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  • 1.
    Zillén, Kavot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens religions- och samvetsfrihet: En rättsvetenskaplig studie om samvetsgrundad vägran och kravet på god vård2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation investigates health care professionals’ freedom of religion and belief. The overarching aim is to examine the rights or freedoms of health care personnel to work in accordance with their convictions while their employers – the care providers (caregiver) – have responsibilities to fulfill the legal requirement to provide patients good care. The thesis focuses on certain situations in which health care personnel do not want to provide some care, service, or information in light of their beliefs or conscience – described as conscientious objections in health care.

    The study analyses traditional legal sources, such as statutes and regulations, preparatory works, court decisions, and agency practice, as well as scholarly work (doktrin), with the goal of investigating the juridical possibilities for personnel to work in accordance with their religion or beliefs. These materials are not, however, used simply to ascertain the applicable law, but also to canvass the types of conflicts of interest that they identify, to further elucidate the interests of different actors in health care – the care provider, health care personnel, and the patient. One of the purposes of this thesis is to demonstrate how different conflicts of interest may come to light when personnel refuse, for religious and moral reasons, to participate in certain forms of health care and other duties associated with providing that care.

    The question of whether health care personnel’s religiously based actions or inaction will be allowed as derogations from general requirements ultimately turns on the possibilities, in each case, to find a reasonable balance between personnel’s religious interests and the patient’s interest in obtaining good and safe care on equal terms. The caregiver plays a key role in determining personnel’s exemptions from their tasks in accordance with their beliefs. However, the author suggests that the Government should clarify the responsibilities that a care provider has regarding conscientious objections, as well as what the personnel who wish to be free from participation in certain care may expect in the consideration of such requests.

  • 2.
    Zillén, Kavot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Religionsutövning enligt Europakonventionen: - värnpliktvägran och vårdvägran som exempel2016In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, no 4, 747-761 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Zillén, Kavot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Samvetsfrihet2016In: NationalencykopedinArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Zillén, Kavot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Samvetsklausulens vara eller icke vara2016In: Nordisk socialrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-6500, no 13-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens rättsliga möjligheter att agera i enlighet med sin religion eller tro i arbetslivet har på senare år blivit föremål för såväl rättslig som politisk debatt. En särskilt debatterad fråga är huruvida hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal bör ges tillfälle att av religiösa skäl avstå från att medverka vid viss vård. I denna artikel behandlas s.k. samvetsklausuler, dvs. regler som ger hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal en rätt att befrias från att medverka vid eller utföra viss vård på grund av samvetsbetänkligheter. Fokus ligger på situationen när personal uttryckligen vägrar att medverka i abort­verksamhet, då abort många gånger beskrivs som en moraliskt känslig vårdåtgärd som kan ge upphov till samvetsbetänkligheter i större utsträckning än andra vårdåtgärder. Dessutom har flera europeiska länder infört samvets­klausuler i förhållande till just abort. Som exempel har både Norge och Danmark infört samvetsklausuler, vilket kortfattat behandlas. Därutöver redogörs för två aktuella fall vid svensk domstol om abortvägran och Europadomstolens inställning till samvetsklausuler.

  • 5.
    Zillén, Kavot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Uppskjuten vård till följd av utebliven handskakning?2015In: Förvaltningsrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 0015-8585, no 2, 257-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Zillén, Kavot
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Garland, Jameson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Slokenberga, Santa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Rights of Children in Biomedicine: Challenges posed by scientific advances and uncertainties2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe commissioned this study to identify potential areas of heightened concern for the rights of children that may be unfavorably affected by scientific advances and uncertainties in biomedicine. This report is the result of that study. It provides substantive illustrations of the diversity of problems generated by biomedical developments, including the expanded use of certain biomedical procedures, emerging technologies, and innovative therapies. It also addresses uncertain risks to children through the continuation of longstanding biomedical practices that lack sufficient scientific support. Because considerable legal protections have been developed for biomedical research and continue to be debated in great depth, this report focuses more broadly on biomedicine as a whole. The specific concern addressed here is not about the research process and regulation as such, but rather on how scientific advances and risk-laden practices reach children in biomedicine – whether through health care practices or in other biomedical settings. Mapping out the areas of concern for this report required not only identifying the technological advances and scientific challenges at stake but contemplating these challenges first and foremost from the perspective of the rights of children as class – formally collectively defined as persons from birth to age 18, unless they have attained majority status. Because a subsequent report will analyze the potential legal frameworks protecting children from the scientific risks and uncertainties identified here, this report identifies the challenges in protecting children relative to those rights that are commonly described in international human rights discourse, with only summary references to specific legal instruments in the report’s conclusions. The aim of the report is to demonstrate how the scientific risks and uncertainties illustrated here may affect the rights of children from birth through adolescence, in a variety of ways. Chapter 2 surveys differences in childhood development to illustrate why the lack of protection from scientific risks and uncertainty persists, in part because of limited understanding of the developmental differences and vulnerabilities of children at different phases of life. The report then expands on how many interventions may reach children at the earliest stages of their development, such as through assisted reproduction and other interventions in utero (Chapter 3) as well as in the field of genetics (Chapter 4). The report then addresses children who have been subjected to high-risk and controversial clinical practices, many of which lack sufficient scientific support regarding their safety. Among those children at risk are sexual or gender minority children (Chapter 5) and children diagnosed with serious physical and mental health needs (Chapter 6). The next chapters address two areas affecting critically ill children where considerable policy debate has taken place, but without sufficient regard to scientific advances and uncertainties, specifically in transplantation (Chapter 7) and end-of-life decisions (Chapter 8). In the final chapter, the report sets forth numerous rights of children in biomedicine that are currently at stake from scientific advances and uncertainties – not only the right to the highest attainable standard of health but rights protecting their physical and psychological integrity and their privacy and identity, as well as freedom from discrimination. The landscape of these rights is as vast and potentially complex as biomedicine. The report thus concludes that the biomedical controversies surveyed here signal a need for systemic, continuous and multidisciplinary oversight of these issues, as well as for many biomedical interventions that could not be covered here in depth. These matters cannot be left to biomedical expertise alone, but instead require vigilant oversight from human rights authorities and scholars with an understanding of these issues.

  • 7.
    Zillén, Kavot
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Slokenberga, Santa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Medical Aid in dying in Quebec - legal considerations2014In: Journal of Medical Law and Ethics, ISSN 2213-5405, Vol. 2, no 4, 109-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, Quebec is the only province in Canada, which has taken a decision on legalizing euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. In Quebec euthanasia and physician assisted suicide are labelled as medical aid in dying and perceived as a part of healthcare. However, in Canada, at the federal level, euthanasia and physician assisted suicide remain punishable under the Canadian Criminal Code.

    This article examines Quebec’s legal approach to medical aid in dying, highlights some of the legal challenges, and discusses the need to handle them. The authors first provide a brief background of the euthanasia and assisted dying debate in Canada and particularly in Quebec. Further, they explain the concept of medical aid in dying and analyse the criteria for accessing it. Then they move on to analysing the constitutional legality of the Bill 52, an Act respecting end-of-life care allowing for medical aid in dying and possible legal consequences a physician might face if medical aid in dying is provided. 

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