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  • 1.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Degradable copolymers in additive manufacturing: controlled fabrication of pliable scaffolds2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In tissue engineering, the production of well-defined scaffolds with a porous architecture from degradable polymers is of great interest. Detailed designs have become feasible through the development of additive manufacturing. A small nozzle size is needed to obtain detailed scaffold structures, and careful control of the rheological properties is therefore required during production. A lower viscosity of the melt allows for easier printability, but a high molar mass is required to produce scaffolds that can retain mechanical properties over the time needed for tissue regeneration. An additional challenge of using degradable polymers with high molar mass in any melt-based processing is that thermal degradation can reduce the molar mass during the production stage. To utilise medical grade degradable polymers whilst limiting the thermal degradation a rheological analysis of the most commonly used commercial medical-grade degradable synthetic polymers was performed. Their rheological behaviours aided in setting process parameters for two different melt-based additive manufacturing routes. The variation in thermal degradation in the two routes was assessed, and the parameters were adjusted to minimise it.

    A nondegradative additive manufacturing method was designed, and knowledge regarding printability was developed based on rheological analysis and polymer characterisation methods. This knowledge was applied to the copolymer poly(e-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone) developed within the group to fabricate pliable scaffolds for tissue engineering with an increased rate of hydrolysis in comparison to poly(e-caprolactone). In addition to the selection of the polymer and process parameters, the mechanical properties were also controlled through the structural design. Poly(e-caprolactone) was used as a model material to show how the mechanical properties of scaffolds could be controlled based on the design solely. The results showed that the stiffness could be reduced by more than a factor of 10 through tuning of the design, resulting in soft pliable scaffold structures.

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  • 2.
    Wojno, Sylwia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health. EPFL, Switzerland.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Percolation and phase behavior in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions from nonlinear rheological analysis2023In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 308, article id 120622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the influence of surface charge on the percolation, gel-point and phase behavior of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) suspensions in relation to their nonlinear rheological material response. Desulfation decreases CNC surface charge density which leads to an increase in attractive forces between CNCs. Therefore, by considering sulfated and desulfated CNC suspensions, we are comparing CNC systems that differ in their percolation and gel-point concentrations relative to their phase transition concentrations. The results show that independently of whether the gel-point (linear viscoelasticity, LVE) occurs at the biphasic - liquid crystalline transition (sulfated CNC) or at the isotropic - quasi-biphasic transition (desulfated CNC), the nonlinear behavior appears to mark the existence of a weakly percolated network at lower concentrations. Above this percolation threshold, nonlinear material parameters are sensitive to the phase and gelation behavior as determined in static (phase) and LVE conditions (gel-point). However, the change in material response in nonlinear conditions can occur at higher concentrations than identified through polarized optical microscopy, suggesting that the nonlinear deformations could distort the suspensions microstructure such that for example a liquid crystalline phase (static) suspension could show microstructural dynamics similar to a biphasic system.

  • 3.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nilsson Pingel, Torben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Niimi, Claudia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride2023In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, article id 114557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

  • 4.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards attractive texture modified foods with increased fiber content for dysphagia via 3D printing and 3D scanning2023In: Frontiers in Food Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2674-1121, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As life expectancy increases so do age related problems such as swallowing disorders, dysphagia, which affects 10%–30% of people over 65 years old. For dysphagia patients the texture and rheological properties of the food, and the bolus, is critical to avoid choking and pneumonia. Texture modified foods, timbals, are often served to these patients due to their ease of swallowing. The main concern with these foods is that they do not look visually alike the food they replace, which can decrease the patient’s appetite and lead to reduced food intake and frailty. This study aims to improve both the visual appearance of texturized food as well as the energy density and fiber content of the timbal formulation. 3D scanning and additive manufacturing (3D Printing) were used to produce meals more reminiscent of original food items, increasing their visual appeal. Rheology was used to ensure the original flow profile was maintained as the timbal was reformulated by reducing starch contents and partially replacing with dietary fibers. The amount of starch was reduced from 8.7 wt% in the original formulation to 3.5 wt% and partially replaced with 3 wt% citrus fiber, while maintaining properties suitable for both swallowing and 3D printing. The resulting formulation has improved nutritional properties, while remaining suitable for constructing visually appealing meals, as demonstrated by 3Dprinting a chicken drumstick from a model generated with 3D scanning.

  • 5.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Enstedt, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Gilljam, Karin
    Regenics AS, Norway.
    Standoft, Simon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundin Johnson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lund, Henrik
    Regenics AS, Norway.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Development of an All-Marine 3D Printed Bioactive Hydrogel Dressing for Treatment of Hard-to-Heal Wounds2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 2627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current standard wound care involves dressings that provide moisture and protection; however, dressings providing active healing are still scarce and expensive. We aimed to develop an ecologically sustainable 3D printed bioactive hydrogel-based topical wound dressing targeting healing of hard-to-heal wounds, such as chronic or burn wounds, which are low on exudate. To this end, we developed a formulation composed of renewable marine components; purified extract from unfertilized salmon roe (heat-treated X, HTX), alginate from brown seaweed, and nanocellulose from tunicates. HTX is believed to facilitate the wound healing process. The components were successfully formulated into a 3D printable ink that was used to create a hydrogel lattice structure. The 3D printed hydrogel showed a HTX release profile enhancing pro-collagen I alpha 1 production in cell culture with potential of promoting wound closure rates. The dressing has recently been tested on burn wounds in Göttingen minipigs and shows accelerated wound closure and reduced inflammation. This paper describes the dressings development, mechanical properties, bioactivity, and safety. 

  • 6.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Charlon, Sebastien
    IMT Lille Douai, Ecole nationale supérieure Mines-Télécom Lille Douai, Materials & Processes Center, Cité scientifique, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Soulestin, Jeremie
    IMT Lille Douai, Ecole nationale supérieure Mines-Télécom Lille Douai, Materials & Processes Center, Cité scientifique, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.
    Finne Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Minimise thermo-mechanical batch variations when processing medical grade lactide based copolymers in additive manufacturing2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 181, article id 109372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing is suitable for producing complex geometries; however, variation in thermo-mechanical properties are observed during one batch cycle when degradable aliphatic polyesters of medical grade are used in melt extrusion-based methods. This is one important reason for why additive manufacturing has not yet been fully utilised to produce degradable medical implants. Herein, the internal variation has been minimised during one batch cycle by assessing the effect of different processing parameters when using commercially available medical grade copolymers. To minimise the molar mass, thermal and mechanical variation within one batch cycle, the rheological fingerprint of the commercially available medical grade poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) and poly(L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) has been correlated to the process parameters of the ARBURG Plastic Freeforming. An increase in the temperature up to 220°C and the associated increase in pressure are beneficial for the viscoelastic and thermally stable poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone). In contrast, a temperature below 220°C should be used for the poly(L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) to reduce the variation in strain at break during one batch cycle. The residence time is decreased through the increase of the discharge parameter. An increase in temperature is however required to reduce the viscosity of the polymer and allow the pressure to stay within the machine limitations at higher discharge parameters. The results are highly relevant to the development of additive manufacturing for the production of degradable medical devices with identical properties. In fact, Food and Drug Administration guidelines for additive manufacturing of medical implants specify the need to control changes in material properties during the process.

  • 7.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Jain, Shubham
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    Univ Bergen, Fac Med, Dept Clin Dent, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Finne Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone): a Degradable and Printable Copolymer for Pliable 3D Scaffolds Fabrication toward Adipose Tissue Regeneration2020In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of 3D printing technologies in the fabrication of degradable scaffolds for tissue engineering includes, from the standpoint of the polymer chemists, an urgent need to develop new materials that can be used as ink and are suitable for medical applications. Here, we demonstrate that a copolymer of epsilon-caprolactone (CL) with low amounts of p-dioxanone (DX) (15 mol %) is a degradable and printable material that suits the requirements of melt extrusion 3D printing technologies, including negligible degradation during thermal processing. It is therefore a potential candidate for soft tissue regeneration. The semicrystalline CL/DX copolymer is processed at a lower temperature than a commercial polycaprolactone (PCL), shaped as a filament for melt extrusion 3D printing and as porous and pliable scaffolds with a gradient design. Scaffolds have Young's modulus in the range of 60-80 MPa, values suitable for provision of structural support for damaged soft tissue such as breast tissue. SEM and confocal microscope indicate that the CL/DX copolymer scaffolds support adipose stem cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation.

  • 8.
    Liu, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Yassin, M. A.
    Finne Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Computational and experimental characterization of 3D-printed PCL structures toward the design of soft biological tissue scaffolds2020In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 188, article id 108488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradable porous polymeric structures are attractive candidates for biological tissue scaffolds, and adequate mechanical, transport, chemical and biological properties determine their functionality. Aside from the properties of polymer-based materials, the scaffold's meso-structure controls its elasticity at the organ length-scale. This study investigated the effect of the meso-structure on scaffolds' mechanical and transport properties using finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A number of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) - based scaffolds were 3D printed, analyzed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanically tested. We found that the gradient (G) and gradient and staggered (GS) meso-structure designs led to a higher scaffold permeability, a more homogeneous flow inside the scaffold, and a lower wall shear stress (WSS) in comparison with the basic (B) meso-structure design. The GS design resulted in scaffold stiffness as low as 1.07/0.97 MPa under compression/tension, figures that are comparative with several soft tissues. Image processing of micro-CT data demonstrated that the imposed meso-structures could have been adequately realized through 3D printing, and experimental testing validated FEA analysis. Our results suggest that the properties of 3D-printed PCL-based scaffolds can be tuned via meso-structures toward soft tissue engineering applications. The biological function of designed scaffolds should be further explored in-situ studies.

  • 9. Navarro, J. R. G.
    et al.
    Rostami, Jowan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Mietner, J. B.
    Bernin, D.
    Saake, B.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Surface-Initiated Controlled Radical Polymerization Approach to in Situ Cross-Link Cellulose Nanofibrils with Inorganic Nanoparticles2020In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1952-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a strategy to convert hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into a hydrophobic highly cross-linked network made of cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic nanoparticles. First, the cellulose nanofibrils were chemically modified through an esterification reaction to produce a nanocellulose-based macroinitiator. Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles were surface-modified by introducing a specific monomer on their outer-shell surface. Finally, we studied the ability of the nanocellulose-based macroinitiator to initiate a single electron transfer living radical polymerization of stearyl acrylate (SA) in the presence of the surface-modified nanoparticles. The BTO nanoparticles will transfer new properties to the nanocellulose network and act as a cross-linking agent between the nanocellulose fibrils, while the monomer (SA) directly influences the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. The pristine CNF and the nanoparticle cross-linked CNF are characterized by FTIR, SEM, and solid-state 13C NMR. Rheological and dynamic mechanical analyses revealed a high dregee of cross-linking.

  • 10.
    Ojansivu, Miina
    et al.
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Ahlinder, Astrid Elisabet
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Massera, Jonathan
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Mishra, Ayush
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Finne-Wistrand, Anna
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Miettinen, Susanna
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Wood-based nanocellulose and bioactive glass modified gelatin-alginate bioinks for 3D bioprinting of bone cells2019In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge in the extrusion-based bioprinting is to find a bioink with optimal biological and physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bioactive glass on the rheological properties of gelatin-alginate bioinks and the initial responses of bone cells embedded in these inks. CNF modulated the flow behavior of the hydrogels, thus improving their printability. Chemical characterization by SEM-EDX and ion release analysis confirmed the reactivity of the BaG in the hydrogels. The cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was shown to be good, as evidenced by the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2) in cast hydrogels. For bioprinting, 4-layer structures were printed from cell-containing gels and crosslinked with CaCl2. Viability, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were monitored over 14 days. In the BaG-free gels, Saos-2 cells remained viable, but in the presence of BaG the viability and proliferation decreased in correlation with the increased viscosity. Still, there was a constant increase in the ALP activity in all the hydrogels. Further bioprinting experiments were conducted using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), a clinically relevant cell type. Interestingly, hBMSCs tolerated the printing process better than Saos-2 cells and the ALP indicated BaG-stimulated early osteogenic commitment. The addition of CNF and BaG to gelatin-alginate bioinks hold great potential for bone tissue engineering applications.

  • 11.
    Wistrand, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Designing fiber-based, degradable 3D porous scaffolds suitable for soft tissue engineering2019In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 258Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Liu, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Jain, Shubham
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Finne Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Pliable, scalable and degradable scaffolds with varying spatial stiffness and tunable compressive modulus by adopting a modular design strategy at macro levelManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 12 of 12
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