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  • 1. Aahlin, Kristofer
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Per I.
    Huerta, Fernando
    Yngve, Ulrika.
    Preparation of 1-(4-(5-amino-6-(oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)benzoyl)piperazine derivatives as glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors.2011Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Title compds. I [R1 = H or Me], and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, are prepd. and disclosed as glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors. Thus, e.g., II was prepd. by cyclization of 3-amino-N-(4-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (prepn. given) to get intermediate 3-(oxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-yl)pyrazin-2-amine, which underwent bromination followed by Suzuki reaction with (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)methanone. Compds. of the invention were tested for their selective inhibitory activity of GSK3β, e.g., II exhibited Ki value of 2.3 nM. The invention compds. are useful for the treatment of cognitive disorders, diabetes, cancer, etc. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 2.
    Aalto, Mervi Anneli
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vill kunder handla receptfria läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln?: - En enkätundersökning2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    I Sverige har det statliga apoteketsmonopolet ifrågasatts en längre tid och regeringen utreder nu möjligheten att konkurrensutsätta läkemedelsförsäljningen. Det har även föreslagits i den statliga utredningen (SOU 2008:4 del 2) att ett begränsat sortiment av OTC läkemedel (over the counter = receptfria läkemedel) ska få säljas i dagligvaruhandeln utan farmaceutiskt kompetenskrav. Vid korrekt användning och tillgång till rätt rådgivning kan OTC läkemedel vara till en stor hjälp för den enskilde individen vid egenvård och därigenom också bidra till avlastning på sjukvårdens resursers. Vid felanvändning av OTC läkemedel (över/underdosering, fel indikationsområde etc.), kan de istället få motsatt effekt. Syftet med denna enkätstudie var därför att utforska om konsumenter av OTC läkemedel i Sverige önskar få tillgång till dessa läkemedel i t ex livsmedelsbutiker, där de inte har tillgång till personlig farmaceutisk rådgivning, vidare var avsikten att undersöka hur de i dagligvaruhandeln önskade få läkemedelsinformation. I februari 2008 gjordes en enkätstudie i Västervik som inkluderade 48 deltagare varav 29 kvinnor och 19 män. Studien visade att 71 % av deltagarna hade en positiv inställning till att köpa OTC läkemedel i livsmedelsbutiker, 58 % skulle skaffa information genom läkemedelsförpackning och bipacksedel i kombination med att de tidigare använt läkemedlet. Önskan om tillgång till personlig rådgivning på inköpsstället var störst i åldern ≤ 35 år, där 38 % ansåg sig vilja det. Slutsats av studien är att majoriteten vill kunna handla OTC läkemedel i dagligvaruhandeln och information skulle de få främst från läkemedelsförpackning/bipacksedel i kombination med erfarenheter från tidigare användning.

    2008:F5

  • 3. Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Neuronik.
    Injuries from motorcycle- and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999.2003Inngår i: Injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1566-0974, E-ISSN 1744-4985, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 131-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to study injuries from motorcycle and moped crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1999. Databases at the National Board for Health and Welfare and codes from both ICD9 and ICD10 systems were used, including patterns of age, gender, E-code and type of injury. Length of hospital stay, type of injuries and trends over time was evaluated. To get a more detailed picture of the age distribution, type of vehicle used and number of killed, data from the Swedish National Road Administration were also used. In Sweden, 27,122 individuals received in-patient care due to motorcycle and moped injuries between 1987 and 1999. The motorcycle and moped injury rate was reduced in the second half of the studied period and so were the total days of treatment per year. Males had eight times the incidence of injuries compared to females. Riders under the age of 26 and in particular those at an age of 15 had the highest incidence rate. Head injuries were the most frequent diagnosis, followed by fractures to the lower limbs. Concussion was the most frequent head injury. Focal and diffuse brain injuries combined showed the same frequency as concussion. It is concluded that more preventative strategies must be presented before the injury rate can be reduced.

  • 4.
    Aare, Sudhakar Reddy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Intensive Care Unit Muscle Wasting: Skeletal Muscle Phenotype and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM), or critical illness myopathy, is a common debilitating acquired disorder in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients characterized by generalized muscle wasting and weakness of limb and trunk muscles. A preferential loss of the thick filament protein myosin is considered pathognomonic of this disorder, but the myosin loss is observed relatively late during the disease progression. In attempt to explore the potential role of factors considered triggering AQM in sedated mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients, we have studied the early effects, prior to the myosin loss, of neuromuscular blockade (NMB), corticosteroids (CS) and sepsis separate or in combination in a porcine experimental ICU model. Specific interest has been focused on skeletal muscle gene/protein expression and regulation of muscle contraction at the muscle fiber level. This project aims at improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle specific differences in response to the ICU intervention and the role played by the different triggering factors.

    The sparing of masticatory muscle fiber function was coupled to an up-regulation of heat shock protein genes and down-regulation of myostatin are suggested to be key factors in the relative sparing of masticatory muscles. Up-regulation of chemokine activity genes and down-regulation of heat shock protein genes play a significant role in the limb muscle dysfunction associated with sepsis. The effects of corticosteroids in the development of limb muscle weakness reveals up-regulation of kinase activity and transcriptional regulation genes and the down-regulation of heat shock protein, sarcomeric, cytoskeletal and oxidative stress responsive genes. In contrast to limb and craniofacial muscles, the respiratory diaphragm muscle responded differently to the different triggering factors. MV itself appears to play a major role for the diaphragm muscle dysfunction. By targeting these genes, future experiments can give an insight into the development of innovative treatments expected at protecting muscle mass and function in critically ill ICU patients.

  • 5.
    Aaseth, Jan
    et al.
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway; Hedmark University of Appl Science, Norway.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Science NMBU, Norway.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    Council Nutr and Environm Med, Norway.
    Hestad, Knut
    Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway; Hedmark University of Appl Science, Norway.
    Dusek, Petr
    Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic; Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic; Gen University Hospital Prague, Czech Republic.
    Roos, Per M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; St Goran Hospital, Sweden.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken US.
    Treatment strategies in Alzheimers disease: a review with focus on selenium supplementation2016Inngår i: Biometals, ISSN 0966-0844, E-ISSN 1572-8773, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 827-839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder presenting one of the biggest healthcare challenges in developed countries. No effective treatment exists. In recent years the main focus of AD research has been on the amyloid hypothesis, which postulates that extracellular precipitates of beta amyloid (A beta) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the cognitive impairment seen in AD. Treatment strategies have been to reduce A beta production through inhibition of enzymes responsible for its formation, or to promote resolution of existing cerebral A beta plaques. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate significant cognitive improvements. Intracellular rather than extracellular events may be fundamental in AD pathogenesis. Selenate is a potent inhibitor of tau hyperphosphorylation, a critical step in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Some selenium (Se) compounds e.g. selenoprotein P also appear to protect APP against excessive copper and iron deposition. Selenoproteins show anti-inflammatory properties, and protect microtubules in the neuronal cytoskeleton. Optimal function of these selenoenzymes requires higher Se intake than what is common in Europe and also higher intake than traditionally recommended. Supplementary treatment with N-acetylcysteine increases levels of the antioxidative cofactor glutathione and can mediate adjuvant protection. The present review discusses the role of Se in AD treatment and suggests strategies for AD prevention by optimizing selenium intake, in accordance with the metal dysregulation hypothesis. This includes in particular secondary prevention by selenium supplementation to elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

  • 6.
    Abada, Mariam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Vilka problem finns det med förfalskade läkemedel?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmarknaden för läkemedlen beräknades år 2011 till 900 miljarder US$ enligt IMS-health. Marknaden för illegala läkemedel uppskattas vara värd mellan 75-200 miljarder dollar. I Sverige uppskattas den illegala läkemedelsmarknaden till motsvarande ≤0,5 %. Straffet för insmuggling av läkemedel till Sverige är böter eller max 2 års fängelse. Tullverket räknar med att man endast hittar 10 % av det som smugglas in. I andra länder kan straffet variera mellan böter (ekonomisk brottslighet i Afrika) till dödsstraff i Kina.

    I Utvecklingsländerna uppskattas 10-30 % av alla läkemedel som säljs vara förfalskade, jmf 1 % I-länderna. l. Förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel har många allvarliga konsekvenser på människor som exempelvis, utebliven effekt, toxiska reaktioner, förgiftningar, som kan i värsta fall leda till döden. Ett annat alvarligt problem är resistensutveckling, ökad spridning av smittsamammasjukdomar som exempel, tuberkulos och/ eller HIV/AIDS.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att besvara frågan: Vilka problem ger den ökande förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel i samhället. Undersökningen fokuserar på livstidsläkemedel, dvs ett läkemedel en person måste ta resten av sitt liv för behandling av sin kroniska sjukdom.

    För att komma till rätta med de problem, som förfalskade läkemedel, skapar krävs ett mer utvecklat samarbete mellan olika läkemedelsmyndigheter, läkemedelsföretag, internationella polisorganisationer, tull m.fl. Arbetet med att utveckla förpackningar som är svåra att förfalska bör intensifieras. Straffsatser bör kanske ses över. Det är viktigt att öka medvetandet bland allmänheten om risker med att köpa läkemedel utanför apotek (t ex via nätet).

  • 7.
    Abate, Ebba
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Belayneh, Meseret
    University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Idh, Jonna
    Vastervik Hospital, Sweden.
    Diro, Ermias
    University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Elias, Daniel
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Britton, Sven
    Karolinska Hospital, Sweden.
    Aseffa, Abraham
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Ethiopia.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity2015Inngår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 9, nr 8, artikkel-id e0003994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB) infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB.

    Methodology Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs) were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB) and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively.

    Results A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB) compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306) versus 28% (85/306), p = 0.003). Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13-103) versus 2 SFU (1-50); p = 0.02, n = 30). Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2-16.7) cells/mu l versus 2.4 (1.1-4.0) cells/mu l; p = 0.041) and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7-196) versus 1 SFU (0-31); p = 0.014) were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients.

    Conclusions Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients.

  • 8.
    Abawi, Akram
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    The effect of TGF-B1 and Fetal Bovine Serum on Sema 7A. Expression: An in Vitro study on Bone Marrow derived MSC from patients vith BCR-ABL negative Myeloproliferative neoplasms2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 9. Abbara, Aula
    et al.
    Al-Harbat, Nizar
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Abo-Yahya, Bashar
    El-Amin, Wael
    Hatcher, James
    Gabbar, Omar
    Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Refugees from Syria, Jordan2017Inngår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 885-886Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Abbasi, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysikalisk kemi, oorganisk kemi och strukturkemi.
    Lindqvist-Reis, Patric
    Eriksson, Lars
    Sandström, Dick
    Lidin, Sven
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sandström, Magnus
    Highly hydrated cations: Deficiency, mobility and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate2005Inngår i: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, nr 14, s. 4065-4077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)(n)]CF3SO3)(3), in which M=Sc-III, Lu-III, Yb-III, Tm-III or Er-III. The hydration number n increases (n=8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (H-2) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(m) and below 268 K for scandium(m). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(m) and lanthanum(m) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at; 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (Delta H degrees= -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

  • 11. Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood
    et al.
    Khan, Mir Ajab
    Khan, Nadeem
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Shah, Munir H
    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, nr 2, s. 528-536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Abbasi, Mina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Translational aspects of unbound brain to plasma concentration ratios2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:  The unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain) is one of the most important indicators for brain penetration in the area of CNS drug discovery and development. Kp,uu,brain can be calculated by combining the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,brain),  the brain free fraction (fu,brain) and  the plasma free fraction (fu,p).

    Aim:  This study has three purposes, to calculate Kp,uu,brain from publications in humans,  to collect data regarding species differences in Kp,uu,brain and to see whether Kp,uu,brain in humans differs in different  brain regions or not.

    Materials and Methods:  The values of Kp, brain were derived from positron emission tomography (PET), MRS (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy), and brain surgery for tumor removal. fu,brain and fu,p were collected from brain homogenate, equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration studies.

    Results:  Data on Kp,brain was sparse in the literature. Kp,uu,brain was calculated for sixteen different drugs in humans. According to the calculation, nine of these sixteen compounds were found to be actively influxed into the brain, six were actively effluxed from the BBB and one had a passive diffusion. Depending on the compound, Kp,uu,brain was higher or smaller in humans compared to mice and rats.  Kp,uu,brain for five compounds were calculated for different brain regions. Four compounds had a higher Kp,uu,brain value in almost all other regions than the cerebellum and one had a higher Kp,uu,brain in cerebellum than in the other regions.

    Conclusions:  No definite conclusion on Kp,uu,brain in humans, species differences in Kp,uu,brain  or Kp,uu,brain  in different human brain regions could be reached in this study. In view of the importance of Kp,uu,brain  in CNS drug discovery and development, more studies on Kp,uu,brain in humans and in the other species are required.

  • 13.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bernier, Denise
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Kisely, Steve
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders2015Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 228, nr 3, s. 538-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rasic, Daniel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service2015Inngår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 64, s. 114-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether a mixed population of patients treated with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) would exhibit reduced healthcare costs in long-term follow-up. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed in which data on pre- and post-treatment healthcare cost were compared for all ISTDP cases treated in a tertiary care service over a nine year period. Observed cost changes were compared with those of a control group of patients referred but never treated. Physician and hospital costs were compared to treatment cost estimates and normal population cost figures. Results: 1082 patients were included; 890 treated cases for a broad range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and 192 controls. The treatment averaged 7.3 sessions and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems significantly improved. The average cost reduction per treated case was $12,628 over 3 follow-up years: this compared favorably with the estimated treatment cost of $708 per patient. Significant differences were seen between groups for follow-up hospital costs. Conclusions: ISTDP in this setting appears to facilitate reductions in healthcare costs, supporting the notion that brief dynamic psychotherapy provided in a tertiary setting can be beneficial to health care systems overall. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Abberud, Madelene
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Time to first antibiotic administration in The Alfred Emergency and Trauma Centre for suspected febrile neutropenia: a retrospective chart review2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a frequent complication of chemotherapy use in cancer patients. There is evidence to suggest that the time to antibiotic administration is associated with increase survival and effective clinical outcome. The Australian consensus guidelines for the management of FN in adult cancer patients recommends treatment within 30 minutes to patients with features of systemic compromise. A study performed at The Alfred Hospital in 2010 revealed a median time of 145 minutes to first antibiotic administration. A new guideline was therefore developed and education was implemented. This study was conducted to evaluate the intervention. Aim: To determine time to first antibiotic prescribing and administration for patients with suspected FN presenting to the Alfred Emergency and Trauma centre. Materials and Methods: The electronic medical record of 112 episodes of suspected FN presenting between March and August 2012 were reviewed.  Data were retrospective collected according to a FN data spreadsheet. An observational study were also performed at  The Alfred Emergency and Trauma centre during October and November 2012 to determine time to first antimicrobial prescribing, because this data could not be collected from the electronic medical record. Results: The median time from presentation to antibiotic prescribing was 68 minutes. The median time from presentation to antibiotic administration was 121 minutes. Conclusions: The implementation of the new guidelines has reduced the time with 16.6%, but the target first antibiotic administration within 30 minutes has not been reached.

  • 16.
    Abdal Hadi, Jehan
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hur skiljer sig traditionella från nyare generationer antipsykotika åt vad gäller biverkningen viktökning?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel är basen för behandling av schizofreni, en psykisk sjukdom som uppträder redan hos unga människor. Symtomen vid schizofreni brukar delas in i positiva symtom (hallucinationer, vanföreställningar, paranoida tankar), negativa symtom (koncentrationssvårigheter, nedsatt språk- och tankeförmåga, minskat intresse för omgivningen, och initiativlöshet), samt kognitiva symtom (minnesproblem, problem med uppmärksamhet och koncentration).

    Antipsykotiska läkemedel delas in i typiska (den äldre generationen) och atypiska (den nyare generationen) antipsykotika. För båda grupperna antipsykotiska läkemedel finns det risk för biverkningar. De vanligaste biverkningarna vid behandling med den äldre generationen antipsykotika är extrapyramidala biverkningar. En biverkning som förefaller mer specifik för de nya atypiska preparaten är viktökning, vilken även kan orsaka utveckling av många allvarliga sjukdomstillstånd.

    Syftet med detta arbete var att jämföra typiska och atypiska antipsykotiska läkemedel med avseende på utveckling av viktökning.

    För att få svar på min frågeställning har en litteraturstudie av fem vetenskapliga artiklar genomförts. De vetenskapliga artiklarna har hittats genom databassökningar i PubMed, medan övriga fakta har hämtats från andra källor.

    Resultatet av de vetenskapliga artiklarna visar att det finns skillnader mellan traditionella och nyare generationer antipsykotika vad gäller tendens att orsaka viktökning. Med några undantag, är flera antipsykotiska läkemedel, som tillhör den nyare generationen, associerade med högre risk för utveckling av viktökning jämfört med den äldre generationen antipsykotika. Viktökning orsakas mest av klozapin, följt av olanzapin och risperidon. Quetiapin orsakar, i likhet med haloperidol, mindre viktökning.

    På grund av detta faktum, forskar man numera kring orsakerna till denna skillnad för att förbättra biverkningsprofilen hos framtida antipsykotika.

    2008:F2

  • 17. Abdallah, Qasem M. A.
    et al.
    Phillips, Roger M.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Cosentino, Laura
    Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy
    Etzad, Jasarat
    Wheelhouse, Richard T.
    Kiakos, Konstantinos
    Bingham, John P.
    Hartley, John A.
    Patterson, Laurence H.
    Pors, Klaus