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  • 1.
    Zira, Stanley
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Åkerfeldt, Magdalena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Röös, Elin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Environmental consequences of pig production scenarios using biomass from rotational grass-clover leys as feed2023In: Environmental Technology & Innovation, ISSN 2352-1864, Vol. 30, p. 103068-103068, article id 103068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of pork based on monoculture cereal-based cropping systems causes substantial environmental pressures and feed-food competition. This study evaluated the environmental consequences of five different scenarios involving inclusion of rotational grass-clover leys and incorporation of grass-clover biomass in pig diets: (1) a conventional reference scenario without grass-clover biomass; (2) a conventional scenario with replacement of feed with grass-clover silage in a total mixed ration, i.e., with grass-clover biomass replacing other feed; (3) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage for enrichment purposes only; (4) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage for enrichment purposes and additional grass-clover leys for green manuring; and (5) an organic scenario using grass-clover silage and pasture to replace feed. The functional unit was 1 kg of pork slaughter weight and the system boundary was from cradle to farm gate. We used life cycle assessment, the introductory carbon balance method and human edible feed conversion efficiency to assess the performance of the pig production system. Introducing grass-clover biomass as a total mixed ration in conventional pig diets, reduced the climate impact (-17%), eutrophication (-7.1%), marine eutrophication (-15%), energy use (-13%), and feed-food competition (-20%) per kg of pork meat, while acidification (+2.7%) and land use (+1.5%) were slightly increased compared with the reference. The lower climate impact (without considering soil carbon change) was attributable to reduced fertilizer and diesel needs due to pre-crop effects. Overall, feeding grass-clover biomass decreased several environmental impact categories, feed-food competition and improved cereal-based cropping systems by the introduction of grass-clover leys.

  • 2.
    Wivstad, Maria
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Spångberg, Johanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Survey of farm-gate N and P balances on arable and dairy organic and conventional farms in Sweden—basis for improved management2023In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About half of all N and P loads to Swedish waters originate from agriculture and must decrease to reach environmental goals. Studying nutrient management at farm level can provide an understanding of nutrient recycling and the risk of losses. In a survey of organic and conventional dairy and arable farms in three southern counties of Sweden, farm-gate N and P balances and N use efficiency (NUE) were analysed. Crop distribution differed significantly between organic and conventional farms, with organic dairy farms having higher proportions of ley and pulse crops and organic arable farms having a much higher proportion of N-fixing crops than corresponding conventional farms. Conventional dairy and arable farms had on average 70% and 40% higher N surplus than corresponding organic farms. Farm-gate P surplus was larger on conventional dairy farms and much larger on organic arable farms, mainly due to purchase of P-rich organic fertilisers. Organic dairy farms had higher NUE than corresponding conventional farms, but the opposite was true for arable farms. However, in the southernmost county Skåne, where soil fertility and yield potential are high, NUE was similar on all arable farms. Total inputs of N and P were positively correlated with N and P surpluses, especially on dairy farms. Improved manure and crop residue management, reduced use of purchased mineral N fertilisers coupled to more uniform within-farm distribution of manure, use of catch crops, intercropping and organic fertilisers with appropriate N:P ratio are measures that can reduce farm nutrient surpluses and improve nutrient management on both organic and conventional farms.

  • 3.
    Friman, Johanna
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Presto Åkerfeldt, Magdalena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Feeding silage to fattening pigs – effects on nitrogen utilization and ammonia losses from fresh manure2023In: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science, ISSN 0906-4702, E-ISSN 1651-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the effect of feeding silage to pigs on nitrogen (N) utilization and ammonia (NH3) volatilization. In total, 128 Yorkshire ? Hampshire (30?110?kg) pigs were fed commercial feed (Control) or commercial feed mixed with dried, milled silage in pelleted form (Pellet-S), fresh, chopped silage (Silage-Ch) or intensively treated silage (Silage-Pr). Silage replaced 20% of the crude protein (g/kg). Diet affected daily N excretion, which was higher for pigs fed Silage-Ch and Silage-Pr than for pigs in the Pellet-S and Control treatments. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) content in the manure and NH3 volatilization from fresh manure were higher for Control pigs than for pigs in the other treatments. Overall, these results show that pre-treatment of silage influences N utilization and excretion. Furthermore, the results indicate that feeding silage to pigs can reduce NH3 volatilization from fresh manure.

  • 4.
    Wimmler, C.
    et al.
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Vermeer, H. M.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Leeb, C.
    BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Andersen, H. M. -L
    Aarhus University, Sweden.
    Concrete outdoor runs for organic growing-finishing pigs – a legislative, ethological and environmental perspective2022In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 100435Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete Outdoor Runs (OUTRUNs) are a characteristic part of organic pig housing. They must allow species-specific behaviours such as rooting and elimination, as explicitly required by organic legislation of the European Union (EU). However, OUTRUN design often fails to fulfil behavioural needs, and excreta can cover large parts of the OUTRUN leading to poor pen hygiene and associated ammonia (NH3) emissions. This review integrates legislative, ethological and environmental requirements for OUTRUNs for organic growing-finishing pigs. While EU regulations specify some welfare-related standards for OUTRUNs (e.g. minimal space allowance), national and private standards interpret some aspects differently, e.g. the proportion of roofed and slatted floor area. Furthermore, reducing NH3 emissions is equally a challenge for organic systems, even though EU legislation does not explicitly refer to OUTRUNs. Depending on the actual use of the OUTRUN for elimination, higher space allowance compared to conventional production norms increases the potential for a large NH3-emitting surface. The design of pen features (e.g. roof, floor, enrichment) can encourage pigs to separate functional areas and consequently reduce the elimination area and associated NH3 emissions. While providing the main lying area indoors, resting outdoors should be possible for sub-groups during the day. A roof protects pigs and resources (e.g. bedding) from adverse weather, but the effect on pig welfare and NH3 emissions is site-specific. A floor design that ensures practicable manure removal and drainage is most important to reduce emissions. Providing opportunities for exploring and rooting in the OUTRUN has particular relevance for pigs’ behavioural needs and can improve pen hygiene by reducing the elimination area. Cooling facilities are increasingly important to prevent heat stress and its detrimental effects on welfare and pen hygiene. Finally, practicability for farmers needs to be ensured for all resources provided in OUTRUNs, as good management is crucial. Research gaps emerge regarding the association between soiling and NH3 and the influence of certain pen features (shape, roof, feeder location, pen partitions and wet areas) on pig behaviour and soiling.

  • 5.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bergström Nilsson, Sara
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Flows and budgets of nutrients and potentially toxic elements on four Swedish organic farms using digestate from agricultural residues2022In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few fertilizers are permitted for organic farming, which is a challenge when securing nutrient availability, particularly of nitrogen (N). Digestate from biogas production could be a valuable fertilizer for increasing crop yields, through its high content of plant-available nitrogen (NH4-N), but is rarely used in practice. This study evaluated how anaerobic digestion of manure and use of digestate affected inflows and outflows of nutrients and potentially toxic elements on four organic farms with different solutions for digestate production. Mass flows and element concentrations were documented 3 years on three dairy farms and one crop farm and used for calculating farm budgets. Nitrogen and phosphorus (P) budgets were also calculated for biogas reactor and storage pits on three farms. Nitrogen surplus exhibited large variation (18–87 kg N ha−1 year−1) at farm level, with purchased digestate or poultry manure giving major N inputs. The risk of process losses was high, with up to 40% of N and P in feedstock entering farm biogas reactors not recovered in digestate. The proportion of NH4-N in total N in digestate was slightly higher (2–9%) or lower (37%) than in feedstocks entering farm biogas reactors. Improved stirring in farm biogas reactors and storage pits to decrease N and P sedimentation, particularly when digesting poultry manure, would directly increase digestate value. Two farms purchasing digestate from central biogas plants received a digestate causing significant cadmium inputs. Keeping records on element flows can help to tailor the use of digestate for organic farms to achieve a sustainable use of nutrients.

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  • 6.
    Röös, Elin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Zira, Stanley
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Åkerfeldt, Magdalena
    Minskad klimatpåverkan med vallfoder till gris– beräkning av klimatavtrycket ur ett livscykelperspektiv2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the climate effect from a life cycle perspective of introducing grass-clover biomass as an ingredient in diets to pigs in conventional Swedish pig production. The results show that the climate footprint of one kg of conventional pork can be reduced by around 13 percent by replacing parts of the pigs' traditional feed with grass-clover biomass. The reduction in emissions is due to i) lower nitrogen application to grass-clover ley compared to grains and thus lower nitrous oxide emissions and lower emissions from mineral fertilizer production, ii) reduced diesel use, iii) higher yield for grass-clover ley compared to other fodder, and iv) precursor crop effects from the cultivation of grass-clover ley. If the expected sequestration of carbon in soil from the introduction of ley in a cereal-dominated crop rotation is included, emissions are reduced by an additional 18 percent. However, the estimate soil carbon sequestration is uncertain and the process is reversible, why this reduction potential must be considered with some caution. There are several additional benefits of introducing grass-clover biomass into pig production including improved pig welfare, increased soil fertility, increased diversity of crops grown on farmland which can benefit biodiversity and reduced use of inputs. To grow ley and use it as a feed ingredient in diets to pigs, a different type of machinery and feeding equipment is needed than what is traditionally used in pig production. However, it should be possible to put in place such technology quickly as such systems are already used in milk and beef production. Advisors in pig production also need information and knowledge about which ley crops are suitable for pigs and how technical solutions for harvesting, storing and handling ley at farm level should take place. Much of that knowledge can be obtained from milk and beef producers.

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  • 7.
    Aronsson, Helena
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wahlund, Lotten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lovang, Malin
    Lovang Lantbrukskonsult AB, Sweden.
    Hellstrand, Ebba
    Hushållningssällskapet, Sweden.
    Odelros, Åsa
    Hedesunda, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Phosphorus load in outdoor areas for laying hens and capacity of phosphorus retaining materials to reduce the environmental impact2022In: Organic Agriculture, ISSN 1879-4238, E-ISSN 1879-4246, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 325-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated manure loads in outdoor paddocks for laying hens and the capacity of two phosphorus (P) retaining materials for reducing leaching from manure in areas with high hen density. Inventories on two commercial farms during 2 years (2017 and 2018) of the impact of hens (groups of 3000 hens) on vegetation, as a proxy for land use by hens, showed that 16–21% of outdoor area in grassland paddocks and 22–39% of area in a forest paddock were used by the hens. Sand and limestone were tested as P retention materials in areas with high manure load in a field study during the outdoor season for laying hens (May 1 to October 31 in 2018). The materials were placed on the ground (0.2 m deep bed, 3.3 m wide) outside the pop-hole in paddocks with 76 hens. The average numbers of hens outdoors were recorded at 9 am and 3 pm daily. There was no significant difference between the materials concerning distribution of hens, and they seemed not to prefer any material more than the other. When cylinders containing the spent materials were exposed to simulated rainfalls in a laboratory study, the P concentrations in drainage water were high for all materials, including a control with gravel (58–136 mg PO4-P L−1 and 130–197 mg total-P L−1). On average, 14% of manure P retained in the sand and limestone materials was leached after 100 mm of simulated rainfall. Thus, these materials may act as physical filters for P in manure, but to reduce the risk of P losses to waters during the following winter, they need to be removed from the paddocks and preferably used as potential P fertilizers on arable land. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 8.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bark, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Deliverable 4.3 Assessment of effects of manure/pasture management on nitrogen and phosphorus losses2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The POWER project aimed to examine the effectiveness of innovations and best practise in achieving improved pig welfare in Europe. Free-range pasture systems for pigs support the organic principles of natural living, but intensive free-range production is characterized by high risks of nutrient losses, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching to surrounding water bodies and also ammonia (NH3) emissions. The scope of this grazing study, with housing pigs on pasture, was eight pig farms located in four countries: Austria, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. Collected farm data showed a large range in values, reflecting the diversity of pasture systems. Average animal density in paddocks per farm varied between 10 and 480 pigs per hectare, with a density in falling order as weaners>fatteners>sows. Vegetation in paddocks varied greatly between farms and also in paddocks within the same farm. Climate, animal density and soil type are important parameters influencing the risk of nutrient losses. Nutrient loads from faeces and urine in paddocks varied with animal density. The calculated loads were rather high in relation to fertilizing needs in crop production at some of the studied farms. This highlights the importance of having enough area for the pigs and/or to limit the period they are hold in the same paddock in order to apply nutrient loads balanced to subsequent crop or vegetation needs. With the highest N load registered in the study, pigs could be held in the paddock approximately one and a half month per year before exceeding the EU regulation of maximum application of 170 kg N per ha with animal manure.

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  • 9.
    Pfeifer, C.
    et al.
    FiBL Institute of Organic Agriculture, Switzerland.
    Moakes, S.
    FiBL Institute of Organic Agriculture, Switzerland.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kongsted, A. G.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The role of diversity and circularity to enhance the resilience of organic pig producers in Europe2022In: Animal - Open Space, ISSN 2772-6940, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 100009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how pig housing relates to diversity and circularity of farms and how this influences the capacity of European organic pig producers to cope with economic, legislation, labour and climate-related shocks. It identifies resilience strategies of pig producers in Europe by analysing resilience capacity and attributes to different shocks, namely input and output price shocks, disease outbreaks, climate change, legislation change and labour fluctuations. Based on narratives of 18 pig producers, this paper finds three resilience strategies: an efficiency-based strategy, a nutrient substitution strategy and a farm diversification strategy. Non-resiliency is mostly found among the producers with an all-year outdoor production system following the nutrient substitution strategy related to low feed self-sufficiency. The producers follow an efficiency-based strategy when they cannot accumulate reserves sufficient to cope with shocks. Non-resilience among the farm diversification strategy is related to direct marketing that is labour intensive requires the ability to pay decent wages. To increase the resilience of pig producers in Europe, policies should recognise that these different strategies exist and tailor policies differently for different types of producers.

  • 10.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ammonia emissions from outdoor fattening pigs on concrete pad –a farm case study2020In: Proceedings of the IAHA Video-Conferenceon Organic Animal Husbandry. Organic Animal Husbandry systems –challenges, performance and potentials, 2020, p. 44-47Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping organic fattening pigs indoors with access to an outdoor concrete pad is common inEU countries. The main environmental impact is related to a risk of high ammonia emissionsfrom excretions on the concrete pad. The objective was to evaluate the effect of frequency ofscraping the pigs’ toilet, on ammonia (NH3) emissions. The  experiment was conducted at anorganic pig farm in southern Sweden over three  consecutive days in August. The experimentincluded four groups of 68 fattening pigs per  group, 24 weeks old. Each group had access toan outdoor concrete area (116,4 m2)  divided into two sections with a wall. One section was atoilet (7.2 x 4.1 m) and the  other was a concrete run (6.9 x 12.7 m). There was no roof over the outdoor area. The whole outdoor concrete area was scraped before the experiment. Each group received a silage bale on the outdoor concrete run. The experimental set-up was tome asure NH3 emissions each day from not scraped vs. daily scraped sub-areas (N= 2  groupsper treatment). In the scraped treatment, only toilet and wet areas with urine  and faeces was scraped. Other sub-areas were dry sub-areas with silage and dry  concrete areas with/without dry faeces. The pigs had access to the whole outdoor area in  between measurements. Wetand dry sub-areas were defined each day before measurements. Measurements of NH3 emissions were conducted with an equilibrium  concentration method, where two chambers and one ambient sampler unit were  randomly placed in each defined sub-area. The results indicated that the toilet sub-area  could have 84 times higher NH3 emissions than the dry sub-area.Scraping toilet sub- areas decreased NH3 emissions, varying from one third lower NH3 emissions down to 17 times lower. This study was part of the CORE Organic Cofund project POWER

  • 11.
    Berg, Charlotte
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Herlin, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hultgren, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Magdalena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jamar, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jeppson, Knut-Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Keeling, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kolstrup, Christina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundmark Hedman, Frida
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rydhmer, Lotta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Staaf Larsson, Birgitta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sandberg, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Steen, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Utegående nötkreatur och får2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Röös, Elin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mie, Axel
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wivstad, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Johansson, Birgitta E.O.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallenbeck, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Ruben
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Watson, Christine A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Scotland’s Rural College, UK.
    Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review2018In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.

  • 13.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Spörndly, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Markstabiliserande material för att hindra trampskador på hårt belastade betesytor2017In: Vallkonferens 2017. Konferensrapport. 7–8 feb, Uppsala. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi. Rapport 22. / [ed] Nilsdotter-Linde, N. & Bernes, G. (reds.)., Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi , 2017, p. 52-55Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utvärdering av olika markstabiliserande material visade att den armerade mattan knappt påverkades alls av kotrafik under fyra betessäsonger och tre vintrar däremellan. Om mattan håller isju år blir den lika prisvärd som bark eller krossad sten. Barkbädden höll under rådande förhållanden inte mer än två år, men kan vara ett prisvärt material om man har egen tillgång på bark och lägger på ny bark då bädden uppvisar tendens att kollapsa. Det kan innebära att man får lägga på bark mer än en gång under varje betessäsong. Det krossade stenmaterialet hade efter två betessäsonger liknande antal gropar (framräknat med ett s.k. gropindex) som försöksleden med matta samt det där inga åtgärder vidtogs (kontrollen). Att inte göra någon åtgärd alls har fungerat vid rotationsbete där vegetationen haft möjlighet att återetablera sig. Samtidigt var det tydligt att en yta blev trampskadad då korna passerade den under en regnig period i augusti.

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  • 14.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Annica
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bertilsson, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Brunius, Carl
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, Leif
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl-Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundh, Åse
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden2016In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

  • 15.
    Qiuqing, Qiuqing
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wahlund, Lotten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Atkinson, Sophie
    Lugn och säker hantering av utegående nötkreatur: en effektiv åtgärd för att förbättra arbetsmiljön och undvika farliga situationer2015Report (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Aronsson, Helena
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Liu, Jian
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ekre, Erik
    Swedish Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland, Sweden.
    Torstensson, Gunnar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Effects of pig and dairy slurry application on N and P leaching from crop rotations with spring cereals and forage leys2014In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, ISSN 1385-1314, E-ISSN 1573-0867, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 281-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two crop rotations dominated by spring cereals and grass/clover leys on a clay soil were studied over 2 years with respect to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching associated with pig or dairy slurry application in April, June and October. Leaching losses of total N (TN), total P (TP), nitrate-N and dissolved reactive P (DRP) were determined in separately tile-drained field plots (four replicates). Mean annual DRP leaching after October application of dairy slurry (17 kg P ha-1) to growing grass/clover was 0.37 kg ha-1. It was significantly higher than after October application of pig slurry (13 kg ha-1) following spring cereals (0.16 kg ha-1) and than in the unfertilised control (0.07 kg P ha-1). The proportion of DRP in TP in drainage water from the grass/clover crop rotation (35 %) was higher than from the spring cereal rotation (25 %) and the control (14 %). The grass/clover rotation proved to be very robust with respect to N leaching, with mean TN leaching of 10.5 kg ha-1 year-1 compared with 19.2 kg ha-1 year-1 from the cereal crop rotation. Pig slurry application after cereals in October resulted in TN leaching of 25.7 kg ha-1 compared with 7.0 kg ha-1 year-1 after application to grass/clover in October and 19.1 kg ha-1 year-1 after application to spring cereals in April. In conclusion, these results show that crop rotations dominated by forage leys need special attention with respect to DRP leaching and that slurry application should be avoided during wet conditions or combined with methods to increase adsorption of P to soil particles.

  • 17. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, Ulla Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 18. Röös, Elin
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wivstad, Maria
    Ekologisk produktion och klimatpåverkan: En sammanställning av kunskapsläge och framtida forskningsbehov.2013Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wivstad, Maria
    Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: återföring av växtnäring i ekologiskt produktion.2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Oostra, Huibert
    Kvävegödsling till slåttergräsvall: Hur strategier och teknik påverkar ammoniakavgång, skörd, kväveutbyte och kostnader2013Report (Refereed)
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  • 21.
    Webb, Jim
    et al.
    Ricard-AEA, UK.
    Sörensen, Peter
    University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Velthof, Gerard L.
    Alterra, Netherlands.
    Amon, Barbara
    Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Germany.
    Pinto, Miriam
    NEIKER, Spain.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hutchings, Nicholas John
    University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Burczyk, Piotr
    Westpomeranian Research Centre in Szczecin, Poland.
    Reid, Joanne
    Ricard-AEA, UK.
    An Assessment of the Variation of Manure Nitrogen Efficiency throughout Europe and an Appraisal of Means to Increase Manure-N Efficiency2013In: Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 119, p. 371-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the nitrogen (N) in organic manures more effectively reduces losses to the environment. A requirement to take allowance of the N conserved by reduced ammonia (NH3)-emission techniques would increase manure-N efficiency by up to 15%. Covering manure stores and land application of slurry by injection beneath the soil surface and by rapid incorporation of both slurries and solid manures into uncropped soil reduce NH3 emissions. Injection of cattle slurry also reduces N immobilization compared with application methods, which mix the slurry with soil and increases manure-N efficiency by ca 10-15%. In growing cereals, NH3 emissions can be reduced by band spreading within the canopy. Anaerobic digestion of slurry may also increase manure-N availability in the season of application by 10-20%, compared with undigested slurry. Slurry acidification may increase manure-N efficiency by 35-65% by reducing total NH3 losses by 70% compared with unacidified slurry stored without cover and not incorporated after spreading. To fully utilize the fertilizer value of manure-N, uptake over more than 1 year needs to be accounted for. This is particularly important for solid manures which provide less-available N in the season after application than slurries but release more N to crops in subsequent years. Using manure-N as a sole N source may limit overall manure-N efficiency. Applying manures at reduced rates over a larger crop area, using N fertilizer at times when crop recovery of manure-N may be limited, may give the greatest overall manure-N efficiency.

  • 22.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Implementation and status of priority measures to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus leakage: Summary of Country Reports2012Report (Refereed)
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  • 23.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Malgeryd, Johan
    Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ammonia losses from outdoor pig fattening at two Swedish organic farms2012In: Open Agriculture Journal, ISSN 1874-3315, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions originate predominantly from manure. In outdoor pig production, excretory behaviour creates nitrogen (N) point loads. This study examined ammonia losses from pigs on grassland at two farms by calculating N field balances per pen and sub-areas preferred (P) and not preferred (NP) for excretion. Spatial variation in ammonia losses was measured with an equilibrium concentration method in one pen per farm during two years at the end of the fattening period. Cumulative ammonia losses during a fattening period were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method. P sub-areas had 10-to 100-fold higher amounts of excreted N than NP sub-areas. Ammonia losses were higher from P sub-areas (0.056-1.843 g NH 3 ha -1 hr -1) than from NP sub-areas (0.001-0.332 g NH 3 ha -1 hr -1). Ammonia losses from NP sub-areas varied more widely. Cumulative NH 3 losses were 28 kg pen -1. Gross NH 3 losses were 0.66 kg N pig -1, representing 14% of excreted N.

  • 24.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Losses of N2O, CH4 and NH3 from a grass sward used for overwintering beef heifers2011In: Animal Feed Science and Technology, ISSN 0377-8401, E-ISSN 1873-2216, Vol. 166, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated losses of N2O, CH4 and NH3 from a rotational grazing system for overwintering beef cattle which spend 1 month on pasture. The cattle density was 71 heifers/ha and they were moved weekly to a new feeding area within the main pasture. The N2O, CH4 and NH3 losses were determined in two feeding areas that were severely trampled (ST) or less trampled (LT) and in a control area from which cattle were excluded. The N input to the pasture was measured. The NH3 losses were measured by micrometeorological mass balance in two periods with heifers present. The N2O and CH4 were measured using a closed chamber method with 9 chambers within each area on 10 occasions after heifers were removed from the pasture. The N input was 510kgN/ha. The NH4-N contents in the clay loam topsoil were 45, 28 and 11kg/ha in the ST, LT and control areas, respectively. Losses of NH3 were low due to rainy and cold conditions, corresponding to maximum 0.3kgN/ha/d. The soil was water logged and this, with the cold conditions, may have lowered N2O emissions. Maximum N2O losses were 7, 30 and 18gN2O-N/ha/d from ST, LT and control areas, respectively. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture - Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K.A. Beauchemin, X. Hao, S. McGinn and Editor for Animal Feed Science and Technology, P.H. Robinson. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  • 25.
    Geng, Qiuqing
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Torén, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems2009In: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, ISSN 1074-7583, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 283-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems. © 2009 ASABE.

  • 26.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Andresen, Niels
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Löfquist, Ingela
    Utveckling av en mobil hydda för ekologiska slaktsvin på bete2009Report (Refereed)
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  • 27.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stallgödselns kväveverkan på skörden.: Litteraturgenomgång2008Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Spörndly, Eva
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Flöden av kväve och fosfor på stora mjölkgårdar med olika betessystem2008Report (Refereed)
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  • 29. Gustafson, G.M.
    et al.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, S.
    Barn balance calculations of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in a conventional and organic dairy farm in Sweden2007In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 119, no 1-2, p. 160-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations of flows and balances of plant nutrients in agricultural production systems provide some basic information for the assessment of their long-term sustainability. The objectives of this study were to assess the possible impacts of variations in element concentrations between years and of undefined sinks and sources of elements on the accuracy of balance calculations. A 3-year study was conducted on Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, S, and Zn fluxes in the barns (subsystem) of a Swedish farm with separate conventional and organic milk production. Our main focus in this subproject was on barn balance calculations, the barn housing only cows. Barn balance for an element was defined as amount of that element in [feeds, heifers, bedding, water] - [milk, manure, urine, calves, culled cows]. The focus was on: (1) variations in element concentrations in the main flow carriers [feeds, milk, manure, urine]; (2) information about element dynamics and flows of dairy farming systems obtained from internal flows of elements in the barn balance compared with that obtained from the flows associated with milk production in a farm gate balance; (3) differences in element flows and concentrations between the organic and conventional farming systems on this farm. Our conclusions were: (1) the sampling methods used had low coefficients of variation and thus pooled samples can reduce the costs of element analyses. However, urine must be thoroughly mixed if less water-soluble elements are to be monitored. Magnesium differed significantly in concentrations between years in all feedstuffs; (2) year-to-year fluctuations in harvest can influence a calculation negatively if calculations are based on annual harvest and not on feed supplied. The barn balance calculation showed a source of Cu, Mn and Zn that would not have been obvious in a farm gate balance. The element content of manure and urine calculated as [inputs - milk] would have underestimated the amount of Cu, Mn and Zn in manure and overestimated the amount of K and N. The Cu analysis showed an example of conflicting goals between short-term welfare of the cows and long-term soil fertility. EU legislation regarding land for spreading of manure is not a guarantee against soil contamination by heavy metals; (3) the differences between the organic and conventional system related more to differences in forage: concentrate and home-grown: purchased ratios, which were typical for the average Swedish farm of each type, and less to differences in element concentrations of the feed ingredients. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Akerhielm, H.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Outdoor pig fattening at two Swedish organic farms-Spatial and temporal load of nutrients and potential environmental impact2007In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, outdoor organic pig production is gaining interest. However, the excretory behaviour of pigs may create plant nutrient hotspots in outdoor areas, increasing the environmental impact. This study examined fluxes and balances of N, P, K, Cu and Zn at pen level, and determined the effects of the excretory behaviour of fattening pigs on nutrient load, manure distribution and N, P, K, Cu and Zn concentration in soil within pens at two farms with different outdoor systems (mobile and stationary). A pen in the mobile system had about 72 pigs ha-1 and in the stationary system about 91 pigs ha-1. The average pen balance in the mobile system was 270 kg N, 60 kg P, 110 kg K, 0.4 kg Cu and 1.3 kg Zn ha-1 and in the stationary system 205 kg N, 57 kg P, 99 kg K, 0.4 kg Cu and 1.5 kg Zn ha-1. The smaller net accumulation of nutrients in the stationary system was due to about 30% of excrement nutrients being excreted indoors. A substantial proportion of nutrients (43-95%) from one pig group was found to be concentrated in an area of arable land representing 4-24% of the total pen area. In the mobile system the major part of the defecating was deposited on the hut, feeding and drinking sub-areas. The manure mapping also revealed pig behaviour of avoiding defecation in certain zones. In the stationary system, the concentration of exchangeable P and K in soil (0-30 cm depth) in areas preferred for excretion was more than four-fold higher and the concentration of mineral-N (0-90 cm depth) was about eight-fold higher than in other areas of the pen by the end of the fattening period. Preferred areas for excretion within the pen were affected both by the present pig groups and by previous pig groups 4 years back in time. In the mobile system, the concentration of mineral-N in soil was about three-fold higher in preferred excretion areas compared with other areas. Neither of the two outdoor systems succeeded in avoiding excessive point loads of N within the pen. The flexibility of the mobile outdoor system has to be further improved so that no harmful point loads of nutrients can occur. In the stationary system, a nutrient management technique for collecting the manure on the preferred excretion areas on arable land needs to be developed. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Malgeryd, Johan
    Rogstrand, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bergström, Jan
    Halter av växtnäring och spårelement i lagrad gödsel från värphöns2006Report (Refereed)
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  • 32.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: användning i lantbruket2006Report (Refereed)
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  • 33.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Handling of digestate on farm level2006Report (Refereed)
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  • 34. Oborn, I.
    et al.
    Modin-Edman, A.-K.
    Bengtsson, H.
    Gustafson, G.M.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nilsson, Ingvar S.
    Holmqvist, J.
    Jonsson, S.
    Sverdrup, H.
    A systems approach to assess farm-scale nutrient and trace element dynamics: A case study at the Öjebyn dairy farm2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 4-5, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systems analysis approach was used to assess farmscale nutrient and trace element sustainability by combining full-scale field experiments with specific studies of nutrient release from mineral weathering and trace-element cycling. At the Öjebyn dairy farm in northern Sweden, a farm-scale case study including phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) was run to compare organic and conventional agricultural management practices. By combining different element-balance approaches (at farm-gate, barn, and field scales) and further adapting these to the FARMFLOW model, we were able to combine mass flows and pools within the subsystems and establish links between subsystems in order to make farm-scale predictions. It was found that internal element flows on the farm are large and that there are farm internal sources (Zn) and loss terms (K). The approaches developed and tested at the Öjebyn farm are promising and considered generally adaptable to any farm. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 35.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Benfalk, Christel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Geng, Qiuqing
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ekogrisar i hydda eller stall: så påverkas djur, bonde och miljö2005Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 36. Watson, C.A.
    et al.
    Bengtsson, H.
    Ebbesvik, M.
    Loes, A.-K.
    Myrbeck, A.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Schroder, J.
    Stockdale, E.A.
    A review of farm-scale nutrient budgets for organic farms as a tool for management of soil fertility2002In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 18, no SUPPL., p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On organic farms, where the importation of materials to build/maintain soil fertility is restricted, it is important that a balance between inputs and outputs of nutrients is achieved to ensure both short-term productivity and long-term sustainability. This paper considers different approaches to nutrient budgeting on organic farms and evaluates the sources of bias in the measurements and/or estimates of the nutrient inputs and outputs. The paper collates 88 nutrient budgets compiled at the farm scale in nine temperate countries. All the nitrogen (N) budgets showed an N surplus (average 83.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The efficiency of N use, defined as outputs/inputs, was highest (0.9) and lowest (0.2) in arable and beef systems respectively. The phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) budgets showed both surpluses and deficits (average 3.6 kg P ha-1 yr-1, 14.2 kg K ha-1 yr-1) with horticultural systems showing large surpluses resulting from purchased manure. The estimation of N fixation and quantities of nutrients in purchased manures may introduce significant errors in nutrient budgets. Overall, the data illustrate the diversity of management systems in place on organic farms, and suggest that used together with soil analysis, nutrient budgets are a useful tool for improving the long-term sustainability of organic systems.

  • 37. Richert-Stintzing, A.
    et al.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Application of broiler chicken manure to lettuce and cabbage crops.: Effect on yield, plant nutrient utilisation and mineral nitrogen in soil2002In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 571, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of broiler chicken manure is increasing in Sweden due to its reputation as a quick-acting nitrogen fertiliser. However, data concerning the effects on crops and the environment are limited. In 1998, a field trial was carried out at Ultuna with the aim of investigating the effects of spreading two different quantities of pelleted and stored broiler manure to iceberg lettuce and white cabbage. The parameters studied were yield, plant nutrient utilisation and amount of soil mineral nitrogen. Results from the field trial show that the pelleted broiler manure gave a better effect on yield than stored broiler manure. Nutrient balances showed that it is difficult to attain a good balance between application and uptake of nutrients when using broiler manure, especially pelleted. Soil samples indicate that the amount of mineral nitrogen in the soil after harvest did not differ significantly between the two broiler manures at the two levels of application. The results from this first year of field trials need to be confirmed with further trials.

  • 38. Malgeryd, Johan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Lönsam stallgödselhantering: teknik, växtnäringshushållning, kvalitet och ekonomi2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att inte skada miljön måste växtnäringen i stallgödseln tas tillvara och återföras

    till de odlade grödorna. Skälen till att använda stallgödsel är dock fler. Dyrare

    mineralgödsel och ekonomiskt kärvare tider har bidragit till att det ur ekonomisk

    synvinkel blivit mer intressant att använda stallgödsel som växtnäringskälla.

    JTI har, på uppdrag av SLA, sammanställt sin stallgödselforskning, bland annat med

    utgångspunkt från lantbruksföretagarens behov och frågeställningar. Hur kan man

    utnyttja växtnäringen optimalt? Hur ska gödseln lagras? Vilken utrustning och tidpunkt

    är lämpligast för spridning? Vilka givor ger bäst avkastning och kvalitet på

    gröda? Vad kostar jordpackningen och hur kan den minimeras?

    Här förmedlas konkreta tips och råd kring stallgödselhantering.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39. Malgeryd, Johan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stallgödsel: en resurs i ditt företag, SLA2002Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40. Karlsson, Stig
    et al.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Djupströgödsel till vårsäd.: Höst- respektive vårspridning av färsk och mellanlagrad djupströgödsel2001Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 41.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Element balances as a sustainability tool2001Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stintzing Richert, Anna
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Kycklinggödsel till sallat och vitkål2000Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rammer, Chri
    Spridning av fast- och kletgödsel till vall1995Report (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Spridning av flytgödsel i stråsäd1992Report (Refereed)
1 - 44 of 44
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