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  • 1.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nilsson Pingel, Torben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Niimi, Claudia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride2023In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, article id 114557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

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