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  • 1.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    HOW TIMBER BUILDINGS CAN BE DESIGNED FOR DECONSTRUCTION AND REUSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ISO 208872023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a shift towards circular economy in the building and construction sector. Design for deconstruction and reuse (DfDR) and design for adaptability (DfA) have been suggested as means to facilitate reuse of buildings and diminish waste and material consumption. A standard, ISO 20887:2020, has appeared to support the implementation of DfDR/A. One objective of this study is to demonstrate timber building design examples that can be considered consistent with the standard and designs that should be avoided. Another objective is to examine if there are important aspects of DfDR/A for timber buildings that are insufficiently covered by ISO 20887:2020. The broader, long-term aim of the work is to remove thresholds to DfDR/A by providing support for designers and industry in applying the standard. The principles and strategies in ISO 20887:2020 are illustrated with practical examples from case studies, organised in a searchable database.

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  • 2.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Computational design development of a wooden facade system2023In: 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2023, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2023, Vol. 7, p. 4295-4302Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of computer design within the building industry has created new possibilities for creating digital tools for users such as architects. There is however a lack of easy to use, efficient digital tools to aid and explore design alternatives for architects when using products within the wood building industry. This paper demonstrates how a modular facade system in wood can be adapted for facade configurations in different contexts by using computational design. The goal is to develop a digital design tool that is easy to use and provides the architect with a high degree of freedom to create project-unique facades. The design tool is developed with computational design methods for flexible and adaptive design. In parallel, assessment is made that the design solutions can be manufactured smoothly and quickly via digitalization and industrial production. The result of this research shows that the façade system can be customized by using parametric programming methods, and thus enable architects to design facades for different contexts. The design tool was verified with the architect partners concerning usability and manufacturers concerning production.

  • 3.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    USING CO-DESIGN FOR DEVELOPING A NEW WOODEN FAÇADE SYSTEM2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 3931-3936Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to demonstrate the co-operative design (co-design) and production development process of a new wooden façade system. Today, architects and designers are seldom involved in the development process when designing new products within the wood building industry. The architect and the actors in the wood value chain are far from understanding their respective standpoints in new product development, thus creating a gap. This gap between actors hinders innovation and can mean that valuable design knowledge and methods are not used that can promote innovation in the wood building industry. In this paper we demonstrate how the development process of the façade system is profoundly influenced and improved by incorporating knowledge of the design process. Product development is becoming more and more complex and therefore more knowledge intense. This was addressed by working in parallel with partners coming from different areas of expertise, resulting in a co-design process considering aesthetic and functional requirements as well as the industrial manufacturing processes, interactively, throughout the entire development process. Using co-design when designing an adaptable facade system has proven to enable assessment of complex requirements, resulting in a sustainable system that can ensure good quality on material, aesthetics, and functions.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Fasaden i staden – Nytt fasadkoncept i trä2022In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 2, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fasadprojektet “Fasaden i staden Snabb, Snygg, Smart” är avslutat. Syftet med projektet var att öka marknaden för träfasader genom hållbara och flexibla fasadsystem med en estetik anpassad för stadsmiljö. Det nya fasadkonceptet i trä har utvecklats genom projektets omfattande studier och tester av material, design och teknik. Resultatet är ett system med färdiga fasadelement av furubrädor som är snabbt att montera och har en design som är lätt att variera.

  • 5.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Östling, Janina
    IsoTimber Holding AB, Sweden.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    González-Alegre, Violeta
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel F
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Derome AB, Sweden.
    Uí Chúláin, Caitríona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Sweden.
    Jackson, Nicola
    Robertson Timber Engineering and Offsite Solutions Scotland, UK.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark and Nova Domus Hábitat, Spain.
    Zabala Mejia, Andres
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Design of Timber Buildings for Deconstruction and Reuse — Three methods and five case studies2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a shift towards circular economy in the construction sector and design philosophies as Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) and Design for Adaptability (DfA) are being developed as means to design out waste and enhance resource efficiency. However, applying these philosophies is not yet common practice. The amount of DfDR/A timber buildings described in literature is limited. This study aims at increasing and spreading knowledge on DfDR/A for timber buildings. It has four goals: 1) To suggest methods to apply DfDR/A. 2) To suggest new design solutions. 3) To collect experiences on connections in relation to DfDR. 4) To suggest how guidelines for deconstruction and reuse can be formulated. The study presents three methods that all proved valuable in applying DfDR/A: one discussion-based method to improve an already existing timber building design, one indicator system to assess the DfDR/A potential of building designs, and one matrix to guide design decisions. We used the first method to conduct five case studies in four European countries. The studied designs were judged to be well or relatively well adapted for deconstruction and reuse already today. The fact that the studied buildings are all offsite manufactured and of modular composition benefits the deconstruction process, partly because construction and deconstruction are similar processes so that the knowledge and infrastructure that companies have can be directly transferred to enable deconstruction and reuse. Where large modules can be recovered, the time and energy needed for deconstruction as well as the risk for damage will be reduced. Disadvantages to deconstruction and reuse identified were typically linked to the complexity of building modules and that individual components are not independent. This was reflected as irreversible or hidden connections, inaccessible services, interconnected layers of the structural modules and many different component sizes. One of the case study buildings, designed with mass timber panels, excelled in the simplicity and reduction of number of steps required for maximum material recovery. New designs suggested included making fasteners more accessible to deconstruction, avoiding letting sensitive materials as plastic foils and particle boards pass continuously over joints between elements, and (for cases where standard units are not already used) standardizing elements. One case suggested using solid wood components instead of engineered wood products to achieve durability. The study showed that simple changes in design can lead to an augmented reuse potential. Some of the new design solutions generated will be taken into production by the participating manufacturers. Insights on connections included recognizing the fact that the use of reversible screwed connections is not sufficient to ensure deconstructability and that although nailed or glued connections severely complicate reuse of components, they might be accepted within elements in case reuse on element level is the target. Guidelines for deconstruction and reuse were developed in all case studies. Taken as a group of studies, there are advantageous additions proposed to earlier guidance documents. Despite being based on the same source, the different plans suggested varied substantially. There was a noteworthy difference between manufacturers’ in-house plans to those proposed by architects, engineers, or researchers, which speaks to the uncertainty regarding the appropriate structure and format.

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  • 6.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Mundt-Petersen, Olof
    Polygon AK-konsult, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Oskar
    Polygon AK-konsult, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Experiences from the Deconstruction of a Timber Building2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on a deconstruction process followed on site, with the purpose of documenting experiences that can help us understand how to design timber buildings for future deconstruction and reuse. The deconstruction concerned three timber buildings built up by volumes (3D modules produced off-site). Modules were in good shape at the time of deconstruction except for some minor local moisture damages. They were all covered and transported to be reused elsewhere. Experiences made included that lack of information on the assumed deconstruction process delayed and complicated the work. A need for disassembly plans was highlighted, including things as order of dismantling, positions of lifting points, weight of modules and positions of screws and amount of screw used. Results indicate that simple, clearly visible joints and services, limit the potential problems and damages during deconstruction. The building should simply be designed to be taken down in the future, the amount of screw allowed should be clearly described and the number of attachments should be limited. Furthermore, the risk of burglary during deconstruction needs to be considered as this may cause damage and delay.

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  • 7.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Harte, Annette
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Shotton, Elisabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Turk, Goran
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Iniguez-Gonalez, Guillermo
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Summary report InFutUReWood – Innovative Design for the Future – Use and Reuse of Wood (Building) Components2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Fasaden i staden - Snabb, Snygg, Smart: Designprocessen, den arkitektoniska och konstruktiva utformningen2022In: Husbyggaren, no 3, p. 17-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det nyligen avslutade projekt ”Fasaden i staden Snabb, Snygg, Smart” utvecklades ett adaptivt fasadsystem i trä som skulle ha en god arkitektonisk och teknisk kvalitet och vara anpassat för en fasad upp till åtta våningar. Här skriver Karin Sandberg, Camilla Schlyter och Anna Pousette, alla tre verksamma på RISE, om designprocessen och den arkitektoniska och konstruktiva utformningen tillsammans med träindustrin.

  • 9.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Serrano, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Bror
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings University, Sweden.
    IPOS - Innovations in wood-based building materials and products2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IPOS Swedish wood- Innovation POtential for the biobased Society, is a coordination project within Bioinnovation Construction & Design. The coordination project IPOS has been led by Karin Sandberg RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. This report consists of results from four subprojects (SP) within IPOS compiled by the project leaders. Innovations and development of new wood-based products to increase the value of the raw material have been in focus in the four subprojects. Common for the subprojects are the effort for developing new materials, processes, products and manufacturing methods as well as market and product development DeProtion -Design, Product development & Communication (SP1) The purpose has been to collaboratively develop a general innovative product development model that supports the wood industry's development of products with value-adding design and/or with the support of design automation. Compiled by Fredrik Henriksson, Linköping University in chapter 2. Demand driven finishing of Swedish wood (SP2) The purpose has been to ensure efficient processes that can deliver the right wood material for continued processing within the value chains for industrial wood construction, as well as exterior and interior carpentry products. Compiled by Bror Sundqvist Luleå University of Technology in chapter 3. The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart (SP3) The purpose has been to increase the market for wooden facades and therefore develop a concept for an attractive functional facade system of pine adapted for urban environment with regards to design, fire, competitive cost and environmental profile. Compiled by Karin Sandberg Research Institutes of Sweden in chapter 4. Outdoor load-bearing timber structures (SP4) The purpose has been to extend the scope of chemically modified wood (acetylation) for load-bearing outdoor structures and Scandinavian wood species, pine and birch. Compiled by Erik Serrano, Lund University in chapter 5. In all sub-projects work has aimed at developing new materials, processes and products and at the same time taking into account market- and communication aspects. The sub-projects have in various ways developed and improved products made from Swedish wood species, primarily Scots pine and spruce, but also birch. Through collaboration, via IPOS, the sharing of knowledge between the projects has contributed to strengthening the wood value chain more than the individual projects could have done. The main conclusions are below summarized under the three headings “Renewal for the pine market”, Development of innovative products” and “New businesses and markets”.

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  • 10.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber buildings - testing an assessment tool in a workshop2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    InFutUReWood Innovative Design for the Future – Use and Reuse of Wood (Building) Components is a three-year project within ForestValue. The main aim of the project is to answer the question how we should build today to be able to reuse tomorrow. Work package 2 investigates how wooden frames can be designed to make them optimized for future deconstruction and reuse. One of the tasks is to develop a tool to assess the deconstruction and reuse potential of a building. This study is the basis for the development of an indicator system for circular improvement of timber buildings. The work was carried out closely together with the timber building industry and the tool was tested in a workshop with stakeholders. The work with an assessment tool that defines an optimal design and produces a rebuilding factor started in the end of 2019. We would like to thank Anders Carlsson, Janina Östling, Karin Löfgren and Tommy Vince for your positive engagement in the preparations and implementation of the workshop – you made the workshop possible. Thank you also all workshop participants who contributed generously and inspired us to go on and take the ideas further.

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  • 11.
    Sandin, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Derome, Sweden.
    Ui Chúláin, Caitríona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Design for Deconstruction and Reuse: Case study Villa Anneberg2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large raw material consumption and waste production. One way of diminishing these would be to reuse buildings and building components to a higher degree. To facilitate that, buildings would need to be designed with that aspect in mind. Work Package 2 of the InFutUReWood project investigates new ways to design timber-based structures. This study investigates how new design concepts can be developed to make Villa Anneberg, a two-storey light timber house from the Swedish manufacturer Derome, adapted for deconstruction and reuse. The objectives are: • To identify the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the current design of Villa Anneberg regarding deconstruction, rebuilding and reuse. • To show how the design could be improved with respect to future deconstruction and reuse and to estimate the amount of wood that could be reused in the future with the current and the improved designs. • To suggest guidelines for deconstruction and reuse. • To test and develop a method for carrying out case studies, as the study is the first in a series of case studies treating different structural systems. The study is limited to the load bearing structure of the building. Focus is on reuse rather than recycling. Methods used involve interviews, structured meetings, analyses of drawings and documents, photo documentation and design work. A reuse scenario was assumed where the building will be deconstructed after a few decades into its separate parts. It will then be transported and reassembled to an identical building in the same geographical region. It was found that the current design of Villa Anneberg is relatively well prepared for this scenario already. The building is designed for efficient transport and assembly and the process is judged to be reversible to a high degree. Many connectors are screwed, and the building can be deconstructed with common and simple tools. Several weaknesses were also identified. Among these were joining techniques that are not reversible. Modified versions were developed for three joints. The new solutions were achieved with relatively small adjustments in design and within existing technology. One of the new connections was found so economically valuable to the manufacturer Derome, that it is likely to be taken into production soon. We estimated that the proportion of wood that is reusable would be higher for the modified Villa Anneberg than for the current. The proportion wood that is reusable in the load bearing structure with current design is estimated to 82,7 %. The proportion of wood that is reusable with the modified design is estimated to 86,4 %. These figures apply to the studied scenario. Guidelines for deconstruction and reuse were suggested. The case study method was found efficient and ready to be used in further case studies.

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  • 12.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Häggström, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Så tog vi fram fasadsystemet Fasaden i staden Snabb, Snygg, Smart2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart. "The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart" is a project within BioInnovation's project "IPOS", funded by Vinnova, Formas, Swedish Energy Agency together with industry partners. The aim of the project was to develop a facade system of pine adapted for buildings up to eight stories in an urban environment, in terms of fire safety, adaptable aesthetic design and maintenance routines. This report is a compilation of results that form the basis for the participating companies continued work with the facade concept. Customer requirements, building regulations and the market for facade systems were initially investigated, analyzed, and compiled. An architectural design was developed with the purpose of making the facade attractive and easy for architects to use. Solutions for design and mounting of the façade formed a technical platform that combined design, materials, maintenance with economy. Wood properties and surface treatments were studied and verified in tests to achieve fire safety and long service life. Heartwood of pine was chosen because of its suitable material properties for facades. The facade system's functions were verified in lab tests and by small scale design prototypes. Full scale tests of the mounting of the facade system were carried out on two buildings in Luleå, whereafter mounting time and functions were evaluated. The pilot test showed that mounting was easy and quick once the builders got acquainted with the system. However, since the elements need to be adjusted to the wall it is important to prepare mounting well in advance. A full-scale fire test of the facade system was carried out with Teknos fire protection paint, which passed the SP Fire 105 test. Overall, the façade system was developed to be market-competitive and contribute to a sustainable bio-based economy. To assure this, durability and circularity have been considered both in the design and the choice of materials. “The Facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart" challenges the traditional way of purchase, designing, and assembling a wooden facade. Today, when longer maintenance routines and long service life of facades are in focus, it is important to highlight the strengths of pine heartwood in terms of moisture inertia and resistance to biological degradation. By manufacturing and commercialising a high-quality tested product, developed with an iterative research approach, this façade system has become competitive and can contribute to an increased demand for pine heartwood. The results can also open up new business opportunities for component manufacturers of wooden facade systems. The work has also been documented in a film available on Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-lo_evWiUs

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  • 13.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Schlyter, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Arkitektonisk utformning och konstruktiva lösningar – Fasaden i staden Snabb, Snygg, Smart2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the design development to meet the project's established aesthetic and technical requirements of a façade system in wood within the project “The facade of the city Swift, Stylish, Smart”. The development of the design was performed in close collaboration with the project partners throughout the project. In this way, questions about the manufacturing process, assembly and maintenance have been continuously weighed in and provided inspiration and deepened knowledge for the design outcome. The goal of the project was to design a facade system of good architectural and technical quality made of heartwood of pine, well adapted to meet the requirements in an urban environment. We have set the limit for the facade system to a maximum of eight floors. Overall, the façade system must assure market competitiveness and provide a clear added value compared to competing façade materials in terms of design sketch ability and environmental aspects and thereby contribute to a bio-based economy. The result is a facade system designed for the high demands in the future building industry regarding recycling and environmental requirements on materials and components. It consists of façade cladding with mounting system, joints and connections to windows and corners made of sorted and defined raw wood material using a minimum of metal and glue assembled into a facade system. The system has been tested regarding fire according to SP Fire 105.

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  • 14.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sustainability evaluation of timber dwellings in the north of Swedenbased on environmental impact and optimization of energy and cost2020In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 44, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    optimization. From the resulting Pareto-solutions, selecting a single optimal solution remains a challenge. Thus, research is stillneeded to increase the practical use of optimization for architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) practitioners. Thispaper presents the use of an optimization approach where the results and an environmental assessment are discussed with AECpractitioners. The method was tested in two case studies: a prestige tourist cottage and a multifamily residential building.Different superstructures, insulation materials and windows were varied for the cottage’s envelope whilst evaluating life-cycleenergy and cost. In addition, the environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions was evaluated for the initial and optimal designsuggestions for the two different superstructures. For the residential building, the insulation material thickness and the windowswere varied for its evaluation of life-cycle energy and cost. For the cottage, a report was written and then read by the practitionersand used as a base for future decisions. For the residential building, the results were presented orally for the practitioners. In bothcases, it was possible to communicate the overarching results of the optimizations through visual plots, although future researchshould find ways to also explain the detailed results.

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  • 15.
    Berggren, Göran
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scharf, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilotmontage av nytt fasadelementsystem i trä - Fasaden i staden Snabb Snygg Smart2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the evaluation of the pilot installation of a new wooden façade element system that was mounted on two four-story timber buildings. Technical solutions were evaluated, mounting time, moisture and deformations were measured, and interviews were conducted with builders on-site. The mounting started in April 2020 and was followed-up with measurements and interviews during 2020. The two buildings were built by Lindbäcks Bygg AB on Porsön in Luleå, Sweden and the developer was Lindbäcks Fastigheter AB. The façade elements were prefabricated by Lindbäcks Bygg AB in the factory at Öjebyn in Piteå Sweden. The mounting work went well, and the builders were positive about the facade system. When the builders had learned how to carry out the work, it took three minutes per façade element, which is equivalent to 0.9 m2/min. This is faster than the traditional installation of a facade on a construction site. The assembly around the windows took about 10 minutes, which is about the same time as in traditional assembly. During 8 months of measurements the average moisture content (MC) behind the façade elements was about 20% during winter (low T, high RH) and about 11% during summer. That is within expected values due to the annual variation in climate. The deformation was measured with laser scanning and gave a deviation of ±1 cm from a perfect plane, indicating a better dimensional stability than traditionally mounted wooden facades. From a working environment perspective, the assembly work was quieter as no nail guns were needed and the builders did not need to handle individual panel boards. Significantly less nails and screws were needed compared to traditional assembly. Experience from the assembly show the possibility for improvements. The construction platform was not optimal for loading elements during assembly. When the builders had gained some experience of the system, the limitation was to get the elements up quickly enough. A fast and efficient assembly requires a detailed planning in the design phase, and the elements should be numbered in a logical way and sufficient packaging needs to be secured. The promising results show the potential for a future way to manufacture and mount wooden facades. “The facade of the city Swift Stylish Smart” is a project within the strategic program Bioinnovation founded by Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency), Formas (A Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development), and the industry partners.

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  • 16.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Råberg, Tora
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Önskehus på Tomt 91 i nya Kiruna2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work with generating a proposal for a sustainable, circular and reusable house on Site number 91 in new central parts of Kiruna. New ideas have been developed and tested in collaboration between Kirunabostäder, municipality and research partners. The study includes: generative design (GD) where a software prototype has been developed to be able to generate different building volumes for Site 91 and assess social factors like solar radiation, view, variation and green spaces. A representation of neighbouring buildings was also created to allow for a better evaluation of the generated building. Compared to the earlier developed optimization method the idea with GD is to create more opportunities for interaction between Kirunabostäder, Kiruna municipality and architects.Design for disassembly and reuse was studied in a cooperating master thesis project which resulted in an architect model of a proposed building for Site 91. An environmental assessment for three different building systems was done assuming that the building will be moved and reassembled after 50 years.An inspiring attic garden and orangery has also been developed for increased wellbeing and social comfort. A playing ground based on natural building elements (e.g. unaltered trees) was also developed.Procurement and requirements that can be formulated for circularity and reuse have also been discussed.In a longer perspective, the results from the project can contribute to a more sustainable Kiruna by exemplifying choices for sustainable and circular solutions for Kiruna housing and Kiruna municipality.

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  • 17.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Harte, Annete
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Ui Chulana, Catriona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ivanica, Raphaela
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    De Arana-Fernández, Marina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark + Novadomus Hábitat, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Nasiri, Bahareh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Krofl, Žiga
    University of Ljubljana, Slovania.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber structures – state of the art review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a state-of-the-art on timber construction in selected european countries and and discusses technical premises for a potential circular use of timber in building construction, focusing on Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) in low-rise timber buildings, up to 3 storeys. It describes the historic and contemporary building techniques of timber buildings in all project countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Slovenia) and finds, that all of these countries have a long history of building with timber, but in most regions other materials dominated the housing output from the beginning of the 20th century. Only in the second half of the 20th century timber started gaining importance as a building material in Europe again, with light timber frame construction becoming an important construction system. From the beginning of the 21st century, innovations in the sector started transforming the construction industry. Mass timber products like CLT opened the market for high-rise timber buildings and in some countries office blocks, schools and hotels are built using timber, although the majority of timber construction remains residential. An even more important development might be the uptake of offsite construction, that makes timber construction more accurate, material efficient, fast and it reduces waste. These modern methods of construction are gaining importance in the construction sector of all partner countries and are likely to dominate the European housing output in the future. There will be some regional differences in the level of prefabrication, material choices and designs, so that any design guidelines for DfDR need to be adapted to the regional context. However, modern timber construction is not currently aligned with circular economy principles and is seldomly taking buildings endof-life-into account.

    Therefore, the report continues to summarise novel design concepts for deconstruction and reuse, that could be used in modern timber buildings. It outlines that the feasibility as well as the reuse potential depends on the scale of reclaimed components, where larger components and assemblies are often considered beneficial in terms of time, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production. If volumetric or planar units could be salvaged in the future, they also need to be adaptable for altered regulations or standards or alternative functions. It is further necessary that assemblies can be altered within buildings, since different building components have different life expectancies. Various examples for DfDR in buildings with the accompanying design strategies are presented. The buildings in the examples are often designed to be in one place for a limited timeframe and can be deconstructed and re-erected elsewhere without replacement of components. Key-features often include modularity of components, reversible connections, adaptability of the floor-plan and circular procurement. Even though it is evidently possible, the structural reuse of timber is not a wide-spread approach to date. Barriers to the use of reclaimed structural components are mainly a lack in demand for salvaged materials, but also prohibitive building regulations and the lack of design standards. Demolition practices play a crucial role as well and need to be considered in the design of buildings, to avoid damage to the components.

    Finally, the report summarises principles and guidelines for DfDR by different authors. As a generic approach an indicator system for deconstructability and reusability could be introduced. Time, Separability, Risk and Safety, Simplicity and Interchangeability are identified5as the main indicators for DfDR, that remain somewhat abstract. As opposed to using a generic indicator system, a more practical approach of assessing DfDR on an individual basis could be taken. This way specific shortcomings of the design can be addressed. But if DfDR found a wider application in the future, this approach may be too time consuming and there is a need for a more directed decision-making tool that can be used during the design phase of buildings to enhance DfDR. As the InFutUReWood project proceeds, it will examine a more granular approach to DfDR, relating it to the actual construction stages used in practice, developing a general template to be appropriated and adjusted to account for regional variations in construction. A strategic matrix is in development which will provide designers with a methodology based on relating principles, strategies and specific tactics to the typical design stages, to aid design decisions that promote DfDR.

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  • 18.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Soleimani-Mohseni, Mohsen
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Renovation of an Office Building with Prefabricated Wooden Element—Case Hedensbyn2019In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018 / [ed] Johansson, Dennis; Bagge, Hans; Wahlström, Åsa, 2019, p. 587-598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a major need of cost-effective renovation that leads to lower energy consumption and better environment. This article shows the results from a pilot case of a newly developed prefabricated building system. It is an industrially prefabricated insulated wooden element adapted to renovation and upgrading of building envelopes. The renovated building is a one-story office building located in Skellefteå in the north of Sweden. Energy performance, thermal bridges, risk of moisture problems, LCA, applicability of the renovation method and assembly time were evaluated during the planning and execution of the renovation. Results from this case show that the elements were very light and easy for one person to handle at the building site. There is a great potential to reduce assembly time with improved joints and element sizes adapted to the building as well as improved batch packaging from the factory. With 100 mm insulation, the renovation gives a certain energy savings, and LCA calculations show that the reduction of climate impact due to reduced heating energy used during a service life 50 years corresponds to the climate impact of the renovation measures. The risk of microbial growth can be regarded as small.

  • 19.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture Safety of Tall Timber Facades—LCA and LCC Calculations of Damage Scenarios2019In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018 / [ed] Johansson, Dennis; Bagge, Hans; Wahlström, Åsa, 2019, p. 933-943Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of timber structures in tall buildings increases the demand of moisture safety in facades. Moisture in the facade could result in unwanted consequences such as mold, decay and distortions in wood materials. This might have impact on the indoor climate and the building quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisture safety regarding the composition of the façade and connection details such as windows and balconies. Scenarios with possible damages were evaluated with LCC (Life Cycle Cost) and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). The scenarios were developed based on experiences from manufacturers and insurance companies and on research investigations of damages. LCC and LCA includes replacement of damaged building materials, transports of new materials and damaged materials for recycling or energy recovery and the use of energy for drying of moisture in the structure. Both light frame structures and CLT (Cross Laminated Timber) structures were included. Improvements of detail connections to increase moisture safety were also evaluated regarding risk of damage, costs and environmental impact. The results show that even small and inexpensive improvements will increase the moisture safety and significantly reduce the risk of damage.

  • 20.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability includes several parameters, and these can be measured and valued in many different ways. This study focuses on balancing the various parts to achieve sustainability by minimizing energy for heating and energy to produce the materials used in the building as well as minimizing cost for material investment and cost for heating using optimization techniques. This is balanced together with the environmental impact. This report describes an initial study for sustainability optimization of a smaller building. The goal is to develop a comprehensive approach to provide a broader basis of decisions for new construction.

    The calculation included the building envelope (exterior walls, roof and floors), interior walls and stabilizing elements for different frames of wood (timber frame and CLT).

    The result from the Ripan Case shows that the timber frame design has the lowest embodied energy and operating energy, and lowest cost for investment and heating during the operating phase. The environmental impact of the timber frame design was also low.

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  • 21.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Östman, Leif
    University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Concept for renovation of facades with prefabricated wood elements2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a major need of cost-effective renovations that lead to lower energy consumption and better environment. The aim of a Nordic built project was to develop a concept for industrially prefabricated insulated elements for renovation and upgrading of building envelopes. The project with participants from Sweden, Finland and Norway focused on increased prefabrication based on wood for a sustainable solution. This report presents results from the project including a Swedish pilot case with the newly developed prefabricated building system. The prefabricated wood elements are produced by Termowood in Norway. Several studies have been done about renovation of facades, including attitudes and costs, and about important properties of the element system, for example energy savings, thermal bridges, moisture risks, environmental impacts, production and installation.

    The renovated building in the pilot case is a one-storey office building located in Skellefteå in the north of Sweden. Energy performance, thermal bridges, risk of moisture problems, LCA, applicability of the renovation method and assembly time were evaluated during the planning and execution of the renovation. Results from this pilot case showed that the elements were very light and easy for one person to handle at the building site. There is a great potential to further reduce the assembly time on site with improved joints and element sizes adapted to the building as well as improved batch packaging from the factory. With 100 mm insulation, the renovation gives a certain energy saving. LCA calculations showed that the reduction of climate impact due to energy savings during a service life of 50 years corresponds to the climate impact of the renovation measures. With a thicker insulation, the reduction in climate impact during the use phase of the building would increase more than the climate impact of the renovation. There is also a potential to reduce climate impact from the wall element by selecting materials produced closer to the element factory and with a greater share of renewable energy.

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    RISE Report 2018:26
  • 22.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader - Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability includes several parameters, and these can be measured and valued in many different ways. This study focuses on balancing the various parts to achieve sustainability by minimizing energy for heating and energy to produce the materials used in the building as well as minimizing cost for material investment and cost for heating using optimization techniques. This is balanced together with the environmental impact. This report describes an initial study for sustainability optimization of a smaller building. The goal is to develop a comprehensive approach to provide a broader basis of decisions for new construction.

    The calculation included the building envelope (exterior walls, roof and floors), interior walls and stabilizing elements for different frames of wood (timber frame and CLT).

    The result from the Ripan Case shows that the timber frame design has the lowest embodied energy and operating energy, and lowest cost for investment and heating during the operating phase. The environmental impact of the timber frame design was also low.

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  • 23. Acharya, Shravan
    et al.
    Winther-Jensen, Bjorn
    Spiccia, Leone
    Ohlin, André C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rates of water exchange in 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of CoII and MnII2017In: Australian journal of chemistry (Print), ISSN 0004-9425, E-ISSN 1445-0038, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 751-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rates and activation parameters of water exchange at pH 3.0 have been determined using variable temperature 17O NMR spectroscopy for four CoII complexes and one MnII complex: [Co(bpy)(H2O)4]2+, [Co(bpy)2 (H2O)2]2+, [Co(phen)-(H2O)4]2+, [Co(phen)2 (H2O)2]2+, and [Mn(bpy)(H2O)4]2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridyl and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Substitution of aquo ligands with 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2′-bipyridyl leads to an increase in the rate of exchange in the manganese complexes, from k298 (1.8 ± 0.1) × 107 s-1 for [Mn(H2O)6]2+ to (7.2 ± 0.3) × 107 s-1 for [Mn(phen)2 (H2O)2]2+, whereas the trends are more complex for the cobalt complexes. We have used the new data in conjunction with literature data for similar complexes to analyse the effect of M–OH2 distance and degree of substitution.

  • 24.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture safety of tall timber facades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture safety of tall timber facades

    The main purpose of the project was to facilitate safe design of sustainable and cost-effective solutions for wood facades of high-rise buildings. Studies have been carried out of different designs of the wall itself and of different details in the wall. Direct and indirect consequences of moisture damage have been considered but mainly risk of mould or decay. Façade details with high risk were identified e.g. window and balcony, and the types of damage that may occur, and what the consequences may be. Based on this, some damage scenarios were selected where detailed solutions were analysed more carefully. Details were also compared with modified designs with improvements such as addition of a sealing strip or plate covering. LCA and LCC have been calculated for some damage scenarios to show consequences of damages and the importance of well-executed designs and details.

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  • 25.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Glas, Bo
    Västerbottens läns landsting, Sweden.
    Frände, Niklas
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Nakano Hylander, Aiko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Websites for energy efficient and sustainable renovation in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Ohman, Micael Bjorn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Dimensional stability in four different wooden facade claddings2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on timber engineering, 2016, p. 2810-2818Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis is that a good cladding system in wood should be characterized by a homogeneous dimensional behaviour with minimal variation between individual panel boards to minimize maintenance, i.e. repainting or, in the worst case, replacement of whole panels. Four different types of cladding panels were tested: a regular spruce panel, a quality-sorted P-marked spruce panel, a regular panel of pine heartwood and a spruce glulam panel, 50 panels of each type. The objective was to study the dimensional changes under changing moisture conditions in order to find the cladding material with the smallest possible dimensional and distortion movements. The shape stability of the panels was measured and expressed in terms of bow, spring, twist and cupping. The spruce glulam panels showed the best shape stability, proven significantly different in comparison to the other two spruce panel systems. Panels of pine heartwood showed a tendency greater dimensional stability than the spruce panels, but not enough to be considered statistically significantly different in this study.

  • 27.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Orskaug, Thomas
    Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology, Norway.
    Andersson, Allan
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Prefabricated Wood Elements for Sustainable Renovation of Residential Building Façades2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 756-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated elements to provide environmentally friendly, energy- and cost-efficient solutions for the building envelope have been studied. The newly developed element system has a high level of flexibility since it is possible to adjust the length of the connection rods according to the building's energy requirements and it can be mounted on timber, concrete and brick structures. Adjustability to different types of buildings structures, materials, tolerances, geometries and energy requirements makes it very applicable and efficient.

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  • 28.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    TallTimber Facades – utveckling av kostnadseffektiva och säkra klimatskal för träbyggande2015In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 107, no 8, p. 40-42Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Berggren, Göran
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Röntgen av produkter & material2014Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 30.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Häggström, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Öhman, Micael
    Limträfasader, tekniska lösningar: Provning av dimensionsstabilitet för olika panelmaterial2014Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Lagning av sprickor i limträbalkar – försök med limning av sprickor2014Report (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Dahlquist, Simon
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    In-situ measurements of moisture content and temperature in wooden constructions2014In: XIII International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components - XIII DBMC, RILEM , 2014, , p. 367-374Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Sundqvist, Bror
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Fasader i trä för flervåningshus: Jämförelse mellan material och behandlingsmetoder2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Lindgren, Owe
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Datortomografi som metod för utveckling av byggkomponenter av trä2013Report (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Träbalkonger: Guide för projektering, materialtillverkning, montage, underhåll2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Träfasader: Guide för projektering, materialtillverkning, montage, underhåll. Version 22013Other (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Träbalkar och trästolpar i utomhusförsök: sammanställning av fuktkvoter och sprickor för åren 2007–20122013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 38.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Möjligheter med träfasader2013In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 105, no 8, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
  • 39.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Glulam beams and columns after 5 years exposure to outdoor climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Moisture distribution in glulam beams with natural cracks observed with CT Scanning before and after rain2013In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG/WP 13, 2013, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Mostolygin, Kirill
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of lamellas annual-ring orientation on cracking of glulam beams investigated with computer tomography and image processing2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in glulam beams can reduce their strength, depending on the crack's depth, length, and location and can also be a passage for the accumulation of water and dirt. To avoid cracks, the relationship between cracks (area of cracks, mm2) and annual-ring orientation in glulam beams of spruce (Picea abies), and pine (Pinus sylvestris) with different dimensions and surface treatments was investigated using RGB images of the surface and tomography images of the cross-sections. Image processing was used to measure characteristics visible in the photos such as crack area and lamella position in the beam. Combination of lamellas in lay up was measured from computer tomography images. Four types of combinations were defined; type 1 (pith side facing outward), types 2 and 3 (pith to the same side), and type 4 (pith sides meet pith side). It was found that the area close to the glue line in the lamellas in combination type 4 is the most subject to cracking, whereas combinations of type 1 show the highest resistance to cracking. This means that type 4 should not be used in glulam beams, because the lamellas shrink apart from each other causing stresses and resulting cracks.

  • 42.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fjellström, Per-Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Dahlquist, Simon
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Fältmätningar inom projektet WoodBuild – Mätmetoder och mätobjekt2012Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Ekstedt, Jan
    Träfasader version 22012Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Lindgren, Owe
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Datortomografi som metod för utveckling av byggkomponenter: del 22012Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Salin, Jarl-Gunnar
    Liquid water absorption in dried Norway spruce timber measured with CT scanning and viewed as a percolation process2012In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 46, no 1-3, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Dahlquist, Simon
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Wireless in situ measurements of moisture content and temperature in timber constructions2011In: proceedings of 12th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components: XII DBMC, FEUP , 2011, , p. 191-198Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Malm, Hilda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Sitac (CEc).
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    P-märkt grundmålad fasadpanel2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Moisture conditions in coated glulam beams and columns during weathering2011In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components: XII DBMC, FEUP , 2011, , p. 555-562Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Träskärmar: Guide för projektering, materialtillverkning, montage, underhåll2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Kvalitetsmärkt panel ger beständiga träfasader2011In: Husbyggaren, no 4, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 79
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