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  • 1.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University; School of Global Studies, Gothenburg University; Institute of Latin American Studies, Stockholm University.
    Editorial: La Contribución de la Antropología al Estudio de Crisis y Desastres en América Latina2017In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focuses on the phenomena of disasters and crises, and how such extraordinary and disruptive events can be understood from the perspective of social anthropology. Critical events are not unique to Latin America, yet the impact of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters have dramatically increased in the region in the last century (IDB 2010, UNISDR and Corporation OSSO 2013) and many countries have historical and recent experience of profound social, political and economic crises. They are complex challenges for societies to manage, mitigate and reduce, which is why social science has a major contribution to make in understanding both the causes and the effects, and forward sustainable solutions. This special issue presents four articles based on empirical cases from Latin America, with an emphasis on Argentina and Brazil, which demonstrate the anthropological contribution to the understanding of critical events. The authors make no claim to provide a complete view of the anthropology of disasters and crises in Latin America, but rather to account for a growing research field in the region, which is already making important contributions to multidisciplinary studies of critical events, and to the policy development of disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

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  • 2.
    Baez Ullberg, Susann
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), CRISMART (National Center for Crisis Management Research and Training).
    Editorial: La Contribución de la Antropología al Estudio de Crisis y Desastres en América Latina2017In: Ibero-Americana, Nordic Journal of Latin American Studies, ISSN 0046-8444, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focuses on the phenomena of disasters and crises, and how such extraordinary and disruptive events can be understood from the perspective of social anthropology. Critical events are not unique to Latin America, yet the impact of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters have dramatically increased in the region in the last century (IDB 2010, UNISDR and Corporation OSSO 2013) and many countries have historical and recent experience of profound social, political and economic crises. They are complex challenges for societies to manage, mitigate and reduce, which is why social science has a major contribution to make in understanding both the causes and the effects, and forward sustainable solutions. This special issue presents four articles based on empirical cases from Latin America, with an emphasis on Argentina and Brazil, which demonstrate the anthropological contribution to the understanding of critical events. The authors make no claim to provide a complete view of the anthropology of disasters and crises in Latin America, but rather to account for a growing research field in the region, which is already making important contributions to multidisciplinary studies of critical events, and to the policy development of disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

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  • 3.
    Cardenas, Nancy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Costing of Nature-based vs Grey solutions for water management: Case study evidence from dense urban settlements in Nairobi2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based Solutions (NbS) for water management have been profiled for their potential to address issues such as climate change resilience and sustainability, as well as the co-benefits they provide, including benefits to both nature and society. In Sub-Saharan Africa, rapid urbanisation is causing informal settlements to become saturated, while climate change is causing more frequent and severe droughts. While the research on the sustainability of NbS is advancing, gaps remain in relation to the costs of such solutions in the context of informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, few studies compare the costs of NbS to grey solutions, which make use of traditional methods such as concrete drainage channelling. In the scope of this study, two cases of NbS have been costed in comparison to hypothetical equivalent traditional solutions in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study applies comparative Life Cycle Costing, and a Cost Benefit Analysis has been carried out for one of the two case studies. For one of the cases, the Life Cycle Costing indicated that the costs over a 20 year lifetime would be lower for the grey solution than for the NbS, whereas for the second case the grey solution came out significantly more expensive. For the Cost Benefit Analysis, based on the costs and benefits identified, the project to implement the NbS was viable up to an applied discount factor of 5.06%. While the results of the Life Cycle Costing indicate that the cost of any solution, NbS or grey, is highly context dependent, the Cost Benefit Analysis highlights the many co-benefits of the NbS which make the project cost-effective in the informal settlements studied.  

  • 4.
    Gómez Castellanos, Katja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hyogo Framework for Action in Guatemala City: Risk management in hazard-prone informal settlements on slopes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at assessing the implementation of the international tool for disaster risk management Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. The implementation is assessed in terms of risk management at the level of vulnerable informal settlements in hazard-prone areas on the slopes of Guatemala City. The view of resilience which is used in the framework is discussed and how this relates to risk management in general. It is argued that the framework is based on an engineering resilience view. The aspect of resilience in vulnerable areas is considered, introducing a second view of resilience, the socio-ecological. A related theme that is brought into the analysis is that of power relations.

    The study finds that Guatemalan policy and the Guatemalan risk management system have implemented the policies of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. Despite this it has not benefitted the inhabitants of the informal settlements in hazard-prone areas. There are some obstacles in order to make risk management accessible to the informal settlements. There is reluctance on the municipal level to implement the national, Hyogo-influenced, risk management and to recognize and empower the communities in the informal settlements, which hinders the development of an efficient resilience.

    The study concludes that for an international tool for risk management to be efficient, it needs to be clearer in its definitions, and more easily applicable through implementation tools. The inherent conclusion of this is that it would be possible for an international tool like the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 to be efficient, since there is bureaucratic power supporting it. This power could override local obstacles like political interests. Also, the study concludes that people in informal settlements are resilient to a certain extent, but need to be acknowledged, empowered and cooperated with.

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  • 5.
    Lozano Basanta, Juan Alfonso
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Disaster Risk Reduction contribution to Peacebuilding programmes2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to provide theoretical evidence that a disaster risk reduction perspective within peacebuilding programmes, particularly in countries where disasters and conflict overlap, can contribute positively to the transformation of conflict into sustainable peace.

    An increasing number of disasters in fragile states and countries affected by armed conflict has brought the attention to know in which way disasters and conflicts collide when they come to occur in the same area, and how disasters can influence on-going peace processes.

    In order to demonstrate that argument the thesis draws the evolution of the disaster risk management models and peacebuilding frameworks along the last decades and make use of a comprehensive theoretical background to support the subsequent analysis.

    This thesis contributes to the academic literature and humanitarian reports of studies describing the relation between disasters and conflict but, more concretely, it aims to fill the gap in research studying the links between a disaster risk reduction strategy and peacebuilding programmes.

    The conclusions of the thesis are that disaster risk reduction initiatives contribute positively in several ways to the different key areas of peacebuilding programmes either as concrete initiatives or as a crosscutting issue.

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