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  • 1.
    Adjam, Maryam
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Minnesspår: Hågkomstens rum och rörelse i skuggan av flykt2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the memories of Estonian refugees moving to Sweden in the wake of World War II, I analyze the concepts of “memory space” and history within the framework of the Escape as a master narrative. Following the research participants to the sites of their memories in Estonia and Sweden today, raised the questions what constitutes a lived memory space, and how is history defined within it?

    Through a combination of a phenomenological analysis of memory’s lived ex­perience, using Walter Benjamin’s concept of montage as radical remembering and its dialectical relation to history, I show how embodied memories shape their own space, a space not always framed by historical master narratives and identity posi­tions, but rather a searching space that is always changing. Dealing with the politics of place and representations, these memories are constantly loaded and unloaded with meaning. Yet the space of lived memory is not always a creation of meaning. Walking around, searching for traces, a memory space confronts the place and maps its own geography. It turns to a spatial and temporal flow, which intertwines place and experience, and erases the past and future as homogeneous categories. It is a living space of memory, rather than a memorial space of representations.

    The analysis focuses further on the tensions between remembering as a dialogue with history and memory’s ongoing acts of embodied experience. The position of in-betweenness appears in these stories of escape, not as a state of in-between home and away, past and present, but rather as an ongoing space-making process be­tween different modes and layers of memory. This is a process aware of the constant changes in the understandings of both history and personal experiences, intertwin­ing these new interpretations with embodied memory and thereby constantly add­ing new layers of experience to it. Memory’s tracing illuminates a memory poetics of the meanwhile and the in-between, which refuses historical closure.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Fäderneslandets kännedom: om svenska ortsbeskrivningsprojekt och ämbetsmäns folklivsskildringar under 1700- och 1800-talet2000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period c. 1720-1900 a large quantity of descriptions of rural areas in Sweden were set down on paper. Some 700 local descriptions were printed at the time or have appeared in print during the twentieth century. The most common geographical unit for local descriptions is the parish. As a rule the author was a public servant, and the clergy in particular were industrious local descriptive writers.

    In part the aim of this thesis is to present the Swedish local description projects and local descriptive literature as a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A further aim is to investigate the way the folklife descriptions which come into most of the local descriptions are constituted for the period c. 1750-1850.

    The local descriptions which form the main object of analysis and discussion in the thesis comprise contemporary delineations which came into being in order to achieve an economic-topographical description of the country, where agriculture and the individual economy of the common man were the focus of attention. These descriptions to a certain extent define the problems the authors associate with the economic life of the countryside and way of life of the population.

    Local descriptions constitute a particular category of geographical delineation and have either come into being on the author's own initiative, in reply to a particular institution or the questionnaire of a particular person, or as an academic dissertation. The authors of local descriptions are in most cases connected with the area they describe. The work was mainly carried out by voluntary effort.

    The idea of the need for a national and methodically organised inventorying of resources associated with the physical environment was the most important reason for undertaking local description projects. These Swedish local descriptions were one of several important cornerstones in the endeavours of the State to increase the population, income from taxes, and welfare in general. Local descriptions constituted materialised visions of optimism for growth, and a better and happier future for the country and its inhabitants, in the modern Sweden which was beginning to emerge in the mid-eighteenth century. Another overall aim was to improve the moral status of the peasantry and promote in them a moral and virtuous way of life. The enlightenment of the common man thereby became a didactic matter, touched on in many local descriptions. This process was not unique to Sweden; corresponding efforts took place in a whole host of other European countries.

    The selection of sixty or so local descriptions studied in this thesis are characterised to a great extent by dualistic tendencies on the part of the public servants in their writings about, and interpretations of, peasant character and the state of the agricultural economy. Descriptions of the noble and exemplary true Swedish peasant faithful to his king, hospitable and honest are combined with descriptions of those same people's immodest consumption of spirits, lack of foresight, inclination to the "superstitious", and pernicious love of material things. In actual fact local descriptive writings consisted of an encounter: on the one side between more abstract and political discourses which contained thoughts of an ideal social organisation and the true nature of a population; while on the other side were the everyday experiences of separate writers vis a vis the qualities and situations of the local peasant population, compiled from their position as objectively observing public servants.

  • 3.
    Almgren Mason, Suzanne
    Dept. of Culture and Media/Ethnology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Life in the Labyrinth: A Reflexive Exploration of Research and Politics2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about exploring the politics within and around research. The starting point is a European project which ran from late 1997 to the end of 2000. It was called "Self-employment activities concerning women and mi­norities: their success or failure in relation to social citizenship policies" and had as its objective to provide the EU-Commission with recommendations for improved self-employment policies. Background material was comple­mented by interviews with "experts", but the main source of information was in the form of biographical interviews with the self-employed, or for­merly self-employed, themselves. The qualitative method was used as a way of researching how individuals' background and experiences influenced their decision to become self-employed as well as their tendency to use labour market policies available for starting businesses. It was also a way to find out how those policies impacted on the individuals' lives. The conse­quent recommendations included a suggestion for broadening existing policies to comprise social aspects as well as financial allowances, and also the caution that self-employment was perhaps not the best solution to labour market and social exclusion.

    This latter doubt arose during project work, as did questions about methodology, the role of the researcher, and eventually about the politics that inform research. Only briefly touched upon in the project reports, these issues instead became the basis for the thesis. A reflexive rereading of the Final Report led to a critical examination of the political uses of con­cepts and categories, of how stereotypes affect research, and of the embeddedness in ethnocentric discourses of both research and researcher. The use of postcolonial and feminist theory, discourse analysis and a social constructionist perspective broadened the analytical possibilities and fur­thered understanding of the connections between politics and research. A conclusion is that a comprehensive change in the social order as well as in people's conscience is required to stem ethnic discrimination in society and the perpetuation of stereotypes and preconstructed categories in research.

  • 4.
    Almgren Mason, Suzanne
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Kultur och medier.
    Life in the labyrinth: a reflexive exploration of research and politics2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about exploring the politics within and around research. The starting point is a European project which ran from late 1997 to the end of 2000. It was called "Self-employment activities concerning women and mi­norities: their success or failure in relation to social citizenship policies" and had as its objective to provide the EU-Commission with recommendations for improved self-employment policies. Background material was comple­mented by interviews with "experts", but the main source of information was in the form of biographical interviews with the self-employed, or for­merly self-employed, themselves. The qualitative method was used as a way of researching how individuals' background and experiences influenced their decision to become self-employed as well as their tendency to use labour market policies available for starting businesses. It was also a way to find out how those policies impacted on the individuals' lives. The conse­quent recommendations included a suggestion for broadening existing policies to comprise social aspects as well as financial allowances, and also the caution that self-employment was perhaps not the best solution to labour market and social exclusion.

    This latter doubt arose during project work, as did questions about methodology, the role of the researcher, and eventually about the politics that inform research. Only briefly touched upon in the project reports, these issues instead became the basis for the thesis. A reflexive rereading of the Final Report led to a critical examination of the political uses of con­cepts and categories, of how stereotypes affect research, and of the embeddedness in ethnocentric discourses of both research and researcher. The use of postcolonial and feminist theory, discourse analysis and a social constructionist perspective broadened the analytical possibilities and fur­thered understanding of the connections between politics and research. A conclusion is that a comprehensive change in the social order as well as in people's conscience is required to stem ethnic discrimination in society and the perpetuation of stereotypes and preconstructed categories in research.

  • 5.
    Amft, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Sápmi i förändringens tid: en studie av svenska samers levnadsvillkor under 1900-talet ur ett genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv2000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of the changing living conditions for the Sami in Swedish Såpmi (Samiland) throughout the twentieth century with an analysis based on a gender and ethnic perspective.

    At the turn of the century, the Sami lived as nomadic reindeer herders and were primarily self- sufficient. This changed as the reindeer herders shifted from a self-sufficient lifestyle to a money economy tor a variety of reasons. Over time they became more integrated in the dominant Swedish society and even more dependent on it. Reindeer herding has become increasingly mechanized since the I960's with rationalizations as a result. Even in to the 1990's the industry was the object of streamlining ettorts. A process of masculinization has also occurred and today's reindeer herding is a distinctly male coded profession. Women do not regularly participate in the daily work of reindeer breeding and their ability to have any direct influence on the herding districts (sameby) is limited. This is also largely true in terms of the Sami Parliament, the Sami popularly elected body.

    The Sami population has experienced unfavorable special legislation and regulation from the State. The population was divided into several different categories with different rights. Sami women were marginalized two-fold and subordinated, partly because of their ethnic affiliation (as Sami) and partly because of their sex (as women). This continues to be true today.

    The analysis of gender division of labor shows that a married couple had their own autonomous areas of power within the household. The wife was however still subordinate to her husband in his role as master of the family. The older reindeer herding society was not noted for its equality. There was a distinct hierarchy based on sex, age, and social status. Division of labor in modern reindeer breeding is in principle based on the same normative system as the older nomadic society.

    The study of the ethnic processes in Såpmi shows among other things that from a Sami perspective, a person is Sami who is related to other Sami and whose actions are based on a Sami identity. It is also clear today that there are many different Sami identities, that an individual person draws from a number of such identities and that it is the context that determines which of these are active in any given situation. The Sami identity is sex-based, i.e. there is a difference between a "male Sami" and a "female Sami." Sami women, unlike Sami men, cannot be politically active while also being active based on their sexual identity. Were they to do so, they would be excluded by definition from their ethnic group. Sami women must therefore subordinate themselves as women to be "genuine" Sami. They thereby contribute to their own marginalization and help maintain their own subordinated position in the Sami society.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Etnologiska avdelningen.
    Arbetslöshet och arbetsfrihet: Moral, makt och motstånd2003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment is constructed as a problem by institutions and individuals, at a structural as well as individual level. In the "black discourse" of unemployment, power is produced by talking and naming, by symbolic images, by dichotomisation and hierarchisation of categories based on the fundamental dichotomy of nature/reason, but also by feelings, actions and bodies. The well-being of the unemployed is constantly threatened by this discourse, yet they nevertheless reproduce it when necessary. But there is resistance to all this. First, there is a resistance against politicians and former employees in particular and elites in general. Then there is a reflexive resistance, characterised by a critique and de-legitimation of the myths of unemployment and thereby the modern work ethic. This depreciation of values and a relativistic standpoint is seen here as a sign of a representational crisis. In the practising of a life free from work, I also see a kind of resistance. The women seem to need what I call an "existential space", sometimes fulfilled in unemployment. The men living happily without work seem to need an ideological legitimation of this, rejecting the materialistic lifestyle in the contemporary western world. Finally, I see a kind of "practised resistance" (often unintended) in alternative outcome, such as the mutual help in a "moral economy", small-scale cultivating, fishing and hunting and economic strategies. Since the discourse of unemployment is motivated by the relation between the modern institutions of wage labour and capitalism, the activities based on other relations, such as reciprocity and non-consumption in this case, can be defined as a kind of resistance. It is a resistance readable in the effect, not the intention, of it.

  • 7.
    Arell, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Rennomadismen i Torne lappmark: markanvändning under kolonisationsepoken i fr.a. Enontekis socken1977Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Aronsson, Inga-Lill
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Negotiating Involuntary Resettlement: A study of local bargaining during the construction of the Zimapán dam2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to present and analyze the negotiation process between the Mexican Power Board (CFE) and the peasants of Ejido Vista Hermosa, who were displaced by the building of the Zimapán dam in central Mexico. I use these negotiations as a focal point to identify the strategies, the reasoning, the priorities, and the conflicts of interest of the two main actors in the resettlement project. I try to grasp and describe some of the items, events and transformations that made up the negotiations during the implementation phase. My attempts have been to show how highly dynamic, multileveled and multifaceted the negotiation process was and how profound and extensive the impacts were in the resettled peasant society. Furthermore, I also demonstrate how a powerful national institution, the CFE, was affected by the process and that an unexpected and dynamic field of social interaction developed between the main actors during the most intense period of the implementation phase.

    My main conclusion is that the resettled peasants faced a disarticulation of their society. The experts dismantled their society and chopped it up into small defined units (economic, political, social) with an emphasis on the material aspects (gate for gate, tree for tree). The peasants' way of life was scrutinized, objectified, quantified and evaluated. It was emptied of its cultural content and it became abstract and negotiable. The peasants, too, had to take a step back and look at their society with new eyes. They had to make up their minds, under the severe time pressure of the technical schedule for the building of the dam, which set the agenda, what they wanted to do with their future lives. Under these circumstances, they had to negotiate about cultural key symbols: the river, the land and the trees. This objectification, which was necessary for the negotiations, seems to have unraveled a delicate underlying socio-cultural fabric.

    Throughout the thesis, I have emphasized an ethnographic perspective, even though I have touched upon theoretical issues concerning time and space structures, events and transformations within the local system. I seek this ethnographic specificity because I see it as a way out of the simplistic duality of global contra local and as a way to avoid viewing the negotiations as an inflexible, hierarchical one-way relation.

  • 9.
    Aronsson, Inga-Lill
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Negotiating Involuntary Resettlement: A study of local bargaining during the construction of the Zimapán dam2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to present and analyze the negotiation process between the Mexican Power Board (CFE) and the peasants of Ejido Vista Hermosa, who were displaced by the building of the Zimapán dam in central Mexico. I use these negotiations as a focal point to identify the strategies, the reasoning, the priorities, and the conflicts of interest of the two main actors in the resettlement project. I try to grasp and describe some of the items, events and transformations that made up the negotiations during the implementation phase. My attempts have been to show how highly dynamic, multileveled and multifaceted the negotiation process was and how profound and extensive the impacts were in the resettled peasant society. Furthermore, I also demonstrate how a powerful national institution, the CFE, was affected by the process and that an unexpected and dynamic field of social interaction developed between the main actors during the most intense period of the implementation phase.

    My main conclusion is that the resettled peasants faced a disarticulation of their society. The experts dismantled their society and chopped it up into small defined units (economic, political, social) with an emphasis on the material aspects (gate for gate, tree for tree). The peasants' way of life was scrutinized, objectified, quantified and evaluated. It was emptied of its cultural content and it became abstract and negotiable. The peasants, too, had to take a step back and look at their society with new eyes. They had to make up their minds, under the severe time pressure of the technical schedule for the building of the dam, which set the agenda, what they wanted to do with their future lives. Under these circumstances, they had to negotiate about cultural key symbols: the river, the land and the trees. This objectification, which was necessary for the negotiations, seems to have unraveled a delicate underlying socio-cultural fabric.

    Throughout the thesis, I have emphasized an ethnographic perspective, even though I have touched upon theoretical issues concerning time and space structures, events and transformations within the local system. I seek this ethnographic specificity because I see it as a way out of the simplistic duality of global contra local and as a way to avoid viewing the negotiations as an inflexible, hierarchical one-way relation.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Alf
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Etnologi.
    Sågarnas sång: folkligt musicerande i sågverkssamhället Holmsund 1850-19801991Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the public music-making by locals in Holmsund 1850—1980, and to explain the great variety of musical forms in hope to thereby illuminate the importance of local music-making for the workers' musical taste, but also how workers' musical aesthetics were affected by a more general working-class culture. The variety of musical forms is explained according to John Blacking's distinction between change of musical system, and variation and innovation within a musical system.

    There are two major changes of the musical system. The first generations of workers in Holmsund were recruited from the surrounding countryside, and the main structure of their music-making seems to have remained unchanged. During the 1880s and 1890s there is an introduction of new elements which dominate the whole industrial epoch: brass instruments become the most highly valued instruments, and the thoroughly organized group playing. The new ideals of instrument sound are related to the new soundscape of the industrial society. Organized group playing is seen as homological with the social organization of industrial production, where the work of individuals in different departments is coordinated by a conductor/executive in power.

    During the decade of the 1960s the musical system is once more changed. Electronic technology changes the concepts of sounds and distribution forms, the influence of local music-making on public musical taste became marginal. Local music-making cannot therefore be said to reflect a workers' aesthetic, but should rather be interpreted as tendencies counteracting the professionalism and mediafication of modern society.

    These epochal models outline the basic structural frame of the musical system of each period and the role assigned to local music-making. At the same time there is a great variety of musical forms within each period. These variations are systematized as temporarily-used ways fo managing certain pairs of concepts, which are seen as oppositional or complementary. These pairs are: individual/collective, ideals of equality/professionalization, education/entertainment, continuity/innovation, culture/subculture, and male/female.

    Finally, the ways in which values and attitudes of the general working-class culture influence the local music scene are analyzed. Instead of the abstract ideals of composition, the usefulness of the music is stressed in popular aesthetics. The genius cult of art musics does not fit into popular music situations, where the will to work hard for the audience is valued instead. Ways of relating to the body form another distinction between bourgeois and worker culture. Popular music is much centred around dance music, which is also used in concert situations. What these values and attitudes have in common is that they are part of a popular aesthetic which the educated aesthetic uses as a negative reference point.

  • 11.
    Ask, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Lyssna till ditt hjärta: Muslimska moderskap och modrandets villkor i Sverige2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the meanings and conditions of motherhood for some Muslim women in Sweden, the majority of which live in Stockholm. The analysis is based mainly on 16 in-depth interviews with women who self-identify as Muslims. A majority of them were born in Sweden.

    In this study, motherhood and mothering are defined as intentional care work situated within, and shaped by, specific social, cultural and historical contexts. I examine which gendered, religious and spatial meanings are associated with mothering and Muslim identity in a Swedish transnational context. The analysis shows that religion (for most of the women) constitutes an interpretational frame for motherhood and for how children should be mothered into good Muslims and citizens. The women represent Islam as a facilitating religion by making a distinction between religion and culture. The study also shows how the women approach the problem of maintaining the children’s Muslim identities and their self-esteem in a secularized and islamophobic Swedish context, and how they stress the importance of the child developing a strong inner self. Based on the women’s own experiences of having been singled out as different, they respond to a racist logic associated with certain norms and conceptions about what counts as freedom or oppression. The interviews also reveal a transnational aspect of their mothering in which they consider what other places can offer their children. The thesis shows on the one hand how an authentic Muslim identity is related to ideas about Muslim places and origins; on the other hand it demonstrates how the women’s ambivalent affinities with Sweden, and (what they consider to be) Swedish and Muslim values, destabilize such an unambiguous connection. These ambivalent identifications show how the women’s conditional affinities become relevant for how they speak about motherhood and mothering and for how they relate to questions concerning “the good of the child”.

  • 12.
    Avdan, Nazli
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    ‘Collaborative Competition’: Stance-taking and Positioning in the European Parliament2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Parliament (EP) is the scene where certain issues concerning over 500 million ‘Europeans’ are publicly debated and where politically relevant groupings are discursively coconstructed. While the Members of the Parliament (MEPs) pursue their political agendas, intergroup boundaries are drawn, reinforced, and/or transgressed. Speakers constantly take stances on behalf of groupings in relation to some presupposed other groupings and argue what differentiates ‘Self’ from ‘Others’. This study examines patterns of language use by the MEPs as they engage in the contextually and historically situated dialogical processes of intergroup positioning and stance-taking. It further focuses on the strategic and competitive activities of grouping, grounding, and alignment in order to reveal the dynamic construction of intergroup boundaries.

    The study is based on a collection of Blue-card question-answer sequences from the plenary debates held at the EP in 2011, when the Sovereign Debt Crisis had been stabilized to some degree but still evoked plenty of controversy.

    Theoretically the study builds on Stance Theory (Du Bois, 2007), Positioning Theory (Davies & Harré, 1990), and several broadly social constructivist approaches to discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995).

    The analysis shows that intergroup positioning in the EP emerges as what I call a ‘collaborative competition’ between contradictory ideologies and political agendas. The MEPs strategically manipulate their opponents' prior or projected utterances in order to set up positions for self, a grouping he or she stands for, and thereby its adversaries. All participants engage in the maintenance and negotiation of intergroup boundaries, even though the boundaries hardly ever coincide between the different speakers. They discursively fence off some imaginary territories, leaving their adversaries with vague positions.

    When asking Blue-card questions, the MEPs use a particular turn organization, which involves routine forms of interactional units, namely addressing, question framing and question forms, each of which is shown to contribute to stance-taking. A dynamic model of stance-taking is suggested, allowing for a fluid transformation of the stance object as well as the discursively constructed stance-takers.

    While Blue-card questions are meant to serve as a structured procedure for eliciting information from a speaker, the analysis demonstrates that the MEPs accomplish various divergent actions that serve intergroup positioning. The dissertation thus contributes to the understanding of the discursive games played in the EP as the MEPs strive to construct social realities that fit their political ends.

  • 13.
    Aðalsteinsson, Jón Hnefill
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Under the cloak: [the acceptance of Christianity in Iceland with particular reference to the religious attitudes prevailing at the time]1978Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Barrett, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Paths to Adulthood: Freedom, Belonging, and Temporalities in Mbunda Biographies from Western Zambia2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Michael Barrett explores the relationship between adulthood and historical processes in a rural district of Western Zambia. Approaching the life cycle from a perspective of social practice, the potential and limits of conditioning is illuminated through ethnography and life histories of Mbunda people in Kalabo District of Western Province. Situated between the Zambezi River and the Angolan border, the district suffered harsh economic decline during the last decades of the 20th century, creating a demanding social environment for young people in need of its resources for livelihood, household formation, and marriage. The study traces young people’s life paths in time and space, between urban and rural areas and through the ebb and flow of social relationships. Concerns like male and female initiation, marriage, style, and livelihood are examined and put in the context of longstanding idioms of sociality as well as global influences. Through an historical perspective on social cohorts, the dissertation throws light on the temporal conditions of adulthood facing people in rural Zambia. With a theoretical framework grounded in regional social landscapes and attuned to the realities of particular persons, broader issues like historicity, power, gender and creativity are examined through the prism of adulthood.

  • 15.
    Beach, Hugh
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Humanistiska fakulteten.
    Reindeer-herd management in transition: the case of Tuorpon Saameby in northern Sweden1981Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Berg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Kultur och medier.
    InterNacionalistas: identifikation och främlingskap i svenska solidaritetsarbetares berättelser från Nicaragua2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore what solidarity workers from Sweden narrate about and from activities in Nicaragua. I focus on how identities reflect nationalising, racialising and gendering imaginations, and how these are being handled within the context of an international solidarity movement – with the ambition to strive for global justice.

    My search for answers takes its point of departure in a wide gender-oriented postcolonial perspective. With an understanding of identities and places as relational and plastic, postcolonial theory attempts to see the inevitable dilemmas of colonialism, to visualise people who have been sacrificed in the name of colonialism and nationalism. It is a theoretical field concerned with the struggle for the word, values and actions categorised by a (post)colonial order. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. After the introductory chapter, chapter 2 contains a discussion of the concept solidarity as a valuable designation for these activities, connected to a national self-image and as a determining factor for the informants' understanding of their identities.

    One fundamental theme in this study is the tension concerning “white”, “western”, “Swedish” solidarity workers speaking for and working with people in Nicaragua. In Chapter 3, “To make oneself trustworthy”, I take a closer look at this and discusses how the interviewees verbalised strategies to handle possible positions and the paradoxes of their employment. In chapter 4 “Nationalising gender”, I examine the speech of women, men, machismo and gender equality – and how they interrelate with other factors within the stories from the period in Nicaragua.

    The difficulties to intervene as a Swedish volunteer or coordinator in Nicaragua were well known among the interviewees/narrators and their organisations. How and what activities for change could be in different parts of the world were, and are, repeated questions within (at least this part of) the Swedish international solidarity movement. This is one reason why the solidarity organisations emphasised the importance of creating space for social change via information and moulding of public opinion. In Chapter five, “Describe Nicaragua”, I analyse the written stories by solidarity workers. I take departure in a few of the dominating themes and clarify how Nicaragua was mediated to a Swedish speaking reader. I argue that the stories of the solidarity workers are captured between recognising difference and creating stereotypes and exotic projections. Even though their object is the opposite, they tend to produce representations which demand the Other to stay in the place of difference. In the very last part I discuss some problems with being the “voice of the poor”.

    The dissertation concludes with a short summary of some of the most central themes. Here I refer to the narrated liminality and inherited boundaries of the employment. I discuss the anti-imperialist and feminist work with a national dead weight and the efforts to create alternative images and translocal subject positions. I end the study by reflecting on the difficulties of an internationalist “we” and with reference to Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, I call for “unlearning our privileges as our loss”.

  • 17.
    Berglund-Lake, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Livet äger rum: Försörjning och platstagande i norrländska sågverkssamhällen2001Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with the people who settled permanently near the sawmills of Västernorrland during the expansion of the sawmill industry in the latter half of the 19th century. The basis of, and a prerequisite for this resettlement and the life thus built up was the permanent employment and wages earned by the men at the sawmills. The purpose is to study the pattern of subsistence and the process of place making among the permanent working population in the early sawmill community. The focus is placed on what possibilities and limitations a settlement in the sawmill communities had for the permanently employed sawmill workers and their families - wives and children, and what material and symbolic resources they created and gained access to in order to build up a new life in a place where they had no previous social contacts.

    An adaption to the context of the sawmill implied many mental and practical transformations, but at the same time a learning process; they had to learn to handle the diversity of people, commodities and objects in a new physical environment. They had to take place in a space and in a context that was unfamiliar and predictable.

    Following themes are discussed in the dissertation: the pattern of subsistence, dwelling and meaning, the relation between the permanent workers population and the sawmill-owner and the process of place making, temporalization and social identification.

    The main sources of information consist of autobiographies and recorded life- stories, but even contemporary sources such as newspaper articles, judicial records, estate inventories, official records and reports from county sheriffs, enforcement officers, clergymen and district medical officers. in the rich detail of these texts, in these fragments of life, I find the data upon which I build a narrative by means of a series of interpretations with the aid of different theoretical tools, in collaboration with other interpretations and my own intuition.

  • 18.
    Bergvall, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Kultur och medier.
    Liv, lust och mening: om krukväxters kulturella betydelser2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the way people describe thoughts and feelings in connection with indoor plants. Adopting a broader perspective it could be said that it is a study of the relation between people and their material surroundings. The objective is to analyse how relations to things, in this case potted plants, affect the way people look at their place, life and own identity. In this respect indoor plants are a challenging basis for such a study. They belong to those common things that may seem to be far away from what really matters. Having no necessary and instrumental purpose they are in principle open to ascription of almost any kind. In fact the rationale for having them is often the mere feeling that they ought to be there.

    And today indoor plants are really a very obvious part of Swedish homes. This was not always so but as the 20th century went on they were to be found in most homes. On average one can expect to see about thirty different plants when entering a typical Swedish home. In order to investigate the impact of these on people’s lives I use a variety of different sources ranging from archives to interviews.

    The overall structure of discourses about pot plants tend to overlap, to some extent regardless of time and place. The way feelings concerning indoor plants were described in the beginning of the last century coincides with how people today express their opinions when thinking of pot plants in their own homes. Further on this is echoed more publicly in connection with the marketing of flowers. The kind of meaning and themes associated with indoor plants thus appear natural.

    But in spite of this there is a strong personal component in the actual content of each individual story and this makes them unique. This also allows for a possibility to express individuality within a common framework. In this way pot plants make a contribution to the process of shaping individuals. The importance of this is even more obvious as people in describing their indoor plants simultaneously are describing their own lives in a kaleidoscopic way. In a seemingly effortless way a continuous and unifying self seems be present. Even though the cultural study of pot plants might be justified in itself these implications of an existential perspective makes it even more exciting.

  • 19.
    Bernhardsdotter, Ann-Britt
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The Power of Being: A Study of Poverty, Fertility and Sexuality among the Kuria in Kenya and Tanzania2001Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is concerned with power based on ‘being’, which is the thread running through the entire thesis. The extended family is the focal point and three themes, interrelated in Kuria society, are explored, namely, poverty, sexuality and fertility. Poverty, one of the focuses, implies giving attention to local perceptions of destitution and prosperity, the grappling with issues about access to, and control of, resources, the pointing out of impoverishing mechanisms inherent in traditional socioeconomic systems and the exemplifying of critical strategies to overcome poverty. In addition to displaying mechanisms of impoverishment, the thesis specifies vulnerable categories of individuals and informs on contemporary strategies to overcome destitution. Since Kuria has got recognition as being a patriarchal society, which has lead to a depiction of reality implying a de-emphasizing of principles mediating male dominance, the study throws light upon principles restraining male power and on compelling female recourses in situations of transgressions of cultural codes. The study provides empirical examples demonstrating formal cursing as a powerful female recourse in contexts of male abuse of power. ‘Power of being’ is dramatically manifested when women curse in their capacity of being married daughters and sisters. The Kuria woman marriage has been investigated, and the author concludes that besides from being a strategy by women who are excluded from priviledged categories to overcome poverty and humiliation, the woman marriage reveals female aspirations to male spheres of power and status. Through the woman marriage it might be possible for women to own homesteads and to become lineage founders. Sexuality and fertility form intriguing parts of male and female being. In order to expose values at the heart of society with regard to male and female sexuality, symbols articulated by metaphors are explored.

  • 20.
    Bjersby, Ragnar
    Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Uppsala landsmålsarkiv (ULMA).
    Traditionsbärare på Gotland vid 1800-talets mitt: En undersökning rörande P. A. Säves sagesmän1964Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Blehr, Barbro
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier. Etnologi.
    Lokala gemenskaper: En studie av en nordsvensk by på 1980-talet1994Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The central question raised in this study is the sense of community in Keskijärvi, a mining village in the north of Sweden. What is the nature of the local community and in which activities is it expressed? This question is examined through an empirical study of two communicative practices which convey local knowledge in the village. The method used is participant observation, supplemented with interviews. Findings indicate that no single, overarching local community exists in the village, that the communities that do exist are of two kinds: concrete vs. imagined, and that acquaintance was a salient feature in the variation between the two communicating practices.

  • 22.
    Bodén, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Systemmänniskan: En studie om människan, automationen och det senmoderna förnuftet2016Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How did the conformist “organization man” of modern welfare society turn into the restless and flexible market-rational individualist of late-modernity? And what role did technology play in this transformation? Drawing from inquiries like these, this doctoral thesis deals with topics such as technology, culture, and the production of social consciousness. The aim of the study is to elucidate the historical emergence of late-modern reason, visible in the socio-material process of automation.

    The study takes two mundane technical innovations as starting points to investigate dominant social values and rationalities embedded in, and emerging from material transformations in the production process of two late modern, Swedish organizations. Covering a period of roughly fifty years (1960–2013), the analysis relies on the interpretation of a variety of both contemporary and archived sources, including interviews, observations, witness accounts and archived material in the form of staff magazines, newspapers, photographs and official documents.

    While following a hermeneutical tradition of European ethnology the study is also an attempt to enrich its synchronous cultural analysis of everyday life with theory grounded in historical (dialectical) materialism. Along this line of thought the thesis suggests that many of the qualities, values and everyday experiences attributed to late-modernity, such as “flexibility”, “creativity” and “flat organizations” depend on the reification and embedding of modernist social forms, ideas and relations, such as instrumental rationality, routine labour and bureaucratic taxonomy into the material foundation of daily life.

  • 23.
    Bretschneider, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten.
    Polygyny: a cross-cultural study1995Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Carlestål, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    La Famiglia: The Ideology of Sicilian Family Networks2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropological data from fieldwork carried out among a fishing population in western Sicily show how related matrifocal nuclear families are tightly knit within larger, male-headed networks. The mother focus at the basic family level is thereby balanced and the system indicates that the mother-child unit does not function effectively on its own, as has often been argued for this type of family structure. As a result of dominating moral values which strongly emphasise the uniqueness of family and kin, people are brought up to depend heavily upon and to be loyal to their kin networks, to see themselves primarily as parts of these social units and less so as independent clearly bounded individuals, and to distinctly separate family members from non-family members. This dependence is further strengthened by matri- and/or patrivicinity being the dominant form of locality, by the traditional naming system as well as a continual use of kin terms, and by related people socialising and collaborating closely. The social and physical boundaries thus created around the family networks are further strengthened by local architecture that symbolically communicates the closed family unit; by the woman, who embodies her family as well as their house, having her outdoor movements restricted in order to shield both herself and her family; by self-mastery when it comes to skilfully calculating one's actions and words as a means of controlling the impression one makes on others; and by local patriotism that separates one's co-villagers from foreigners. Hospitality, which brings inclusion and exclusion into focus, is shown to be a means of ritually incorporating non-kin and thus containing the danger the stranger represents.

    The author aims to answer the question of whether the social and physical boundaries around the family network, together with the distrust towards non-family members referred to by the informants themselves, constitute a hindrance as regards collaboration with non-kin, or if collaboration beyond the family boundaries is possible and, if so, whether or not this has to lead to the family's losing its position.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen.
    Den tillfälliga husmodern: Hemvårdarinnekåren i Sverige 1940-19602013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the history of the Swedish public home help service. The public provision of home help is taken as an empirical example of the state’s relationship with the private sphere. Housework and care work are discussed as political issues and as the objects of a professionalization project. The study addresses the creation and distribution of welfare in the form of public services that are delivered in private homes and analyses how visionary government policies worked in practice. In the broadest sense, the thesis aims to increase understanding of the difficult and deeply-rooted problem of how housework and care work can be made ‘real work’.

    Those who started the public home help service argued that it would relieve the shortage of domestic servants, increase the birth rate, reduce poverty and improve public health. In addition, it was believed that paid domestic work, when performed by public home help workers, would be transformed into a respectable occupation through education, selective recruitment and regulated pay and conditions. This ambition, however, was doomed from the start in part because, as this study shows, central actors in the public home help service took an ambivalent approach concerning educational requirements. Professional care work in the household found itself in a paradoxical situation because its central tasks were the same as those all women and mothers were expected to be able to carry out in the private sphere.

    The public home help service had a surprisingly short life span. After sixteen years the state subsidy for public home help workers was withdrawn, and new societal problems and political questions took priority.  At the same time, the gender discourse underwent significant changes. The necessary preconditions for the existence of the home help had disappeared. Nevertheless, the significance of the public home help service is greater than its own short existence. Seen in a wider historical perspective, the home help service represents an important example of how paid housework constantly takes on new forms and how difficult raising the status and value of household labor is, even when it is publicly supported and regulated.  

  • 26.
    Carlström, Ann Kristin
    Stockholms universitet.
    På spaning i Stockholm: En etnologisk studie av polisarbete1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Dahlström Nilsson, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Negotiating Wilderness in a Cultural Landscape: Predators and Saami Reindeer Herding in the Laponian World Heritage Area2003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The UNESCO appointment of the Laponian World Heritage Area in 1996 meant that Sweden accepted the assignment of protecting both the cultural and natural values of this area for all mankind and all generations to come. Located in northern Sweden, Laponia had previously been protected for its natural values only, but the 1996 appointment determined that the local Saami reindeer herding culture should also be preserved. Since the goals of preserving nature and culture in Laponia do not easily combine, negotiations between the concerned parties must be held over important matters. This thesis deals with the ways in which "nature" and the "environment" are negotiated within the environmental disources that concern Laponia. The discourses analysed include such disparate, and yet interconneted, themes as Laponian environmental constraints, management control, predator policies, sustainable development, the perception of wilderness and cultural landscapes and the role of reindeer-herding Saami in the management of nature. The discourses also reflect a number of broad topics including the preservation of biodiversity and the role of indigenous peoples in modern nature conservation policies. Local Saami reindeer herders often find themselves caught between the expectation placed upon them by the majority society to engage in environmentally friendly reindeer herding, and the existing requirement to engage in rational reindeer herding. Local Saami reindeer herders must therefore negotiate their claims between the polarised positions of being indigenous people engaging in a traditional activity based on immemorial rights, and of being modern food producers in need of high-tech equipment and with a wish to develop their reindeer herding business on their own terms.

  • 28.
    Danielsson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Kultur och medier.
    Skräckskönt: en etnologisk studie2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explore how horror movie fans use the films to gain access to certain emotions, and the discussions to which the movies give rise. Through this, I hope to attain a deeper understanding of how the horror movie fan chooses to view the genre. While horror movie fans experience a raft of emotions as they watch, this is not the whole story; they also reflect upon these emotions and question certain responses, eg. why laugh at one form of violence but not the next, or how can one killer elicit empathy in the viewer while others do not. In order to understand this popular genre I have based my thesis mainly on interviews with the actual horror film fan, here represented by 9 women and 11 men.

    Special emphasis in the theoretical body is placed on Bakhtin’s notion of the grotesque, a ”world turned upside-down”, and dialogical truth. The horror movie fan might be described in the same fashion – as someone who through the films he watches sees and acknowledges an alternative cultural system which is otherwise suppressed. They can experiment with ideas of other kinds of rules, norms and hierarchies than those already in place in society.

    The horror movie fans talk about special themes as more important than others, and these “key symbols” have helped in constructing the thesis. I have for that reason formed the analysis in the region of emotions like fear, disgust and desires, but also more intellectual discussions on film violence and evil. It is clear that a controlled sense of fear is one of the main forces sparking the initial interest the informants felt for horror and urging them forward in their quest for more. It is also clear that feelings of disgust the horror movies evoke are a part of the fans’ discussions about the world and the evil therein. The horror movie fans speak about evil as something inherent in everyone, and something which must be acknowledged in order to live a “full” life.

    Despite of all this I consider pure enjoyment and entertainment to be the very foundation of their shared interest, and that the horror movie fans try to make strong distinctions between “fact” and “fiction”. These conscious distinctions could also be one of the reasons that the fans find these types of movies entertaining. Those who are incapable to make these clear distinctions are therefore, more or less, unable to see the purpose of the fascination with horror narratives.

  • 29.
    Dover, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    A Man of Power: Gender and HIV/AIDS in Zambia2001Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the construction of masculinity and femininity in relation to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The ethnographic material is from fieldwork among the Goba people in a rural area in southern Zambia and two peri-urban communities near Lusaka. Using an embodiment approach, local concepts of the sexed body and the nature of women and men are explored and related to a cosmology that emphasises fertility and reproduction. An ideology of male dominance is analysed in terms of object relations theory, phallic symbolism and hegemonic masculinity. These ideals of a ‘man of power’ are encapsulated within a morality of respect that buttresses the gender and age hierarchy.

    Concepts of adult personhood in relation to responsibility, autonomy and freedom are explored in which the reality of contemporary male roles is examined. Syntheses of local and biomedical discourses on SRH are explained and related to local misfortune explanation, as well as concepts of SRH risk and blame. Modern gender relations are sketched out and discussed in terms of moral discourses on sexuality, which tend to blame women more than men for sexual impropriety and transmission of SRH illnesses and infections. Women’s lives are more regulated by propriety and their sexual networking is explained in terms of the ‘presents’ they receive for sexual relations outside of marriage. This is in contrast to male sexuality, which is perceived as natural and uncontrollable and linked to male ideas of autonomous agency. In conclusion, the findings are related to impacts on SRH and interventions to ameliorate the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  • 30.
    Drakos, Georg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Makt över kropp och hälsa: Om leprasjukas självförståelse i dagens Grekland1997Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The performance of tradition: An ethnography of Hira Gasy popular theatre in Madagascar1997Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the popular theatre performance of Hira Gasy, and its actors andaudiences in the central highland regions of Imerina and northern Betsileo in Madagascar. The Hira Gasy has developed from a court to a rural performance during the last two centuries, a period influenced by first the British and then by the French presence in the country. Today, the performances are given in diverse contexts, the most common being in connection with reburial ceremonies. The Hira Gasy troupes all have a common form of their performance, with speeches, songs, acrobatics, dance and music, while the content is unique for each troupe, although given in a culturally recognized form.

    The study is based on 19 months of fieldwork divided into five periods between1991 and 1996. The main argument is that the Hira Gasy performances provide a forumin which the problems of identification and belonging are discussed. The `foreigner' isused as a `mirror image' for the rural and the poor in their aims to assert and shape theirsense of belonging in a changing society. The symbols of identification - the ancestralland, the common tomb, and the family solidarity - are felt to be threatened by increasingindividualization and the decrease in the fulfillment of the ancestral duties. For the ruralpoor their feelings of marginality and powerlessness in relation to the economically andpolitically powerful urban elite are expressed in Hira Gasy. Through the practice ofcustom they sustain their moral dignity, which is one of the most important means inorder to remain malagasy. The Hira Gasy performances are indigenious arenas for existential and moral discussions, and for providing a sense of belonging in a problematic reality shaped by both the `way of the ancestors' and the `way of the foreign'.

  • 32.
    Ehn, Wolter
    Institutet för språk och folkminnen, Dialekt- och folkminnesarkivet i Uppsala (DFU). Etnologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Mötet mellan centralt och lokalt: Studier i uppländska byordningar1991Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish village by-laws are a collection of rules for coexistence in a village which evolved during the 18th and 19th centuries. The dissertation takes its starting point in an edition of Byordningar från Mälarlänen (Village By-Laws in the Lake Mälar districts) containing about 400 by-laws from the central part of Sweden, and is a limited review of that edition at the same time as it gives a systematic survey of certain aspects specified in the by-laws. These aspects were added as the result of an official proposal in 1742 containing a model on how a by-law should be constructed. The question is asked whether the directives of the Government were formulated when they reached the local level, or whether they were redesigned and adapted to suit the local situation. The village by-laws in the Mälar counties differ in form and in content depending upon the official proposal on by-laws from 1742. The village by-laws were originally discussed in connection with the changes in agriculture, and thus concerned such sectors as farming methods, fencing, grazing, the right to certain proportions of the village's resources. The local conditions in the village are reflected in, for example, the rules on the length of the grass for grazing. There were different kinds of such by-laws, e.g., by-laws for individual villages and by-laws for parishes (approved at a parish meeting). The initiative of the Government in requiring village by-laws gave different results in different counties. Large parts of Uppsala county are without forest land. The fences and the system of enclosing fields are therefore of particular interest in a discussion on the village by-laws. I have demonstrated that their origin and acceptance in Swedish villages and parishes can be placed in political, chronological, social and functional contexts.

  • 33.
    Eivergård, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Kultur och medier.
    Frihetens milda disciplin: normalisering och social styrning i svensk sinnessjukvård 1850-19702003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the institutionalized Swedish Psychiatric practice during the period 1850 and 1970 - the era of the large mental hospitals - in terms of a modem disciplinary project. Point of departure relates to the meeting between the admitted patient and the educational work of the mental hospital and its everyday practice. The main sources of information for this study consists among other things of case sheets and texts closely related to the work of the mental hospitals.

    The study has two important aspects. The first deals with the normalized procedures in the practice of mental care, and draws the attention to the relation between social and cultural standards and the way the mental hospitals reviews, treats and handles the patient. The second aspect deals with the actual administration and the techniques of the hospital to correct the patient and his/her actions in a desirable direction. An overarching discussion deals with the relation between liberating and Controlling practitioners, and how the Controlling power of the hospital relates to the modem society's conception of a independent man.

    At the same time as the physical coercion of the mental hospital diminished, controlling methods were required which were not merely based on obedience and Submission, but also on the participation and will of the patient. Informal system of rewards, confession-techniques as well as various forms of a conditionalised and regulated freedom is combined with a more concealed potential of coercion of the institution. The compulsory work is being analysed as the most important educational therapy - both socially and ethically. Work is being described as a liberal Controlling technique. By connecting work to the system of rewards as well as increased physical freedom enables the hospital to exercise control and predictability without resorting to coercion.

    How the hospital looked upon and handled the sexual body, and how cultural conceptions regarding sexual normality dominated the practical care-taking is being analysed with the starting point in case sheets. The sexual behaviour, especially concerning women, resulted in a meeting of different opinions between restraining and testing practitioners where moral reliability was a condition for physical freedom.

    The thesis describes a movement over time towards increased physical freedoms for the patients of the mental hospitals. This did not imply that the control or the normalization decreased in intensity. But rather that the forms and the conditions for these processes changed. The freedom that was placed in sight was always connected with the well behaviour of the patient.

  • 34.
    Ek-Nilsson, Katarina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Teknikens befäl: En etnologisk studie av teknikuppfattning och civilingenjörer : [an ethnological study of the understandings of technology and engineers]1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Thesis is to analyse technology as a domain for knowledge and cultural experience among Swedish engineers during the 20th century. The aim is to examine how the concept of technology and the engineering profession are related in literature and films as well as in biographies, written by engineers themselves.

    Ever since engineering and technology became recognised as an independent field of knowledge at the end of the 18th century, engineers have been seen as key actors in the industrialisation and modernisation of Sweden, as indeed also in other Western countries. The idea of technology thus can be looked upon as a symbol for modernity and the engineers as creators and managers of this idea.

    The main material for this study consists of life-history scripts and biographies written by around seventy engineers for Nordic Museum (Nordiska museet) in Stockholm. Using themes such as willingness to break away and change, future-orientation and rationality, the thesis discusses how individuals deal with, and describe, their supposed role in Swedish modernity. Other important materials used are films and literature that show the image of technology and the engineering profession in popular culture. The founding of a royal academy of engineering sciences (Kungliga Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademien) and a technical museum (Tekniska museet) around 1920 were important steps in the professionalisation ofengineering in Sweden. Their importance in the understanding of the concept of technology and engineering is discussed.

    There are three theoretical perspectives in this thesis: modernity, gender and class. The thesis is an analysis of modernity as a cultural construction, which is related to class and gender, with Swedish engineers as examples.

    The material shows how engineers are clearly orientated to values central to modernity, viz. the individual's responsibility and possibilities, future-orientation and rationality. The engineers' life-history scripts reveal that these are values they expect from themselves. The engineers belong mainly to the upper middle-class.

    This thesis discusses how middle-class values am transferred and reproduced in the educational situation as well as in their professional role. Technology has been, and still is, a male domain. This study analyses how technology culturally expresses masculinity, and what strategies women use when entering and positioning themselves in this field.

  • 35.
    Ekström, Simon
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Trovärdighet och ovärdighet: Rättsapparatens hanterande av kvinnors anmälan av våldtäktsbrott. Stockholm 1946–19502002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Engman, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rituell process, tradition och media: Socialdemokratisk första maj i Stockholm1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation's initial proposition is that political ideology can be embodied in ritual form. The use of Social Democrat May Day demonstrations - a political procession similar to parades - in Stockholm as a tool for creating ideology, and to both maintain and disseminate Social Democratic ideology is analysed. One perspective is that May Day forms part of the creation of traditions, or traditionalisation.

    The symbolic body that the May Day demonstration constitutes has been provided with different contents in different ideological contexts. With the first May Day demonstration of 1890, the working class appropriated a traditional spring festival. Newspapers invested it with loaded spatial images as civic rebirth, and it was equated with nature's transition from winter to spring. Until the 1930s May Day was still regarded as a worker's festival. When the Social Democrats gained power in 1932, May Day was transformed into the Day of the Swedish People, employing nationalistic rhetoric. It was argued that this festival had been appropriated by capitalism, but that its true values were now restored. As television appeared in the early 1960s, the May Day demonstration was adapted to this new medium. Renewal was the key word. During the ideological and economic crises of the 1990s, many ambivalent means of expression have been used. Irony is one, playing on carnevalesque themes such as death and rebirth. The demonstration participant manifested criticism of the party by utilising such imagery and exploiting the spatial dramaturgy of the ritual. The appearance of this carnival theme can be explained in terms of the general ideological uncertainty prevailing in Sweden. This stemmed from the murder of Prime Minister Olof Palme, a political crisis of confidence in the early 1990s, and the fall of the Eastern bloc, amongst other things. At the same time, the historical role of Social Democracy has been strongly questioned. One hot topic is wether or not the Swedish model of welfare should be preserved. Even established Social Democrats argue that this social form is obsolete. Traditionalism has now become synonymous with retrospection. Within this context, many ask if May Day ought not become a day for general political issues, without processions. There has been similar questioning since the 1890s, and at times the demonstration concept has been claimed to have become stale.

    The first demonstrations paved the way for the worker's entry into "official" public space. Through the disciplined demonstration, the workers' movement showed that they could act in a well-controlled manner, without threatening order. This dissertation analyses the workers' May Day as media event, which has been shaped in dialogue with media accounts. It can therefor be argued that as a ritual form, the workers' May Day demonstration is characteristic of the public dramaturgy of modernity.

  • 37.
    Ericsson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Belägrade människor – Belägrade Rum: Om invandrargöranden och förorter2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the notion of so-called “Invandrartäta förorter” [“Immigrant-dense suburbs”]. The aim of the study has been to analyse the haunting imagery of the Suburb and the Immigrant as portrayed in the Swedish media. The notion of a fantasy-frame is related to the “Invandrartäta förorten” [“Immigrant-dense suburb”] which is, in the main, a fantasy. Nevertheless, the study shows that the imagery is powerful in its racialised and discriminatory practice.

    In the first part of the study the main focus is on the media narratives of the suburbs. Illustrations of how the idea of the “Invandrartäta förorten” [“Immigrant-dense suburb”] was created and how this place was, and still is, made to perform Otherness, are described. In the latter part of the study, the interwoven relationship between the fantasy-frame of the suburb and the mediated immigrant-made subject is in focus. Here the focus is on studying the attention and space of appearance that the media imposes on the immigrant-made individual when she or he is presented as representing this space.

    By taking into account the media's editing techniques in press material, ways of inter­pretation and the recurring themes concerning this space of appearance, the analysis tries to shed light on the conditions of attention for the one who is portrayed in relation to this fantasy space. Such representations mix fear with enticing elements of the exotic. The imagery of the suburban fantasy-frame materialises in the individual portraits and daily life of the people who are depicted in relation to this space.

    In the final part of the thesis, the notion of mime is used to describe a form of subversive strategy in relation to the imagery that the portrayed is evoked to display.

  • 38.
    Ers, Agnes
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    I mänsklighetens namn: En etnologisk studie av ett svenskt biståndsprojekt i Rumänien2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Ers, Agnes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    I mänsklighetens namn: En etnologisk studie av ett svenskt biståndsprojekt i Rumänien2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is an analysis of observations among, and interviews with, Romanian and Swedish employees at a Swedish development aid project in Romania. The aim has been to study the categories of ‘humanity’: how the notions of the ‘human(e)’ and the ‘inhuman(e)’ were created in the context of the project. Further, the aim of the thesis has been to connect the relations in everyday life as it develops in an aid project to the social and societal processes of change in today’s Europe.

    Chapter 1 introduces the theoretical and methodological frameworks of the study. Chapter 2 analyses media representations of institutionalized children in Romania, and describes the development aid in Romania. Chapter 3 describes and analyses the practical work with the children in the everyday life of the project. Chapter 4 focuses on the locally employed project staff, and their adoption of a ‘more human(e)’ identity through working with the Swedish NGO. Chapter 5 analyses how the construction of difference took place in the everyday life of the development aid project. Chapter 6 analyses the development aid as exchange of gifts and applies models of analysis of social work with the so-called deserving and undeserving clients. Chapter 7 is a concluding chapter.

    The construction of the ‘human(e)’ and its opposite, the ‘inhuman(e)’, could be found on three levels. These categories were used in reference to: (1) the children, the sick elderly and the poor families that were the clients of the aid project and were expected to be ‘humanized’ in the course of project implementation; (2) the Romanians who were employed by the Swedish organization and who were to be humanized through their work and through learning Western views on what the human being is; and (3) by implication, the whole Romanian society and all the Romanians who were also to be ‘humanized’ through the intervention of the Western NGOs.

  • 40.
    Farahani, Fataneh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Diasporic Narratives of Sexuality: Identity Formation among Iranian- Swedish Women2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the sexuality of Iranian women living in Sweden. Considering sexuality as gendered and socio-culturally constructed, I examine the impact of Iranian Islamic discourses, contemporary socialization and migration on women’s narrations of sexuality. The theoretical platform arises from a Foucauldian discursive analysis of sexuality, including Iranian and/or Islamic discourses on sexuality, and diasporic and feminist postcolonial theories. The empirical basis of the thesis consists of ten in-depth interviews with first generation Iranian immigrant women in Sweden. The narratives are the textual field for exploring the divergent and contingent intersections of discourses that constitute the women’s sexuality. Themes that surface in the narratives are the importance of virginity, veiling practices, requirements for modest dress codes, lack of sexual education, first sexual experience, marriage, divorce and diasporic experiences.

    With sexuality as the main subject of analysis, my focus draws on articulations involving gender, otherness, agency and marginality. Being alert to different (at times contradictory) discourses, I study the tension that develops between the process of (self)disciplining the body and the women’s coping tactics. The study examines the ways women take part in existing institutions while exhibiting agency and creating new ways to negotiate across discourses. This thesis shows how moral values regarding sexual behavior undergo various and sometimes contradictory transformations. The women report being torn between two different cultures. Yet, while consistently facing a crossroads of racist and sexist discourses filled with stereotypes of so-called natives and outsiders, I argue that the women are not caught between two cultures. Rather, they live a hybrid experience of ‘Swedishness,’ ‘Iranianness’ and other social relations. Complexity defines their tactics; the women exist in the interstices of culture(s) and discourses.

  • 41.
    Feldmann Eellend, Beate
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Visionära planer och vardagliga praktiker: Postmilitära landskap i Östersjöområdet2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the years after WWII the Baltic Sea Area developed into an area strongly divided between East and West. Because of the tensions between the blocs, the coastal areas where strongly militarized and prepared for war.

    The new political situation after 1989 propelled an international military disarmament and closing down of bases, training areas around Europe. Since the Baltic Sea Area was one of the heaviest militarized part of Europe the question of disarmament here is of particularly great economic, social and cultural importance.

    This study is about the post-military landscape in the Baltic Sea Area with examples from Dejevo on the Estonian island Saaremaa, Dranske on the (East)German island Rügen and Fårösund on the Swedish island Gotland.

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on the process where the military landscape of the Cold War is transformed in order to be incorporated in the macro-regional endeavors for unity in the new Europe. I want to analyze the implications that planning visions have on the everyday life of people. A following aim is to shed light on the challenges that urban planning has to face in this transformation. Three research questions frame the study. The first question analyzes the process where the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea after the end of the Cold War are disarmed and transformed, from a landscape of production of military services and objects into a landscape of consumption for recreation and tourism. The second question takes its point of departure in the relation between planning visions and everyday life. The third question concerns the matter of the past and analyzes what aspects of the military landscape are emphasized respectively pushed aside in the transformation into post-military landscape.

    The study is based on interviews with inhabitants and local planners as well as macro-regional and local planning documents, articles and photographs.

  • 42.
    Feldmann Eellend, Beate
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Visionära planer och vardagliga praktiker: Postmilitära landskap i Östersjöområdet2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the years after WWII the Baltic Sea Area developed into an area strongly divided between East and West. Because of the tensions between the blocs, the coastal areas where strongly militarized and prepared for war.

    The new political situation after 1989 propelled an international military disarmament and closing down of bases, training areas around Europe. Since the Baltic Sea Area was one of the heaviest militarized part of Europe the question of disarmament here is of particularly great economic, social and cultural importance.

    This study is about the post-military landscape in the Baltic Sea Area with examples from Dejevo on the Estonian island Saaremaa, Dranske on the (East)German island Rügen and Fårösund on the Swedish island Gotland.

    The aim of this thesis is to shed light on the process where the military landscape of the Cold War is transformed in order to be incorporated in the macro-regional endeavors for unity in the new Europe. I want to analyze the implications that planning visions have on the everyday life of people. A following aim is to shed light on the challenges that urban planning has to face in this transformation. Three research questions frame the study. The first question analyzes the process where the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea after the end of the Cold War are disarmed and transformed, from a landscape of production of military services and objects into a landscape of consumption for recreation and tourism. The second question takes its point of departure in the relation between planning visions and everyday life. The third question concerns the matter of the past and analyzes what aspects of the military landscape are emphasized respectively pushed aside in the transformation into post-military landscape.

    The study is based on interviews with inhabitants and local planners as well as macro-regional and local planning documents, articles and photographs.

  • 43.
    Finnström, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Living With Bad Surroundings: War and Existential Uncertainty in Acholiland, Northern Uganda2003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    War has ravaged Acholiland in northern Uganda since 1986. The Ugandan army is fighting a rebel insurgency group called the Lord’s Resistance Movement/Army. The study describes a brutal pattern of war, as it unfolds from historical material as well as from informants’ contemporary stories, collected during three phases of fieldwork from 1997 to 2002. Several themes are brought up for discussion, such as the imperial inheritance and contested political history; the discrepancy between the rebels’ violent insurgency practices and their written manifestos; the army’s counterinsurgency tactics and internal mass displacement; and the role of rumours, cosmology, religion and morality in war. The study acknowledges today’s global interconnectedness. Traders in war machinery have considerably fuelled the war. In addition, structural adjustment programmes and humanitarian aid become entangled with local socio-political realities. The study explores the various ways people in Acholiland struggle to establish control and balance in quotidian life in a situation of ongoing civil war. While it has been postulated that some cultures or ethnic groups in essence are more prone to war than others, it is argued here that this is not a fruitful way of analysing cultural life. Rather, as the ethnography of the study shows, cultural life is a means by which people both engage and try to comprehend existentially the realities of war and violence, and also struggle continuously to build hope for the future. This makes culturally informed practices the main means through which war and its effects are interpreted and acted upon, something that sustains people in their experience of war in social life, making war and its multiple forms of violence routines among other routines in everyday life. At the same time, the study discusses the informants’ distress about the fixation of meaning to a limited set of cultural and ethnic stereotypes that propaganda of war and chauvinistic politics impose upon the local moral world and the national order of things. Guiding tools throughout the study are the Acholi concepts of piny marac and piny maber: “bad surroundings” and “good surroundings.”

  • 44.
    Forsberg, Anette
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Kamp för bygden: En etnologisk studie av lokalt utvecklingsarbete2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When collective action for community is defined as local development or as a struggle for survival different understandings are in focus. Politically, this kind of community action is defined as local development and understood in terms of growth and economics. An economic approach to community action is also emphasised in the EU-programmes that support local development groups and projects. On the other hand local groups describe their activities as a struggle for community and community survival.

    Inspired by feministic research approaches and with an interest in human aspects and values this study investigates meanings of community action as experienced and expressed by rural inhabitants and activists. The study is based on fieldwork that was carried out in a small rural community in the northern inlands of Sweden: Trehörningsjö. Since the middle of the 1990s, the women in Trehörningsjö have driven collective action to uphold the community. With its point of departure in the community and expanding into the arenas of reserach and politics, the study takes on the form of a reflexive research process in which the researcher's former knowledge and new understandings are made visible and discussed parallel with the interpretations made. The main focus of the study is the activist's demand of voice, visibility and worth.

    The first chapter presents the local community and provides a background to the study. The chapter includes an account of the reflexive approach that widened the field of research from a local to a translocal study of community action. In chapters two, three, four and five the struggle for community is reflected through fieldwork experiences in Trehörningsjö and other arenas beyond the village. Situated events and instances of collective action such as the fight for the local health care centre, are analysed as symbolic expressions of community values and rural importance. From chapter two and onwards, the study follows the footsteps of the leading female activist in and beyond the community itself; that is, the day-to-day work, meetings, conferences and other places where community action is acted out. The struggle for community is proven to focus on translocal rather than local action. In chapter six the fieldwork experiences - that tell about resistance and a struggle for community values and perspectives - are placed in the wider context of the rural development movement, local development research and governmental rural policy in Sweden. On all these arenas community action tend to be interpreted as local development in line with a growth perspective, rather than as community protests and struggles that expresses other meanings. Chapter seven takes the analyses and discussion further, and relates community struggle to concepts such as civil society and social economy. Anthony Giddens concept of life politics and Alberto Meluccis concept of collective action are used to deepen the analysis on how humane meanings and relation based aspects of community action are made invisible on the political "growht and development" agenda. Community struggle presents a possibility for rural inhabitants to (re)define and reclaim their community and themselves as important and valuable. However, to be able to understand what the concept of community struggle expresses, and demands, it needs to be acknowledged as a form of action that has the potential to challenge established bureaucratic and political defintions, which, in practice, proves to be difficult.

  • 45.
    Frihammar, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Ur svenska hjärtans djup: Reproduktion av samtida monarki2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to show how Swedish royalty is reproduced and gains its extraordinary status through interaction between people, institutions and artefacts in the beginning of the 21st century.

    The analysis is based on data collected between 2003 and 2009 in different contexts where royalty and the monarchy are brought to the fore. The data consists of field notes from a municipality’s preparations for a visit of the king and queen of Sweden and three official events where royals are present, transcribed interviews, answers to a museums questionnaire and media material. The main theoretical premise is Actor Network Theory (ANT). Additionally, the study draws upon theories about cynical reason, modernity, humor and ritual.

    The study shows how royal sovereignty is reproduced basically by acts that separate persons and artifacts, put them on display and evaluates them as extravagant. These processes are at hand both in people’s everyday lives and during official event that present royals as the center of attention. Monarchy is interpreted as a modern institution mirroring notions of rationality through notions of irrationality, and the analysis shows how royal charisma is produced through performances fully in accordance with late-modern thinking and acting. The attractive royal mystic is interpreted as a consequence of a general strives to bring together the contrasting concepts of royalty and ordinariness. By analyzing humorous as well as servile attitude towards the royal institution and its representatives, the study shows how monarchy and the concept of royalty interact in the re-production of Sweden as a nation and in the individual citizen’s project of self-identity. Through creating memories of royal ancestors, individually and collectively, and through preserving the relations to existing royals and imagining the future of the royal family, a collective immortality is formed. In the process structures of inequality and social differences are established and made reasonable.

  • 46.
    Fröhlig, Florence
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Painful legacy of World War II: Nazi forced enlistment: Alsatian/Mosellan Prisoners of War and the Soviet Prison Camp of Tambov2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns the legacy of the Nazi forced enlistment during World War II and focuses more precisely on the case of Alsace/Moselle. Many of these French men, enlisted by force from 1942 in the German army, were sent to the Eastern Front and experienced Soviet prison camps.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how knowledge and memories about forced enlistment and Soviet captivity have been remembered, commemorated, communicated and passed on since the Alsatian/Mosellan POWs (Prisoners of War) carried the tokens of enemies or traitors when reintegrating their motherland, France.

    Four strategies dealing with the experiences of forced enlistment and of internment in Soviet prison camps are examined. I present how the first and most common strategy, i.e. avoidance, is contributing to an individual and collective construction of silence. Then I argue that a second strategy, the constitution of families of remembrance, is helping them to articulate and narrate their experiences (third strategy). The fourth strategy is the organisation of pilgrimages (emic term) to the former prison camp of Tambov, where the majority of the Alsatian/Mosellan POWs were gathered during the war. This last strategy actualises the issue of the transmission of the war experiences given that pilgrimages bring together three to four generations. Through fieldwork observations of the journeys I show how the pilgrims engage with a sense of the past. They remember and reassess the meaning of the past in terms of the social, cultural and political needs of the present. The importance of place and the aspect of self-in-place are thoughtfully analysed in order to highlight the process of passing on the memory of Tambov.

    I conclude by arguing that the agents of remembrance interviewed for the purpose of this thesis are engaged in turning the tangible and intangible legacies of World War II into heritage. This is done by releasing the legacy of forced enlistment and internment in Soviet prison camp from the private/familial sphere and inscribing it in the public sphere. Yet, the agency of the former POWs and their descendants shows how to let pass a past “that does not want to pass” in a contemporary European context.

  • 47.
    Garberding, Petra
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Musik och politik i skuggan av nazismen: Kurt Atterberg och de svensk-tyska musikrelationerna2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Garberding, Petra
    Södertörns högskola.
    Musik och politik i skuggan av nazismen: Kurt Atterberg och de svensk-tyska musikrelationerna2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with relations between music and politics in Sweden and Germany during the 1930s and 40s. I study how music was used as a political tool, and the ideas that existed about musical expression of national and ethnic identity and about “good” and “bad” music. I argue that these conceptions became a driving force and were important to Swedish relations with Nazi Germany. The study focuses on material by and about the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg (1887–1974). Atterberg was a central figure in the world of Swedish music during the first half of the 20th century and his life gives a glimpse of the spirit of the time. The theoretical platform arises from a critical discourse analysis combined with theories about modernity, nationalism and ethnicity. The empirical basis of the thesis consists of material from Swedish, German and Austrian archives, newspaper articles, radio programmes and interviews with composers of today.

    My study shows how Sweden and Germany inspired each other in the musical relationship. Both countries encountered similar problems. In the first half of the 20th century, modernisation accelerated in Europe, which also meant dramatic changes in musical life. Music could be spread to a greater extent without the composer’s control. New techniques, for example the sound movie, left many musicians unemployed. New musical styles appeared and challenged establishments. I argue that different ideas about national identity and its musical expression were important for the development of relations between Sweden and Nazi Germany. For many composers and musicians an engagement in Nazi Germany was interpreted as a contribution to the establishing of a strong national identity and the improvement of their own national musical life.

    Swedish-German musical relations were also influenced by different views on music and politics. For Nazi politicians music and politics ran together and music was to give expression to Nazi ideology. In Sweden music and politics were to be kept apart. Different perspectives on music and politics made it possible for Swedish composers and musicians to be active in Nazi Germany and to define their engagement as purely musical work. The Nazi government could for its part use Nordic composers and music to confirm Nazi ideas on race biology and to spread Nazi propaganda.

  • 49.
    Garberding, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier.
    Musik och politik i skuggan av nazismen: Kurt Atterberg och de svensk-tyska musikrelationerna2007Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with relations between music and politics in Sweden and Germany during the 1930s and 40s. I study how music was used as a political tool, and the ideas that existed about musical expression of national and ethnic identity and about “good” and “bad” music. I argue that these conceptions became a driving force and were important to Swedish relations with Nazi Germany. The study focuses on material by and about the Swedish composer Kurt Atterberg (1887–1974). Atterberg was a central figure in the world of Swedish music during the first half of the 20th century and his life gives a glimpse of the spirit of the time. The theoretical platform arises from a critical discourse analysis combined with theories about modernity, nationalism and ethnicity. The empirical basis of the thesis consists of material from Swedish, German and Austrian archives, newspaper articles, radio programmes and interviews with composers of today.

    My study shows how Sweden and Germany inspired each other in the musical relationship. Both countries encountered similar problems. In the first half of the 20th century, modernisation accelerated in Europe, which also meant dramatic changes in musical life. Music could be spread to a greater extent without the composer’s control. New techniques, for example the sound movie, left many musicians unemployed. New musical styles appeared and challenged establishments. I argue that different ideas about national identity and its musical expression were important for the development of relations between Sweden and Nazi Germany. For many composers and musicians an engagement in Nazi Germany was interpreted as a contribution to the establishing of a strong national identity and the improvement of their own national musical life.

    Swedish-German musical relations were also influenced by different views on music and politics. For Nazi politicians music and politics ran together and music was to give expression to Nazi ideology. In Sweden music and politics were to be kept apart. Different perspectives on music and politics made it possible for Swedish composers and musicians to be active in Nazi Germany and to define their engagement as purely musical work. The Nazi government could for its part use Nordic composers and music to confirm Nazi ideas on race biology and to spread Nazi propaganda.

  • 50.
    Gerber, Sofi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Öst är Väst men Väst är bäst: Östtysk identitetsformering i det förenade Tyskland2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the German Democratic Republic (GDR) the overthrow of the socialist regime did not only bring about both an economic and political shift, it resulted also in the inclusion of the GDR into the Federal Republic of Germany. The fall of the Wall brought with it transformations in everyday life as well as changes in social identities.

    This study examines how people who grew up in the GDR define the East and the West in unified Germany, as well as identifying which concepts play a role in the self-interpretations given by former GDR citizens. Through applying discourse theory, I investigate how identities are partially fixed and change over time, relating this always to historically situated discourses. In the analysis, East and West are considered as floating signifiers, which, through articulations made with other categories such as class, nation, place and gender, come to be filled with meaning. The study is based on twenty-five life story interviews conducted in Eastern Germany. The group of interviewees consisted of fifteen women and ten men born in the GDR between the years of 1970 and 1979, all of whom had different levels of education.

    The demise of the socialist state and the transition to a capitalist society is central in the interviewees’ life stories. Their narratives about the past are formed in a discursive order other than the one in which the events themselves took place. Conversely, the past is used as a foil against which the present is compared. With the dislocation, the interviewees have developed a reflexive stance to both themselves and the world. The study reveals both how East and West are still used to make the world intelligible in a number of fields and, at the same time, how these same concepts are transcended. It shows in what ways the interviewees employ different strategies to adapt to the new circumstances and to handle a potentially marked position in unified Germany.

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