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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jensen, B R
    Sandfeld, J
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richter, Hans O
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The impact of computer mouse work with different size objects on subjective perception of fatigue and performance2007Inngår i: 39th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time2006Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 51-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess physiological and subjective stress markers during a 24-h ambulance work shift and during the next two work-free days, and relate these parameters to self-reported health complaints. Methods: Twenty-six ambulance personnel were followed during a 24-h work shift and during the next two work-free days with electrocardiogram, cortisol assessments and diary notes. The ambulance personnel also performed tests of autonomic reactivity before and at the end of the work shift. The subjects were categorized into two groups according to their number of health complaints. Results: In general, stress markers did not show differences between the work shift and leisure time. However, a modest deviation in heart rate variability pattern and higher morning cortisol values during work in comparison with work-free days were observed in personnel with many health complaints. Conclusions: Subjective and physiological characteristics of ambulance personnel did not indicate distinctive stress during the 24-h work shift. Relationships between frequent health complaints and specific work-related factors require further prospective studies.

  • 3.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö2009Inngår i: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud och Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, s. 33-38Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, University of Umea ̊ , Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effects of a 1-year physical exercise programme on development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task2008Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Ergonomics, Vol. 51, nr 8, s. 1179-1194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the training. Both the training group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 15) were assessed for physical capacity and lactate concentration in blood and ratings of perceived exertion during carrying a stretcher on the stairs. When comparisons were made between those who had been training three times/week for 1 year and the control group, lactate concentration was significantly decreased. In conclusion, markers of fatigue during stretcher carrying can be reduced by the use of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes.

  • 5.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbara
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bucht, Anders
    Deptartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, 901 89, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Jansson, Anders
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    Biological response in lung cells by brake dust from a novel set-up to generate one sourcewear particles2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania2014Inngår i: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 14, s. 23-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods: A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions: In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  • 7. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Hagberg, Jan
    Axén, Iben
    Kwak, Lydia
    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin
    Skillgate, Eva
    Dahlgren, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jensen, Irene
    Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain: a discrete choice experiment2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id e0187709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults. Methods: In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a webbased questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives), each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses. Results: The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular) rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age <= 44 years) and older adults (age <= 45 years) in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06) influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, - 0.55; CI: 0.65; 3.26) was also an influential attribute for choice of exercise, showing that people with children at home preferred to exercise close to home. Conclusions: This study adds to our knowledge about what types of exercise working adults with back pain are most likely to participate in. The exercise should be a cardiovascular type of training carried out in a group with trainer supervision. It should also be of high intensity and preferably performed twice per week during working hours. Coupons for sports goods do not appear to motivate physical activity among workers with LBP. The findings of the study could have a substantial impact on the planning and development of exercise provision and promotion strategies to improve non-specific LBP. Providers and employers may be able to improve participation in exercise programs for adults with non-specific LBP by focusing on the exercise components which are the most attractive. This in turn would improve satisfaction and adherence to exercise interventions aimed at preventing recurrent non-specific LBP.

  • 8.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014Inngår i: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 9. Accordini, Simone
    et al.
    Calciano, Lucia
    Johannessen, Ane
    Portas, Laura
    Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Dharmage, Shyamali C.
    Dratva, Julia
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gomez Real, Francisco
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Holloway, John W.
    Holm, Mathias
    Janson, Christer
    Jögi, Rain
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Martínez-Moratalla Rovira, Jesús
    Raherison, Chantal
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G.
    Demoly, Pascal
    Dorado Arenas, Sandra
    Nowak, Dennis
    Pin, Isabelle
    Weyler, Joost
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Svanes, Cecilie
    A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma2018Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma.

    Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged ≤51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines.

    Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55).

    Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.

  • 10. Adam, Martin
    et al.
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Carsin, Anne Elie
    Cai, Yutong
    Jacquemin, Benedicte
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Vierkötter, Andrea
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Keidel, Dirk
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Al Kanani, Zaina
    Nadif, Rachel
    Siroux, Valérie
    Hardy, Rebecca
    Kuh, Diana
    Rochat, Thierry
    Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Villani, Simona
    Phuleria, Harish Chandra
    Birk, Matthias
    Cyrys, Josef
    Cirach, Marta
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Declerq, Christophe
    Bono, Roberto
    Piccioni, Pavilio
    Quass, Ulrich
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Pin, Isabelle
    Beelen, Rob
    Hoek, Gerard
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Schindler, Christian
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Krämer, Ursula
    Kauffmann, Francine
    Hansell, Anna L
    Künzli, Nino
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis2015Inngår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 38-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.

  • 11. Adam-Poupart, Ariane
    et al.
    Labreche, France
    Smargiassi, Audrey
    Duguay, Patrice
    Busque, Marc-Antoine
    Gagne, Charles
    Rintamaki, Hannu
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Zayed, Joseph
    Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate: Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada2013Inngår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 68-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.

  • 12. Adrian, L.
    et al.
    Svanes, C.
    Johannessen, A.
    Lodge, C.
    Bertelsen, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Forsberg, B.
    Gislason, T.
    Benedikstdottir, B.
    Holm, M.
    Jogi, R.
    Modig, L.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Omenaas, E.
    Real, F.
    Schlunssen, V
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Skorge, T.
    Timm, S.
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Dharmage, S.
    Early life parental exposure to cats and dogs reduces the risk of allergic disease in their children: possible intergenerational effect2014Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, s. 577-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13. Aggett, Peter
    et al.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordberg, Monica
    Essential metals: assessing risks from dificiency and toxicity2015Inngår i: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume I: General considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, s. 281-297Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements including essential metals have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is a risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), in which no adverse effects occur. It must be noted, however, that a range cannot be found that protects all persons from adverse effects. Those persons with genetically determined sensitivity may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. The AROI is defined as protecting 95% of an unselected human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity.

  • 14.
    Ahlroth Pind, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Gunnbjörnsdottír, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning. National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Bjerg, A
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Järvholm, B
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, B
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Middelveld, R
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, J
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Patient-reported signs of dampness at home may be a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis: A cross-sectional study2017Inngår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 47, nr 11, s. 1383-1389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An association between dampness at home and respiratory conditions has been convincingly demonstrated in children. Fewer studies have been performed in adults, and data are lacking for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With a prevalence of 10.9% in Europe, CRS imposes a significant burden on quality of life, as well as economy.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study CRS and other respiratory conditions in relation to dampness at home in a representative sample of adults.

    METHODS: The Swedish GA2 LEN questionnaire was answered by 26 577 adults (16-75 years) and included questions on respiratory symptoms, smoking, education and environmental exposure. CRS was defined according to the EP3 OS criteria. Dampness was defined as reporting water damage, floor dampness or visible moulds in the home during the last 12 months. The dampness score was ranked from 0 to 3, counting the number of signs of dampness reported.

    RESULTS: Dampness at home was reported by 11.3% and was independently related to respiratory conditions after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic factors and smoking: CRS odds ratio (OR) 1.71; allergic rhinitis OR 1.24; current asthma OR 1.21; wheeze OR 1.37; nocturnal dyspnoea OR 1.80; nocturnal coughing OR 1.34; and chronic bronchitis OR 1.64. The risk of CRS and most of the other respiratory conditions was further elevated in subjects reporting multiple signs of dampness.

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated an independent association between dampness at home and CRS in adults. The high burden of this and the other respiratory conditions studied is a strong argument in favour of countering indoor dampness by improving building standards.

  • 15.
    Ahlstrom, Linda
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Grimby-Ekman, Anna
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Measures of work ability and association with sick leave, symptoms and health: A prospective study of female workers on long term sick leave2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 404-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Ahlstrom, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Borås.
    Larsson Fallman, Sara
    Högskolan Borås.
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi. Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Return to work from long-term sick leave: a five-year prospective study of the importance of adjustment latitudes at work and home2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Adjustment latitude among employees, i.e. adjusting work to individual’s health capacity, has been associated with successful return to work (RTW) in cross-sectional studies. The aim is to investigate the long-term importance of adjustment latitude at the workplace and at home, as well as attitudes (own and colleagues) for increased work ability (WA), working degree (WD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among female human service workers (HSW) on long-term sick leave in Sweden.

    Methods

    A cohort of female HSW (n=324) on long-term sick leave (>60 day) received a questionnaire at four times (0, 6, 12, 60 months). Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to examine possible relationships between explanatory factors and outcomes. Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of WA Score (0-10), WD (0-100%) and HRQoL (0-100). Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were adjustment latitude, attitudes towards breaks at work, shared or single household and amount of household work.

    Result

    Having more adjustment latitude at work was associated with both increased WA and RTW compared to having few adjustment latitude opportunities. Adjustments related to working-pace were strongly associated with increased WD (PR 3.29(95%CI=1.71-6.26)), as were adjustments to working-place. Having opportunities to take short breaks at work, and a general acceptance at work to take short breaks was associated with increased WA. At home, a higher responsibility for household work (PR 1.98(95%CI=1.33-2.95)) was related to increased WA and RTW. Individuals with possibilities for adjustment latitude, especially pace and place, at work, and an acceptance to take breaks at work, increased in WA score significantly more over time and had higher WA score compared with individuals not having such opportunities at work. These prospective results were similar for the outcome WD and HRQoL.

    Conclusions

    The results highlight the importance of possibilities for adjustment latitude at work and at home, as well as accepting attitudes to take short breaks to increase WA and RTW among female human service workers previously on long-term sick leave.

  • 17.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Fors, Carina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Anund, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real road driving2015Inngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikkel-id 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver’s face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS).

    Forty raters assessed 54 video-clips showing drivers with varying levels of sleepiness. The video-clips were recorded during a field experiment focusing on driver sleepiness using the same cameras that are typically used in large-scale field studies. The weak results prompted a second test. Ten human factors researchers made pairwise comparisons of videos showing the same four participants in an alert versus a very sleepy condition. The task was simply to select the video-clip where the driver was sleepy.

    The overall average percentage of video segments where ORS and SRS matched was 41 % in Test 1. ORS 0 (alert) and ORS 2 (very sleepy) were easier to score than ORS 1 and it was slightly harder to rate night-time drives. Inter-rater agreement was low, with average Pearson’s r correlations of 0.19 and Krippendorff’s alpha of 0.15. In Test 2, the average Pearson’s r correlations was 0.35 and Krippendorff’s alpha was 0.62. The correspondence between ORS and SRS showed an agreement of 35 %.

    The results indicate that ORS ratings based on real road video recordings correspond poorly with SRS and have low inter-rater agreement. Further research is necessary in order to further evaluate the usefulness of ORS as a measure of sleepiness.

  • 18.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year2016Inngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, s. 1-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multi-day, multi-period travel diaries data of 56 days (four waves of two-week diaries) for 67 individuals in Stockholm, this study aims to examine the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints (e.g. teleworking, studying at home, doing the laundry, cleaning and taking care of other household member[s]) on individuals’ day-to-day leisure activity participation decisions in four different seasons. This study also aims to explore the effects of various types of working schedules (fixed, shift, partial- and full-flexible) on individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day leisure activities. A pooled model (56 days) and wave-specific models (14 days in each wave) are estimated by using dynamic ordered Probit models. The effects of various types of working schedules are estimated by using 28 days of two waves’ data. The results show that an individual’s leisure activity participation decision is significantly influenced by out-of-home work durations but not influenced by in-home constraints, regardless of any seasons. Individuals with shift working hours engage less in day-to-day leisure activities than other workers’ types in both spring and summer seasons. The thermal indicator significantly affects individuals’ leisure activity participation decisions during the autumn season. Individuals exhibit routine behaviour characterized by repeated decisions in participating in day-to-day leisure activities that can last up to 14 days, regardless of any seasons.

  • 19. Aili, K
    et al.
    Nyman, T
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Hillert, L
    Sleep as a predictive factor for the onset and resolution of multi-site pain: A 5-year prospective study2015Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 341-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep and pain often co-exist and the relationship between the two conditions is complex and likely reciprocal. This 5-year prospective study examines whether disturbed sleep can predict the onset of multi-site pain, and whether non-disturbed sleep can predict the resolution of multi-site pain.

    METHODS: The cohort (n = 1599) was stratified by the number of self-reported pain sites: no pain, pain from 1-2 sites and multi-site pain (≥3 pain sites). Sleep was categorized by self-reported sleep disturbance: sleep A (best sleep), sleep B and sleep C (worst sleep). In the no-pain and pain-from-1-2 sites strata, the association between sleep (A, B and C) and multi-site pain 5 years later was analysed. Further, the prognostic value of sleep for the resolution of multi-site pain at follow-up was calculated for the stratum with multi-site pain at baseline. In the analyses, gender, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and work-related exposures were treated as potential confounders.

    RESULTS: For individuals with no pain at baseline, a significantly higher odds ratio for multi-site pain 5 years later was seen for the tertile reporting worst sleep [odds ratio (OR) 4.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-16.12]. Non-disturbed (or less disturbed) sleep had a significant effect when predicting the resolution of multi-site pain (to no pain) (OR 3.96; 95% CI 1.69-9.31).

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, sleep could be relevant for predicting both the onset and the resolution of multi-site pain. It seems to be a significant factor to include in research on multi-site pain and when conducting or evaluating intervention programmes for pain.

  • 20. Aili, K.
    et al.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Hillert, L.
    Svartengren, M.
    Sleep disturbances predict future sickness absence among individuals with lower back or neck-shoulder pain: A 5-year prospective study2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 315-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common causes of sickness absence. Sleep disturbances are often co-occurring with pain, but the relationship between sleep and pain is complex. Little is known about the importance of self-reported sleep, when predicting sickness absence among persons with musculoskeletal pain. This study aims to study the association between self-reported sleep quality and sickness absence 5 years later, among individuals stratified by presence of lower back pain (LBP) and neck and shoulder pain (NSP). Methods: The cohort (n = 2286) in this 5-year prospective study (using data from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study) was stratified by self-reported pain into three groups: no LBP or NSP, solely LBP or NSP, and oncurrent LBP and NSP. Odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of self-reported sleep disturbances at baseline on sickness absence (> 14 consecutive days), 5 years later, were calculated. Results: Within all three pain strata, individuals reporting the most sleep problems showed a significantly higher OR for all-cause sickness absence, 5 years later. The group with the most pronounced sleep problems within the concurrent LBP and NSP stratum had a significantly higher OR (OR 2.00; CI 1.09-3.67) also for long-term sickness absence (> 90days) 5 years later, compared to the group with the best sleep. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances predict sickness absence among individuals regardless of co-existing features of LBP and/or NSP. The clinical evaluation of patients should take possible sleep disturbances into account in the planning of treatments.

  • 21. Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Hillert, Lena
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Sleep disturbances predict future sickness absence among individuals with lower back or neck-shoulder pain: A 5-year prospective study2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 315-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common causes of sickness absence. Sleep disturbances are often co-occurring with pain, but the relationship between sleep and pain is complex. Little is known about the importance of self-reported sleep, when predicting sickness absence among persons with musculoskeletal pain. This study aims to study the association between self-reported sleep quality and sickness absence 5 years later, among individuals stratified by presence of lower back pain (LBP) and neck and shoulder pain (NSP). Methods: The cohort (n = 2286) in this 5-year prospective study (using data from the MUSIC-Norrtalje study) was stratified by self-reported pain into three groups: no LBP or NSP, solely LBP or NSP, and oncurrent LBP and NSP. Odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of self-reported sleep disturbances at baseline on sickness absence (> 14 consecutive days), 5 years later, were calculated. Results: Within all three pain strata, individuals reporting the most sleep problems showed a significantly higher OR for all-cause sickness absence, 5 years later. The group with the most pronounced sleep problems within the concurrent LBP and NSP stratum had a significantly higher OR (OR 2.00; CI 1.09-3.67) also for long-term sickness absence (> 90days) 5 years later, compared to the group with the best sleep. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances predict sickness absence among individuals regardless of co-existing features of LBP and/or NSP. The clinical evaluation of patients should take possible sleep disturbances into account in the planning of treatments.

  • 22.
    Aili, Katarina
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Occupat Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Åström-Paulsson, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Stoetzer, Ulrich
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Intervent & Implementat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Hillert, Lena
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Occupat Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reliability of Actigraphy and Subjective Sleep Measurements in Adults: the Design of Sleep Assessments2017Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 39-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate how many nights of measurement are needed for a reliable measure of sleep in a working population including adult women and men.

    METHODS: In all, 54 individuals participated in the study. Sleep was assessed for 7 consecutive nights using actigraphy as an objective measure, and the Karolinska sleep diary for a subjective measure of quality. Using intra-class correlation and the Spearman-Brown formula, calculations of how many nights of measurements were required for a reliable measure were performed. Differences in reliability according to whether or not weekend measurements were included were investigated. Further, the correlation between objectively (actigraphy) measured sleep and subjectively measured sleep quality was studied over the different days of the week.

    RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The results concerning actigraphy sleep measures suggest that data from at least 2 nights are to be recommended when assessing sleep percent and at least 5 nights when assessing sleep efficiency. For actigraphy-measured total sleep time, more than 7 nights are needed. At least 6 nights of measurements are required for a reliable measure of self-reported sleep. Fewer nights (days) are required if measurements include only week nights. Overall, there was a low correlation between the investigated actigraphy sleep parameters and subjective sleep quality, suggesting that the two methods of measurement capture different dimensions of sleep.

  • 23. Ainsbury, E A
    et al.
    Bakhanova, E
    Barquinero, J F
    Brai, M
    Chumak, V
    Correcher, V
    Darroudi, F
    Fattibene, P
    Gruel, G
    Guclu, I
    Horn, S
    Jaworska, A
    Kulka, U
    Lindholm, C
    Lloyd, D
    Longo, A
    Marrale, M
    Monteiro Gil, O
    Oestreicher, U
    Pajic, J
    Rakic, B
    Romm, H
    Trompier, F
    Veronese, I
    Voisin, P
    Vral, A
    Whitehouse, C A
    Wieser, A
    Woda, C
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Rothkamm, K
    REVIEW OF RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR EXTERNAL IONISING RADIATION EXPOSURES.2011Inngår i: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 147, nr 4, s. 573-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements.

  • 24.
    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.
    et al.
    Publ Hlth England, England.
    Samaga, Daniel
    Bundesamt Strahlenschutz, Germany.
    Della Monaca, Sara
    Ist Super Sanita, Italy.
    Marrale, Maurizio
    Univ Palermo, Italy; Univ Palermo, Italy.
    Bassinet, Celine
    Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, France.
    Burbidge, Christopher I.
    Environm Protect Agcy, Ireland.
    Correcher, Virgilio
    Ctr Moncloa, Spain.
    Discher, Michael
    Univ Salzburg, Austria.
    Eakins, Jon
    Publ Hlth England, England.
    Fattibene, Paola
    Ist Super Sanita, Italy.
    Guclu, Inci
    Turkish Atom Energy Commiss, Turkey.
    Higueras, Manuel
    Basque Ctr Appl Math, Spain.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica
    Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    McKeever, Stephen
    Oklahoma State Univ, OK 74078 USA.
    Raaf, Christopher L.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sholom, Sergey
    Oklahoma State Univ, OK 74078 USA.
    Veronese, Ivan
    Univ Milan, Italy; Natl Inst Nucl Phys, Italy.
    Wieser, Albrecht
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Woda, Clemens
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Trompier, Francois
    Inst Radioprotect and Surete Nucl, France.
    UNCERTAINTY ON RADIATION DOSES ESTIMATED BY BIOLOGICAL AND RETROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL METHODS2018Inngår i: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 178, nr 4, s. 382-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological and physical retrospective dosimetry are recognised as key techniques to provide individual estimates of dose following unplanned exposures to ionising radiation. Whilst there has been a relatively large amount of recent development in the biological and physical procedures, development of statistical analysis techniques has failed to keep pace. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the art in uncertainty analysis techniques across the EURADOS Working Group 10-Retrospective dosimetry members, to give concrete examples of implementation of the techniques recommended in the international standards, and to further promote the use of Monte Carlo techniques to support characterisation of uncertainties. It is concluded that sufficient techniques are available and in use by most laboratories for acute, whole body exposures to highly penetrating radiation, but further work will be required to ensure that statistical analysis is always wholly sufficient for the more complex exposure scenarios.

  • 25. Akesson, Agneta
    et al.
    Barregard, Lars
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordberg, Monica
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Non-Renal Effects and the Risk Assessment of Environmental Cadmium Exposure2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 5, s. 431-438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has long been recognized as a health hazard, both in industry and in general populations with high exposure. Under the currently prevailing health risk assessment, the relationship between urinary Cd (U-Cd) concentrations and tubular proteinuria is used. However, doubts have recently been raised regarding the justification of basing the risk assessment on this relationship at very low exposure. Objectives: Our objective was to review available information on health effects of Cd exposure with respect to human health risk assessment. Discussion: The associations between U-Cd and urinary proteins at very low exposure may not be due to Cd toxicity, and the clinical significance of slight proteinuria may also be limited. More importantly, other effects have been reported at very low Cd exposure. There is reason to challenge the basis of the existing health risk assessment for Cd. Our review of the literature found that exposure to low concentrations of Cd is associated with effects on bone, including increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, and that this observation has implications for the health risk assessment of Cd. Other effects associated with Cd should also be considered, in particular cancer, although the information is still too limited for appropriate use in quantitative risk assessment. Conclusion: Non-renal effects should be considered critical effects in the health risk assessment of Cd.

  • 26.
    Alasalmi, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Spirometry in medical surveillance of asbestosis and silicosis: Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 27.
    Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Abrahamsson, Kenneth
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luelå.
    Lagerlöf, Elisabeth
    Info2you.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hållbart arbetsliv i framtidens Europa – lägesrapport och utmaningar inför nästa EU ramprogram FP92018Inngår i: / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 98-99Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senaste året har det inom EU pågått ett rådslag om en europeisk pelare för sociala rättigheter som syftat till ett fungerande samspel mellan social trygghet och ekonomisk förändring. Ett toppmöte för rättvisa jobb och tillväxt ägde rum i Göteborg hösten 2017, som fokuserade på hur man kan främja inkluderande tillväxt, skapa rättvisa jobb och främja lika möjligheter för alla kvinnor och män. Vid mötet redovisades också erfaren-heter av arbetslivspolitik och praktiska insatser från olika EU länder.

    Uppmärksamhet ägnades också områden som nya arbetsformer, förutsättningar för flexibilitet och trygghet, samspelet mellan löner, arbetsförhållanden, arbetsmiljö. Vidare berördes balansen mellan social trygghet och socialt skydd å ena sidan och produktivitet, ekonomisk utveckling och tillväxt å den andra. De bestående skillnaderna mellan män och kvinnor avseende anställning, arbetsförhållanden, karriärmöjligheter, lön och pension uppmärksammades också. Effekter av att befolkningen åldras eller av automatisering och digitalisering var ett annat policyområde. Sammantaget lyfte toppmötet fram strategiska frågor för den framtida arbetslivsforskningen på europeiskt plan – i denna utmaning ligger också att öka samspelet mellan forskning i Sverige och forskning i Europa.

    Svensk arbetslivsforskning behöver synas mer i ett europeiskt sammanhang och europeisk forskning och kunskapsutveckling bör bättre tas tillvara i Sverige. Med stöd av VINNOVA startades år 2013 en påverkansplattform för att lyfta fram hållbart arbetsliv som ett centralt och övergripande område i EU:s åttonde ramprogram för forskning, Horisont 2020. Motiven därtill är uppenbara; digitalisering, globalisering och en ny demografi med ökad livslängd och migration. Vi lever också i en tid med snabbare om-ställning i arbetslivet och där de traditionella arbetsmarknadsrelationerna tenderar att luckras upp.

    Syftet med denna session är dels att rapportera vad som gjorts i det Vinnova-finansierade projektet om hållbart arbetsliv i EU som nu avslutas under 2018, dels lyfta och dryfta idéer och förslag om vilken roll hållbart arbetsliv kan spela inom FP 9 – det nästa ramprogrammet som startar 2021. När det gäller det första syftet handlar det om att utveckla kontakter med EU:s institutioner som DG research, Eurofound och EU_OSHA, liksom med de europeiska arbetsmiljöforskningsinstitutionerna via PEROSH, samt forskarnätverk och parter i Europa. En annan metod har varit att ge förslag på områden som borde lyftas fram i kommande utlysningar, vilket har skett genom workshops i Bryssel och annorstädes. Vi har också verkat för att svenska forskare i ökad utsträckning kan medverka i EU-finansierade projekt, exempelvis genom att ta initiativ till forsknings-program eller delta som partner i nätverk som koordineras av forskare på europeiskt plan. Sedan något år tillbaka har en diskussion startats om FP9 – EU:s nionde ramprogram för forskning. Diskussionen utgår från professor Mariana Mazzucatos rapport Mission Oriented Research & Innovations in the European Union: A problem-solving approach to fuel innovation-led growth. Vid seminariet ges också en lägesbild om vad som är på gång i detta sammanhang både via formella och informella kanaler. Sessionen bygger vidare på en workshop som projektet genomförde i Stockholm i början av november 2017 – se:

    - www.sustainablework220.se

    - https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/mazzucato_report_2018.pdf

  • 28.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 320-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 29.
    Aleksandrov, A. A.
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Deinekina, T. S.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene B.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    ВЛИЯНИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ ЗА ДВИЖЕНИЕМ НА ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСЛЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО УТОМЛЕНИЯ [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue]2014Inngår i: Zurnal vyssej nervnoj deâtel'nosti im. I.P. Pavlova, ISSN 0044-4677, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 481-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes rest pauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue.

  • 30. Alexanderson, K.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vahtera, J.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Melchior, M.
    Zins, M.
    Goldberg, M.
    Head, J.
    Diagnosis-specific sick leave as a long-term predictor of disability pension: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study2012Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 155-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Factors that increase the risk of labour market exclusion are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the extent to which all-cause and diagnosis-specific sick leave predict subsequent disability pension (DP).

    Methods Prospective cohort study of 20 434 persons employed by the French national gas and electric company (the GAZEL study). New sick-leave spells >7 days in 1990–1992 were obtained from company records. Follow-up for DP was from 1994 to 2007.

    Results The HR, adjusted for age and occupational position, for DP was 3.5 (95% CI 2.7 to 4.5) in men and 2.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5) in women with one or more sick-leave spells >7 days compared with those with no sick leave. The strongest predictor of DP was sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis, HR 7.6 (95% CI 5.2 to 10.9) for men and 4.1 (95% CI 2.9 to 5.9) for women. Corresponding HRs for sick leave due to circulatory diagnoses in men and women were 5.6 (95% CI 3.7 to 8.6) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.3), for respiratory diagnoses 3.9 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.8) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 4.0), and musculoskeletal diagnoses 4.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 6.4) and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.8), respectively.

    Conclusions Sick leave with a psychiatric diagnosis is a major risk factor for subsequent DP, especially among men. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal or circulatory disorders was also a strong predictor of DP. Diagnosis-specific sick leave should be recognised as an early risk marker for future exclusion from the labour market.

  • 31. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia2015Inngår i: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 1107-1112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them.

    [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession.

    [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain.

    [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.

  • 32.
    Alhamdow, Ayman
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Graff, Pål
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Albin, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (CAMM), Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (CAMM), Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Broberg, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    DNA-methylation of the cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR is associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons2018Inngår i: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 869-878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers (73.3%), but not chimney sweeps (76.6%) had lower methylation of F2RL3 cg03636183 than controls (76.7%). Linear regression analyses showed that chimney sweeps had lower AHRR cg05575921 methylation (B=-2.04; P<0.057, adjusted for smoking and age) and lower average AHRR methylation (B=-2.05; P<0.035), and non-smoking chimney sweeps had lower average F2RL3 methylation (B=-0.81; P<0.042, adjusted for age) compared with controls. These cancer-related markers were not associated with urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites. In conclusion, although we found no associations with PAH metabolites in urine (short-term exposure), our results suggest dose-response relationship between PAH exposure and DNA hypomethylation of lung cancer-related loci. These findings indicate that further protective measures should be taken to reduce PAH exposure.

  • 33. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Damdimopoulou, Pauliina
    Stenius, Ulla
    Adamsson, Annika
    Mäkelä, Sari I
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Berglund, Marika
    Håkansson, Helen
    Halldin, Krister
    Cadmium-induced effects on cellular signaling pathways in the liver of transgenic estrogen reporter mice.2012Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 66-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estrogen-like effects of cadmium (Cd) have been reported in several animal studies, and recent epidemiological findings suggest increased risk of hormone-dependent cancers after Cd exposure. The mechanisms underlying these effects are still under investigation. Our aim was to study the effects of Cd on cellular signaling pathways in vivo with special focus on estrogen signaling and to perform benchmark dose analysis on the effects. Transgenic adult ERE-luciferase male mice were exposed subcutaneously to 0.5-500 μg CdCl(2) per kg body weight (bw) or 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 3 days. These doses had no effects on organ and bw or testicular histology, indicating subtoxic exposure levels. The transgene luciferase, reporting genomic estrogen response, was significantly increased by EE2 but not by Cd. However, Cd significantly affected kinase phosphorylation and endogenous gene expression. Interestingly, gene expression changes displayed a traditional dose-response relationship, with benchmark dose levels for the expression of Mt1, Mt2, p53, c-fos, and Mdm2 being 92.9, 19.9, 7.6, 259, and 25.9 μg/kg bw, respectively, but changes in kinase phosphorylation were only detected at low exposure levels. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 was significantly increased even in the lowest dose group, 0.5 μg/kg bw, rendering pErk1/2 a more sensitive sensor of exposure than changes in gene expression. Collectively, our data suggest that the effects triggered by Cd in vivo are markedly concentration dependent. Furthermore, we conclude that the estrogen-like effects of Cd are likely to result from a mechanism different from steroidal estrogens.

  • 34. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Damdimopoulou, Pauliina
    Stenius, Ulla
    Halldin, Krister
    Cadmium at nanomolar concentrations activates Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPKs signaling via EGFR in human cancer cell lines.2015Inngår i: Chemico-Biological Interactions, ISSN 0009-2797, E-ISSN 1872-7786, Vol. 231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, supported by data from occupational exposure. Environmentally relevant dietary exposure to Cd has recently been associated with osteoporosis and cancers of the prostate, endometrium, and breast in the general population. The low exposure effects have been proposed to result from endocrine modulative properties of Cd, which mimic the physiological actions of estrogen and androgen. However, the mechanism of action of Cd is an unanswered question. We have shown previously, using mouse models, that canonical estrogen receptor signaling is not involved in estrogen mimicry effects of Cd. Instead, low-level Cd exposure stimulated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2 in these mice. Here we investigate further the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling activation by Cd in vitro by using nanomolar concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in three different human carcinoma cell lines: HepG2, MCF-7, and ECC-1. The findings also were confirmed in previously collected mouse tissue samples. We show that 10(-8)M levels of CdCl2 activate ERK1/2 (Tyr 204) and the p53 specific ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 (Ser 166) via Raf and MEK by acting through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, our results suggest that the CdCl2-induced activation of ERK1/2 and Mdm2 may interfere with the p53 response to genotoxic compounds in cancer cell lines. Our data collectively suggest that nanomolar levels of CdCl2 activate Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 via EGFR. We hypothesize that this signaling cascade may be involved in observed low exposure effects of Cd in certain human populations.

  • 35. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Engström, Annette
    Vahter, Marie
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Lundh, Thomas
    Lidfeldt, Jonas
    Samsioe, Göran
    Halldin, Krister
    Akesson, Agneta
    Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women2014Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 134, s. 265-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.

  • 36. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Hurmerinta, Teija
    Nurmi, Tarja
    Berglund, Marika
    Rüegg, Joelle
    Poutanen, Matti
    Halldin, Krister
    Mäkelä, Sari
    Damdimopoulou, Pauliina
    From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.2016Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds.

  • 37.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Tondel, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident2014Inngår i: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, ISSN 0301-634X, E-ISSN 1432-2099, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 495-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of Cs-137 and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of Cs-137 from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of Cs-137 at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of Cs-137. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from nine county averages to 612 parish averages resulted in a two to three times higher value of variance in the regression model. There was a secular trend with an increase in age-standardized incidence of cancer in both genders from 1980 to 2009, but significant only in females. This trend was stronger and statistically significant for both genders in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties. In conclusion, using both high quality cancer registry data and high resolution exposure maps of Cs-137 deposition, it was not possible to distinguish an effect of Cs-137 on cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in Sweden.

  • 38.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Tondel, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study2016Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 12, artikkel-id e011924Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    METHODS: A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of (137)Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual (137)Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986-1990), from which 5-year cumulative (137)Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of (137)Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence.

    RESULTS: The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0-45.4 kBq/m(2)), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41-118.8 kBq/m(2)), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81-564.71 kBq/m(2)). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a small overall exposure-response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to (137)Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence.

  • 39.
    Alkner, Björn A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Reg Jonkoping Cty, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Neuromuscular Adaptations Following 90 Days Bed Rest With or Without Resistance Exercise2016Inngår i: AEROSPACE MEDICINE AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 610-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effects of long-term bed rest with or without a concurrent resistance exercise protocol on different muscle function indices of the knee extensors and their influence on previously shown atrophy, neural impairment, and slow-to-fast phenotype shift. METHODS: Nine men underwent 90 d of bed rest only (BR), while eight men in addition performed maximal supine squats every third day (BRE). Before and at day 1 and 5 following bed rest, surface quadriceps electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured during a sustained (60-s) submaximal isometric action and rate of force development (RFD) was assessed during a maximal isometric action, both in the supine squat position. Maximal torque was measured during isokinetic knee extensions at different angular velocities before and after (day 2 and 11) bed rest. RESULTS: EMG amplitude at a fixed submaximal load increased in BR, but not in BRE. The increase in amplitude during the sustained action was elevated in BR but not in BRE. RFD decreased in BR; this effect was attenuated day 1 and normalized day 5 in BRE. RFD expressed relative to maximal force was maintained in both groups. Angle-specific torque decreased equally for all velocities in BR. The decrease in isokinetic strength was attenuated day 2 in BRE. DISCUSSION: Phenotype changes were not reflected in muscle function measurements, probably because they were overridden by the effects of atrophy and neural adaptation. The protective effect of resistance exercise was more pronounced in tasks similar to the training action, inferring great impact of neural mechanisms.

  • 40.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Peer acceptance in the school class and subjective health complaints: a multilevel approach2013Inngår i: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561, Vol. 83, nr 10, s. 690-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Feeling accepted by peers is important for young people's health but few studies have examined the overall degree of acceptance in school and its health consequences. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether health complaints among Swedish students can be attributed to the acceptance climate in their school class even when the health effects of their own (individual) acceptance score have been taken into account. METHODS: The data used were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study for the years 2001 to 2002, 2005 to 2006, and 2009 to 2010, consisting of 13,902 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade Swedish students nested into 742 school classes. The statistical analyses were performed by means of linear regression multilevel analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the variation in subjective health complaints could be ascribed partly to the school-class level (boys: 5.0%; girls: 13.5%). Peer acceptance at the individual level demonstrated a clear association with health: the lower the acceptance, the higher the complaint scores. For girls, but not for boys, the overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class demonstrated a contextual effect on health, net of acceptance at the student level. Interaction analyses also revealed an increasingly favorable health among poorly accepted girls as the acceptance climate in the school class declined. CONCLUSIONS: A lower overall degree of peer acceptance in the school class is associated with poorer health among girls. However, girls who

  • 41.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 146-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 42.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Voxberg, Elin
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Historical exposure to heavy metals in air2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43. Al-Shamkhi, N.
    et al.
    Alving, K.
    Dahlen, S. E.
    Hedlin, G.
    Middelveld, R.
    Bjerg, A.
    Ekerljung, L.
    Olin, A. C.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Janson, C.
    Malinovschi, A.
    Important non-disease-related determinants of exhaled nitric oxide levels in mild asthma: results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN study2016Inngår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 46, nr 9, s. 1185-1193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has a potential clinical role in asthma management. Constitutive factors such as age, height and male gender, as well as individual characteristics, as IgE sensitisation and smoking, affect levels of FeNO in population-based studies. However their effect on FeNO in subjects with asthma has been scarcely studied.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on FeNO of these commonly regarded determinants, as demonstrated in healthy subjects, as well as menarche age and parental smoking, in a population of asthmatics.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: FeNO was measured in 557 subjects with asthma from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Allergic sensitisation was assessed by skin prick tests to most common aeroallergens. Upper airway comorbidities, smoking habits, smoking exposure during childhood, hormonal status (for women) were questionnaire-assessed.

    RESULTS: Male gender (p<0.001), greater height (p<0.001) and sensitisation to both perennial allergens and pollen (p<0.001) related to higher FeNO levels. Current smoking (p<0.001) and having both parents smoking during childhood, vs having neither (p<0.001) or only one parent smoking (p=0.002), related to lower FeNO. Women with menarche between 9-11 years of age had lower FeNO than those with menarche between 12-14 years of age (p = 0.03) or 15-17 years of age (p=0.003).

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interpreting FeNO levels in clinical practice is complex and constitutional determinants, as well as smoking and IgE sensitization, are of importance in asthmatic subjects and should be accounted for when interpreting FeNO levels. Furthermore, menarche age and parental smoking during childhood and their effects on lowering FeNO deserve further studies.

  • 44.
    Alsmo, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    A Study of Sources of Airborne Pollutants and Poor Hygiene in Schools2010Inngår i: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 298-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor indoor air quality is a large problem in Swedish schools, since the health of occupants may be affected. Resources are consumed without identification of utility indicators and there is risk of problems, even after remedial measures have been taken. This can mean both unnecessary suffering for many people and considerable resources being wasted. The building itself is often in focus and other building-related problems may be neglected. The hypothesis of the present work is that other factors than the building itself have decisive influence on indoor air quality. An assessment of these nonbuilding-related reasons for bad indoor air quality has been made in the present study using particle measurements. Results show that it is possible to decrease emissions in indoor air by over 90% through identifying and eliminating activity-related sources of airborne contaminants.

  • 45. Amaral, André F S
    et al.
    Newson, Roger B
    Abramson, Michael J
    Antó, Josep M
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G
    de Marco, Roberto
    Demoly, Pascal
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Huerta, Ismael
    Janson, Christer
    Jõgi, Rain
    Kim, Jeong-Lim
    Maldonado, José
    Martinez-Moratalla Rovira, Jesús
    Neukirch, Catherine
    Nowak, Dennis
    Pin, Isabelle
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Raherison-Semjen, Chantal
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Urrutia Landa, Isabel
    van Ree, Ronald
    Versteeg, Serge A
    Weyler, Joost
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Burney, Peter G J
    Jarvis, Deborah L
    Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up2016Inngår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 137, nr 6, s. 1788-1795Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period.

    METHODS: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse.

    RESULTS: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts.

    CONCLUSION: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.

  • 46. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Schwarze, Per
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Poulsen, Aslak H.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Vaclavik Bräuner, Elvira
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018Inngår i: Neuro-Oncology, ISSN 1522-8517, E-ISSN 1523-5866, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 420-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.

    Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10–5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10–5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.

    Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

  • 47. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Pedersen, Marie
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Plusquin, Michelle
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Fournier, Agnes
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, nr 10, artikkel-id 107005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

    METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

    RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m(3)], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m(3)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04].

    CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

  • 48. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Murgia, Nicola
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Torén, Kjell
    Incidence of chronic bronchitis in a cohort of pulp mill workers with repeated gassings to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases2013Inngår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to irritants is associated with chronic bronchitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether repeated peak exposures with respiratory symptoms, gassings, to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases could increase the risk of chronic bronchitis.

    METHODS: The study population comprised 3,060 Swedish pulp mill workers (84% males) from a cohort study, who completed a comprehensive questionnaire with items on chronic bronchitis symptoms, smoking habit, occupational history, and specific exposures, including gassings. 2,037 have worked in sulphite mills. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for the observation period, 1970-2000, in relation to exposure and the frequency of repeated gassings to SO2 and other irritant gases were calculated.

    RESULTS: The incidence rate for chronic bronchitis among workers with repeated gassings was 3.5/1,000 person-years compared with 1.5/1,000 person-years among unexposed workers (HR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.1). The risk was even higher in the subgroup with frequent gassings (HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.0-5.2), particularly among never-smokers (HR 8.7, 95% CI 3.5-22).

    CONCLUSIONS: Repeated gassings to irritant gases increased the incidence of chronic bronchitis in our study population during and after work in pulp mills, supporting the hypothesis that occupational exposures to irritants negatively affect the airways. These results underscore the importance of preventive actions in this work environment.

  • 49. Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Persson, Bodil
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Magnuson, Anders
    Torén, Kjell
    Wingren, Gun
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Cohort mortality study of Swedish pulp and paper mill workers-nonmalignant diseases2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 470-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine mortality among pulp and paper mill workers according to the main mill pulping process, department, and gender, particular reference being given to diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems.

    Methods The cohort of 18 163 men and 2 291 women employed between 1939 and 1999 and with >1 year of employment was followed for mortality from 1952 to 2001 (acute myocardial infarction from 1969). Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by comparing the observed number of deaths with the expected number for the entire Swedish population. Exposure was assessed from personnel files in the mills. Data from an exposure measurement database are also presented.

    Results There were 5898 deaths in the cohort. Total mortality had an SMR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.98–1.06) for the men in the sulfate mills and an SMR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.90–0.97) for the men in the sulfite mills. Mortality from acute myocardial infarction was increased among the men in both the sulfate and sulfite mills [SMR 1.22 (95% CI 1.12–1.32) and SMR 1.11 (95% CI 1.02–1.21), respectively] and by department in sulfate pulping (SMR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.54), paper production (SMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49), and maintenance (SMR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.30). Mortality from cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and nonmalignant respiratory diseases was not increased.

    Conclusions Death from acute myocardial infarction, but not cerebrovascular diseases, was increased in this cohort and was probably related to a combination of different occupational exposures (eg, dust, sulfur compounds, shift work, and noise).

  • 50.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Region Örebro län.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Clin Epidemiol & Biostat Unit, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Bodil
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Linköping Univ Hosp, Linköping, Sweden; Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Univ Lund Hosp, Lund, Sweden.
    Cancer incidence among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers: a cohort study of sulphate and sulphite mills2013Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 529-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between various malignancies and work in the pulp and paper industry have been reported but mostly in analyses of mortality rather than incidence. We aimed to study cancer incidence by main mill pulping process, department and gender in a Swedish cohort of pulp and paper mill workers. The cohort (18,113 males and 2,292 females, enrolled from 1939 to 1999 with > 1 year of employment) was followed up for cancer incidence from 1958 to 2001. Information on the workers' department and employment was obtained from the mills' personnel files, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using the Swedish population as reference. Overall cancer incidence, in total 2,488 cases, was not increased by work in any department. However, risks of pleural mesothelioma were increased among males employed in sulphate pulping (SIR, 8.38; 95 % CI, 3.37-17) and maintenance (SIR, 6.35; 95 % CI, 3.47-11), with no corresponding increase of lung cancer. Testicular cancer risks were increased among males employed in sulphate pulping (SIR, 4.14; 95 % CI, 1.99-7.61) and sulphite pulping (SIR, 2.59; 95 % CI, 0.95-5.64). Female paper production workers showed increased risk of skin tumours other than malignant melanoma (SIR, 2.92; 95 % CI, 1.18-6.02). Incidence of pleural mesothelioma was increased in the cohort, showing that asbestos exposure still has severe health consequences, and highlighting the exigency of strict asbestos regulations and elimination. Testicular cancer was increased among pulping department workers. Shift work and endocrine disruptors could be of interest in this context.

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