third party. If an advertiser limits the ad to contain commercial which focuses on their specific business and products it is most likely not possible for the proprietor to claim trade mark infringement. The opportunities to stop the advertising is found in the Swedish Marketing Act . This section of law prohibit so-called abuse of reputes and misleading marketing. In the case Blocket vs Metro it is tested whether Metro had conducted Abuse of Blockets repute by using the trademarked term "blocket". The Swedish Market Court (MD) stated without justification that some abuse of repute did not exist. The trade mark has, because of the policy change, reduced its value since the opportunities to protect a trade mark are still around but now the process is less efficient and more expensive. This however can be changed as soon as the possibility of “misleading advertising” is tested by the MD.

  • 4309.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Automatiserade juridiska beslut2013In: Juridisk metodlära / [ed] Fredric Korling, Mauro Zamboni, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 395-420Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4310.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Avveckla domstolarna!2009In: Dagens JuridikArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4311.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Company Law2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume of Scandinavian Studies in Law (Sc.St.L.) addresses legal issues related to company law. The articles cover a number of different areas, especially those concerning limited liability companies. In addition, several problems relating to the interpretation of the European company law directives are analysed. Thus, both national and European perspectives are included. The Scandinavian countries have a long tradition of cooperation in the area of company law. Denmark, Finland and Sweden are members of the EU. Norway and Iceland are linked to the Union via the European Economic Area Agreement. As a consequence, all the Scandinavian countries have harmonized their legislation in accordance with the company law directives, which has brought important consequences for all these countries. Reflecting a broad spectrum of issues currently attracting interest in the Scandinavian countries, as well as in many other European countries which are in the process of adjusting their legislation to the EU standards, this volume of Sc.St.L. provides an important contribution to the international discussion.

    Table of Contents:

    Andersen, Krüger Paul, Corporate Governance in Denmark, p. 11-28

    Andersson, Jan, Model Business Corporation Act for Europe - The Alternative to Harmonisation by Directives, or?, p. 29-44

    Björgvinsdóttir, Áslaug, Icelandic Company Law, p. 45-66

    Bråthen, Tore, Consent Requirements for Share Acquisitions in Limited Liability Companies According to Norwegian Law, p. 67-88

    Clausen, Nis Jul and Sørensen, Engsig Karsten, The 2003 Proposal for a Directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the Regulation in Scandinavia, p. 89-110

    Dotevall, Rolf, Choice-of-law Rules for International Cooperative Agreements, p. 111-118

    Fjørtoft,Tore Gjems-Onstad, Ole, Cooperative Law in Norway - Time for Codification?, p. 119-138

    Giertsen, Johan, Triangle Mergers: A Distinctive Norwegian Type of Transactions, p. 139-146

    Hansen, Friis Søren, The Free Movement of Companies, p. 147-172

    Hansen, Lau Jesper, The Mandatory Bid Rule: The Rise to Prominence of a Misconception, p. 173-192

    Hemström, Carl, Swedish Company Legislation over Six Decades - A Brief Outline, p. 193-202

    Johansson, Svante, Registration and Execution of Amendments of Articles of Association, p. 203-214

    Moberg, Krister, Auditors' Liability for Damages, p. 215-248

    Mohamed, Sideek, Legislative Initiative in the Field of Direct Taxation in the EC, p. 249-258

    Samuelsson, Per, Boards of Limited Companies: Internal Governance Structures, p. 259-278

    af Sandeberg, Catarina, Exemption of Liability - Where to Draw the Line, p. 279-292

    Skog, Rolf, The European Union's Proposed Takeover Directive: the "Breakthrough"Rule and the Swedish System of Dual Class Common Stock, p. 293-306

    Werlauff, Erik, The SE Company: A 'Federal' Company Type

    Available from 8 October 2004, p. 307-326

  • 4312.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Constitutional Law: Constitutions2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Constitutions make up the foundations of societies and from a historical point of view there is little doubt that constitutional law and its various manifestations has had a crucial impact on the development of modern society. At a more detailed level constitutions provide meta rules about how state mechanisms and rule-making processes in a given society are intended to function. In this respect constitutional law sets up authoritative frameworks for how the administration is build up, and ultimately determines the nature of the relationship between a state and its citizens. Consequently it is also fair to say that constitutions define important components of national identities. The publication of this volume is well timed. In the European sphere constitutional law is currently much debated, especially as a consequence of the European Union (EU) integration project and its accompanying demands for constitutional revisions and adoption of super governmental principles. The impact of the project is much discussed and the opinions vary. The process also has initiated referendums in several countries, and the recent failure to ratify the new Constitutional Treaty has prompted a renewed debate on the legitimacy of European integration. Simultaneously a number of events in which several constitutional principles appear to clash with religious and ethical concerns have been given much attention in the media. Several recent incidents have also stirred up debates concerning the limits of constitutional principles and the need for revisions. The Danish publication of Muhammad caricatures, frequent clashes between principles concerning freedom of the press versus privacy, minority rights, and the protection of religious freedom are just a few examples of this. In the first part of this 52nd volume of Scandinavian Studies of Law (Sc.St.L.) 17 articles on constitutional law are presented. The second part is a documentation of the second annual conference of the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies (SIEPS) Why Europe? Possibilities and limits of European integration which was held in Stockholm 16 November 2006. The purpose of the conference was to provide scholarly perspectives on the sources of legitimacy, the democratic credentials and the constitutional alternatives for the EU. The contributions in this section are further elaborations of the speeches delivered at the conference. In addition, in order to provide a background to the discussions, this volume presents English versions of the Constitutions of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Table of Contents:

    Arajärvi, Pentti, The Finnish Perspective on the Last-Resort Support for Subsistence, p. 17-40

    Bergström, Maria, New Modes of Constitution Making: Towards Fewer and More Flexible Provisions?, p. 41-48

    Bernitz, Ulf, The European Constitutional Project and the Swedish Constitution, p. 49-64

    Bull, Thomas, Blowing in the Wind? Swedish Protection of Whistler-blowers in the Public Sector, p. 65-78

    Ekeli Skagen, Kristian, How Difficult Should it be to Amend Constitutional Laws? p. 79-102

    Follesdal, Andreas, Would the Constitutional Treaty Help Alleviate the Union's Legitimacy Crisis?, p. 371-382

    Follesdal, Andreas, Why International Human Rights Judicial Review might be Democratically Legitimate, p. 103-122

    Jensen Hansen, Michael, The Protection of Property Rights Under the Danish Constitution, p. 123-132

    Hautamäki, Veli-Pekka, Novel Rules in the Finnish Constitution - The Question of Applicability, p. 133-154

    Koch, Henning, Right of Resistance - A European Democratic Notion, p. 155-186

    Krunke, Helle, The Indirect Effect of the Treaty on a Constitution for Europe, p. 187-202

    Langdal, Fredrik and von Sydow, Göran, Democracy, Legitimacy and Constitutionalism, p. 351-370

    Moravcsik, Andrew, The European Union: Rhetoric and Reality, p. 383-392

    Nergelius, Joakim, New Tendencies in Modern Nordic Constitutional Doctrine or the Development of Nordic Constitutional Law: Introduction and General Background, p. 11-16

    Ojanen, Tuomas, EU Law and the Response of the Constitutional Law Committee of the Finnish Parliament, p. 203-226

    Olsen Palmer, Henrik, The Right to Freedom of Religion: a Critical Review, p. 227-254

    Rytter Elo, Jens, Constitutional Interpretation - Between Legalism and Law-Making, p. 255-272

    Sand, Inger-Johanne, From National Sovereignty to International and Global Cooperation: The Changing Context and Challenges of Constitutional Law in a Global Society, p. 273-298

    Shaw, Jo, One or Many Constitutions? The Constitutional Future of the European Union in the 2000s from a Legal Perspective, p. 393-408

    Viljanen, Jukka, The European Convention on Human Rights and the Transformation of the Finnish Fundamental Rights System, p. 299-320

    Zetterquist, Ola, A European Social Contract?, p. 321-348

    The Constitutional Act of Denmark, p. 411-422

    The Constitution of Finland, p. 423-448

    Constitution of the Republic of Iceland, p. 449-458

    The Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway, p. 459-474

    Sweden: The Instrument of Government, p. 475-500

  • 4313.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Criminal Law2009Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4314.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Hur tänker jurister?: Om en oprövad forskningsansats2009In: Lagstiftning i teori och praktik: Rapport från 2009 års forskningsinternat / [ed] Granström, G., Hjertstedt, M., Umeå: Juridiska institutionen , 2009, p. 101-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4315.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Intellectual Property2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual property has become in recent years an issue which almost everyone has a conscious relation to, partly as a consequence of the digitalisation and the growth of the Internet. It is also obvious that an increasing number of social sectors are becoming affected by problems related to intellectual property, as the technical progress continues. Recent illustrations of this development are provided by the debate about the possibilities of protecting DNA sequences, the increasing awareness of the social impact of granting patents for various medical solutions, and the growing use of the Internet as a medium for transmitting music files. The legal framework covering these issues is multifaceted. It is also noticeable the field is constantly undergoing changes, as various interests are being articulated and challenged. Reflecting several of these aspects this issue of Sc.St.L. provides an overview of many of the issues currently debated in the international arena. The volume also contains a cumulative index for Volumes 1-41 of the series.

    Table of Contents:

    Bernitz, Ulf, The EC Directive on Comparative Advertising and its Implementation in the Nordic Countries: Especially in Relation to Intellectual Property, p. 11-29

    Bing, Jon, Intellectual Property Exclusive Access Rights and Some Policy Implications, p. 31-48

    Domeij, Bengt, Implied Technical Warranties in Patent Licenses, p. 49-64

    Hammarén, Anna, The Copyrightability of Stage Direction, p. 65-71

    Karnell, Gunnar W.G., European Originality: A Copyright Chimera, p. 73-82

    Levin, Marianne, Intellectual Property Rights in Transition: Legal Structures and Concepts in Adaptation to Technological Challenges Towards an Intellectual Property System for the 21st Century: A Nordic-European Research Programme, p. 83-95

    Nordell, Per Jonas, The Notion of Originality - Redundant or not?, p. 97-111

    Oesch, Rainer, Copyright Liability and the Internet from the Finnish Law Point of View, p. 113-125

    Pisuke, Heiki, Building a National Intellectual Property Protection System: Some Issues Concerning Copyright and Related Rights in Estonia, p. 127-145

    Rosén, Jan, Server Copyright Liability - Notes on the Swedish Act on Liability for Intermediaries and two Recent Decisions of the Swedish Supreme Court, p. 147-163

    Rosén, Jan, Administrative Institutions in Copyright: Notes on the Nordic Countries, p. 165-176

    Sandgren, Claes, Interpretation of Patent Claims, p. 177-190

    Seipel, Peter, Copyright, Information Technology, and the Edifice of Knowledge, p. 191-215

    Strömholm, Stig, Droit Moral - The International and Comparative Scene from a Scandinavian Viewpoint, p. 217-253

    Wahlgren, Peter, Cumulative Index Volumes 1-41, p. 293-336

    Westerlund, Li, Biotech Patents: Grant Requirements and Scope of Protection, p. 255-289

  • 4316.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    IT Law2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The progress of information and communication technology (IT) has surpassed all expectations. IT is affecting almost every aspect of human life and the development can be expected to continue as the technology becomes more advanced and costs continue to drop. The Scandinavian countries have long been in the forefront when it comes to the use of IT, mobile telephones and the Internet. The awareness of technical potentialities is reflected in a longstanding jurisprudential interest in the field. The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute traces its origin back to 1968, the Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law held its first seminar in 1970, and, not surprisingly, the activities in this field are presently more intense than ever. Following this tradition, this volume of Scandinavian Studies in Law presents 27 newly written articles on current legal issues relating to IT. The contributors are all scholars and practitioners active in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Table of Contents:

    Bing, Jon, Internationalisation and Constant Change, p. 11-30

    Blume, Peter, Data Protection in the Private Sector, p. 297-318

    Bygrave, Lee A., Privacy Protection in a Global Context - A Comparative Overview, p. 319-348

    Galtung, Andreas, The Norwegian Internet Ethical Council, p. 407-419

    Halldórsdóttir, Hjördis, The European Union – From Reciprocity to Loyalty, p. 155-172

    Hansen, Kim G., Software Patents in Europe, p. 173-201

    Helling, Erik, Retrieving the Sources of Legal Decision-Making - Technical Possibilities and Related Legal Issues, p. 531-557

    Hreinsson, Páll, Electronic Administration in Iceland, p. 225-243

    Kirchberger, Christine and y Olano, Jon Ramón, Issues of Security and Interoperability in Electronic Public Procurement, p. 51-77

    Larsson, Conny, Telecom Companies as Crime Investigators, p. 421-449

    Larusdottir, Jonina S., Liability of Intermediaries for Copyright Infringement in the Case of Hosting on the Internet, p. 471-490

    Lundblad, Nicklas, Privacy in the Noise Society, p. 349-371

    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia and Nordén, Anna, Managing Electronic Signatures - Current Challenges, p. 79-95

    Maunsbach, Ulf, Some Reflexions Concerning Jurisdiction in Cases on Cross-border Trademark Infringements Through the Internet, p. 493-512

    Nielsen, Ruth, Employment and ICT Law, p. 97-110

    Olsson, Anders R., Big Brother, Small Sisters and Free Speech: Reanalyzing some Threats to Personal Privacy, p. 373-387

    Pöysti, Tuomas, ICT and Legal Principles: Sources and Paradigm of Information Law, p. 559-600

    Ramberg, Christina, Electronic Communications under the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, CISG, p. 111-130

    Riisnæs, Rolf, Digital Certificates and Certification Services, p. 131-151

    Saarenpää, Ahti, E-government and Good Government: An Impossible Equation in the new Network Society?, p. 245-273

    Schartum, Dag Wiese, Making Access Rights Operative, p. 275-294

    Seipel, Peter, IT Law in the Framework of Legal Informatics, p. 31-47

    Still, Viveca, On the Theoretical Foundations of the Principle of Free Flow of Information as Applied to Copyright, p. 203-221

    Victorin, Anders, Expropriation for Telecom and Other Infrastructure - the Swedish Experience, p. 513-527

    Wahlgren, Peter, IT and Legislative Development, p. 601-618

    Wennerström, Erik, EU-legislation and Cybercrime: A Decade of European Legal Developments, p. 451-470

    Öman, Sören, Implementing Data Protection in Law, p. 389-403

  • 4317.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Kvalitetssäkring av lagar - lagrådets möjligheter och begränsningar2009In: Svensk juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4318.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Legal Issues of the Late 1990s1999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains 18 articles, all of which deal with substantial legal problems. The articles have been arranged under the headings: Commercial Law, Copyright Law, Criminal Law, Environmental Law, Family Law, Labour Law, Tort and Liability, and Transport Law. In this way the volume provides a broad overview of many of the issues currently attracting much attention in Scandinavia. Most of the articles in this volume were written between 1995 and 1999. Some of them have recently been published in the Scandinavian countries and have now been translated into English for the present series. Other contributions have originally been written in English.

    Table of Contents:

    Agell, Anders, Family Forms and Legal Policies:A Comparative View from a Swedish Observer, p. 197-216

    Bejstam, Lars, Social Benefits and Families with Children - The Family Concept, p. 217-253

    Bengtsson, Bertil, Tort Liability and Insurance Practice, p. 281-294

    Björnsson, Arnljótur, A Survey of Icelandic Tort Law, p. 295-314

    Gorton, Lars, Breach and Remedies in Chartering in the Swedish Maritime Code of 1994, p. 455-479

    Gorton, Lars, The Liability for Freight, p. 481-499

    Hellner, Jan, Specific Performance in Swedish Contract Law, p. 13-24

    Larsson, Marie-Louise, Legal Definitions of the Environment and of Environmental Damage, p. 155-176

    Lassen, Birger Stuevold, On Copyright in Saami Joiks, p. 115-124

    Leijonhufvud, Madeleine, Corruption – A Swedish Problem?, p. 127-151

    Nygaard, Nils, Who is Subject to Liability Pursuant to Section 55 of The Pollution Act?, p. 177-193

    Radetzki, Marcus, Cause and Damage: Interpretation of Liability-activating Causation Terms in Property Insurance, p. 315-430

    Sandvik, Björn, Direct and Indirect Loss Under “Catch 22” in the Nordic Law of Sales, p. 25-53

    Schiratzki, Johanna, Custody of Children in Sweden: Recent Developments, p. 255-262

    Sigeman, Tore, Insiders and Outsiders in the Labour Market: Experiences of a Nordic Welfare State in Labour Law Perspective, p. 265-278

    Strömbäck, Erland, Personal Injury Compensation in Sweden Today, p. 431-452

    Victorin, Anders, The Value of Minority Stocks in Compulsory Redemption: Valuation and Values, p. 89-111

    Werlauff, Erik, Best Company Practice: A Duty of Loyalty for the Purpose of Preventing Abuse of Powers Under Company Law, p. 55-87

  • 4319.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Legal Risk Analysis: A Proactive Legal Method2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 4320.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Maritime & Transport Law: Bar Associations2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume of Scandinavian Studies in Law (Sc.St.L.) Gives an overview of the contemporary discussion of maritime and transport law in the Scandinavian countries. Due to obvious geographical reasons maritime and transport law has always played an important role in the Scandinavian countries. Transports also form an essential part of the Scandinavian economy. As a consequence, Maritime and Transport Law has a long history as an established academic topic in the region. This volume reflects this tradition, as the authors of the thirteen articles that are presented are all prominent academics from different universities in Scandinavia where transport law is studied. In addition to the articles on maritime and transport law this volume also contains a presentation of the Bar associations in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Table of contents:

    Bull, Hans Jacob, Insurance Law and Marine Insurance Law: The Unique Twins, p. 11-33

    Falkanger, Thor, Credit Based Upon Security in Ships, p. 35-59

    Gorton, Lars, Volume Contracts of Affreightment - Some Features and Principles, p. 61-91

    Honka, Hannu, The Legislative Future of Carriage of Goods by Sea: Could it not be the UNCITRAL Draft?, p. 93-120

    Johansson, O. Svante, Settlement of Disputed Marine Insurance Claims, p. 121-133

    Ramberg, Jan, The Future Law of Transport Operators and Service Providers, p. 135-151

    Røsæg, Erik, News under the Athens Sun - New Principles and Lost Opportunities of the Athens Convention 2002, p. 153-173

    Schelin, Johan, CMR Liability in a Law and Economics Perspective, p. 175-190

    Schelin, Johan, Documents under the UNCITRAL Draft Instrument on Carriage of Goods by Sea, p. 191-199

    Tiberg, Hugo, Wrecks and Wreckage in Swedish Waters, p. 201-218

    Ulfbeck, Vibe, The Carrier's Liability for Third Parties for Theft and Robbery under the Danish Carriage of Goods by Road Act, p. 219-227

    Wetterstein, Peter, Environmental Impairment Liability after the Erika and Prestige Accidents, p. 229-256

    Wilhelmsen, Trine-Lise, Hull Insurance of "Latent defects" - i.e. Errors in Design, Material or Workmanship, p. 257-285

    The Danish Bar and Law Society, p. 289-297

    The Finnish Bar Association, p. 299-306

    The Icelandic Bar Association, p. 307-312

    The Norwegian Bar Association, p. 313-322

    The Swedish Bar Association, p. 323-329

  • 4321.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Procedural Law: Court Administrations2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural law is an important component of any legal system. The formal rules that make up what in academic settings is recognized as a core element of legal science do not merely provide the framework for how the official processing of the law can be performed. Procedural law also determines the efficiency of the court sector and at the same time its principles provide the outmost protection against violations of the rule of law. Not surprisingly, procedural law is a much debated topic. It is also a vital part of the legal education. This 51:st volume of the Scandinavian Studies in Law presents 26 articles on Scandinavian Procedural Law. The articles have all been written by academic jurists, highly prominent judges and officials active in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. At least two features make the recent development of procedural law in the Scandinavian counties interesting from a broad international perspective. The Scandinavian legal systems exhibit a unique mix of civil and common law traditions, and the judiciaries have in the last decade been profoundly affected by the European Union integration project. In several cases this has resulted in innovative solutions but also given rise to intense debates. In addition to the various articles on procedural law this volume contains presentations of the courts administration bodies in all the Scandinavian countries

    Table of Contents:

    Arnardóttir, Oddný Mjöll, Non-discrimination Under Article 14 ECHR: The Burden of Proof, p. 13-40

    Backer, Inge Lorange, The Norwegian Reform of Civil Procedure, p. 41-76

    Bergholtz, Gunnar, Some Thoughts on Judges' Decision-making, p. 77-89

    Bogdan, Michael, The Brussels/Lugano Lis Pendens Rule and the "Italian Torpedo", p. 89-98

    Bårdsen, Arnfinn, Reflections on "Fair Trial" in Civil Proceedings According to Article 6 § 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights, p. 99-130

    Diesen, Christian, Therapeutic Jurisprudence - an Introduction from a Swedish Perspective, p. 131-162

    Eklund, Hans, Article 12 of the UN's Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Procedural Status of Children in Sweden, p. 163-184

    Ervasti, Kaijus, Conflicts Before the Courts and Court-annexed Mediation in Finland, p. 185-200

    Garde, Peter, The DNA-proof in Practical Danish Criminal Justice, p. 201-214

    Heuman, Lars, Objectivity in Swedish Criminal Proceedings, p. 213-228

    Jonkka, Jaakko, A Model for the Weighing and Balancing of Interest in the Prosecutor's Legal Discretion, p. 229-262

    Kainulainen, Heini, Raped? Sexual Assault in Criminal Proceedings, p. 263-280

    Lindblom, Per Henrik, The Growing Role of the Courts and the new Functions of Judicial Process - Fact or Flummery?, p. 281-310

    Lindell, Bengt, Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Administration of Justice - Basic Principles, p. 311-344

    Lindfors, Heidi, Cross-border Enforcement in the European Framework, p. 345-358

    Magnússon, Sigurdur Tómas, Access to Courts for Civil Proceedings In Iceland, p. 359-382

    Magnússon, Skúli, The Use of Experts in Icelandic Law of Procedure, p. 383-392

    Matningsdal, Magnus, The Influence of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms on Norwegian Criminal Procedure, p. 399-418

    Myhrer, Tor-Geir, So-called Extraordinary or Untraditional Investigative Methods, p. 419-436

    Pölönen, Pasi, Witness Examination in Finnish Criminal Trials, p. 437-450

    Shaughnessy, Patricia, Dealing with Privileges in International Commercial Arbitration, p. 451-470

    Skoghøy, Jens Edvin A., The Prohibition Against Repeated Criminal Proceedings According to the ECHR Protocol 7 Article 4, p. 471-488

    Smith, Eva, The Presumption of Innocence, p. 489-504

    Tómasson, Eiríkur, Presumed Innocent until Proved Guilty: The Principle of Art 6 § 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Art 70 § 2 of the Constitution of Iceland that the Burden of Proof Rests with the Prosecution , p. 505-532

    Westberg, Peter, Interim Measures and Civil Litigation, p. 533-558

    Zahle, Henrik, Judicial Opinion Writing in the Danish Supreme Court (Højesteret), 559-580

    The Danish Courts – an Organisation in Development, p. 581-590

    Court Administration in Finland, p. 591-605

    Iceland’s Judicial System, p. 606-607

    Presentation of the National Courts Administration and the

    Norwegian Court Reforms of 2002, p. 608-628

    The Swedish National Courts Administration, p. 629-650

  • 4322.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Stability and Change in Nordic Labour Law2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a broad, comparative analysis of the development of Scandinavian labour law over the last decades. The picture of development is one of both stability and change. The institutional framework of Nordic labour relations has remained largely unchanged; employers organisations and trade unions still hold a strong position, and the collective agreement continues to be the principal instrument for regulation of the labour market. But, in other aspects, extensive changes have occurred. Labour law is no longer solely the concern of national legislators and social partners. International influences, especially from the European Community, are important. Further, this volume covers several topics such as equal treatment, employee privacy and temporary-work agencies that would not have been regarded as relevant some thirty years ago. A majority of the contributions were presented at a conference held in Stockholm 2002.

    Table of Contents:

    Aarvaag Stokke, Torgeir, Mediation in Collective Interest Disputes, p. 135-158

    Bruun, Niklas, The Future of Nordic Labour Law, p. 375-385

    Edström, Örjan, Co-Determination in Private Enterprises in Four Nordic Countries, p. 159-188

    Eklund, Ronnie, Temporary Employment Agencies in the Nordic Countries, p. 311-333

    Fahlbeck, Reinhold, Industrial Relations and Collective Labour Law: Characteristics, Principles and Basic Features, p. 87-133

    Hasselbalch, Ole, The Roots - the History of Nordic Labour Law, p. 11-35

    Júlíusdóttir, Lára V., Icelandic Labour Law, p. 357-374

    von Koskull, Anders, Employment Privacy Protection - Nordic Comparative Perspectives, p. 335-356

    Källström, Kent, Employment Agreements and Contract Work in the Nordic Countries, p. 77-86

    Malmberg, Jonas, The Collective Agreement as an Instrument for Regulation of Wages and Employment Conditions, p. 189-213

    Nielsen, Ruth, Nordic and EU Labour Law, p. 37-75

    Numhauser-Henning, Ann, Fixed-term Work in Nordic Labour Law, p. 277-310

    Roseberry, Lynn, Equal Rights and Discrimination Law in Scandinavia, p. 215-256

    Sigeman, Tore, Employment Protection in Scandinavian Law, p. 257-275

    Wahlgren, Peter, Legal Abbreviations, p. 393-415

  • 4323.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Tax Law2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume comprises twenty-four articles covering many different areas of national and international taxation. Both income taxation and issues related to indirect taxes, such as real estate tax, net wealth tax, etc., are discussed. In addition, problems related to personal income taxation, the taxation of companies, and the ongoing European harmonisation of Value Added Taxes and excise taxes are addressed. Several contributors share with the reader a wealth of practical experience concerning enforcement, tax reforms, and the ongoing internationalisation. The Scandinavian countries all have comprehensive social welfare systems and huge public sectors - this has resulted in high standards for social security, but also in some of the world's highest taxes. As a consequence, Scandinavian tax laws are frequently debated in the political arena. In this repsect, this collection also provides an interesting contribution to the international discourse.

    Table of Contents:

    Alhager, Eleonor, Restructures of Companies in Swedish Income Tax Law - What is a Branch of Activity?, p. 11-19

    Banoun, Bettina, Tax Avoidance Rules in Scandinavian and Anglo-American Law, p. 21-36

    Bergström, Sture, Brokelind, Cécile, Bruzelius, Anette, von

    Quitzow, Carl Michael, Tjernberg, Mats and Westerström, Jerker, Tax Avoidance Rules in Scandinavian and Anglo-American Law, p. 37-75

    Bundgaard, Jakob, On Tax Law and Private Law Relations, p. 77-91

    Dahlberg, Mattias, On the Taxation of Swedish Investment Companies, p. 93-117

    Gjems-Onstad, Ole, Problems of Equity in Modern Income Taxation, p. 119-127

    Helminen, Marjaana, Tax Treatment of Cross-Border Income Derived Through a Partnership - A Finnish Perspective, p. 129-139

    Juanto, Leila, Excise Duties in Finland in a Historical Perspective, p. 141-154

    Juusela, Janne, Enforcing Taxation on International Investments - The Possibilities of Ensuring Effective Taxation of International Portfolio Income from a Finnish Perspective, p. 155-177

    Kerzel, Malene, Judicial Review Within Danish Tax Law, p. 179-193

    Lindencrona, Gustaf, Taxes and Benefits in an Internationalised Economy - The Case of Tuition Fees in Higher Education, p. 195-205

    Linnakangas, Esko, Road Traffic Taxation, p. 207-219

    Matre, Hugo P., Beneficial Loans to Employees, p. 221-227

    Mattsson, Nils, Some Reflections on the European Company from a Tax Point of View, p. 229-246

    Melz, Peter, Comprehensive Income Taxation of Personal Dwellings - the Swedish Experience, p. 247-258

    Mutén, Leif, The Development of Capital Income Taxation in Sweden 1928-2002, p. 259-275

    Myrsky, Matti, Basic Research in Tax Law, p. 277-287

    Penttilä, Seppo, Tax Aspects of Groups of Companies - Finnish Experiences, p. 289-302

    Persson Österman, Roger and Ståhl, Kristina, EC Law and Protection of the Swedish Tax Base, p. 303-330

    Påhlsson, Robert, The Notion of Net Income: Drawing the Line Between Professional and Personal Expenses, p. 331-344

    Ryynänen, Olli, The Concept of a Beneficial Owner in the Application of Finnish Tax Treaties, p. 345-366

    Silfverberg, Christer, The Swedish Net Wealth Tax - Main Features and Problems, p. 367-374

    Vapaavuori, Ahti, On Justification in EC Tax Law, p. 375-392

    Zimmer, Frederik, The Development of the Concept of Income in Nordic Income Tax Law, p. 393-410

  • 4324.
    Wahlgren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Tort Liability and Insurance2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulations concerning tort and insurance are extremely vital from the economic point of view, ideally providing security for anyone engaging in business operations, as well as compensation for individuals affected by negative consequences. Tort law is a also an area of the law which often give rise to intense debates, as new insights and shifts in perspectives may set the focus on previously more or less unnoticed negative effects. Environmental concerns and new ways of looking at the tobacco industry are just a couple of examples of the latter. Important to mention is furthermore that the issues relating to tort and liability provide compelling challenges for anyone interested in theoretical legal problems. The 23 articles that are presented here reflect to a large extent all the above mentioned aspects and provide an important contribution to the international discussion.

    Table of Contents:

    Andersson, Håkan, Diversity and Unity: In search of a Pluralistic View on Problems in Tort Law, p. 11-30

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe, Environmental Liability - Modern Developments, p. 31-54

    Bengtsson, Bertil, Governmental Liability in Swedish Law, p. 55-64

    Dotevall, Rolf, Liability of Members of the Board of Directors and the Managing Director, p. 65-86

    Dufwa, Bill W., Development of International Tort Law Till the Beginning of the 1990s From a Scandinavian Point of View, p. 87-182

    Evald, Jens, Sport and Insurance-Tracks or Sidetracks?, p. 183-192

    von Eyben, Bo, Alternative Compensation Systems, p. 193-232

    Gomard, Bernhard, Recent Developments in the Danish Law of Tort, p. 233-248

    Hellner, Jan, Compensation for Personal Injuries in Sweden - A Reconsidered View, p. 249-278

    Honka, Hannu, Is Finnish Tort Law in the Process of Being Americanized?, p. 279-308

    Jørgensen, Stig, Profession and Function, p. 309-322

    Kjærgaard, Lisbeth, The Concept of "Gross Negligence" in Sec. 19 (2)(i) of the Liability Act and Sec. 18(2) of the Insurance Agreement Act, p. 323-344

    Kjønstad, Asbjørn, Tobacco and Tort Liability, p. 345-392

    Kleineman, Jan, Adviser's Liability in Connection with Duty to Inform - a Problem Inventory, p. 393-420

    Nygaard, Nils, Placing the Burden of Proof of a Hypothetical Cause, p. 421-452

    Ramberg, Jan, The Future of International Unification of Transport Law, p. 453-458

    Runesson, Eric M., Foreseeability and Law and Economics, p. 459-466

    Schultz, Mårten, Further Ruminations on Cause-In-Fact, p. 467-502

    Strömbäck, Erland, Sweden's No-Fault Rule for Accidents at Work - Recent Developments, p. 503-520

    Ulfbeck, Vibe, Modern Tort Law and Direct Claims Under the Scandinavian Insurance Acts, p. 521-532

    Ullman, Harald, Contractual Duty of Insurance, p. 533-552

    Wahl, Nils, Damages for Infringement of Competition Law, p. 553-564

    Wetterstein, Peter, Compensation for Pure Economic Loss in Finnish Tort Law, p. 565-580

  • 4325.
    Wahlström, Malou
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Enforceability of Arbitral Interim Measures in Sweden: An Analysis Inspired by the Model Law and International Outlooks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the importance of international arbitration grows, the need for efficient arbitral interim measures increase. Non-enforceability of arbitral interim measures is no longer the prevailing order, yet arbitral interim measures are still not enforceable in Sweden which leaves their effectiveness uncertain. This thesis examines the issues that must be considered to create an efficient order of enforcement for arbitral interim measures in Sweden. The international affiliation of commercial arbitration creates a need for cross-border enforcement and international harmonisation, these elements complicate the establishing of enforceable arbitral interim measures. Further, the interest of efficient enforcement must be balanced with the interest to safeguard the rights of the parties subjected to arbitral interim measures. International efforts have been conducted to facilitate enforceability of arbitral interim measures, most prominent is the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, and enforcement of arbitral interim measures are today practised in a number of jurisdictions.  This discussion is based on the solutions of the Model Law and two chosen jurisdictions that represent different orders for enforcing arbitral interim measures. The existing solutions will be analysed in their own right but will also be compared to the reasons against an order of enforceable arbitral interim measures found in Swedish legislative history. Today, there is a well-tested model for establishing an order of enforceability of arbitral interim measures. As a pro arbitration country, Sweden should provide for enforcement of arbitral interim measures.

     

  • 4326.
    Walden, Maria
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Ombildad hyresrätt – påverkar den en delning av egendom?: Vid äktenskapsskillnad eller upplösning av samboförhållande2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    When a couple divorce or when couples move apart a division of property can be done. A married couple's property constitutes of joint property and private property. In a division of property between spouses is only the value of the joint property included, not the value of the private property. In a division of property between couples that live together but not a married their joint property that are bought to be used by them together will be included. It is the value of the joint property that will be shared in the division of property. Other property that the couple has will either be kept by the person who bought it or if they hold the property in joint ownership, the value will be divided between them, but outside the rules of partition of property in the Swedish law.

    A rented apartment that has been converted into a co-operative apartment during the marriage and the time that the married couple lived in the apartment should be divided between them in a division of property. They have during the marriage done a purchase of the apartment and the co-operative apartment should be seen as joint property.

    A rented apartment that has been converted in to a co-operative apartment during the time that the couple, that not is married, lived in the apartment will affect the division of property in different ways. If the rented apartment was obtained to be used by the couple together the co-operative apartment shall be included in the division of property. If the rented apartment was not obtained to be used by the couple together, it could be that one of them lived in the apartment before the relationship, the co-operative apartment should not be included in the division of property. A rented apartment that are under transformation when the relationship ends have an economic value during the process. It should however be some security that the apartment will be a co-operative apartment before the value can be included in the division of property. What determines whether a converted co-operative apartment should be included in the division of property is if the rented apartment was obtained for the couple to use together or not.

    When a couple purchases the converted co-operative apartment together a joint ownership to the property can occur. If the joint ownership can be proved, the value of the apartment will be shared according to the Swedish law.

  • 4327. Walin, Gösta
    et al.
    Millqvist, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Centre for Commercial Law.
    Holmqvist Persson, Annina
    Panträtt2012 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 4328.
    Wall, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Kan förslaget om SPE-Bolag vara en lösning på problematiken kring etableringsfriheten inom EU?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom gemenskapen pågår idag ett harmoniseringsarbete beträffande både de nationella bolagsstiftningarna, men även vad gäller utvecklingen av överstatliga bolagsformer, där ibland det liggande förslaget om SPE-bolag. I det gemenskapsrättsliga fördraget regleras genom art. 49 samt 54 EUF den grundläggande etableringsfriheten. Denna har under ett flertal år varit uppe för diskussion då det är oklart hur långtgående denna frihet skyddas av fördraget.

    Inom gemenskapen bygger medlemsstaterna idag sina bolagsstiftningar antingen på inkorporations- eller sätesprincipen. Det är skillnaden vid dessa principers tillämpning som har givet upphov till problematiken på området. Problemen rör huruvida ett bolag ska få separera sitt registrerade- och faktiska säte med bibehållande av rättslig status. Vid sidan av detta problem har även en annan problematik uppkommit som rör forum shopping. Vilken innebär att regelkonkurrens har skapats mellan medlemsstaternas lagstiftningar, som en följd av att det råder valfrihet för bolag att inkorporera sig under den medlemsstats nationella lagstiftning vilken de finner förmånligast.

    Det liggande förslaget om SPE-bolagsförordning rör införandet av överstatlig bolagsform som kommer, vid ett eventuellt införande, verka som ett alternativ till de inhemska bolagsformerna. Bolaget har formen av ett aktiebolag och riktar sig mot de små och medelstora bolagen, det vill säga SMEs. Bolagsformen har till syfte att verka för att SMEs ska bli mer aktiva på den inre marknaden och därför är en viktig del i förslaget reglerna som berör bolagets etableringsmöjligheter.

    Förslaget om SPE-bolag bereder bestämmelser som gäller dess bildande, men även vad gäller bolagets verksamhet. För att göra denna bolagsform mer attraktiv har bl.a. kapitalkravet endast satts till 1€. Då förslaget inte omfattar alla relevanta rättsliga områden kommer dessa även fortsättningsvis regleras av den nationella lagstiftning där bolagets säte är beläget, däribland skattelagstiftning. Förslaget bereder även bolaget med förflyttningsrätt inom gemenskapen, hur långtgående denna skyddas av den förslagna förordningen förefaller vara tvetydigt ur dess ordalydelse. Det finns dock starka indikationer på att denna förflyttningsrätt måste anses gå i linje med inkorporationsprincipen.

    Huruvida ett eventuellt införande av SPE-bolagsförordningen skulle kunna lösa den problematik som finns på etableringsfrihetens område är diskuterbart. Den problematik som föreligger vid tillämpningen av inkorporations- och sätesprincipen kommer på ett rent teoretiskt plan kunna lösas genom ett sådant införande. Vad gäller problematiken med forum shopping kommer denna i viss mån endast kunna komma att begränsas genom ett sådant införande.

    Förordningen är således endast en teoretisk lösning, men den är även alternativ till sin utformning, vilket innebär att den endast presenterar sig som ett alternativ till de inhemska bolagsformerna. Jag tror inte att förordningen vid ett införande, på ett praktiskt plan, skulle kunna få tillräcklig genomslagskraft för att lösa problematiken på etableringsfrihetens område. Det krävs andra åtgärder av mer direkt natur för att lösa dessa.

  • 4329.
    Wall, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    JP Kommentarer FPL2015Other (Other academic)
  • 4330.
    Wall, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Linked National Public Authorities - a Study on IMI2016Report (Refereed)
  • 4331.
    Wall, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Ändring av betyg och kriteriet "uppenbart oriktigt"2017In: Likvärdig utbildning / [ed] Sverker Scheutz, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2017, 2, p. 161-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4332.
    Wall, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Lundin, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Lerwall, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Enkvist, Victoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    En likvärdig utbildning2017In: Likvärdig utbildning / [ed] Sverker Scheutz, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2017, 2, p. 17-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4333.
    Walla Enander, Elinor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Tillhandahållanden av tjänster mellan huvudkontor och filial för bolag som ingår i en mervärdesskattegrupp: - En konsekvensanalys av dom C-7/13 (Skandiadomen)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4334.
    Wallin-Norman, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finansiella Instrument: Lärobok2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Finansiella instrument är ett juridiskt samlingsbegrepp för flertalet av dagens finansiella investeringsprodukter. Det är också ett nyckelbegrepp för tolkning och tillämpning av nationella och internatioenlla regler för värdepappersmarknaden och dess aktörer. Boken behandlar de rättsliga förutsättningarna för uppkomsten av värdepapper och värdepappersmarknaden. I boken förklaras hur finansiella instrument konstrueras, omsätts belånas och disponeras på olika sätt.

  • 4335.
    Wallin-Norman, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kontopengar och kontorätter: Några reflektioner med anledning av ett aktuellt rättsfall2011In: Ny Juridik, Stockholm: Karnov Group Sweden AB , 2011, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 29-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad för slags egendom ska pengar på bankkonto anses vara? Artikeln behandlar denna fråga med utgångspunkt från ett aktuellt rättsfall, NJA 2011 s. 524. Det rör frågan om brottsrubriceringen av en gärning varigenom en fullmäktig olovligen fört över pengar från sin arbetsgivares konto till sitt eget. Den inledningsvis ställda frågan är enligt förf. det grundläggande problemet i målet och den som avgjort utgången av rättsfallet. Men utgången i målet visar att HD vill undvika att ta ställning till denna fråga.  

  • 4336.
    Wallin-Norman, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Kontorätt: Rätt till kontoförda värdepapper2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper-backed securities are no longer the norm in today´s financial world. However, securities laws are still often based on traditional legal principles for paper-backed securities. Therefore  legal rules as well as doctrine relating to modern financial instruments not only uses fictions as a tool, but is actually dominated by fiction. This fiction is termed by the author the "Physical Model" (den Fysiska Modellen). One aim of the work is to investigate and clarify the content of the current Swedish rules relating to book-entry securities as a legal construct. The investigation explores how the Physical Model influences both legal theory and practice pertaining to rights in relation to financial instruments. However the overarching objective of the investigation, which is presented in the thesis, is to form a foundation for a totally new perception of book-entry securities as objects of property.

     The author suggests that the traditional legal principle of specificity, as applied to book-entry securities, needs to be re-constructed. Also the traditional assumption, the so called Commission Sales Construct, i.e. the perception of all dealings in securities as fundamentally "trades in commission" is questioned. The application of the Physical Model - it is argued - leads to unnecessary and incoherent rules and regulations. Comparison between book-entry securities and book-entry money suggests that these two kinds of property are rather two sides of the same "thing".

     All in all the author concludes and suggests that property consisting of book-entry securities - and possibly in the long run also other book-entry rights -  should be classified in all legal context, theory and practice, as a class of property of its own. To facilitate this, the author launches a new legal term (in Swedish) - kontorätt - meaning "the rights of an account holder in relation to an account provider as regards securities credited to the account". This term is also the title of the book.

     

     

     

     

  • 4337.
    Wallin-Norman, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagarna om kontoföring av finansiella instrument och om avvecklingssystem: En kommentar2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Verket är en lagkommentar och behandlar lagen (1998:1479) om kontoföring av finansiella instrument samt lagen (1999:1309) om system för avveckling av förpliktelser på finansmarknaden.

    En aktuell lagkommentar till båda lagarna i deras lydelse i maj 2013.

  • 4338.
    Wallin-Norman, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pengar2012In: Vänbok till Ingrid Arnesdotter: Uppsatser i affärsrättsliga frågor och om utbildning i affärsrätt / [ed] Jan Kellgren, Stockholm: Jure , 2012, p. 228-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskuterar vad pengar är och hur äganderätt till pengar uppkommer med utgångspunkt bl a från några aktuella rättsfall och från Ingrid Arnesdotters forskning.

  • 4339.
    Wallon, Emelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Skattefrihet för allmännyttiga ideella föreningar: En analys av skattefrihetsgrunderna i ljuset av samhällsutvecklingen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt gällande rätt fråntar professionalism i en förening, d.v.s. förekomsten av avlönade medlemmar, inte en förening dess status som en allmännyttig ideell förening. Exempelvis kan därför idrottsföreningar med ett avlönat elitskikt fortfarande bli inskränkt skattskyldiga och skattebefriade för vissa inkomster.[1]

     

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka om ideella föreningar skattefrihet beträffande skattefrihetsgrunderna har utvecklats i linje med den rådande samhällsutveckligen. Beträffande skattefrihetsgrunderna är det svårt att se bestämmelsens totala omfattning gällande vilka intäkter från olika verksamheter som kan bli skattefria.[2] Begreppen naturlig anknytning och hävd har inte blivit klart definierade i varken förarbeten, lagtext eller rättspraxis. Till detta hör att en huvudsaklighetsbedömning dessutom kan medföra ett omvänt resultat oaktad vad man kom fram till vid bedömningen av om verksamheten hade naturlig anknytning eller var hävdvunnen.[3] Det är ett komplext område med mycket material att ta hänsyn till vid val av finansieringskälla, vilket bidrar till en rättosäkerhet.

     

    Många finansieringskällor har inte något annat syfte än att finansiera det ideella arbetet, varför en bedömning måste ske utifrån hävdbegreppet, då en sådan verksamhet inte ryms inom tolkningsutrymmet för begreppet naturlig anknytning.

    Hävdbegreppet är vagt definierat och det är därför som begreppets omfattning är svårt att avgöra. Uppräkning av hävdvunna finanseringskällor som gjordes i den äldre lagtexten skulle för det första inte vara uttömmande och för det andra skulle det ankomma på domstolarna att tolka begreppet i ljuset av samhällsutvecklingen.[4] I rättspraxis har betydelsen av verksamhetens omfattning, det ideella inslaget, hur verksamheten organiserats och hur den aktuella verksamheten påverkar konkurrensen i förhållande till andra kommersiella näringsidkare lyfts fram. I princip kan en ideell förening tjäna hur mycket pengar som helst på sin verksamhetet utan att det förtar verksamhetens karaktär som hävdvunnen.[5] Det ideella inslaget är viktigt, men det finns inte ett absolut krav att verksamheten ska bedrivas helt med ideella krafter.[6] Att verksamheten faktiskt bedrivs av den ideella föreningen verkar vara en förutsättning, men helt säker kan man inte vara här heller.[7] Den finansierade verksamhet som föreningen bedriver får dock inte i vilken utsträckning som helst snedvrida konkurrensen.[8] De rättsfall som behandlats i uppsatsen visar att HFD inte vara konsekvent i sin tolkning eller haft någon tydlig riktlinje för vad det är som avgör om en finanseringskälla är hävdvunnen eller inte.

     

    Vid en analys av hävdbegreppet anser jag att inte det finns något absolut hinder till att nya finansieringskällor som exempelvis försäljning av namnrättigheter till arenor, abonnemang till onlinespel, Tv-rättigheter etc. inte kan omfattas av det nuvarande hävdbegreppet. Precis som HFD bedömde i Secondhandmålet, d.v.s. att den aktuella secondhandförsäljningen hade likheter med den äldre lagtextens loppmarknader och basarer, torde man kunna göra en likartad tolkning gällande andra finansieringskällor som ex. försäljning av namnrättigheter till arenor.[9] Det krävs förmodligen att föreningen själv bedriver verksamheten och att verksamheten inte snedvrider konkurrensen på ett otillbörligt sätt. Domstolarna har dock misslyckats med att visa vägen och klargöra hävdbegreppets omfattning. Skatteverket för genomgående en restriktiv tolkning, medan HFD växelvis har tolkat begreppet extensivt för att i nästa stund tolka det restriktivt. Det är därför svårt att på förhand förutse om en verksamhet som en förening själv bedriver verkligen kommer att anses som hävdvunnen, framförallt om verksamheten inte kan härledas till exemplifieringen i den äldre lagtexten. Som rättsläget ser ut just nu är det tyvärr endast dessa äldre finanseringskällor som med säkerhet är skattefria.

     

    Oavsett om lagstiftaren fortsättningsvis vill gynna ideella föreningar vid inkomstbeskattningen eller inte måste någonting ske. Hävd är ett ålderdomligt begrepp och dess fulla innebörd i beskattningshänseende har definierats genom förarbeten, lagtext eller rättspraxis. Rättsläget är inte förutsägbart och behovet av en lagändring är därför stort. Utifrån senare rättspraxis från HFD och uttalanden från regeringen är jag av den uppfattningen att man fortsättningsvis vill gynna ideella föreningar skatterättsligt. Man kan även skymta en tendens mot att vilja vidga det skattefria området. Eller i vart fall inte göra det mindre än vad det var efter reglernas tillkomst på 70-talet.[10]För att inte hämma de ideella föreningarna vid deras val av finanseringskällor anser jag att hävdbegreppet bör slopas. På så sätt bereds en väg för att intäkter från nya finansieringskällor, exempelvis det nu förekommande fenomenet med försäljning av namnrättigheter till arenor, som förövrigt påvisar likheter med övrig reklam, kan bli skattebefriade.

    [1] Se avsnitt 2.3.

    [2] Dimitrievski, s. 463 f.

    [3] Se avsnitt 5.

    [4] RÅ 1999 ref. 50.

    [5] RÅ 1992 ref. 68.

    [6] Se bl.a. RÅ 1999 not. 206 och RÅ 1999 ref. 50.

    [7] Jmf. RÅ 2000 ref. 53 och RÅ 2005 ref. 67

    [8] Jmf. RÅ 1987 ref. 67, RÅ 1987 ref. 153 och HFD 2013 ref. 56.

    [9] HFD 2013 ref. 56.

    [10] Se bl.a. RÅ1999 ref. 50, HFD 2013 ref. 56, Prop. 2015/16:1, s. 257.

  • 4340.
    Wallén, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bevisregler avseende tidiga förhör i ljuset av grundläggande processuella principer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4341.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Prohibiting Purchase of Sex in Sweden: Impact, Obstacles, Potential, and Supporting Escape2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the core reasons for the Swedish law from 1999 which criminalizes purchase of sex and decriminalizes the prostituted person, passed as part of an omnibus bill against violence against women and recognizing prostitution as a form of it. Further, it documents the law’s impact by comparing data from several recent Swedish studies with the situation in other relevant countries, concluding the law has significantly reduced the occurrence of prostitution manifolds compared to its neighboring countries. Crucial obstacles to effective implementation are also addressed, particularly in current case law. Some of the critique against the law and disinformation about the law’s effects are also commented. Finally, to realize its full potential to support escape from prostitution more efficiently, it is argued that the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to get damages paid for directly by the tricks/johns for the harm they have contributed to. An additional consideration is for individual states to extend the use of the Palermo Protocol (international law acknowledging connections between prostitution and sex trafficking) to charge tricks for trafficking when they “receive” persons who are effectively pimped.

  • 4342.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law2011In: Michigan Journal of International Law, ISSN 1052-2867, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 133-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.

  • 4343.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rethinking democracy: legal challenges to pornography and sex inequality in Canada and the United States2010In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 218-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are democracies unresponsive to well-documented injuries in the production and by the consumption of pornography? Legal challenges to pornography in Canada and the United States in which sexual subordination, not moral notions of "obscenity," were the driving rationale, show democracies inadequately recognizing gender-specific harms. Changes in Canadian obscenity doctrines to account for harm and inequality, in contrast with the U.S. reign of "free speech," did not deliver a corresponding change on the ground. Developments in democratic theory, international law, and the particular U.S.–Canadian legal trajectory, and consideration of the void of institutions articulating the interests of those victimized in and by pornography, suggest the need to adopt empowering civil remedies.

  • 4344.
    Waltman, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hägg, Carina
    Kram, Ebon
    Larsson, Eva
    Ramos-Ruggiero, Luis
    Persson, Olga
    Svensson, Eva-Britt
    Wilkens, Ann
    Stärk prostituerade personers möjlighet att kräva skadestånd [Strenghten Prostituted Persons’ Possibilities to Demand Damages].2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    GÖTEBORGS-POSTEN 10 Maj, 2011, Debatt

    I sexköpsmål betalar köparen i dag främst böter till staten och prostituerade personer kallas endast som vittnen. Möjligheten för prostituerade människor att yrka skadestånd finns, men har aldrig använts sen lagen kom till. Vi vill se en utredning som ser över hur deras förutsättningar för skadestånd kan förbättras, skriver bland andra Carina Hägg (S). 

    Justitieutskottet publicerade nyligen sitt betänkande som föreslår ett skärpt straff för sexköp till riksdagen. Samtidigt skriver majoriteten att en målsägandeställning ”är inte i sig nödvändig för att kunna föra talan om skadestånd eller ens för att få denna talan handlagd,” men åklagaren är inte skyldig att föra talan för andra än målsäganden.

    Detta förtydligande av rättsläget vad gäller skadestånd är välkommet, men det tycks vara lika tydligt att personen som köps i prostitution är den mot vilken brottet sexköp är begånget. Om denna möjlighet att få skadestånd redan existerar reser det emellertid frågetecken varför ingen prostituerad person ännu har fått sådant skadestånd för att ha blivit köpt för sex. Inte en 14-årig psykiskt utvecklingsstörd flicka (HovR över Skåne & Blekinge mål B 2917-10 & B 3184-10), eller en vuxen som öppet tillstods vara maktlös av en Hovrätt vilken uttalade att sexköparna ”insett och utnyttjat” faktumet, vanligt i prostitution, att den prostituerade personen ”befunnit sig i ett sådant underläge mot de två männen att det måste ha framstått som i det närmaste omöjligt för henne att vägra den andre samlag eller i övrigt påverka situationen” (RH 2008:59).

    När nu de styrande således har förtydligat sexköpslagen i detta avseende kommer förhoppningsvis polis, åklagare, målsägandebiträden, domstolar, socialarbetare och andra aktörer hädanefter upplysa alla prostituerade personer om deras rättigheter till skadestånd.

    Icke desto mindre så verkar ytterligare utredning av skadestånd för sexköp vara på sin plats, vilket minoritetsmotionerna har föreslagit utöver deras stöd för regeringens proposition. Mycket är redan känt. En del köpare anser att betalning ger dem rätt att göra vad helst de vill med kvinnan de köper. Många misshandlas svårt av köpare. Bland 200 prostituerade kvinnor i San Francisco våldtogs 70% eller misshandlades på liknande sätt av köpare i genomsnitt 31 gånger. Bland 55 före detta prostituerade kvinnor i Portland, Oregon, blev 78% våldtagna 49 gånger per år (33 gånger av en torsk) och 84% utsattes för grov misshandel i genomsnitt 103 gånger per år (45 gånger av en torsk). Tjugoen procent bland 222 kvinnor som prostituerades i Chicago vilka studerades medgav uttryckligen att de hade våldtagits över 10 gånger i eskortprostitution, gatuprostitution, och när de prostituerats privat i sina hem. De flesta av förövarna var torskar. Två Kanadensiska federala utredningar fann att torskarna utövar mest sexuellt våld mot prostituerade personer (1984, s. 1026; 1985, s. 388). En prostituerad kvinna betrodd av Svea Hovrätt (mål B 4789-09, s. 6) när hon uppgav hur en hallick bestraffade henne genom att skicka henne till (med Södertörns Tingsrätts neutraliserande ord) ”hårdhänta”, ”arga” och de mest ”elaka” torskarna (mål B 13571-07, s. 12) fick likväl inga skadestånd från dessa köpare.

    Sammanhanget med skador på prostituerade människor i prostitution är obestridlig, vars gottgörelse skulle kunna både ge dem upprättelse och möjliggöra för dem att fatta verkliga val vad gäller deras liv. Maktobalansen i prostitution och följderna av hanteringen av prostituerade personer i sexindustrin visar sig i information om misshandel och ohälsa liksom, hos 68% av 827 respondenter i nio länder, posttraumatiska stressymptom (PTSD) jämförbara med den hos tortyroffer, veteraner från krigszoner, och våldtagna kvinnor. En nyare studie med 46 personer som bland annat prostituerats på bordeller och eskortfirmor i Sydkorea och en kontrollgrupp visade att PTSD var signifikant även när man kontrollerat för olika former av misshandel under barndomen. Resultatet stärker slutsatsen att prostitution i sig själv utsätter majoriteten prostituerade personer för lidande. Åttionio procent av människor i prostitution i nio länder som ställdes frågan ”vad behöver du mest” svarade att ta sig ur prostitution. Men de känner inte att de kan. Skadestånd och stöd skulle kunna göra detta möjligt.

    Kommer utskottsmajoritetens uppmaning till rättsväsendet att tillämpa gällande rätt och bedöma skadestånd att räcka till? Givet att dessa juridiska och sociala förhållanden har existerat, och med kännedom så existerat över det gångna decenniet efter att sexköpslagen antogs utan skadestånd eller stöd till en enda prostituerad person, så förtjänar frågan minst sagt ytterligare utredning. Minoriteten (s & v) uppmanar således, som ett tillägg till majoritetens förslag, att en departements- eller expertutredning rimligen tillsätts för att ytterligare utreda och återkomma till riksdagen med ett förslag som kommer skapa bättre förutsättningar än som existerar i dag för den prostituerade personen att få skadestånd.

    Källor

    Bet. 2010/11:JuU22

    Choi, Klein, Shin, & Lee (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) Symptoms Following Prostitution and Childhood Abuse. Violence Against Women 15 (8): 933-51.

    Committee on Sexual Offences Against Children and Youths (1984). Sexual Offences Against Children (Report) (Ottawa, Ont.).

    Farley, Cotton, Lynne, Zumbeck, Spiwak, Reyes, Alvarez, & Sezgin (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries. I Farley red. Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress (Haworth), 33-74.

    Farley, Macleod, Anderson, & Golding (2011). Attitudes and Social Characteristics of Men Who Buy Sex in Scotland. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 28 (Mars).

    Hunter (1993). Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children. Michigan J. of Gender and Law 1:91-104 (inkl. Portland-studie).

    Mot. 2010/11:Ju10 (S)

    Mot. 2010/11:Ju11 (V)

    Raphael & Shapiro (2004). Violence in Indoor and Outdoor Prostitution Venues. Violence Against Women 10 (2): 126-139.

    Silbert & Pines (1981). Occupation Hazards of Street Prostitutes. Criminal Justice and Behavior 8 (4): 395-99.

    Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (1985). Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (Ottawa, Ont.).

  • 4345.
    Wange, Charlotte
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Kollisioner mellan domännamn och varumärken: Varumärkesrätten tillämpad på domännamnstvister i USA och Norden2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is investigated if the trade mark laws application on domain name disputes in the U.S. and Nordic correspond with the traditional trade mark law. The question if this doctrine is enough and suitable for domain name disputes are also illuminated.

    The fundamental purpose within both Nordic and American trade mark law is the protection of consumers by the prevention of use of confusing trade marks, and the protection of the worked up value in famous trade marks. De-spite a large unity in these two doctrines the U.S. has also developed an initial interest confusion doctrine which has no correspondence in the Nordic. This doctrine focuses on the risk of a pre-sale confusion dispelled before the pur-chase is conceived.

    Domain names are easy to register and has a distinctive function similar to trade marks function. This fact has led to an amount of domain name disputes in foremost the U.S., but Denmark has also faced several disputes of that kind. In Norway and Sweden the courts have been faced with only a few domain name disputes.

    Collisions between domain name registrars and trade mark holders come up due to these both phenomenons’ similarity in distinction and identification function. The amount of disputes concerning domain names are increasing be-cause both trade marks and domain names play an important and increasing role in today’s society both economically and idealistically.

    In the domain name case law the trade mark holder often has apportioned an extensive protection which should be considered as an expansion compared with their rights in the real world. The courts have occasionally disregarded es-sential requirements in the trade mark acts and how the volatile nature of Internet influences the appropriateness in the application of some doctrines. For a more correct and adequate praxis some new legislation need to be founded, but most important is to applicate the trade mark law correct.

  • 4346.
    Wangson, Niklas
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Internationella bolagsförvärv och fusioner: – Innebörden av ett Letter of Intent2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens affärsklimat ställer höga krav på bolag beträffande strategiska val på en allt mer globaliserad marknad. I uppsatsen föreslås att denna eskalerande globalisering kan vara associerad med bolagens framgång. Internationella bolagsförvärv och fusioner samt de initiala avsiktsdeklarationer som förkommer vid dessa transaktioner blir då centrala faktorer att beakta för bolagen, i sökandet efter förbättrade resultat. Baserat på detta skildrar uppsatsen innebörden av en initial avsiktsdeklaration, närmare bestämt ett Letter of Intent (LOI). Uppsatsen belyser innebörden av ett LOI ur ett strukturellt, juridiskt och praktiskt perspektiv. Den strukturella och praktiska innebörden av ett LOI återges genom två, för uppsatsen, exklusiva undersökningar. Den första undersökande delen beskriver strukturen för ett LOI genom att betrakta praktiska exempel som använts, vid bolagsförvärv och fusioner, i publika aktiebolag. Resultatet visar att strukturen samt de klausuler som ingår i ett LOI till viss del varierar. Oräknat det återfinns generaliserat, i undersökningen, följande klausuler i ett LOI: Bakgrund, Syfte, Villkor, Förbehåll, Sekretess, Exklusivitet, Due Diligence (DD), Tidplan, Avslut, Ersättning, Lagval samt Skiljedom. Den andra undersökande delen, om den praktiska innebörden av ett LOI, är baserad på intervjuer med personer som är aktiva ledamöter i bolagsledningen för större publika aktiebolag. Undersökningens sammanvägda resultat pekar på att ett LOI bör innehålla klausuler och preciserade villkor för en tilltänkt affär. I praktiken torde ett LOI innebära en framtida utfästelse om att ingå avtal eller samarbete mellan bolag. Vidare kan den juridiska innebörden emellertid antas vara begränsad till att en part som medvetet bryter mot villkoren eller uppträder svekligt kan ådra sig ett skadeståndansvar. I näringslivet anser respondenterna att ett LOI allmänt innebär en första signal om att två parter avser att söka träffa ett avtal. Sammanfattningsvis kan ett LOI effektivisera processerna i samband med bolagens globalisering, därigenom kan ett LOI dessutom främja bolagens presumtiva framgång i dagens affärsklimat.     

  • 4347.
    Warnling-Nerep, Wiweka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sanktionsavgifter - "criminal charge" enligt artikel 62009In: Regeringsrätten 100 år / [ed] Anna-Karin Lundin..., Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2009, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4348.
    Warnling-Nerep, Wiweka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sanktionsavgifter: Sanktioner i gränslandet mellan straffrätt och förvaltningsrätt2009In: Festskrift till Suzanne Wennberg, ISSN 978-91-39-01330-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4349.
    Warnling-Nerep, Wiweka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Till frågan om rättssäker examination2009In: Skrifter till Anders Victorins minne / [ed] Ronnie Eklund mfl., Uppsala: Iustus , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4350.
    Warnling-Nerep, Wiweka
    et al.
    juridiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Lagerquist Veloz Roca, Annika
    juridiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Reichel, Jane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Statsrättens grunder2011 (ed. 4)Book (Other academic)
84858687888990 4301 - 4350 of 4776
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