Change search
Refine search result
1 - 16 of 16
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Inneklimat i kyrkor förr och nu2014In: Från Gutabygd 2014, Visby: Gotlands Hembygdsförbunds förlag , 2014, p. 117-138Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bylund Melin, Charlotta
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History. Uppsala universitet.
    The relationship between heating energy and cumulative damage to painted wood in historic churches2014In: Journal of the Institute of Conservation, no 3, p. 94-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research on climate-induced damage needs to be verified by actual observations in authentic environments. This article suggests a complementary method to relate the historic and present indoor climate to damage on painted wooden objects in historic churches. Energy consumption, as revealed by archival sources, is used as a substitute for climate records, on the assumption that higher temperature and therefore lower relative humidity will occur more frequently in churches with greater expenses for fuel. The quantified energy consumption is related to damage of wood and the painted layers of pulpits in 16 churches. There is a slight correlation between damage to the paint on the pulpits and energy released in the churches. However larger populations are needed for this type of enquiry to be further developed and extended. 

  • 3.
    Geijer, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Värmen i arkiven: Om komfortinstallationer i Gamla riksarkivet i Stockholm och Landsarkivet i Vadstena2013In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, Vol. 32, no 66, p. 49-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918- 19752015In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the views of government authorities on heating in historic churches in Sweden from 1918 to 1975, when a government office called Kulturhistoriska Byrån oversaw restorations and other modifications of public buildings with historic values. In this period heating was introduced in most Swedish churches in order to raise the level of comfort of the churchgoers. In the late 1970s there were alarming reports of excessive damages to polychrome wooden art in these churches, which were thought to have been caused by heating. The work of Kulturhistoriska Byrån is analysed in order to better understand how  heating technology in churches developed and was applied, and how the office analyzed the situation at different points in time. The general development gradually went from issues of thermal comfort, fire safety and insulation to more attention being paid to damages caused by heating. Despite that heating systems were to be approved before they were installed, later use of these systems escaped central supervision, thus leaving the responsibility of preventing climate induced damages entirely to the individual parishes. 

  • 5.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Gammal fråga kan få nytt svar2012In: Energi & miljö : tidskrift för VVS, inneklimat och VA, ISSN 1101-0568, Vol. 83, no 9, p. 62-64Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ett stabilt museiklimat ska kunna skapas blir en av de viktigaste frågorna i den kommande renoveringen av Nationalmuseum. När Nationalmuseum byggdes uppfattades det som mycket viktigt att museet kunde värmas men också att värmen inte fick skada byggnaden eller samlingarna. I själva verket har uppvärmningen av huset varit ett långvarigt bekymmer.

  • 6.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kakelugnar värmde under lilla istiden2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    1600-talsslottet i Skokloster kom snart att kompletteras med kakelugnar – möjligen för att värma Karl XI som väntades på besök. Redan på 1700- talet krävde tjänarna på Gripsholms slott att de alla skulle få glädje av den värmande nymodigheten.

  • 7.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Kulturarvet och komforten: inomhusklimatet som problem i kulturhistoriska byggnader under 1900-talet2012In: Kulturaliseringens samhälle: Problemorienterad kulturvetenskaplig forskning vid Tema Q 2002 - 2012 : Tema Q jubileumssymposium 19-20 januari 2012, Norrköping, Sweden / [ed] Svante Beckman, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 206-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Kyrkan - "en maskin att sitta i": införandet av komfortteknik i Gotlands kyrkor under 1900-talets första hälft2012In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 63, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with heating installations put into medieval Gotland churches from the 1920s to the early 1950s. Focus is on the work of the restorer Erik Johan Fant (1889–1954) who was the most frequently engaged restorer of churches in Sweden from c. 1925 to 1950. His work has not been the subject of much academic research. The essay covers how Fant and authorities involved in the restorations perceived the aesthetical and practical issues of installing modern heating systems in medieval churches. It also places Fant’s work in the wider context of heating for comfort and conservation purposes in churches. Our knowledge of heating systems used in churches in the past is very limited: on what grounds was a certain system chosen, how was it designed, and what consequences did it have for the conservation of the church? From having been solely an issue of increased comfort and pleasing design, the development of heating technology increasingly involved the interests of conservation. In the first half of the 20th century, central or electric heating was introduced in many stone churches, but often without any analysis of the risks involved. Still in the 1920s, the typical Gotland church was heated with just one or two ovens. They were still not electrified. Two problems especially were connected to overheating before the 1950s: first the soiling of walls and vaults, and second the desiccation of organic materials, particularly painted wooden objects. Central heating, especially in the form of low pressure steam which was common before 1945, certainly made these damages worse. Despite these issues, almost all of the 2,700 churches in Sweden had some kind of heating installed by the mid-1950s, and the reason was that heating primarily was perceived by the Swedish Church as a matter of comfort. Shortly after the end of the period in question, damages caused by heating would attract more attention from the developing conservation field.

  • 9.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden2019In: Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering / [ed] Carlo Manfredi, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This essay examines the building and management of Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Today the building has just recently been reopened after years of renovation and fitting of a new system that will control the indoor climate. This means deep interventions in a nineteenth-century building that was not designed to be airtight or to be heated all year around. The renovation gives a reason to ponder on how the building originally was designed and constructed, but also how it was managed over time. The climate of the house has been an issue ever since the building was constructed in the early years of the 1860s. It was fitted with a central heating system already then, but the building proved difficult to heat in winter and to ventilate in summer. There were continuous problems with dehydration of organic materials in the art collections in winter-time, and with too much sunlight exposing fragile art in the warmer season. Curiously, the introduction of artificial humidification first around 1930 and then again in the 1950s did not solve the problem of dehydration. On the contrary climate problems became ever more complex around the mid-20thcentury because of the introduction of motor traffic with its exhausts, and increasing demands on a stable indoor climate in art museums. 

    How did museums balance the needs of their collections, against the needs of staff and visitors? What considerations where made when choosing heating and ventilation for a museum at this time? In order to illuminate these questions, archival sources from Nationalmuseum, Riksarkivet (National State Archives) and the engineering and architectural company SWECO have been used. Överintendentsämbetet (Board of Public Works and Buildings, abbreviated ÖIÄ) was the custodian of government buildings, followed by Kungliga Byggnadsstyrelsen (Board of Building and Planning, abbreviated KBS) after an organizational shift in 1918. The museum was thus responsible for the management of its collections but not of its building. Until 1939 there was also a second museum housed in the bottom floor: Statens Historiska Museum, the National Historical Museum.  

    If the museum had a complaint on the performance of the building or the heating system, it would have to notify ÖIÄ (or KBS after 1918), which then would decide how to act. Judging by archive sources, it becomes evident that ÖIÄ had small means to make more demanding interventions in existing buildings, and often complaints seem to have been more or less ignored because of lack of resources. By studying the correspondence it is possible to gain a better understanding of how museum management perceived indoor climate and how ÖIÄ responded. 

    The purpose of the essay is to explore how the construction and management of the indoor climate was shaped by technological development and how views on the running of a museum building shifted. Nationalmuseum was fitted with a hot water central heating system. In the early 1860s this was something hardly heard of in Sweden at this time. In general, the central heating systems used at that time were caloriphers, furnaces that heated the air that was then circulated through the building.  

    There were firms in Stockholm installing piping, but none of them was considered competent enough to do the installations in Nationalmuseum. Most entrepreneurs in Stockholm worked with gas piping, not with water or sewer piping.[1]In the early 1860s it was still not evident that a public building should be equipped with this kind of heating, despite the relatively long and cold winters in Stockholm. Public buildings in general were heated with local fireplaces, most often tile stoves produced in the city.  

    Today it is well known that control of indoor climate is key to the management of collections. Too much heat makes the air dry, which may cause damage to fragile objects such as paintings on panels or wooden furniture with veneer. Too little heat makes the air very humid, which promotes mold, vermin, corrosion and rot. What is considered "too little" or "too much", however, has changed since the nineteenth century.[2]The essay explores why central heating was installed in the museum, what the expectations on its functioning were, and how building and museum management (they were – and are – separate from each other) continuously commented on its performance in the decades following the opening of the museum, up until the 1970s when air pollution had become a serious problem demanding a technical solution.

    [1]G. Stålbom, Varmt och vädrat. VVS-teknik i äldre byggnader, Sveriges VVS Museum – SBUF – VVS Företagen, Stockholm 2010, 15. In 1861 Stockholm opened its first waterworks with 30 km of piping. 

    [2]M. Legnér, "Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918–1975",Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2014 (e-publication ahead of print).

  • 10.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    On the Early History Museum Environment Control: Nationalmuseum and Gripsholm Castle in Sweden, c. 1866-19322011In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that there have been investigations into the historical development of indoor climate recommendations, to date verylittle research has been carried out on how climate control in museums was actually implemented in the past. This article examinesthe development of climate control in two Swedish museum buildings up until the 1930s: Nationalmuseum and GripsholmCastle. Nationalmuseum was erected to make the state collections more accessible to the public and to provide monitoring andcentral heating. At that time knowledge of climatic conditions in museums was tacit and based on personal experience ratherthan on scientific studies. However, in the early twentieth century the problem of managing museum climate increased as curatorsbecame more aware of the dehydrating effects of central heating on panels and polychrome wood. The first successful attemptsto automatically control indoor climate were carried out at Gripsholm in the 1920s. The focus was then on monitoring andcontrolling temperature rather than relative humidity, but these early attempts also showed that extreme levels of humidity couldbe avoided in an environment that had never been designed for permanent heating. This article examines attempts at managingindoor climate between the 1860s and the 1930s.

  • 11.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    The Conservation of Medieval Swedish Churches since the Nineteenth Century, with regard to the Indoor Climate2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Conservation of Medieval Swedish Churches since the Nineteenth Century, with regard to the Indoor Climate

    PhD, Professor Mattias Legnér

     

    I will present some of the results of a recently finished research project funded by the Swedish Research Council in the years 2010–2015. The aim of the project was to investigate how the introduction and use of heating and ventilation technology have influenced conservation, design and comfort in public heritage buildings, among them churches. This talk will focus Swedish medieval churches: how their indoor climate has been viewed as a problem historically as well as today, and how wishes to improve air quality, temperature, humidity and air movement have affected conservation of the buildings and valuable inventories. In short, a misbegotten adoption of technology primarily designed for industrial, office and residential facilities resulted in serious damage to cultural heritage in the 1960s and 1970s. Only in more recent years have some efforts been made to adapt technology for the purpose of controlling the climate of particularly old churches. The talk will concentrate on an interpretation of why heating and ventilation technology was introduced and what the circumstances were.  

     

    Mattias Legnér is PhD in History and Professor in Conservation at Department of Art History, Uppsala University Campus Gotland. He has published in international journals on the subject of the history of comfort and indoor climate. Together with Mia Geijer he published the monograph "Kulturarvet och komforten. Inomhusklimatet och förvaltningen av kulturhistoriska byggnader och samlingar 1850–1985" earlier this year. 

  • 12.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Tracing the Historical Indoor Climate of a Swedish Church, c. 1800-20002012In: APT Bulletin. Journal of Preservation Technology, ISSN 0848-8525, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Geijer, Mia
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Heating regimes in old Swedish churches, c. 1880-19802012In: Cultural Heritage Preservation: Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation / [ed] Elin Dahlin, Oslo: Norsk Institutt for luftforskning NILU , 2012, , p. 8p. 90-98Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper will highlight the use of heating regimes throughout the twentieth century both in large cathedrals and rural churches of medieval origin in Sweden. How have norms of thermal comfort been balanced against conservation needs of the buildings, their interiors and valuable objects? The choice of heating regime in an old church can be seen as a negotiation between different stakeholders. Together these voices have been articulating a discourse on indoor climate since the late nineteenth century when churches in Sweden were first heated.

    The historical indoor climate in churches is poorly known but often referred to in discussions on what kind of heating and climate is suitable for interiors and their artifacts. This is why it is important to collect empirically based knowledge on the features of the past climate. The historical indoor climate is shaped by several factors. Here we look at heating regimes, meaning how heating and ventilation systems have been selected, designed and used.

    By studying decision making regarding the choice of regimes and also what experience was drawn from the application of technology we will better understand the priorities made between comfort and conservation aims and how scientific knowledge has been used (or not used) to reach these aims.

  • 14.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Geijer, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kulturarvet och komforten: Inomhusklimatet och förvaltningen av kulturhistoriska byggnader och samlingar 1850-19852015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med stigande energipriser och medvetenhet om energianvändningens påverkan på klimatet behöver institutioner som förvaltar kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader och samlingar tänka strategiskt om inomhusklimat. Trots att frågan om inomhusklimat sedan slutet av 1800-talet har varit central för trivsel, hälsa och bevarande av kulturhistoriskt värdefulla hus och föremålssamlingar har dessa mål varit svåra att förena. Hur har beslut fattats om vilken teknik som ska användas? Hur har maktförhållandena sett ut mellan de aktörer som byggt, förvaltat och brukat byggnaderna? Och hur har besluten påverkat byggnaderna och samlingarna? Genom att förstå inomhusklimat och komfort som ett samspel mellan människor och materiella resurser bidrar boken med viktiga kunskaper om vår syn på och tillämpning av värme- och ventilationsteknik i kulturhistoriska miljöer. Boken bygger på omfattande undersökningar av bevarat arkivmaterial som behandlar kyrkor, museer, arkiv och bibliotek. Den är relevant för arkitekter, fastighetsförvaltare, ingenjörer, konservatorer, antikvarier, forskare och studenter som är intresserade av drift och vård av äldre byggnader. Mattias Legnér är docent i historia och professor i kulturvård vid Uppsala universitet. Han har publicerat ett antal vetenskapliga artiklar och konferensbidrag om både historiska och sentida försök att styra inomhusklimatet i kyrkor och museala byggnader. Mia Geijer är fil dr i arkitekturhistoria och bebyggelseantikvarie. Hon har ägnat sin forskning åt teman som rör det byggda kulturarvets bruk och förvaltning.

  • 15.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Geijer, Mia
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    On Historical Climate in Swedish Stone Churches2011In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011 / [ed] Tor Broström and Lisa Nilsen, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2011, p. 245-259Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Archival sources and historical methods have so far been underutilized in the research on past indoor climates in historic buildings. Before we can build a base of empirical knowledge, we need to discuss and develop the methodology. How would one go about researching the climate history of a building over the course of 50, 100 or 200 years? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of archival sources when attempting to reconstruct the climate history of an historic building. Knowledge of the long term indoor climate of a church may support strategic decisions for a more sustainable use of resources. In order to show the feasibility of this, the paper will examine the maintenance and restoration of two medieval stone churches: Levide church on Gotland and Strängnäs cathedral.

    Levide is a small rural parish in which the church has never had central heating or mechanical ventilation. Using documents spanning a time period of more than 200 years it becomes evident that the church has always been a very humid environment with mould and rot appearing time and again. Already in the beginning of the 19th century, the diocese urged the parish to obtain a heated vestry in order to increase the thermal comfort of the priest and the school children, and to preserve the liturgical objects. This and other statements show that the diocese, but not necessarily the parishes themselves, showed an interest in indoor climate in the 19th century. A stove and chimney were installed in the beginning of the 20th century. Findings show long term problems with keeping parish records, the mass robe and other liturgical objects in this humid climate. Water leakages, the buffering capacity of the thick walls and traditions in managing the church, such as airing in spring and summer, have been strainful to the building itself. Although the level of thermal comfort has improved, it is doubtful whether intermittent electrical heating, introduced in the 1950s, has had positive impact on the conservation of the building.

    Strängnäs is a cathedral and a burial church for some of the members of the royal Vasa family. The church is thus both a historically important monument and a sanctuary. In contrast with the small parish church the cathedral was in almost daily use, and also visited by tourists. When Guerneys ovens were introduced in Sweden by Bolinders in the 1870th, as many as six where installed to heat the church. In the same period a larger restoration of the church was planned. The planned restoration was however delayed. When the restoration were about to be executed some 25 years later, the new techniques for heating had been established and the old ovens were deemed obsolete for several reasons. An interesting debate on what techniques, steam, hot air or a water based system took place. The discussions concerned the convenience of the installations, maintenance and economy of the different systems, the comfort of the churchgoers, the esthetical effects and archaeological matters.

  • 16.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Luciani, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano.
    The historical indoor climate: A long-term approach to conservation environments within heritage buildings2013In: Online Proceedings of the Conference: Built Heritage 2013, Monitoring Conservation and Management; Milan, Italy / [ed] M. Boriani, R. Gabaglio and D. Gulotta, Milano: Politecnico di Milano , 2013, p. 1321-1328Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of archival sources and architectural analysis in tracing the indoor climate history of an historic building such as an old museum, a church or a palace. References to past indoor climate have often been used either to defend status quo or to justify radical changes in the climate control of a building.

    The concept of historical climate can be used in many different contexts. In the field of conservation, it has recently been defined by the European standard EN15757:2010 as the “climatic conditions in a microenvironment where a cultural heritage object has always been kept, or has been kept for a long period of time (at least one year) and to which it has become acclimatized”. Unlike many previous environmental standards, the priority is here not so much in specifying hygrothermal ranges, but in measuring the existing climatic conditions and in understanding whether the environment to which a cultural object has been exposed for a long period of time is harmful or not. As a consequence the focus should be shifted to the climatic history of the object, intended as the complex set of interactions developed throughout an extended period of time between a cultural object, its environment and the surrounding architec- ture. The term “conservation environment” introduced in this paper proposes a development of the analysis by including outdoor and indoor climate and the microenvironments which can influence buildings and artworks.

    When a cultural object is preserved within a historic building, further questions arise: which climate control strategies determined the conditions of conservation environments in the past? On what grounds were these strategies chosen and subsequently used? Which were their consequences on the conservation of cultural objects and buildings? To answer these questions environmental data gathered by indoor climate monitoring are useful but they are obviously not enough. A critical analysis of historical sources has proved to be a constructive way forward. 

1 - 16 of 16
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf