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  • 1.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sanders, Christophe
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sverige och sjömaten: idag och i morgon. Kan vi samtidigt öka produktion, konsumtion och hållbarhet?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood, depending on species and production method, has generally proven to be a good alternative to especially red meat from both an environmental and health perspective. However, Sweden is lagging behind in terms of both consumption and production of seafood – we do not reach the Swedish Food Agency’s dietary advice of having 2-3 portions per week, we eat only few species and import around 75% of the seafood consumed. In other words, investigating the development potential for the Swedish seafood sector is highly relevant, not the least in light of the national food strategy, where one aim is to increase domestic food production. It is also important to allow for sustainable development of the sector, which for instance means that catches cannot increase but should be used more effectively. The purpose of this report is to map the environmental footprint of current seafood production and consumption and model future scenarios for 2030 and 2045. Rather than trying to reflect the definite future, the idea is to show what it could look like, by combining ongoing and desirable trends regarding seafood. The report is primarily intended as a basis for discussions of what needs to be done to reach the desired future situation. We also investigate if we, through increased production, will be able to supply Sweden with seafood in accordance with the national recommendations, while reducing the climate impact. For species dominating Swedish production and consumption today, the most important production techniques and best available data of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of these were identified. Eutrophication potential and impact on fish stocks and bottom habitats from production were also weighed in and discussed semi-quantitatively/qualitatively. The future scenarios were then based on possible measures to increase production and/or reduce the climate impact: 1) increased aquaculture, 2) increased use of pelagic fish for human consumption, 3) increased use of side streamsfrom fish processing for human consumption, and 4) reduced climate impact and fuel consumptionin fishing partly through more sustainable management. To model future consumption and imports, it was assumed that distribution between main types of seafood, e.g. whitefish and salmonids, remain similar, but that demand for the most climate-efficient alternatives within each group will increase.Total climate and eutrophication potential increases with larger production and so does climateimpact per kg seafood produced with the chosen composition. Nutrient emissions, that may causeeutrophication, increase both in total and per kg due to increasing netpen production of fish. In terms of consumption, it appears that a growing domestic production combined with changed composition within and between seafood categories, together with the growing domestic production, makes it possible to reach the Swedish Food Agency’s recommendations – while reducing the GHG emissions of consumption. In addition, development of feed and technology may lead to further improvements that we cannot foresee today, although climate change also can affect production. Opportunities do exist to increase both production and consumption to levels in line with nationalneeds and recommendations, while reducing GHG emissions per kg seafood consumed. To make this happen, broad and goal-oriented collaborations between authorities and industry, sustainable sourcing strategies as well as a long-term sustainable management of Swedish fisheries is required. Increasing domestic production comes with multiple benefits, but despite shorter transports, Swedish seafood is not by definition more sustainable than imported – the most important aspectalso for Swedish seafood is how it is produced. What characterizes added values of Swedish seafood also need to be developed, and a holistic perspective is essential, i.e. considering what products new seafood is replacing.

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  • 2.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Metod för beräkning av svensk sjömatskonsumtion2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Method for calculation of Swedish seafood consumption

    Robust statistics on how much and which seafood is consumed in Sweden are important for calculations of intake of both desired and undesired substances through seafood, as well as for mapping and forecasting the environmental footprint generated by consumption. Based on three previous reviews summarizing production and trade statistics to estimate Swedish seafood consumption per species and production method (fishing/ aquaculture), a method has been developed for calculating seafood consumption. Previous reports have provided valuable insights, since the Swedish Board of Agriculture does no longer publish data on Swedish seafood consumption in the same way as for other foods. Focusing on the most recent review, which represents the current state of knowledge and the latest statistics, the purpose of this report is to describe in detail, step by step, the method used for calculating Swedish seafood consumption. The calculation is based on public statistics on the volume of imports, exports and production in aquaculture and fisheries, which when needed was complemented with information from other sources. The method description includes where data is found, how it is downloaded, processed, categorized and how the different datasets were later combined to provide an overall picture of Swedish seafood consumption. Finally, knowledge gaps and the need for supplementary data collection is described. The work on this report has revealed that there are still considerable deficiencies and data gaps in the public production and trade statistics. For instance, landings by foreign commercial fishing boats as well as landings of certain species in recreational fishing are not presented. Production data of certain species in aquaculture may also be lacking, due to confidentiality, and requires alternative strategies to be obtained. In addition, available statistics on herring and sprat are uncertain and difficult to interpret, which is why the calculation of these species requires special treatment. Due to its great importance in both production and consumption, the uncertainties surrounding these species represent an important source of error in the estimation of total consumption. Improvements in production and trade statistics of seafood are important for several reasons and it is important that a future method for public consumption statistics is harmonized with that used for other foods, to enable comparisons. Using alternative and varied ways to fill data gaps from year to year obstructs reliable calculations and comparisons – over time and with other product groups. To ensure a sustainable increase in seafood production and consumption, improved transparency through the whole value chain is of considerable importance – not the least to understand which seafood species that could increase in a sustainable way.

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  • 3.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hållbarhetsutvärderingar av sjömat i Sverige - nyckelfrågor för mer behovsbaserade verktyg2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability assessments of seafood from capture fisheries – key issues for a more needs-based tool

    Defining what may be seen as sustainable seafood is complex – there is a multitude of aspects and production systems to consider. As a response to this challenge, several market-based assessments exist today with the aim to simplify and support promotion of sustainable seafood. In Sweden, the most important ones are the WWF Sustainable Seafood Guide, the certification Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Swedish label for organic food (KRAV). Due to challenges identified with these existing assessments, companies may also have their internal assessments. One example is the company Orkla who has done their own seafood sustainability assessment since 2009. To secure a long-term sustainable seafood sector in Sweden, there is a need for improved understanding of the different tools, and if and how a more needs-based tool could be developed for the industry in Sweden. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the different tools, gather input from actors along the value chain on their needs and provide a basis for discussion on alternative paths ahead. Overall, the report finds both similarities and differences between the tools. Mixed messages are conveyed for the same products when assessed by the different tools, highlighting current challenges for value chain actors, and examples are provided where and how differences may arise. To this end, current situation cause confusion for companies who want to set their sustainability targets related to sustainable seafood. Cost-effectiveness could also be improved by increased collaboration, but it is unclear how this best may be achieved.

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  • 4.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Driver svensk konsumtion av odlad lax ökat svenskt industrifiske i Östersjön?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does Swedish consumption of farmed salmon drive increase in industrial fisheries in the Baltic Sea?

    Swedish fishing in the Baltic Sea with large vessels to produce fish meal and oil, and the deteriorating conditions for small-scale fishing and herring stocks, has in recent years been heavily debated in media. A link between current large-scale fishing and Swedish consumption of Norwegian salmon is often made, i.e., that Norwegian salmon farming is a driver behind the recent development. The Swedish Fishing Industry Association has therefore commissioned this report with the aim to improve current knowledge. The overarching questions are whether i) there is a dependency, and ii) if Norwegian salmon farming can be considered a driver for Swedish large-scale fishing of herring in the Baltic Sea. It is found that the development from the 1950s needs to be taken into account to fully understand today's situation. The current Swedish fishing fleet in the Baltic Sea is in line with national fisheries’ objectives to make pelagic fishing more efficient, and the development of stocks is in turn governed by the EU Common Fisheries Policy – both independent to both Swedish consumption and Norwegian salmon farming. Several factors affect destination of landings, where an important aspect is quality of the catch. Current fishing pattern, with fewer and larger boats, have resulted in considerably larger landing volumes per vessel – compromising opportunities for processing for direct consumption. The exact link between Swedish fisheries and Norwegian salmon farming is however complicated. The different traceability systems for fish caught for feed versus direct consumption are not integrated, although detailed information "one step forward, one step back" is available from individual actors. This challenge an effective tracing of a certain fish volume caught for fish meal and oil production to the final use. Overall, available data find that the total share of herring (from all waters) in one kilo Norwegian salmon feed is small (3.77%), and a very small fraction is based on fisheries directly destined for fish meal and oil production (0.8%) – the largest share is based on trimmings from processing for direct consumption. However, most of the Swedish landings of herring from the Baltic Sea is directly destined for fishmeal and oil production in Denmark. The largest share of the total production in Denmark goes to aquaculture, mainly to Norway. Conclusions are that i) Norwegian salmon farming does not appear to use herring from the Baltic Sea to a large extent, although a large share of the fish meal and oil production from the Baltic Sea are destined to aquaculture, and ii) it is the fisheries management (EU and Swedish) that has shaped the fishing that exists today by creating the basic conditions. The report concludes with recommendations for follow-up measures to reduce conflict between fishing for feed and direct consumption, and to better ensure full traceability even for fish intended for feed production.

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  • 5.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sanders, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Trigo, João P
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Environmental and nutritional perspectives of algae2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae have gained increasing attention as promising food from both an environmental and nutritional perspective. However, current understanding is still limited. This report summarizes the status of knowledge for this emerging sector, focusing on micro- and macroalgae species most relevant for Europe (particularly Sweden). Environmental impacts, with focus on climate, are evaluated through literature reviews and analysis of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs), and nutritional potential in the form of data compilation and calculation of nutrient density scores. Overall, findings reveal that current data is incomplete and of poor representativeness. Most LCAs are not performed on commercial production, but at pilot or experimental scale, why often only indicative drivers for greenhouse gas emissions may be identified. For microalgae, there is a wide diversity of production systems in different conditions across the globe. Based on the data at hand, energy use is a key hotspot across most studies for this production, driven by the requirements of different types of systems and species, and to location. For macroalgae production, despite poor representativeness of especially green and red macroalgae, key aspects for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions are associated with energy consumption and use of materials for farming such as ropes. No LCA exists on wild harvested macroalgae, representing the largest production volume in Europe (>95%); large-scale wild harvest may also be associated with risks to ecosystems unless suitable management is enforced. Significant data gaps also exist in food composition databases regarding nutrient and heavy metal content in algae (e.g., vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids). When available, nutrient content was found to be highly variable within and across species, but overall, the evaluation of nutritional quality indicated that algae may be a considerable source of minerals and vitamin B12. The contribution of fiber and protein is generally minimal in a 5 g dry weight portion of macroalgae; microalgae may have higher protein content, and also fat. However, excessive amounts of iodine and several heavy metals may be represented even in very small amounts of unprocessed macroalgae. In summary, the suggested potential of farmed algae as a sustainable food resource is overall strengthened by its generally low carbon footprint during production compared to other food raw materials. However, more input data are needed to fill data gaps regarding both environmental impacts and nutrient quality, and effects from different processing, as well as improved understanding of nutrient and contaminant bioavailability. Pending further research, careful considerations of risks and benefits associated with algae production and consumption should be applied.

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  • 6.
    Morell, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Olika perspektiv på biologisk mångfald2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En sammanställning som vänder sig till dig som är nyfiken på biologisk mångfald och hur olika branscher och sektorer –privata som offentliga –på olika sätt kan arbeta mot våra gemensamma mål: en bevarad mångfald och ett hållbart nyttjande av naturens resurser

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1 - 6 of 6
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