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  • 16701.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Socialt arbete.
    Norrköpings kommun2014Ingår i: Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession / [ed] Wolmesjö, Maria & Staaf, Annika, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB , 2014, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16702.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norrköpings kommun2014Ingår i: Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession / [ed] Wolmesjö, Maria & Staaf, Annika, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16703.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Socialt arbete.
    Staaf, Annika
    Malmö högskola.
    Om etiska dilemman och rättssäkerhetsaspekter i handläggningsprocessen2014Ingår i: Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession / [ed] Wolmesjö, Maria & Staaf, Annika, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB , 2014, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16704.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Staaf, Annika
    Malmö högskola.
    Om etiska dilemman och rättssäkerhetsaspekter i handläggningsprocessen2014Ingår i: Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession / [ed] Wolmesjö, Maria & Staaf, Annika, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16705.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Socialt arbete.
    Staaf, AnnikaMalmö högskola.
    Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16706.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Staaf, AnnikaMalmö högskola.
    Rätt till bistånd i äldreomsorg: etik, juridik, praktik och profession2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16707.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Zanderin, LarsVäxjö universitet.
    LSS: regelsystem, implementering och realitet2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16708.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Zanderin, LarsVäxjö universitet.
    LSS: regelsystem, implementering och realitet2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16709.
    Wood, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Sparrman, Karolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Gränsdragningen mellan yttrandefrihet och hets mot folkgrupp: En undersökning av gällande rätt utifrån ett samtida perspektiv2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay begins with a presentation of the complex set of problems which relate to the interaction between freedom of speech and the ban against discrimination based on a person's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith or sexual preference (BrB 16:8, incitement to racial hatred). Can conflicts arise between freedom of speech and the ban against discrimination? To shed light on this question, we have chosen to look at the issue from a new perspective. This perspective is based on the new challenges faced by Swedish society as a result of the changed composition of our population, our membership in the EU and our acknowledgment of certain international conventions concerning human rights.

    Fifty years ago our population almost solely comprised of “native Swedes”. Today, because of massive immigration, our country can be described as multiracial and multicultural. This gives rise to questions concerning protecting minority groups from discrimination whilst also attempting to ensure that the non-discrimination acts do not compromise our freedom of speech. Our membership in the EU and our acknowledgement of certain international conventions means that European law and international law sometimes override Swedish law. This restricts our freedom to decide the extent of our non-discrimination statutes, but can have positive effects on the right to freedom of speech and religion.

    The arguments that are put forward in our essay may give rise to many questions but we will focus on two major issues. First, where does the law draw the line between the freedom of speech and the ban against discrimination based on a person's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith, or sexual preference? Second, are there inherit flaws in the law as a result of both the inner changes our society has gone through and our new responsibilities due to our membership in the EU and our acknowledgement of certain international conventions?

    The purpose of this essay is to answer these questions through studying and reflecting on the theory of law (doctrine). We will also analyse the existing written law and its sources, and consider court rulings and related judicial decisions. This analysis will enable us to make the following conclusion concerning the previously mentioned questions.

    The freedom of speech is extensive and is not explicitly defined. Without explicit definition, no specific statements automatically become illegal. Therefore a person's freedom to express his own opinion in public is wide-ranging. Unfortunately our freedom of speech is not guaranteed for ever and therefore we have to both treasure and guard it from potential threats. Popular public opinion, populist interests or other specific interests may seek changes, which might effect our freedom of speech. The ban against discrimination based on a person's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith, or sexual preference is a specific interest of this kind. The purpose of this ban is based solely on good intentions. None the less, this ban could be a wolf in sheep’s clothing, as it might have a negative influence on the freedom of speech. When two justifiable causes come into conflict with one another – in this case the freedom of speech versus non-discrimination – a society must make difficult choices. Do we sacrifice part of our freedom of speech which will effect the whole population in order to protect minority groups, or do we sacrifice the rights of the minority in order to secure freedom of speech for all?

    During the last few years there has been an increase in Nazi-organisations in Sweden, which have grown strong in terms of both the number of their supporters and the amount of attention which is paid to them by the press. These groups have used our democratic rights – which includes our freedom of speech – in order to spread their scornful opinions based on a person's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith, or sexual preference. Through our study of court rulings concerning Nazis, we came to the conclusion that there is a strong tendency to convict Nazis. This is certainly the case if they call out “Sieg Heil” or salute Hitler. They are also often convicted if they are wearing the Nazi cross.

    When the courts find that they are unable to convict a Nazi for the actions just mentioned, they often base their judgement on either one or two premises. If the prosecutor can not prove that it has been the Nazi's intention to spread a scornful message concerning a group defined by it's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith, or sexual preference, he can not be convicted with reference to the non-discrimination act (uppsåtsrekvisitet). Moreover, if it can not be proven that the message has reached a considerable number of people and not just the Nazis private sphere, this also warrants the verdict of acquittal (spridningsrekvisitet). From our study of court rulings however, we found that the non-discrimination statute does fulfil its purpose. Most scornful or hate-filled messages are in fact disseminated to the wider public. This being the case, the Nazi is almost certain to be convicted.

    Religious fundamentalism is not something entirely new in our society. Sweden has always had a few religious groups free from the state church and the members of the free churches have often held conservative religious beliefs, much like some Muslim movements today. Freedom of speech and religious freedom are of course two important elements of any democratic society, but through a court case concerning a Christian priest in a free church, the freedom of speech related to preaching has arguably become unacceptably extensive. In effect this court case means that as long as you can relate your scornful statement about a specific group included in the non-discrimination statute to a religious scripture like the Bible or the Koran, you can not be prosecuted.

    This somewhat unsatisfactory conclusion is a result of Sweden adopting the European Convention of Human Rights. In this case the European Rights Law overrides the Swedish non-discrimination law and this leads to a flaw in our legal system relating to the protection of certain minority groups. It must be mentioned, however, that the European Convention of Human Rights is part of Swedish law, and therefore Swedish law can not contradict European law, RF 2:23. Given that we are bound by the European Rights Law, there is nothing Sweden can do about this flaw, which in the future might have even greater consequences in and on our multicultural society. For instance, what would happen if messages filled with hatred were spread by priests from the Christian free churches and fundamentalist Muslims. If these statements concerned the other group and the origin of the statements could be traced to the Bible and the Koran, the courts would have no way of convicting the preachers as this would go against the European Convention on Human Rights. This could result in serious social instability. Indeed, riots could break out as a result of such religious propaganda. The law would be powerless to halt the dissemination of the religious scorn which caused the riots.

    We have come to three conclusions concerning intrinsic flaws in the law concerning the ban against discrimination based on a person's race, the colour of their skin or ethnic origin, confession of faith or sexual preference. We therefore recommend that the following changes should be made:

    1. Concerning BrB 16:8, this act should include an unmistakable and transparent definition of the word “missaktning” (scornfulness or disrespect).

    2. With reference to the High Court’s ruling regarding the priest and the European Convention on Human Rights, we recommend that Sweden should attempt to find a legal solution which will enable our courts to more easily convict scornful statements regarding certain minority groups, even if the origin of the statement can be traced to religious writings.

    3. With reference to the instruction in the Freedom of Press Act (TF 1:4), we find it necessary to clarify which statements that can be looked upon as legal and which statements are unlawful.

  • 16710.
    Woolfson, Charles
    University of Glasgow.
    New Modes of Regulation for Health and Safety: Post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union2006Ingår i: NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, ISSN 1048-2911, E-ISSN 1541-3772, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 155-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of “softer” voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create “a culture of prevention.” The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new “soft law” modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the “new” European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be “new,” or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  • 16711.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Continuing Price of Britain’s Oil: Business Organisation, Precarious Employment and Risk Transfer Mechanisms in the North Sea Petroleum Industry2007Ingår i: Governance and Regulation in Social Life: Essays in Honour of W. G. Carson / [ed] in A. Brannigan and G. Pavlich, London: Routledge , 2007, 1, s. 55-74Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprising fourteen articles by leading international contributors, including some of the most prominent socio-legal and criminological scholars working in the field, this volume is currently the only work available that critically examines W.G. Carson and his crucial influence in the turn towards sociological approaches to criminology and a criminological interest in governance and social control.

    The 1970s witnessed an epiphany in the sociological understanding of crime in Britain. The correctional perspective, which assumed crimes had inherent or essential qualities that distinguished them from other acts, was superseded by the analysis of how social events came to be defined as so harmful and repugnant as to require criminalization. This shift in perspectives was exemplified in W.G. Carson’s work, which combines a Marxist acknowledgement of the imperative for profit with a symbolic interactionist attention to the restraining effect of prestige and status among producers and regulators.

    This key work is an essential read for postgraduates and researchers studying and researching in the areas of criminology and law.

  • 16712.
    Woolfson, Charles
    University of Latvia and University of Glasgow.
    The 'Conventionalization' of Safety Crimes in the Post-Communist New Member States of the European Union2006Ingår i: Critical Criminology, ISSN 1205-8629, E-ISSN 1572-9877, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 339-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article begins by presenting a brief overview of the neglected area of ‘safety crime’ in the post-communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Quantitative and qualitative evidence is reviewed, suggesting both the widespread nature of safety crimes, and a deteriorating work environment, in which safety crimes are routinely tolerated. Evidence of the ‘institutionalized tolerance of non-compliance’ is provided through a case study of labor inspection in the new member states, focusing on Latvia, currently the worst performer in health and safety in Europe. Against a background of general violations of labor rights, current innovations in European-level regulatory strategies are critiqued, in particular, the shift towards soft law’ and compliance-based strategies, relying on appeals to corporate social responsibility, together with the encouragement of various forms of voluntary initiatives. It is suggested that such (self)-regulatory strategies may be inappropriate as forms of crime control in the new member states of the European Union. In effect, a convergence domestic and European Union policies may open the door to the further ‘conventionalization’ of safety crimes in the new EU member states.

  • 16713.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Department of Law.
    Working Environment and ‘Soft Law’ in thePost-Communist New Member States2006Ingår i: Journal of Common Market Studies, ISSN 0021-9886, E-ISSN 1468-5965, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 195-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current, admittedly incomplete evidence, suggests a deteriorating working environment in the new Member States of central and eastern Europe. Moreover, support for occupational health and safety regulation concerning the working environment appears to be limited among business and political elites in the new Member States. This has created a lack of policy ‘reform fit’ between the ‘social dimension’ of a European social model and domestic agendas dominated by more ‘business-friendly’ free market considerations. The European Commission has also currently adopted ‘deregulationary’ assumptions concerning the need to ‘simplify’ the acquis, as well as advocating ‘soft law’ as an alternative to traditional regulatory instruments such as directives. However, the lack of contextual industrial relations supports, in particular, the power imbalance in industrial relations due to the weakness of trade unions and social dialogue at workplace level, make uncertain prospects for ‘soft law’ as a strategy for working environment improvements in the new Member States.

  • 16714.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    University of Glasgow.
    Calite, Dace
    University of Latvia.
    Working Environment in the new EU Member State of Lithuania: Examining a ‘worst case’ example2008Ingår i: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Using recent survey data from Lithuania, it is suggested that post-communist countries such as Lithuania, admittedly a 'worst case' example, have specific legacies of serious health and safety problems. On a range of general health and occupational safety and health indicators, some three years after joining the European Union, Lithuania is currently a poor performer, and on key indicators the poorest in the European Union. Yet, formally, Lithuania has comprehensive health and safety legislation in line with EU requirements. Survey data suggest, however, a work regime of intensification and an absence of a participative working environment in which employees have a 'voice' in the safety management process. European-style legislative reforms appear to be having only limited positive measurable effects on health and safety performance. Moreover, the new EU occupational safety and health strategy for 2007 to 2012 fails to take account of the deteriorated working environments in the workplaces of post-communist new member states such as Lithuania.

     

  • 16715.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Herzfeld Olsson, Petra
    Department of Law, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Forced Labour and Migrant BerryPickers in Sweden2012Ingår i: International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, ISSN 0952-617X, E-ISSN 1875-838X, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 147-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groups of migrant berry pickers arriving annually in Sweden from both Asia and the newer European Union Member States have been subject to exploitation over the years. The problem appears to persist in spite of public and international concern and successive regulatory reforms. An examination of this problem from a forced labour perspective suggests inadequate implementation and application of international norms in Swedish law, as well as deficiencies in the application of criminal-law and in regulatory oversight. Policy recommendations regarding the labour conditions for seasonal migrant workers in Sweden are put forward.

  • 16716.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Juska, Arunas
    University of East Carolina, USA.
    Austerity era policing, protest and passivity in Lithuania2014Ingår i: Urban (In)Security: Policing the Neoliberal Crisis / [ed] Volker Eik and Kendra Briken, Ottowa: Red Quill Publications , 2014, 1, s. 294-322Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the global crisis, in Lithuania the centralization of the police force accelerated as locally accountable and more community-oriented municipal police units came under the direct control and supervision of the national police headquarters. Centralization of command and control went hand in hand with policies strengthening the military ethos of police, manifested in military-style deployments resulting in the supression of popular 'voice' in mass demonstrations and increasing propensities to 'exit' among the discontented population.

  • 16717.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Petrylaite, Daiva
    University of Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Missing in action: The Right to Strike in the Post-Communist new Member States - An Absent EU competence2006Ingår i: International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, ISSN 0952-617X, E-ISSN 1875-838X, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 439-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores a neglected aspect of legislative reform, the right to strike, in the post-communist new EU Member States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It suggests a tension, on the one hand, between the endorsement of free collective bargaining as integral to post-communist democratic transformation, and on the other hand, domestic exigencies, as perceived by business and political elites, for social peace and the necessary disempowerment of labour as an independent actor. During the past decade and a half of capitalist transformation there has been ambivalence about the desirable scope of the exercise of the right to strike. It is paradoxical in this area of collective labour relations, reflecting most precisely the balance of power between labour and capital, that the European Union lacks legislative competence, despite the declared endorsement of the fundamental right to withdraw labour.

  • 16718.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    Stockholm School of Economics, Riga, Latvia.
    Die Gestaltung des neuen Europas nach der EU-Erweiterung: Rechtliche und politische Implikationen des „Laval un Partneri- Streits“ um Sozialstandards’ zwischen Lettland und Schweden2006Ingår i: Arbeit. Zeitschrift für Arbeitsforschung, Arbeitsgestaltung und Arbeitspolitik, ISSN 0941-5025, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 85-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Beitritt der neuen Mitgliedstaaten aus Zentral- und Osteuropa zur Europäischen Union (EU) könnte durch die schwach ausgeprägten Gewerkschaftsstrukturen und den wenig entwickelten sozialen Dialog dieser Staaten die vorgeschriebenen Arbeitsstandards der Länder mit starken Gewerkschaftsbewegungen, wie Schweden, bedrohen. Dieser Artikel betrachtet die politischen, wirtschaftlichen und legalen Implikationen eines Arbeitsstreiks in der Bauindustrie, verursacht durch die Beschäftigung lettischer Arbeiter in Schweden durch die lettische Baufirma Laval un Partneri. Der Streit zeigt im Kleinen beispielhaft die wahrgenommenen Gefahren für die Arbeitsstandards, die sich durch die Osterweiterung der EU ergeben. The accession to the European Union of Central and East European new member states with weak trade union movements and poorly developed social dialogue may pose a threat to regulated labour standards in advanced social democracies with strong trade union movements such as Sweden. This article examines the political, economic and legal implications of a labour dispute in the construction industry arising from the presence of Latvian contract labour in Sweden employed by Laval un Partneri. The dispute exemplifies in microcosm the perceived challenges to labour standards posed by the recent Eastward enlargement of the EU.

  • 16719.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    Raritan College, USA and SSE, Riga.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    University of Gothenburg and Yale University.
    Where next for European trade union rights?2008Ingår i: CLR News (Construction Labour Research News), ISSN 1997-1745, nr 3, s. 5-10Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Court of Justice, since the end of 2007, has delivered a series of rulings in the Viking, Laval, Rüffert and the Luxemburg cases, which directly address issues of the right to defend existing standards against erosion by workers prepared to work for lower wages and under inferior conditions. The series of hostile judgments has come as a shock to many in the European labour movement. The Court has clearly privileged the economic priorities of the European project, in particular, European treaty provisions on freedom of provision of services and the freedom of establishment of undertakings over the ‘social dimension’ of the European project.

  • 16720.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Herzfeld Olsson, Petra
    Department of Law, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forced Labour in Sweden? Case of Migrant Berry Pickers: A Report to the Council of Baltic Sea States Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings: Forced Labour Exploitation and Counter Trafficking in the Baltic Sea Region2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The legal transposition in Sweden of international law on forced labour is analysed and important weaknesses in the implementation and application of such law are identified. These deficiencies are illustrated by the treatment and means of redress available to foreign berry pickers who annually gather wild berries in the forests of Sweden. A case study of the recruitment and employment of Thai berry pickers is presented, exemplifying serious deficiencies in labour protection both in terms of legal recourse and regulation through the labour market. As a result groups of berry pickers have been subject to various illegal forms of detriment amounting to evidence of forced labour. A number of policy recommendations are made for strengthening the legal and labour market regulatory framework to enable effective control of forced labour in this sector of work in Sweden.

  • 16721.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Aggressionsbrottet och Internationella brottmålsdomstolen2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16722.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Aggressionsbrottet och Internationella brottmålsdomstolen2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16723.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    An Open Letter to My StudentsTheory, Practice and Life in International Law1996Ingår i: Nordic journal of international law, Vol. 65, nr 3-4, s. 569-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16724.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Civil Emergency Planning – the international legal framework2000Ingår i: Proceedings from the PfP Seminar in Stockholm on International CEP and Crisis Management. Legal Aspects of Co-ordination, 2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16725.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    De brittiska och amerikanska bombningarna av Irak1998Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, nr 3, s. 620-638Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16726.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Does Who Matter? Legal Authority and the Use of Military Violence2017Ingår i: Ethics and International Affairs, ISSN 0892-6794, E-ISSN 1747-7093, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 191-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What does authority mean under international law? There are various actors with different forms of authority, but no overarching concept of what characteristic endows an actor with authority, and even less of a coherent conception of legitimacy as a requirement for such authority. In fact, international law recognizes different authorities for different causes and different contexts, allocated to different actors, who base their authority on different characteristics (state legitimacy, representativity, military power, control). After disaggregating the concept of authority and outlining some of the consequences that follow from each type, this article highlights a number of different actors and describes the various authorities each has under international law. For instance, under jus in bello, nonstate actors can create a state of armed conflict in which they can often continue to use military means without legal sanction. While jus ad bellum may still in principle require legitimacy (in the formal sense of being a state), current jus in bello covers a range of non-state actors. Thus, from a practical point of view, the jus in bello regulations undermine any jus ad bellum requirement of legitimate authority.

  • 16727.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Downtown, Midtown, Uptown, Review of Louis Henkin, International Law: Politics and Values (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1995) and Thomas M. Franck,1999Ingår i: Nordic Journal of International Law, ISSN 0902-7351, E-ISSN 1571-8107, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 53-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16728.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    En diskussion utan innehåll? Critical Legal Studies och folkrätten1990Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, Vol. 2, s. 256-270Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16729.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Stockholm Center for International Law and Justice (SCILJ).
    En internationell ordning där de mänskliga rättigheterna och friheterna till fullo kan förverkligas2016Ingår i: Framtidsarvet: Svensk utrikespolitik trettio år efter Olof Palmes död / [ed] Ulf Bjereld, Ulf Carmesund, Göteborg: Korpen , 2016, s. 197-209Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16730.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Folkmord, andra internationella brott och den internationella straffrätten2005Ingår i: Allas värde och lika rätt: Perspektiv på mänskliga rättigheter / [ed] Göran Gunner & Elena Namli, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2005, s. 309-326Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16731.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Impartial or Uninvolved?: The Anatomy of 20th Century Doctrine on the Law of Neutrality2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on neutrality as a discourse in the 20th century. I have looked at a number of doctrinal texts and read them both as legal arguments and as texts with philosophical and political implications. Therefore, this is a piece of intellectual (or conceptual) history in international law.

    I have covered three periods: The interwar period, the post-war period and the end of the Cold War. In all three there were cycles. Immediately after the First World War, most texts on neutrality dealt with the content of the law against the background of the conflict. Then, when the contours of the League of Nations emerged, many writers questioned the status of neutrality, and the position of neutral Switzerland -- a League Member – was analysed. In the mid 1930’s, in a new debate, some writers blamed the League’s problems on neutrality, others defended it, and still others tried to reconceive neutrality.

    After the next war, a new assessment was necessary, but this time authors generally acknowledged the legal realities (the “holes” in the Charter) as well as the political facts (the Cold War and the actually existing permanent neutrals). By the mid 1950’s, permanent neutrality was fully re-established. But by then, this debate was largely restricted to Central Europe.

    The fall of the Wall ushered in another set of writings. The immediately preceding Iran-Iraq War had generated debate on classical maritime neutrality. The new interest challenged the basic assumptions and even put neutrality in the context of “alien” discourses, like human rights. Then, from the mid-90’s, interest waned, again.

    A common thread is the view that neutrality is in principle contradictory to collective security, but still survives as a residue. Whether the Charter’s solidarity with victims of aggression has modified also the concrete rights and duties of neutrality, has been more controversial. The old assumption of a night-watcher state was challenged in the post-war period, but accepted again after the Cold War.

    How come neutrality has not been extended to economic conflicts, or to struggles with non-state entities? How could neutrality continue to be relevant in war (Iran-Iraq) when it for a long time had been talked about in conjunction with “peace” (the Cold War)? And foremost, how did neutrality, born in an age of balance of power, survive the League of Nations, total war, the United Nations, the Cold War and “the New World Order”?

    It is an eternal question whether one should engage or not. As a matter of legal policy, there might no longer be much room for traditional neutrality, and neutrality as abstention (or staying aloof) is rarely possible. However, the common-place dichotomy of involvement vs. indifference is too simplistic. Whatever the future, there will always be a need for impartiality, call it neutrality or not.

  • 16732.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    International Humanitarian Law without the State2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, Vol. 62, s. 145-162Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16733.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Intervention in National and Private Cyber Space and International Law2013Ingår i: The Fourth Biennial Conference of the Asian Society of International Law,  Delhi, 14 - 16 November, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In international law discourse on cyber attacks, there has been much focus on the threshold for the use of force. Cyber attacks or intrusions which do not reach the threshold of the use of force have been held to be unproblematic. However, such intrusions -- including many measures amounting to cyber espionage or counter-terrorism -- will often constitute illegal interventions into the sovereignty of another state, or constitute violations of human rights.Unfortunately, states have not been very helpful in clarifying these issues. States have not agreed to negotiate a new convention or other form of legal instruments, and there is very little opinio juris or public state practice. Nevertheless, the old principles and rules of international law apply to cyber space, too.

  • 16734.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen. Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden; Harvard University, USA; European University Institute, Sweden.
    Intervention in National and Private Cyberspace and International Law2014Ingår i: International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security: Liber Amicorum Said Mahmoudi / [ed] Jonas Ebbesson, Marie Jacobsson, Mark Klamberg, David Langlet, Pål Wrange, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2014, s. 307-326Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16735.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Is there a General Interest hors la loi?2008Ingår i: Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law. Volume 1, 2006 / [ed] Ruiz Fabri, Hélène; Jouannet, Emmanuelle; Tomkiewicz, Vincent, Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2008, Vol. 1, s. 279-292Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 16736.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Kollektiv säkerhet?1995Ingår i: Tandlös eller tiger -- sju uppsatser om FN / [ed] Ahlin, Per, Stockholm: Juristförlaget , 1995, Vol. 189, s. 147-189Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16737.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    La politique étrangère suédoise à l’égard du conflit au Sahara Occidental2009Ingår i: Le droit internationalet la question duSahara occidental / [ed] Arts, K; Leite, P Pinto, Leiden: IPJET , 2009, s. 299-304Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16738.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Stockholm Center for International Law and Justice (SCILJ).
    Land, Development and the Irrationality of International Law2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, Vol. 60, s. 187-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16739.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Law, Force and Contingency-Notes on a Bold Monograph on Article 2 (4) and the Problems of Finding a Proper Basis for International Legal Reasoning1992Ingår i: Nordic Journal of International Law, Vol. 1-62, nr 1, s. 83-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16740.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Liberalism and the end of international law?2000Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16741.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Neutrality, Impartialilty and Our Responsibility to Uphold International Law2008Ingår i: Law at War: The Law as it Was and the Law as it Should Be: Liber Amicorum Ove Bring / [ed] Ola Engdahl & Pål Wrange, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers , 2008, s. 273-292Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16742.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Neutrality, Impartiality and Our Responsibility to Uphold International Law2008Ingår i: Law at War: The Law as it Was and the Law as it Should Be: Liber Amicorum Ove Bring / [ed] Engdahl, O.; Wrange, Pål, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008, nr May 2005, s. 273-292Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16743.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Neutrality, Impartiality and Our Responsibility to Uphold International Law2008Ingår i: Law at War: The Law as it Was and the Law as it Should Be: Liber Amicorum Ove Bring / [ed] Ola Engdahl & Pål Wrange, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16744.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    När kommer den nya världsordningen?1992Ingår i: Den eviga freden?: Perspektiv på den nya världsordningen / [ed] Ahlin, Per; Wrange, Pål, Stockholm: Juristförlaget , 1992, s. 189-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16745.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Of Power and Justice2003Ingår i: German Law Journal, Vol. 4, s. 935-962Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16746.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Om vetenskaplig autism och akademisk inskränkthet1993Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, nr 3, s. 661-664Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16747.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Protecting Which Peace for Whom against What?: A Conceptual Analysis of Collective Security2015Ingår i: Promoting Peace Through International Law / [ed] Bailliet, Cecilia M.; Larsen, Kjetil M., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 85-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16748.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    [Recension av] Carl August Fleischer, Folkerett. 6 uppl. Universitetsforlaget. Oslo 1994. 284s. Rebecca M.M. Wallace, International Law. A Student Introduction. 2 uppl. Sweet & Maxwell. London 1992. XXX+3ll s.1994Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, nr 3, s. 555-564Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16749.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    [Recension av] Mikael Mellqvist och Mikael Persson (red), Retorik och ratt. Iustus Förlag. Uppsala 1994. 265 s.1995Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, nr 2, s. 497-510Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16750.
    Wrange, Pål
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Reflections on law, schizophrenia and the Gulf Crisis1991Ingår i: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, nr 2, s. 378-381Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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