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  • 1.
    Pimienta, Pierre
    et al.
    CSTB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Lund university, Sweden.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB, France.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Huang, Shan-Shan
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Mróz, Katarzyna
    Cracow university of technology, Poland.
    Davie, Colin
    Newcastle university, United Kingdom.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB, France.
    Alonso, Maria Cruz
    Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Sciences (IETcc), Spain.
    Bodnarova, Lenka
    Brno university of technology, Czech Republic.
    Bosnjak, Josipa
    Universität Stuttgart (MPA), Germany.
    Dal Pont, Stefano
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Dao, Vinh
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Dauti, Dorjan
    EFECTIS FRANCE, France.
    Dehn, Frank
    Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Germany.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Hager, Izabela
    Cracow university of technology, Poland.
    Hela, Rudolf
    Brno university of technology, Czech Republic.
    Hozjan, Tomaz
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Juknat, Michael
    MFPA Leipzig, Germany.
    Jumppanen, Ulla-Maija
    VTT, Finland.
    Kirnbauer, Johannes
    Vienna university of technology, Austria.
    Kolsek, Jerneja
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Korzen, Manfred
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Lakhani, Hitesh
    Institut für Werkstoffe Im Bauwesen, Germany.
    Lion, Maxime
    EDF - TEGG/CEMETE, France.
    Lo Monte, Francesco
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Maluk, Cristian
    Semper, United Kingdom.
    Meftah, Fekri
    INSA Rennes, France.
    Miah, Md Jihad
    CSTB, France.
    Millard, Alain
    CEA, France.
    Mindeguia, Jean-Christophe
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Moreau, Bérénice
    CETU, France.
    Msaad, Yahia
    CSTB, France.
    Ozawa, Mitsuo
    Gumma university, Japan.
    Pesavento, Francesco
    Universeta degli Studi Di Padova, Italy.
    Pham, Duc Toan
    CSTB, France.
    Pistol, Klaus
    Fachhochschule Potsdam, Germany.
    Rickard, Ieuan
    University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Rodrigues, Joao Paulo Correia
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Roosefid, Mohsen
    IRSN, France.
    Schneider, Martin
    Carinthia university of applied sciences, Austria.
    Sharma, Umesh Kumar
    Indian institute of technology, India.
    Sideris, Kosmas
    Democritus university of Thrace, Greece.
    Stelzner, Ludwig
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Weber, Benedikt
    EMPA, Switzerland.
    Weise, Frank
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on fire spalling assessment during standardised fire resistance tests: complementary guidance and requirements2024In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. It aims to provide useful information, guidance and best practices in fire spalling assessment to laboratories that perform large-scale tests based on fire resistance test standards. It provides guidance on the spalling observation techniques during testing, as well as post-test spalling quantification/assessment methods. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with the fire resistance test standards, e.g. EN 1363-1 and ISO 834-1. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to RILEM.

  • 2.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 3.
    Gales, John
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire research for timber structures2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 413-414Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 445-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes fire tests on loaded glued laminated timber columns in which the structural response was measured during the heating and cooling phases. Identical columns with 280 × 280 mm2 cross-section and 3.7 m length were tested under various heating durations in a standard furnace to investigate integrity to full burnout. Two of the columns were subjected to ISO 834 heating until failure and their measured fire resistance was 55 and 58 min, respectively. Two columns were subjected to 15 min of ISO 834 heating followed by controlled cooling; these columns failed during the cooling phase, respectively after 98 and 153 min. Flame self-extinction occurred after approximately 40 min while smoldering continued locally. Two columns tested under 10 min of ISO 834 heating both survived the defined heating–cooling exposure. Thermocouples inside the columns show sustained temperature increases for hours after the end of the heating phase. These full-scale furnace experiments show that timber columns may fail during the cooling phase after exposure to standard heating for about 25% of the standard fire resistance duration. These results, in line with previous numerical predictions, highlight the need for further investigation into fire safety until full burnout for timber structures. 

  • 5.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    et al.
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Colic, Antonela
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Morrisset, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Mindeguia, Jean-Christophe
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    University of Liège, Belgium.
    Zehfuss, Jochen
    IBMB, Germany.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bisby, Luke
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE PROTECTION OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER DURING STANDARD FURNACE TESTS AND NATURAL FIRES2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign designed to compare and understand the performance of passive protection under exposure to standard furnace tests and natural fires. As part of this campaign, five natural fire experiments were performed with partially protected cross-laminated timber (CLT) compartments under a range of ventilation conditions. In all the tests, only one side wall was left completely unprotected, and all other timber surfaces were protected with either two layers of 18 mm standard gypsum boards (GB) or two layers of 25 mm standard GBs. The structural CLT ceilings were subjected to a superimposed dead load of 1.35 kN/m² during the natural fire tests, and the fire load was (on average) 950 MJ/m²; chosen to represent the Eurocode 1991-1-2 characteristic value for dwellings. The performance of the passive protection was mainly evaluated with regards to the time to reach a protected timber surface temperature of 250°C. The testing confirms that the resulting fire protection performance of a given gypsum board layout depends on the ventilation conditions of the fire compartment, with more severe (and closest to ISO testing) outcomes when testing under ventilation-controlled scenarios. This paper provides data that sheds light on the co-dependency of the passive protection design and compartment fire dynamics and underlines the importance of considering the safety objectives of a building when defining the performance criteria of its structural elements.

  • 6.
    Robert, Fabienne
    et al.
    CERIB, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Zehfuss, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Renard, Silvio
    CERIB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gernay, Thomas
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 1848-1854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled “burnout resistance” to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires.

  • 7.
    Robert, Fabienne
    et al.
    Cerib, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège university, Belgium.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Renard, Silvio
    Cerib, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gernay, Thomas
    John Hopkins university, USA.
    NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled "burnout resistance" to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires. 

  • 8.
    Pimienta, Pierre
    et al.
    CSTB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Wise, Frank
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on the method of testing concrete spalling due to fire: material screening test2023In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 56, no 9, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. The Committee has defined two types of screening tests for characterization of concrete propensity to fire spalling: Material screening tests and Product screening tests. Definitions of both types of tests are given in the paper. The following recommendations apply to Material screening tests. The material screening tests described in these recommendations are a set of minimum requirements to test concrete spalling propensity (for example, the minimal specimen size). This document covers the aspects of concrete characterization, specimen geometries, storage conditions, test methods and measured parameters.

  • 9.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns2022In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, article id 103691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

  • 10.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    The development of façade fire testing in Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fire testing has been high on the agenda worldwide due to the increased hazard of many occurrences of severe fire spread on façades. There is also international work going on to create a European standard for façade fire testing. In this context it is interesting to clarify what different national test methodologies are based on. This report is a review of the development that led to the Swedish standard for assessing fire performance of façades, SP Fire 105. The review starts from the development in the 1950s with assessing fire exposure from compartment fires and follows further development until 1990s. The fire exposure in the first edition of SP Fire 105 published 1985 was based on two test campaigns including external flames from room fires performed at Lund University during the late 70-ties and early 80-ties. In the early 90-ties the geometry of the air intake in the combustion chamber and the opening under the test specimen was slightly reduced leading to a lower effective thermal exposure of the façade than in the first edition of SP Fire 105. An important observation done already in the 1950s at the Swedish fire laboratory in Stockholm and in the late 1970s at Lund University was that the wind is influencing the test results when doing experiments outside.

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  • 11.
    (red.) Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    (red.) Delin, Mattias
    Brandforsk.
    Arvidsson, Magnus
    RISE, Brandteknik.
    Carlsten, Susanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindblad, Linda
    Göteborgs universitet.
    McNamee, Margareth
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE, Brandteknik.
    Raquette, Tove
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Sandström, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Brandskyddslaget.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, Fire Research AS.
    Brandsäkerhet för byggnader med kulturvärden: En kunskapsöversikt2021Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with fire safety in historic buildings requires adapted solutions that can also satisfy the preservation of the buildings and their cultural values. There is a lot of knowledge and experience in this area both in Sweden and internationally. In order to make this available to end users, Brandforsk initiated a literature review together with a group of national sponsors. This literature review aims to compile and present the documented knowledge in the field. A complementary purpose is to define knowledge gaps. The review is divided into six areas:

    2. Fire prevention

    3. Fire spread within buildings

    4. Fire spread between structures

    5. Structural fire resistance

    6. Evacuation

    7. Fire and rescue service activities

    Based on workshops the needs of end users have been compiled. A comparison of the outcome of the review and the end user needs defines a knowledge gap pointing to the need for continued research and development.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    et al.
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lion, Maxime
    EDF, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Cross-comparison of screening tests for fire spalling of concrete2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 929-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete spalling is an important phenomenon to consider when evaluating the fire behavior of concrete, as this can sometimes have an impact on the structural capacity of the studied element. Spalling can be assessed experimentally using screening tests although it is influenced by the size, geometry, and boundary conditions of the tested element, among other factors. No standardized and systematic methods are yet available to assess concrete spalling sensitivity by testing. Plus, comparative results between screenings tests (small and medium scale) and full-scale tests to evaluate their representativity remain scarce in the literature. In this study, five different spalling tests—with different geometries and boundary conditions—that are used as screening tests were investigated. A concrete mix known to be sensitive to spalling was used to evaluate the representativity of two types of screening tests (material screening tests and intermediate-scale screening tests). The representativity of these test setups was evaluated by comparing the measured spalling depths to the spalling measured on a full-scale slab test using the same concrete mix. This comparative study confirmed that the presence of load and/or restraint was essential for a good representativity for a screening test but should always be implemented in large enough specimens.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramböll AB, Sweden.
    A Round Robin of fire modelling for performance-based design2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 985-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine participants, representing eight different Swedish fire consultancy firms participated in a Round Robin study where two different cases were simulated with the Fire Dynamics Simulator. The first case included a large open warehouse where the activation of a sprinkler system was to be studied. In the second case time to critical conditions in a theatre was to be calculated. The participants were given clear instructions on the building layout and heat release rate for the two cases. Still, the results demonstrate a significant variation in time to sprinkler system activation (range of 110 seconds) and available safe escape time (range of 60 seconds), between the participants. It is important to emphasise that some degree of variation is unavoidable, as engineers can model things differently without the modelling solution necessarily being incorrect. Even though it is hard to isolate and specific cause of the variation, some of the variation seen in this study is related to modelling choices that are questionable and consequently problematic for the reliability of the fire safety design. © 2020 The Authors. 

  • 14.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 15.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brandspjälkning hos tunnelbetong – Fenomen och testmetoder2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire spalling of concrete is a complex phenomenon with many influencing factors. The concrete mix, geometry and cross section, stress state, fire exposure, age, pre-conditioning, moisture state and the amount of spalling reducing polypropylene fibres added all influences in different ways if a fire exposed concrete structure is prone to spalling or not. During fire testing of concrete structures for tunnels it is in practice difficult to do fire test on real designs with real boundary conditions. Therefore, more or less representative test methods are used. If small test specimens are used, around 600 x 500 x 200 mm3, these tests are in general only indicative and shall mainly be used as “screening tests”, i.e. to optimise the mix before scaling up to more realistic sizes. Further on, the small test specimen size is not suitable for evaluating the fire resistance including heat penetration for longer duration of fire exposure as the geometrical and boundary effects are not representative for larger specimens.

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  • 16.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Reduction of fire spalling of concrete with small doses of polypropylene fibres2021In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 943-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of polypropylene (PP) fibres has been shown to reduce the fire spalling propensity of concrete. When including this type of fibres in the concrete, the concrete mix becomes less robust, and small deviations in the constitutes change the workability and properties of the concrete. So, from a manufacturing perspective as small dosages as possible of PP fibres are desirable. Very few large-scale fire resistance tests of concrete loaded in compression exist showing the function of PP fibres at low dosages on concrete mixes sensitive to spalling if no fibres are added. In this paper, results from 26 fire tests are presented and analysed. The test results are from four different experimental campaigns, but all the mixes have in common that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.40. The results show that an amount of only 0.6 kg/m3 PP fibres has a significant effect on the spalling propensity and that even lower amounts reduce the spalling although they do not eliminate it entirely. During one of the fire tests on large slabs loaded in compression, unloaded small cubes of the same mixes were also included in the furnace. None of the small specimens spalled, whereas some of the corresponding large slabs spalled beyond the layer of reinforcement. This illustrates that tests on small, unloaded specimens are not relevant when assessing fire spalling of larger cross-sections loaded in compression.

  • 17.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Programmet ”IMI-verktyget” (se länk till höger) är utvecklat för att ge räddningstjänst, studenter och forskare ett verktyg för att öka kunskapen angående konsekvenserna av taktiska val vid respons till en brand, exemplifierad av några fordons- och rumsbränder.

    I rapporten till höger (”fulltext”) beskriver hur verktyget fungerar och innehåller också exempel på datorlabbar som skulle kunna genomföras inom en brandingenjörsutbildning eller räddningsledarutbildning.

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  • 18.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    CFD-beräkningar vid brandteknisk dimensionering - En Round Robin studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien utförde nio deltagande aktörer samma beräkningsuppgifter utan att veta vad de andra kommit fram till. Resultatsammanställningen visar en relativt stor spridning som till största delen kan förklaras med att deltagarna gör olika ingenjörsmässiga val. Läs den och fundera på vilka ingenjörsmässiga val du gör i vardagen.

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  • 20.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual2019Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety.
    Johansson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety.
    Screening test methods for determination of fire spalling of concrete2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of concrete structures is generally good, but for some types of concrete fire spalling can reduce the fire resistance significantly. Therefore, methods are needed to predict whether a concrete will spall when exposed to fire and the severity of spalling.

    The objective of the present project was to develop an intermediate scale test method for the evaluation of the spalling behavior of concrete. The test method shall be cost effective and enable screening of different concretes before a full scale approval test is performed. A number of different intermediate scale test methods have been evaluated regarding the precision to reproduce the spalling behavior of that observed in full scale tests.

    Of the different test specimen shapes and methods, a circular test specimen where the concrete is casted in a steel tube has shown the best correlation to the full scale tests performed. This specimen is easy to produce, and the fire test can be performed on a small furnace.

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  • 22.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johansson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Screening test methods for determination of fire spalling of concrete2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of concrete structures is generally good, but for some types of concrete fire spalling can reduce the fire resistance significantly. Therefore, methods are needed to predict whether a concrete will spall when exposed to fire and the severity of spalling.

    The objective of the present project was to develop an intermediate scale test method for the evaluation of the spalling behavior of concrete. The test method shall be cost effective and enable screening of different concretes before a full scale approval test is performed. A number of different intermediate scale test methods have been evaluated regarding the precision to reproduce the spalling behavior of that observed in full scale tests.

    Of the different test specimen shapes and methods, a circular test specimen where the concrete is casted in a steel tube has shown the best correlation to the full scale tests performed. This specimen is easy to produce, and the fire test can be performed on a small furnace.

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    A numerical comparison of protective measures againstexternal fire spread2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 493-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical firespread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS).The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis.The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modellingexternal vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from alarge‐scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concludedthat FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level ofdetail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smallerapartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projectionsand spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facadeset‐back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based ona horizontal projection or an upper facade set‐back configuration result in comparableor better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also showthat a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60‐cm‐deep horizontalprojection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.

  • 24.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 25.
    Sjöström, J.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anisotropic Curvature and Damage of Unbonded Post-tensioned Concrete Slabs During Fire Testing2017In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 1333-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two furnace tests, using two different fire exposures, on unbonded post-tensioned concrete slabs (1700 × 1200 mm) are reported. Local curvature is measured along two lines approximately in the middle of the slabs both parallel (longitudinal) and orthogonal (transverse) to the prestressing direction. More pronounced curvature in the transverse direction is accompanied by the formation of cracks running predominantly in the longitudinal direction. While the transverse curvature relaxes back to the original state after the cooling phase the curvature in the longitudinal direction ultimately exhibits upward deflection due to the hogging moment caused by the prestress in the tendons acting on a cross section with temperature reduced mechanical properties at the fire exposed side. The effect on crack formation due to the prestressing can additionally be detected by ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in the different directions through the depth of the slab, where a reduction of 5–25% is observed in the transverse direction compared to the longitudinal direction. The phenomenological mechanical behaviour of the slabs is captured in a finite element model which describes the evolution of stress in the prestressing tendons. This model additionally suggests that the curvature in the transverse direction is independent of the prestressing in the longitudinal direction. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 26.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

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  • 27.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

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  • 28.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Skarin, Charlotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Duny, Mathieu
    CSTB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fire test of ventilated and unventilated wooden façades2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three large scale façade tests in accordance with SP Fire 105 as well as an ad hoc SBItest have been carried out. The façade tests included an inert façade made of lightweightconcrete, one façade with a plywood cladding and finally a façade with plywood claddingwith a fully ventilated cavity behind the cladding. The SBI test was made with plywoodwithout ventilation cavity. The aim of the tests was to perform well controlled tests withnumerous of measurements including heat release rate, heat from the combustionchamber, temperature on the façade surface, heat flux, plume temperatures andtemperatures in the ventilation cavity. The results from the tests will be used forvalidation of simulation techniques as well as input for further development of the façadetest methodology.Conclusions from the study were that the surface temperature for charring of the plywoodcladding in this configuration was in the region of 300 °C and that the energy releaseoriginated from the façade during the test was almost twice as high when there was a20 mm wide cavity behind the plywood cladding.Key words: fire test, facade, wood, ventilation cavity

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  • 29.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Modelling of hollow core concrete construction exposed to fire2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the results of a project which was intended to study the response of hollow core and prestressed concrete construction exposed to fire. Two fires in the past 12 years highlighted the susceptibility of this type of construction to fire, a car park fire in Rotterdam and a department store fire in Vantaa. The car park fire has been extensively studied elsewhere and has led to much research on the response of hollow core construction exposed to fire. The department store fire has been less well reported.The report gives a short overview of these two fires, and then reports on a literature review of the response of prestressed and hollow core concrete construction exposed to fire. The comprehensive analyses carried out elsewhere are an excellent starting point for further study.The report then goes on to discuss the application of different concrete models to prestressed concrete construction. Other work reported elsewhere shows that results of modelling prestressed concrete construction exposed to fire is very susceptible to the concrete model which is used, and so finite element modelling of two fire tests of hollow core slabs is carried out to evaluate the impact of the concrete model on this type of construction. It is found that an explicit formulation of transient strain in concrete has a significant impact compared with an implicit formulation of transient strain, in the overall behaviour of the hollow core slab and also in the response of, e.g. the prestessing tendons.Finally, an analytical method for assessing the capacity of prestressed concrete construction under ambient conditions is extended to apply to hollow core slabs exposed to fire. This is used to compare the response of prestressed hollow core slabs to prestressed monolithic slabs exposed to fire and to study different parameters which influence the response and the capacity of hollow core units in fire.Based on the results of the analytical modelling, it can be seen that hollow core concrete construction experiences a far higher thermal gradient and resulting thermal moment than monolithic concrete construction. This is a result of the geometry of the cross section which effectively traps heat in the lower flange. This in turn leads to a faster loss of prestressing force on the cross section than in a monolithic concrete section. This contributes to a faster reduction in the ultimate moment of hollow core slabs compared with monolithic concrete construction.However changing the prestressing tendon depth has a significant effect on the evolution of the ultimate moment under fire exposure. A shallow tendon with little cover has higher capacity at ambient and under fire exposure for a short duration, whereas a tendon with a large amount of cover has a lower ambient capacity, but retains more of this capacity for longer under fire exposure.The analytical method which is proposed is not capable of capturing the nuances in behaviour and response of the finite element method which is reported, nevertheless it is useful in helping to understand the response of prestressed concrete construction exposed to fire. It may also be useful as a screening tool for evaluating the impact of different design options either in hollow core slabs themselves or when making choices in the design phase. However, both the analytical and the numerical modelling suffer from a lack of good quality experimental data which could be used for their evaluation and this should be considered in the future.Key words: prestressed concrete, hollow core slabs, fire, modelling

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  • 30.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Modig, Henric
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Fire Exposed Sprayed Concrete Inner Lining2016In: Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 139-146Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of a sprayed concrete inner lining for tunnels has been investigated experimentally. During the experiment the cross section, hanging from rods from a supporting system, was exposed to the hydrocarbon fire curve for three hours. The test results show that the insulation and integrity criteria were maintained for the whole test period. As 2kg/m3 or polypropylene fibres were included in the concrete mix only a limited amount of surface spalling was observed. The thermal properties of the tested concrete were measured with the transient plane source method. The thermal properties of the sprayed concrete were shown by experiments to be in the bounds of what is defined in the Eurocode 1992-1-2.

  • 31.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    "Call for Abstracts" - Internationell workshop om brandspjälkning i Borås2016In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 25-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Uncertainties in façade fire tests - Measurements and modeling2016In: MATEC Web of Conferences, 2016, article id 03002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a comparison between test and modelling results are performed for two large-scale façade fire testing methods, namely SP Fire 105 and BS 8414-1. In order to be able to compare tests and modelling the uncertainties have to be quantified both in the test and the modelling. Here we present a methodology based on deterministic sampling to quantify uncertainties in the modelling input. We find, in general good agreement between the models and the test results. Moreover, temperatures estimated by plate thermometers is indicated to be less sensitive to small variations in model input and is thus suitable for these kind of comparisons.

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  • 34.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Milovanovic, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modeling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 1115-1126Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Milovanovic, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental assessment of repeatability in facade fire testing2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 653-658Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    The function of intumescent paint for steel during different fire exposures2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the behaviour of four intumescent systems for steel was investigated experimentally. The main purpose of the study was to determine the behaviour of the systems during different fire scenarios including standardized furnace testing, tests in cone calorimeter and ad hoc tests including ceiling jets and fire plumes. The experimental campaign shows that two of the investigated systems did perform very poorly in the furnace tests compared to what they were designed for, despite being the systems having the best swelling in the cone calorimeter tests. This highlights the importance of adhesion at high temperature for this type of systems. Since adhesion is crucial a more relevant evaluation for this type of systems ought to be a test where the flows around the specimen can be characterized and controlled, i.e. a ceiling jet or a fire plume scenario. This is especially important as steel protected with intumescent systems are often used in large open spaces where local fire plumes and ceiling jets are expected.Key words: intumescent paint, steel, alternative exposure

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  • 37.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    Brandskyddsfärgers funktion vid olika brandscenarier2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 37-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Nordløkken, Per Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Intumescent paint systems exposed to different heating scenarios2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 225-233Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    The fire behaviour of an inner lining for tunnels2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of a sprayed concrete inner lining for tunnels has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. During the initial first test on a section of nominal size 5 × 3 × 0.12 m3 the specimen maintained the integrity and insulation criteria during 180 minutes fire exposure with the Hydrocarbon fire curve. Also during the second test, where two specimens of half the size were tested, the integrity and insulation criteria’s were maintained but during this test the fire exposure was reduced during a period of the test due to a technical malfunction. The thermal properties of the sprayed concrete was shown by TPS measurements to be in the span of the values found in the Eurocode. Further on, calculations based on the Eurocode model including temperature dependent stress/strain was shown to give results on the safe side compared with measurements performed during the test. Stresses calculated in the supporting steel bars were 2 to 3 times higher than the measurements which is conservative. Key words: tunnels, fire, sprayed concrete

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  • 40.
    Van der Waart van Gulik, T.G.
    et al.
    Efectis.
    Breunese, A.J.
    Efectis.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Annerel, E.
    Ghent University.
    Spalling behaviour of a non-spalling qualified concrete2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Internationell workshop om brandspjälkning av betong2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 23-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Fire dynamics in Façade fire tests: Measurement, modeling and repeatability2015In: Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented is a comparison between full-scale façade tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414-1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modelling to discern changes in the set-ups. Results show that the air movements around the test set-up (the wind) may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will among other depend on the thickness of the test specimen. Also demonstrated was that good results could be obtained by modelling of the façade fire tests giving us the opportunity to use these methods to determine the effect of a change in the experimental setup.

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  • 43.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Wijkander, Jonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Seidal, Tomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Delbro, Dick
    Örebro University.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Macrophages of M1 phenotype have properties that influence lung cancer cell progression.2015In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 8715-8725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stromal macrophages of different phenotypes can contribute to the expression of proteins that affects metastasis such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but knowledge of how essential their contribution is in comparison to the cancer cells in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is lacking. The expression of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 and of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were studied in human macrophages of M1 and M2 phenotype and compared to a lung SCC (NCI-H520) and a SCLC (NCI-H69) cell line. Effects of treatment with conditioned media (CM) from M1 and M2 macrophages on the expression of these genes in H520 and H69 cells as well as effects on the cell growth were investigated. In addition, data on the stromal macrophages immunoreactivity of uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a few SCC and SCLC biopsies was included. uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were confirmed in stromal cells including macrophages in the SCC and SCLC biopsies. In vitro, both macrophage phenotypes expressed considerably higher mRNA levels of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, and MMP-9 compared to the cancer cell lines, and regarding uPAR, the highest level was found in the M1 macrophage phenotype. Furthermore, M1 CM treatment not only induced an upregulation of PAI-1 in both H520 and H69 cells but also inhibited cell growth in both cell lines, giving M1 macrophages both tumor-promoting and tumor-killing potential.

  • 44.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    A comparison of an explicit and an implicit transient strain formulation for concrete in fire2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the phenomena of concrete behavior which is captured in the material data of the Eurocode and reviews additional phenomena which may be included to improve results incertain cases. As a case study, a series of tests which were conducted by Anderberg and Thelandersson in the 1970's in Sweden on concrete samples are studied using first of all the temperature dependent material model which is used in the Eurocodes. The impact of load induced thermal strain is discussed through comparison of the implicit model which is used in the Eurocode and a simple explicit model based on the test results.

  • 45.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Fire Spalling of Concrete - A Re-assessment of test data2014In: Proceedings from the 8th International Conference on Structures in Fires, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Technical measures to prevent and mitigate the consequences of arson in school buildings2014In: Fire Safety Science, International Association for Fire Safety Science , 2014, p. 531-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in school buildings caused by arson are a major problem in Sweden and in particular are the costs of these fires disproportionately high compared to the costs of fires in buildings in general. The Swedish Research Board initiated a multidisciplinary project in order to reduce the number and consequences of arson fires in schools. Both technical and social aspects have been dealt within this project. In this paper an overview of the findings of the sub-project related to technical issues are presented. The goal and purpose of it has been to evaluate technical systems and engineering solutions to prevent and reduce the consequences of arson in school buildings. As part of this has a number of issues been considered including: identification of typical fire scenarios and design fires, an inventory of available technical systems and solutions, small- And real-scale experiments and an extensive cost-benefit analysis of a selection of technical systems.

  • 47.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Fire dynamics in facade fire tests: Measurements and modelling2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Jansson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Fire spalling of concrete - The moisture effect part II2013In: 3rd International RILEM Workshop on Concrete Spalling due to Fire Exposure. Paris. 2013-09-25--27, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Fire spalling of concrete - A historical overview2013In: MATEC Web of Conferences, 2013, Vol. 6, p. 1001article id 01001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a historical overview of fire spalling of concrete between the mid-1800s through to modern time. Several of the observations presented are put into a modern context by additional discussion.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Façade fires in Swedish school buildings2013In: MATEC Web of Conferences, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 3006article id 03006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires outside school buildings caused by arson are a major problem in Sweden. The initial fire source can involve rubbish or other types of combustibles that can be found at or sometimes brought to the school. As the external fire develops the flames will extend along the façade. If the building is a one-story building, which is a common construction in Swedish school buildings, the fire can spread to the attic and further on to the rest of the building. A large research project was initiated in 2008 by the Swedish Fire Research Board in order to reduce the number and consequences of arson fires in school buildings. In this paper an evaluation of some technical systems that can be used to mitigate consequences of exterior fires is presented. The evaluation includes a literature review, experimental studies and a cost-benefit analysis. The study showed that some systems have clear cost-benefit advantages for the protection of school buildings in places where a high fire frequency can be expected.

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