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  • 1.
    Schulte, Maximilian
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ragnar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eggers, Jeannette
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stendahl, Johan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Demand-driven climate change mitigation and trade-offs from wood product substitution: The case of Swedish multi-family housing construction2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 421, article id 138487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-family housing construction (MFHC) with wood instead of concrete as frame material results in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, substituting wood for concrete in MFHC in Sweden until 2030, and onwards to 2070, could be a promising climate change mitigation option. But to what extent, and how would it impact Sweden’s forests? Here we assess climate and biodiversity implications - in terms of the area of old forest - of a completely wood-based future MFHC in Sweden. The wood required is assumed to be exclusively sourced as additional fellings in Swedish forests, thus carbon leakage from wood imports as well as displacement of other wood uses can be disregarded. Different types of timber frame systems and the role of varying future dwelling sizes are considered. We find that the wood needed for a complete substitution of concrete would result in very minor increases in harvests. We further register slight net additional climate change mitigation, irrespective of the wood construction system. There is a small tradeoff between climate change mitigation and biodiversity, as the area of old forest reduces slightly. The largest climate benefit, and lowest impact on Swedish forests, is provided when using timber-light frame combined with reduced dwelling size. © 2023 The Authors

  • 2.
    Hammar, Torun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Haatanen, Noora
    South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Pakkasmaa, Juhana
    South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Life cycle assessment of textile fibre-to-fibre recycling by cellulose carbamate technology2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 426, article id 139189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fashion industry faces major challenges in reducing its environmental impacts along the textile value chain, from fibre production, via various processing steps, use phase and to the end-of-life stage. A major challenge is how to shift from the current linear industry to a circular one, where textiles are both sustainably produced, and after the full life length, recycled into new fibres with high value applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of post-consumer textile fibre-to-fibre recycling by cellulose carbamate technology, in terms of climate impact, water scarcity impact, cumulative energy demand and land use impact. By performing life cycle assessment, it was shown that the chemically recycled cellulose carbamate fibre has a climate impact of about 2.2 kg CO2-eq per kg fibre, water scarcity impact of 1.6 m3 H2O-eq per kg fibre, cumulative energy demand of 90 MJ-eq per kg fibre and land use impact of about 92 Pt per kg fibre (when applying mass allocation of co-products). Hotspots identified during the fibre production technology were electricity use and production of sodium hydroxide. In a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the choice of electricity has a major influence on the results, and by using a renewable electricity mix over an average Finnish electricity mix, the impact could be decreased for all impact categories, except when using bioenergy, which would increase the land use impact. Compared to primary fibres like viscose and conventional cotton, these impacts are in the lower to middle range, showing potential to lower environmental impacts when moving towards an increased amounts of recycled post-consumer textile fibre with high value applications, that can replace primary fibres. 

  • 3.
    Schulte, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonsson, R.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stendahl, J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, P. -A
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordic forest management towards climate change mitigation: time dynamic temperature change impacts of wood product systems including substitution effects2022In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 141, p. 845-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change mitigation trade-offs between increasing harvests to exploit substitution effects versus accumulating forest carbon sequestration complicate recommendations for climate beneficial forest management. Here, a time dynamic assessment ascertains climate change mitigation potential from different rotation forest management alternatives across three Swedish regions integrating the forest decision support system Heureka RegWise with a wood product model using life cycle assessment data. The objective is to increase understanding on the climate effects of varying the forest management. Across all regions, prolonging rotations by 20% leads on average to the largest additional net climate benefit until 2050 in both, saved emissions and temperature cooling, while decreasing harvests by 20% leads to the cumulatively largest net climate benefits past 2050. In contrast, increasing harvests or decreasing the rotation period accordingly provokes temporally alternating net emissions, or slight net emission, respectively, regardless of a changing market displacement factor. However, future forest calamities might compromise potential additional temperature cooling from forests, while substitution effects, despite probable prospective decreases, require additional thorough and time explicit assessments, to provide more robust policy consultation. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Palander, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish Life Cycle Center, Sweden.
    Spak, Björn
    Swedish EPA, Sweden.
    Sanne, Karin
    IVL, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rydberg, Maria
    Swedish Life Cycle Center, Sweden.
    Wikström, Anna
    Swedish Life Cycle Center, Sweden.
    Learnings of national application of Environmental Footprint in Companies and Organizations2021In: Abstract to LCM 2021 The 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Management 2021, September 2021, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are working with life cycle thinking for different purposes such as marketing, purchasing, investments and strategies, with the objective to reduce the environmental impact from their products and services. In recent years, LCT has also been important for public policymaking and in public procurement. Methods for environmental footprinting of products and services have been and are being developed all over the world. In its communication Single Market for Green Products1 (SMGP, April 2013), the European Commission proposed actions to overcome problems on the internal market caused by this proliferation of initiatives. The SMGP established two methods, the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) and the Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) to ensure quality and increase transparency of environmental information and to facilitate comparisons between products’, services’ and organizations’ environmental performance. Swedish Life Cycle Center (SLC) has during the years followed and influenced the Environmental Footprint process, through participation in pilots and in the Technical Advisory Board. SLC provides an arena for industry, authorities, research institutes and universities for Roundtable dialogue on methodology aspects, possible implementation and aspects where we want to influence based on Sweden and Nordic conditions and experiences. This dialogue has resulted in research projects, public seminars, conferences and a national coordination between experts. One of the SLC project, Environmental footprint in Sweden, aims to engage Swedish actors in PEF to better understand how the implementation of PEF as well as related requirements and suggested legislation and directives will affect their work. Case studies are being performed to investigate different methodology aspects from a national perspective, communication learnings and recommendations in order to influence the PEF methodologies. A survey has been performed to identify the current situation for the actual implementation of PEF. Also, EPD and PEF similarities and differences are being investigated, which might lead to increased harmonization.The project will also be strengthening the most important outcomes of PEF; increased knowledge about LCA and products’ environmental impacts and increased collaboration within and between sectors.

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