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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2.
    Aage, Hans
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    25. Economic Instruments: Three Interlinkages Between Ecology and Economics2012Inngår i: Rural Development and Land Use / [ed] Lars Rydén and Ingrid Karlsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, s. 280-293Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Aage, Hans
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    51. The environment2002Inngår i: The Baltic Sea Region: Cultures, Politics, Societies / [ed] Witold Maciejewski, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2002, 1, s. 639-650Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4. Aalto, Juha
    et al.
    Riihimäki, Henri
    Meineri, Eric
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Luoto, Miska
    Revealing topoclimatic heterogeneity using meteorological station data2017Inngår i: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 37, nr Suppl. 1, s. 544-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate is a crucial driver of the distributions and activity of multiple biotic and abiotic processes, and thus high-quality and high-resolution climate data are often prerequisite in various environmental research. However, contemporary gridded climate products suffer critical problems mainly related to sub-optimal pixel size and lack of local topography-driven temperature heterogeneity. Here, by integrating meteorological station data, high-quality terrain information and multivariate modelling, we aim to explicitly demonstrate this deficiency. Monthly average temperatures (1981-2010) from Finland, Sweden and Norway were modelled using generalized additive modelling under (1) a conventional (i.e. considering geographical location, elevation and water cover) and (2) a topoclimatic framework (i.e. also accounting for solar radiation and cold-air pooling). The performance of the topoclimatic model was significantly higher than the conventional approach for most months, with bootstrapped mean R-2 for the topoclimatic model varying from 0.88 (January) to 0.95 (October). The estimated effect of solar radiation was evident during summer, while cold air pooling was identified to improve local temperature estimates in winter. The topoclimatic modelling exposed a substantial temperature heterogeneity within coarser landscape units (>5 degrees C/1 km(-2) in summer) thus unveiling a wide range of potential microclimatic conditions neglected by the conventional approach. Moreover, the topoclimatic model predictions revealed a pronounced asymmetry in average temperature conditions, causing isotherms during summer to differ several hundreds of metres in altitude between the equator and pole facing slopes. In contrast, cold-air pooling in sheltered landscapes lowered the winter temperatures ca. 1.1 degrees C/100m towards the local minimum altitude. Noteworthy, the analysis implies that conventional models produce biassed predictions of long-term average temperature conditions, with errors likely to be high at sites associated with complex topography.

  • 5. Aamaas, Borgar
    et al.
    Boggild, Carl Egede
    Stordal, Frode
    Berntsen, Terje
    Holmen, Kim
    Ström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Elemental carbon deposition to Svalbard snow from Norwegian settlements and long-range transport2011Inngår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 340-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact on snow pack albedo from local elemental carbon (EC) sources in Svalbard has been investigated for the winter of 2008. Highly elevated EC concentrations in the snow are observed around the settlements of Longyearbyen and Svea (locally > 1000 ng g(-1), about 200 times over the background level), while EC concentrations similar to the background level are seen around Ny-Alesund. Near Longyearbyen and Svea, darkened snow influenced by wind transported coal dust from open coal stockpiles is clearly visible from satellite images and by eye at the ground. As a first estimate, the reduction in snow albedo caused by local EC pollution from the Norwegian settlements has been compared to the estimated reduction caused by long-range transported EC for entire Svalbard. The effect of local EC from Longyearbyen, Svea and all Norwegian settlements are estimated to 2.1%, 7.9% and 10% of the total impact of EC, respectively. The EC particles tend to stay on the surface during melting, and elevated EC concentrations due to the spring melt was observed. This accumulation of EC enhances the positive albedo feedbacks. The EC concentrations were observed to be larger in metamorphosed snow than in fresh snow, and especially around ice lenses.

  • 6. Aaro, Sven
    et al.
    Sjöström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Airborne and ground geophysics used for regional tectonic analysis2003Inngår i: IUGG 2003, Sapporo, Japan: No GAV.06/10P/A11-004, B260., 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7. Aas, W.
    et al.
    Tsyro, S.
    Bieber, E.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Luftmiljö.
    Ceburnis, D.
    Ellermann, T.
    Fagerli, H.
    Froelich, M.
    Gehrig, R.
    Makkonen, U.
    Nemitz, E.
    Otjes, R.
    Perez, N.
    Perrino, C.
    Prevot, A. S. H.
    Putaud, J. -P
    Simpson, D.
    Spindler, G.
    Vana, M.
    Yttri, K. E.
    Lessons learnt from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods2012Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, nr 17, s. 8073-8094Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first EMEP intensive measurement periods were held in June 2006 and January 2007. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol chemical compositions, including the gas/aerosol partitioning of inorganic compounds. The measurement program during these periods included daily or hourly measurements of the secondary inorganic components, with additional measurements of elemental- and organic carbon (EC and OC) and mineral dust in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. These measurements have provided extended knowledge regarding the composition of particulate matter and the temporal and spatial variability of PM, as well as an extended database for the assessment of chemical transport models. This paper summarise the first experiences of making use of measurements from the first EMEP intensive measurement periods along with EMEP model results from the updated model version to characterise aerosol composition. We investigated how the PM chemical composition varies between the summer and the winter month and geographically. The observation and model data are in general agreement regarding the main features of PM10 and PM2.5 composition and the relative contribution of different components, though the EMEP model tends to give slightly lower estimates of PM10 and PM2.5 compared to measurements. The intensive measurement data has identified areas where improvements are needed. Hourly concurrent measurements of gaseous and particulate components for the first time facilitated testing of modelled diurnal variability of the gas/aerosol partitioning of nitrogen species. In general, the modelled diurnal cycles of nitrate and ammonium aerosols are in fair agreement with the measurements, but the diurnal variability of ammonia is not well captured. The largest differences between model and observations of aerosol mass are seen in Italy during winter, which to a large extent may be explained by an underestimation of residential wood burning sources. It should be noted that both primary and secondary OC has been included in the calculations for the first time, showing promising results. Mineral dust is important, especially in southern Europe, and the model seems to capture the dust episodes well. The lack of measurements of mineral dust hampers the possibility for model evaluation for this highly uncertain PM component. There are also lessons learnt regarding improved measurements for future intensive periods. There is a need for increased comparability between the measurements at different sites. For the nitrogen compounds it is clear that more measurements using artefact free methods based on continuous measurement methods and/or denuders are needed. For EC/OC, a reference methodology (both in field and laboratory) was lacking during these periods giving problems with comparability, though measurement protocols have recently been established and these should be followed by the Parties to the EMEP Protocol. For measurements with no defined protocols, it might be a good solution to use centralised laboratories to ensure comparability across the network. To cope with the introduction of these new measurements, new reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure that all proper information about the methodologies and data quality is given.

  • 8.
    Aastrup Lotta, Mats
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Lewin-Pihlblad, Lotta
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Gierup, Jonas
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    McCarthy, Jenny
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Åsman, Magnus
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Förslag till nytt nationellt miljöövervakningsprogram för grundvatten inom Sötvattenprogrammet2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har utrett i vilken utsträckning en kombination av trendstationer och omdrevsstationerkan svara upp till ramdirektivets krav avseende den kontrollerande övervakningen avförekomster som inte bedömts vara utsatta för risk att inte nå målen.

  • 9.
    Aastrup, Mats
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Lewin Pihlblad, Lotta
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    McCarthy, Jenny
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Myndigheter, Sveriges geologiska undersökning, SGU.
    Screening av miljögifter i grundvatten - sammanställning av undersökningar gjorda 2003-20092010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Aastrup, Mats
    et al.
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Blekinge län.
    Lång, Lars-Ove
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Blekinge län.
    Thunholm, Bo
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Blekinge län.
    Åsman, Magnus
    Utförare miljöövervakning, Länstyrelserna, länsstyrelsen, lst, Länsstyrelsen Blekinge län.
    Utvärdering av grundvattendata från den regionalamiljöövervakningen i Blekinge: Rapport till Länsstyrelsen Blekinge län2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges geologiska undersökning (SGU) har fått i uppdrag av länsstyrelsen i Blekinge

    län att utvärdera länets nuvarande program för övervakning av grundvatten. Programmet

    omfattar regelbundna analyser av grundvatten från 13 brunnar vid vattenverk, 21 privata

    brunnar i jordbruks- eller skogsmark samt 30 källor. I uppdraget ingår att bedöma

    grundvattenstatusen enligt Naturvårdsverkets ”Bedömningsgrunder för miljökvalitet –

    Grundvatten” samt att göra tidseriestudier av vissa parametrar. Ett förslag till framtida

    övervakningsprogram lämnas. Uppdraget redovisas i denna rapport och som underlag

    har legat mätdata tillgängliga i mars 2001.

    Länsstyrelsens mål med programmet är att kunna kontrollera att grundvattnet kan ge en

    tillräcklig mängd dricksvatten med fullgod kvalitet. Tyngdpunkten ligger på övervakning av

    försurning av grundvattnet. Genom att bevaka både grunda grundvattentäkter med snabb

    omsättning av grundvattnet samt djupa med långsam omsättning är avsikten att både

    långtidseffekter och tidiga miljöförändringar skall kunna spåras. Detta syfte illustreras av att

    den genomsnittliga alkaliniteten för lokalerna ligger inom hela intervallet 0 till 236 mg/l.

    Enligt bedömningsgrunder för miljökvalitet – Grundvatten finns tre geografiska regioner

    representerade inom Blekinge: A – Sydsveriges sedimentära berggrundsområde, B –

    Sydsvenska höglandet och C – Väst- och sydostkusten. Efter indelning i grundvattenmiljö

    och djup hamnade 20 av lokalerna i

    B3g = ”grunda brunnar (<4 m) i öppna akviferer i

    morän eller svallsediment i region Sydsvenska höglandet”. Vid indelningen erhölls för

    övriga typområden-djup få lokaler. Resultaten visar ändå god samstämmighet med

    referensvärden. Alkaliniteten för lokalerna i morän i både region B och C är dock låg vilket

    visar på att övervakningsnätet bevakar grundvatten med mycket låg buffertförmåga.

    Mätseriernas längd och frekvens i provtagning varierar för lokalerna i de olika

    undersökningsprogrammen. För tolkningen av tidsmässiga förändringar används i första

    hand lokaler med tidsserier från en 15 års-period och där minst åtta analyser har utförts. De

    övriga, korta tidsserierna återspeglar främst tendenser från 90-talet. Resultaten visar att i

    jonsvaga grundvatten har en viss ökning skett av pH, alkalinitet och färg medan halterna av

    kalcium, magnesium och sulfat minskat. Förändringarna i halter som ger de signifikanta

    trenderna är oftast små. Det finns inget tydligt mönster i förändringar av klorid och

    konduktivitet. Halterna av kväve och fosfor minskar i flera lokaler.

    Det är av värde att de analyser som utförs är så samstämmiga som möjligt inom hela

    övervakningsprogrammet. För samtliga prov bör huvudkomponenterna kalcium,

    magnesium, kalium, natrium, alkalinitet, sulfat, klorid och kväve ingå för att jonbalanser

    skall kunna beräknas och kvaliteten i analyserna kunna kontrolleras. En översiktlig

    prioritering av källor och brunnar har föreslagits. För slutlig bedömning av programmets

    framtida omfattning behöver informationen om respektive lokal utökas, främst med en

    hydrogeologisk dokumentation i fält.

  • 11. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, s. 660-670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 12.
    Abarca-Guerrero, Lilliana
    et al.
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Maas, Ger
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Desafíos en la gestión de residuos sólidos para las ciudades de países en desarrollo [Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries]2015Inngår i: Tecnología en Marcha, ISSN 0379-3982, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 141-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  • 13. Abbak, Ramazan A.
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ellmann, Artu
    Ustun, Aydin
    A precise gravimetric geoid model in a mountainous area with scarce gravity data: a case study in central Turkey2012Inngår i: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 909-927Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In mountainous regions with scarce gravity data, gravimetric geoid determination is a difficult task that needs special attention to obtain reliable results satisfying the demands, e.g., of engineering applications. The present study investigates a procedure for combining a suitable global geopotential model and available terrestrial data in order to obtain a precise regional geoid model for Konya Closed Basin (KCB). The KCB is located in the central part of Turkey, where a very limited amount of terrestrial gravity data is available. Various data sources, such as the Turkish digital elevation model with 3 '' x 3 '' resolution, a recently published satellite-only global geopotential model from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite (GRACE) and the ground gravity observations, are combined in the least-squares sense by the modified Stokes' formula. The new gravimetric geoid model is compared with Global Positioning System (GPS)/levelling at the control points, resulting in the Root Mean Square Error (RMS) differences of +/- 6.4 cm and 1.7 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. This regional geoid model appears to he more accurate than the Earth Gravitational Model 2008, which is the best global model over the target area, with the RMS differences of +/- 8.6 cm and 1.8 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. These results show that the accuracy of a regional gravimetric model can be augmented by the combination of a global geopotential model and local terrestrial data in mountainous areas even though the quality and resolution of the primary terrestrial data are not satisfactory to the geoid modelling procedure.